523. COBHAM to [? BURGHLEY].
Since my last letter to your Lordship nothing more has happened
with the certifying. I have been lately informed that the 'Larde'
of Fernherst and Hamilton who murdered Earl Murray, both newly
come from Spain, have practised with Lord John Hamilton to
become the Pope's man ; delivering him large promises from the
Spanish king, as that he should give him 12,000 crowns a year
pension, 50,000 in ready 'quoyne,' and to pay 4,000 men, if he
will go to Scotland to serve the said king and Pope in the conquest
I am also advertised that the Bishop of Glasgow has lately used
very earnest persuasions to Lord Hamilton to depart from his
religion, which he has hitherto refused. Wherefore knowing these
temptations to be great, and perceiving his necessity to be almost
insupportable, I have thought it convenient to recommend his estate
to you, that you may have compassion on a noble personage, 'which
so rarely abideth religious,' supporting poverty for God's cause,
receiving afflictions and deep temptations. You may be the more
encouraged to move her Majesty in his behalf, since he has vowed,
as I have already informed her, to become her servant if she will
support him and give him maintenance.
Thus much I assure you proceeds from myself, nor is the said
lord or any of his privy thereto, nor shall be till I hear from your
what the Queen is pleased you shall do herein, and that direct me
further, or command me to stay with this motion only.
I am further given to understand that Sir James Balfour is in
Scotland. His unquiet disposition will trouble that Court, as it is
supposed by those who best know him.
The king has not his health perfectly, as I think Mr Stafford
may have informed you.
The Pope has 'braved with' the ministers of the King of Spain,
at Rome and in Spain, by means of his collectors about the tenths
and spoils of the Spanish bishoprics. The Almighty might shew
great mercy to suffer that papal pride to have a fall.—Blois, 21
Add. endt. and gone. 1 p. [Ibid. IV. 193.]
524. COBHAM to [the SECRETARIES].
The king sent M. Pinart to me on the 15th to 'congratulate' her
Majesty's victory in Ireland ; which I had signified to their Majesties
by the said secretary, and was confirmed by Pasquier, sent from M.
Mauvissière. He wished that they might often hear like happy
events in her affairs. It may please her to 'take knowledge of'
their kind dealing.
M. Pinart further mentioned that they understood the Queen misliked
that the conference on the treaty was deferred till their coming
to Blois. It could not have happened otherwise, considering that
the king's journey to meet his young queen was appointed for the
day after I had audience at Olinville, and continued till he came to
On the 17th, Hans Hess, (fn. 1) an Almayne, was brought by the Prévost
d'hostel at 3 o'clock P.M. to a gibbet which was set up 20 paces
from the Court gate. Being at the said place of execution, upon
the ladder, he spoke aloud in French to the people, lamenting that
having been with Colonel Strozzi at Nantes with intent to enter
into such service as should be required, whereto he had bent himself
for the good liking he bore to him, Strozzi had persuaded him
to come to the king with great assurance that he would shew him
favour and employ him in the enterprise of Portugal. Whereby he
found himself now betrayed, being apprehended, imprisoned and
condemned on matters whereunto he takes God and his conscience
to witness he was not privy, nor guilty of them. Lastly, that he
was brought to this place of execution, being a stranger, there to
suffer an infamous death ; hoping that God would have mercy on
him, and that Strozzi would in time feel punishment for betraying
a gentleman in so wretched a manner under colour of friendship.
The friar wished him to leave those worldly matters, to speak so
of M. Strozzi, and 'tend' to praying to God.
He answered, he could not but discover to the world so wicked
a treachery, being thus miserably brought to his end. Then commending
his soul to God, he was turned from the ladder and hanged.
The Queen Mother stood openly in a little gallery over the gate
all the time of the execution and somewhat after. Beside her
leaned M. Villequier, behind her M. la Valette, and the king
privily 'shadowed' behind him, but so that he was easily discerned.
The rest of the nobility and ladies were in the windows beholding
the execution. I send herewith a discourse of the causes of the
King's displeasure against Hess, and the course he had taken, with
the manner of procuring him to come to this unhappy end, as I have
Likewise I enclose a brief note of the state of the affairs of
M. Pinart informs me that about the 10th inst. Strozzi sent 700
or 800 men from Nantes to Don Antonio, but the winds have been
contrary. These soldiers are commanded only by French captains,
as le jeune Bra . eres, with whom is gone 'Pierredor,' the consul to
the French nation, and Antonio d' Escovir [Escobar] who was sent
to England by Don Antonio long since. In their company is gone
Polydor [ ] an Italian, brought up in the Court by Queen
Mother and by her greatly trusted, who has of late been secretly
employed in Portugal.
I learn otherwise from Nantes that about that time 500 or 600
men, and 6 or 7 sail were in readiness to go that way ; but for the
better knowledge of the truth I have sent one to Nantes to see how
things pass there, by which means you shall shortly be more truly
and particularly advertised.
News is come from Spain that they of Algarve in Portugal have
revolted from King Philip, acknowledging Don Antonio for their
king. Also that Tangier, Ceuta, and Masagan on the frontier of
Africa are at Don Antonio's devotion.
I am just informed that the above-mentioned ships were sent by
Strozzi from Nantes, and departed about the 13th.—Blois, 22 Dec.
Endd. by L. Tomson. 2 pp. [Ibid. IV. 194.]
525. AFFAIRS OF FLANDERS.
(1) "Extract from a letter written by M. de Lapret to M. de
Bonele, first échevin of the city of Ghent, 22 Dec. 1580."
A peasant of this neighbourhood came to see me this morning,
with a note recording how a gentleman of M. de Montigny's said
at Lille the day before yesterday that that gentleman had a design
either on Bruges, or Ypres, or Menin ; and that in fact he has
drawn a good number from the garrisons in this neighbourhood.
I sent the note at once to his Excellency [Prince of Epinoy], not
having leisure to go myself by reason of pressing engagements.
No more to write to you.
(2) The note referred to above.
To M. de la Pré or M. la Cappelle, to let them know that today,
the 20th, some friends heard in the town of Lille, from a gentleman
of Montigny's, that some treason is toward against Bruges,
Ypres, or Menin. He would not say the last (sic), saying that
his oath was concerned in it.
(3) The Prince of Epinoy to the Four Members of Flanders.
Gentlemen, I think it well to let you see the letters of the 17th
inst. which I have received from M. d'Inchy. It is true as I said
in my last, that there entered the town of Cambray the last day
of last month four French companies in full strength and well
armed, and a small quantity of provisions, under the command
of Colonel Balagny. After dinner the Albanese to the number of
300 horse came and made a pretty skirmish before the town, in
which the French and the old garrison behaved valiantly, and but
for night coming on, not many of the Albanese would have escaped.
They left 20 dead on the ground, and 3 prisoners, among whom was
an Italian, a knight of the Order of Savoy. Next day the Albanese
had their revenge on four French companies of the regiment of
M. de Chamois, who were quartered at Prémont [qy. Brunémont]
away from the others who were at Bouchain. But apart from the
capture of officers and flags the loss of the enemy was greater than
that of the French. The notice which I have taken of it pretty
sharply to M. de la Rochepot will make him be better on his guard.
M. d'Inchy had also spoken to him before. In fact he retired with
all his troops to Cressy, awaiting his cavalry which is collecting by
As it seems to me, Cambrai has no lack of anything as yet ;
though M. d'Inchy writes me that they only have corn and water
for half-a-year ; 2,000 soldiers and 2,000 armed citizens, all well-advised,
and the town quite orderly. M. de Villers, governor
of Bouchain, writes him from France that the Duke of Anjou's
army will be fine and large ; and the duke himself writes to M.
d'Inchy on the last of last month from Cotrous [Coutras] that
peace is fully achieved, and that he is compelled to make a
little stay there in order to complete certain points in it. This will
be done in a few days ; and meanwhile he has sent Marshal de
Cossé to the king, to back him up by the word he has given him.
The Guisards too have offered him their services, as M. de Villers
writes—but he did not want to take them with him—offering to
attack Burgundy or Luxemburg, or to send four regiments.
Further, that the King of France is so satisfied with his brother on
account of this peace that he has told M. de Marchaumont he would
pawn his shirt to further his schemes.
Since M. d'Inchy's letter to me, fresh advertisements has come of
the approach of the Duke, accompanied by the King of Navarre,
M. de Toure [qy. Turenne], Marshal Biron and others. He does
not name the place. These are the most recent and certain news
that can be sent you from Cambray. I am astonished that you
have favoured me with no news of yourselves for the last fortnight.
I am told however that you have had your hands full with the
defeat of some of your troops between Alost and Ghent ; but I
cannot find out the truth of it. I do not want to believe it, because
it is said to have happened on the 14th, and you will have had
notice that the enemy was marching on the 12th, and consequently
time to withdraw them.
I send you herewith a little note with information. From the
same quarter I have had several others, and very often true. You
will do well to communicate it in the proper place.
Further, you give me no answer about the payment of the English,
the four months will be up tomorrow. The excuse in your last,
that no garrison is better paid than mine, is not to the point. Mine
is not on a par with others, if you consider what I wrote you in my
former letters. If you do not attend to it incontinently, do not be
surprised if you find the five companies at your gates, for I cannot
hold them by force. Meanwhile I will remain at the work, and in
the keeping of God, whom you ought to care more for, if you desire
your own benefit.—Tournay, 23 Dec. 1580. (Signed) Pierre de
P.S.—Once more I beg you will attend to the matter of the
English by action, not by words or excuses ; otherwise I shall
certainly believe that you care neither for me, nor for the keeping
of this town.
Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 83.]
526. THE MERCHANTS ADVENTURERS to WALSINGHAM.
By letters from our brethren in London we learn your request
for the admission of Mr Alderman Martin into our society. Which
being propounded in our general Court, and there weighed and
debated, was for sundry respects found very dangerous and
prejudicial to the state of our fellowship. Nevertheless, considering
how ready you have always been to further our cause, and what
good turns we have from time to time received at your hands, we
thought it our part to have more regard in this to your desire than
to our own commodity ; and therefore devising some way that
might both satisfy you and meet the inconveniences that are otherwise
likely through his admission to pursue us, we have willingly
consented to receive Mr Martin into our fellowship, so far as it may
please her Majesty and her Council to direct two letters to us in the
nature of the two copies enclosed. Without these we see ourselves
as it were disarmed against divers assaults, and a way opened to let
in all those that seek by the like means to enjoy the benefit of our
We doubt not that having considered the grounds of this request
you will not only judge it reasonable, but also very necessary for
the preservation of our general corporation, and trust that as you
have heretofore been in a manner our patron and defender, you will
now and hereafter extend towards us your favourable assistance.—
Antwerp, 24 Dec. 1580. (Signed) Christopher Hoddesdon, Governor.
Enclosures in the above, being drafts for letters :
(1) From the Privy Council. Whereas we understand that 'at
the contemplation' of our letter to you dated 18 May 1578 you
are now willing for the better service of her Majesty, that
Mr Richard Martin, Alderman of London and Warden of her Mint,
should be admitted to the freedom of the society of Merchants
Adventurers, if it were not for the ill precedent might grow thereof,
and specially for that her Majesty by her former letters has
enjoined you the contrary ; we like both your inclination that
way, and your regard for her Majesty's command. She has now
written her letters of warrant to you for his admission only, her
former letters notwithstanding ; but enjoins you withal that no
other be hereafter admitted otherwise than by your orderly course
and laws has been accustomed, nor contrary to the tenor of her
letter of 31 Dec. 1559 ; which we also require you to have in such
regard that the Queen's command be not broken, nor the admission
of Mr Martin be drawn into 'president' for any other.
(2) From the Queen to the same effect.
Add. Endd. by Walsingham. 1 p. and ¾ p. and ¾ p. [Holl. and
Fl. XIII. 84.]
527. HODDESDON to WALSINGHAM.
How our company has proceeded in Mr Martin's case you will
see by the general letter directed to you. There is another matter
in which I am bold to crave your advice, for it seems to be of
importance, and may touch me and the company. The sum of it
appears from the enclosed copy [see No. 536], which I thought good
to send you with the letter, that the delivery of it might be ordered
according to your appointment. The truth is that I am unwilling to
disturb the quietness of the Church, and loth to incur her Majesty's
displeasure ; insomuch that I intend either to resign my place here
and repair home, rather than offend in one or the other. Pardon
my continual boldness if in all my doubts I make recourse to you
as to a refuge wherein I never missed the help which I sought. In
which respect as I must acknowledge myself to be without comparison
beholden to you, so I will not fail to show the effects of that
service.—Antwerp, 24 Dec. 1580.
P.S.—Mr Rogers's servant, who is now going to England, tells
me that he has commission from his master to require of me fresh
letters for the £200 that were to be paid him at Nuremberg ; wherein
also I crave your advice.
Add. Endd. by Walsingham. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 85.]
528. [THE PRIVY COUNCIL] to HODDESDON.
Her Majesty has upon earnest solicitation from Horatio Pallavicino
and Baptista Spinola for satisfaction for the debt grown to
them from her, by her being bound for the States of the Low
Countries, committed the hearing of their demands to us, to the
end that such order might be taken as should be found best for her
honour and indemnity. Forasmuch as the state of the matter
being looked into by us was found dangerous to her Majesty unless
she might be better provided for from those parts than in former
years she has been, she thought good, before coming to any conclusion
with them, to have the States and the Prince of Orange
earnestly dealt with for due regard to be had by them to her honour
and indemnity ; and therefore made choice of you to treat with
them about the matter, giving you letters of credit to them, and
for your direction therein commanded us to deliver to you the
instructions that you will receive herewith ; of which we doubt not
but you will have a care according to the trust she reposes in you,
that further delays may be abridged, and a final order taken to her
Draft. Endd. with date, by L. Tomson. 2¾ pp. [Holl. and Fl.
529. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
As soon as I had settled the Company's business in order, I
departed on the 16th towards Holland, by way of Zealand, the
other passages being frozen ; and passing thereby, 'moved' to some
of the Estates of that province, who are most commonly assembled
at Middleburg, the cause of my going to Holland, and requested
their consideration in so reasonable and just a suit. I was answered,
their conformity should be found, and their deputies who were at
Delft had sufficient order to deal therein.
I did not arrive here before today by reason of stormy weather
and contrary winds, so that till my next I cannot write you of any
likelihood of good success in my proceeding, only for the time
to advertise my arrival. Please answer one of my former letters
touching the order I am to follow for the taking of such assurances
for the satisfaction of interest yearly following as the States shall
offer for the forbearance of the principal, and such further commission
for the receiving of the money already due for interest as you
may think requisite, and the States thereby think me sufficiently
authorised, without longer delay upon other excuses.
The Prince and his wife, who is lately arrived from Antwerp,
with all the train, are both in very good health. His Excellency
keeps council at his house ; the chief about him are M. Villiers and
M. Languet, and when any occasion falls out among the States
wherein his advice or help is requested, certain of them repair to
him or else he goes to their assemblies.
Steenwick in Friesland is still besieged by the enemy, and so
well defended that there is hope the force preparing to rescue them
will be in time.
Three companies of Englishmen were left at Swart Sluys, while
the rest went with their Colonel to Campen, there to join with
certain ensigns of other nations serving the States ; whereof the
enemy having advertisement came with 11 ensigns of foot and 600
horse under the Count of 'Rhenenbourgh' (who of late has shown
himself on their side as chief commander and in other ways) and
charged the Englishmen ; who defended the place so stoutly that
they not only repulsed the enemy, but issuing out of their trenches
charged them. During the skirmish the colonel arrived with the
rest of his men and others, who so seconded their friends that they
put the enemy to retreat in great disorder with the loss of 300 or
400 of his men, besides divers prisoners ; and had the States' men
been sufficiently provided with horse to encounter the enemy's,
whose chief strength lay therein, they had altogether overthrown
them. This piece of service has got the colonel and his men in
great honour and good report. There were but few Englishmen
slain, and none of note ; only Captain Ellys, who was too venturous
and forward in service.
There is a town called Hattam, that lies between Deventer and
Campen on the river, and has a small castle kept by the Drossaert
(as the office is termed) of that place. He was so wrought by
practice of the enemy that he would have surrendered it by
intelligence to the king. But being discovered by the people of the
town, they sent for aid from Deventer and elsewhere, and thereby
prevented the Drossaert of his treacherous purpose. He with his
confederates is keeping the castle, which is besieged by those of the
town, and it is hoped will soon be got by composition or otherwise.
The place was and is of great importance ; for by it the enemy
could not only have stopped the river and passage between Campen
and Deventer, but also have put those towns and others thereabouts
Since the assembly of the States-general at Delft, little, so far as
can be learned, has been done. An order taken by them was
published last Friday that no trade shall any longer be suffered,
especially in victuals, munition, and the like, to or from the
provinces and places possessed by the enemy ; and that upon pain
not only of confiscation thereof, but also the land and goods of such
dealers with the enemy to be confiscate to the State and common
The assembly is very great from all provinces. Those of the
Union are likewise here ; so that it is thought conclusions will be
taken for the government, better assurance, and defence of the
News is come for certain to the Prince that peace is concluded
in France, so that Monsieur will shortly resolve touching his repair
into these parts. So far as I can learn, he must overthrow the
Malcontents "ere any sure account can be made on his side to
enjoy these provinces," especially Holland and Zealand, who love
him and his as they did twenty years ago.
The Scots regiment that served under 'Beaufordt' has been
divided into two, and two colonels appointed ; but Colonel Stewart
will be chief of all the Scots, and the others be all at his direction.
The Ireland news much rejoiced the Prince and all those in this
country that love religion ; "and was greatly desired" to understand
the particulars.—Delft, 27 Dec. 1580.
Add. Endd. by Burghley's Secretary. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl.
530. The PRINCE of EPINOY to the FOUR MEMBERS of
On the 22nd inst., the Princess my mother sent to me to ask
permission to pass through this town with her suite, as far as the
'Chartrous' a quarter of a league from here, where she said she had
business. She asked me also to come and see her without delay,
which I did, with a good escort. After the due reverences, she took
me into a room, accompanied only by my sisters, and spoke as
follows. She had brought with her a personage to whose discourse
which he would make to me she prayed me to listen ; and at once
called in Councillor Richardot. I was much surprised, and said a
few words ; but to please her, and remove the idea they have that I
hold my position from sheer obstinacy, I listened quietly to him.
He held much grand talk, lots of promises from the king, all the
posts, governments, titles, goods and other things that I could
demand, and great assurances from the Prince of Parma, with
carte blanche from the king for it all. To which I gave him in
detail so good a reply that he will be well able to assure his masters
of my resolution being stronger than ever to live and die with the
popular cause (la généralité) as promised and sworn, and to shed
the last drop of my blood for the defence and freedom of our
I thought I would tell you of this, in order that whatever rumour
of it you may hear, you may be able to give a true reply and make
the facts known to whomsoever you think fit.
I have received yours of the 26th, in which you send word that
by the 6th prox. one month's pay will be ready for the five companies
in garrison here. I must beg you to have ready two months'
at least ; one month is as good as nothing. I shall not be able to
keep the gendarmerie if you do not send me two months' pay. You
will not believe what I have written to you. You must understand
that provisions are double as dear as they used to be. Plunder
does not get along (les butins ne vont pas leur train) as it used to do.
There is nothing more to be lost round about here ; the soldier has
no more profits. Wherefore, gentlemen, believe me implicitly, if
you do not send me two months' by the 6th, it is clear to me that I
shall lose all the soldiers.—Tournay, the last but one of Dec. 1580.
(Signed) Pierre de Melun.
Copy. Endd. by Burghley's Secretary. Fr. 1¾ pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XIII. 88.]
531. JACOBUS CUNO to the QUEEN.
Your Majesty will perhaps wonder what has induced me, a
German and unknown to you, to venture to address you. I will
briefly disclose my reasons, praying that you will not be annoyed.
It is more than thirty years since, having completed my course
in Arts and Philosophy, I devoted myself by the advice of my then
teachers, Philip Melanchthon and Erasmus Reinhold, wholly to the
love of mathematics and astronomy ; and having made such
progress as neither I nor those excellent masters had reason to
repent of, I began to pursue my aim not only more ardently, but
even with pleasure, since no kind of literary life seemed to suit me
better. But after the late Elector Joachim II had summoned me
to his Court there seemed all the more reason, even necessity, to
cultivate the science to which I had addicted myself from my youth,
and for the sake of which that learned and excellent prince had
summoned me from Wittenberg. And as I not only was aware
that the art of making automata was germane to the profession of
astronomy and mathematics, or rather, if it would win the suffrages
of the intelligent, ought to issue from it as a daughter from a
mother ; and as I further observed—let me not be suspected
of arrogance—that the ordinary makers of such things often
blunder grossly, while my prince was aware of this, and wished
the blunders to be corrected, if possible, and ordered me to do it ;
then, having carefully considered everything, and wishing to try if
my small powers could do anything in that line, I did my utmost
to discover the causes which had hindered other people ; not with
any view of blaming them, as is often done, but of setting right
what was demonstrated by the evidence of reason, and of the work
itself. What I have achieved in this way, I would rather leave to
the testimony of others, especially my prince, and the late King of
Poland, Sigismund Augustus, than mention myself in a way that
might be invidious. On the death of Joachim II, I obtained from
his son, the Elector John George, leave to fix my abode at Frankfort,
(which I had decided upon as a haven of rest when age began to
weigh on me, and my health was not very sound, and I found the
Court ill-suited to study), and to pass the rest of my life there ; and
endeavoured to complete what I had begun. Among other things
at which I worked perhaps not unsuccessfully, as to which I can
cite the Elector of Saxony as witness, I went so far in my desire
to illustrate the art which might be called αυτοματοποιια, that I
ventured to attack a piece of work of great difficulty, appearing
incredible to some ; nor do I doubt that if my health had held out,
I should have finished it. For I discovered a certain and handy
method whereby what had been lacking elsewhere, and unknown
to those who called themselves craftsmen, in order to show the true
motions of planets and stars, and what is necessary to indicate the
variations in the length of the hour from day to day, might be
made clear and obvious.
Not to weary your Majesty with details, I send herewith a
description, or so to say epitomic synopsis, which I have published,
embracing and explaining all these things ; and I trust that by the
Divine favour all I have promised therein may be accomplished,
lest men complain that I have raised their hopes in vain. But to
tell the truth, what I want is a great and a fortunate patron, so
that if I venture to complete the work which I have sketched out,
and some of whose parts I have experimentally finished, I may not,
in the absence of a patron whose authority I may follow, and by
whose resources I may be sustained, incur great cost to no purpose,
and seriously damage my own affairs. For, while no one, I think,
could look at the completed work without pleasure or fail to set a
high value on it, no private person, however well off, is likely to
spend money on such a thing or buy such beauty and excellency of
art at any price. But when I look round for a suitable patron, your
Majesty occurred to my mind, as one by whose aid and kindness,
celebrated throughout the world, I was confident that my desire of
completing what I have promised to construct on the soundest
astronomical principles, would receive a lift and assistance ; of
which if I were to endeavour to explain the utility to the life of men
I might seem to do it rather to sell my wares than for the sake of
Again, could I find any more worthy than yourself to possess
this beautiful work ? So far as I can learn from the judgement of
men most worthy of confidence, in knowledge even of the science
which I have ever most valued, you not only excel your own sex,
but leave behind the greatest kings and most chief men. This and
other reasons which I do not now propose to enumerate, have
moved me to address you, and respectfully beg that you will let me
know whether you approve my counsel in investigating the work
promised in my description ; whether you think I shall do well to
proceed with it ; and lastly, if when it is finished I may bring it
over and offer it to you for sale. In deliberating upon this matter,
if it be taken into consideration what an ornament such an
unprecedented work will be to your palace, how much pleasure will
be afforded by the sight of a machine imitating the positions and
revolutions of the stars, of how much service it will be found by
those who want to calculate the dates of past events or foretell the
future movements of the heavens, I venture to hope that your
Majesty will not only choose to be the one person to whom the
work should be dedicated, but also will do nothing which may make
me seem to have been mistaken in the expectation which on no
slight grounds I had formed. As far as concerns me, I assure your
Majesty that I am not aware of being moved by ambition or
avarice, nor borne on by levity of mind to promise what I cannot
perform. If I hear that I have your approval, and that you do not
shrink from the outlay needed to complete the work, which after
all need not be enormous, I shall greatly rejoice at the support
given to my labours. As soon as the season and my health permit,
I shall, unterrified by the length of the journey and the intervening
ocean, repair to your Majesty, and treat with you so that you shall
learn you are not dealing with a covetous man, but one to whom
fraud is most alien.—Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 30 Dec. 1580.
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson : Dedicat his work of the clock which
he intends to make, to her Majesty. Lat. 7½ pp. [Germ.
States II. 10.]
532. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Since my arrival I have not only dealt with M. Villiers to move
his Excellency for the advancement and ending of the long suit,
but also dealt privately with most of the States. Those of Brabant
abide by their former resolution for 7,500 guilders ; those of
Flanders will not be to seek for their part ; others agree to do the
like. They of Zealand do not altogether refuse to conform themselves ;
but the Hollanders after a sort allege that it touches them
not, but those of Brabant and others that had used the money and
given the bonds, to which they had not consented. The deputies
of Antwerp and Brussels requested me to have patience 8 or 10 days,
till the States had passed some or most of the principal general
matters wherewith they were at present very busy ; first of all to
make an order of finance. That done, the next was, how debts
were to be 'answered' and paid ; among which the chief should be
'given first contentment.' If I may believe what was told me by
one in secret, there have been earnest speeches to have her Majesty
satisfied ; wherein I judge there is some other mystery, but leave it
to your judgement, also not finding it convenient (for causes) to
write thereof further.
The news that came from France of the peace was brought by
him that was Governor of Bouchain. Monsieur has not only
confirmed the articles sent by the States, but the king 'avouched
to' see them maintained, promising to help his brother against the
King of Spain en sec et en verd ; which words run here in most
men's mouths, and have stirred a hope of help with encouragement.
I perceive the accepting of Monsieur will be generally after a sort
allowed, so that he do some act agreeable to what is expected ; for
those provinces that lie further off will be lookers-on, and the
Prince's lodging in this town is accommodated as if he would remain
for ever. In my opinion he will not lightly remove at least the
Princess and children, until he see by 'likelihood' what will be
the 'success' of next year.
The repulse given to the enemy in Friesland made such a doubt
of further danger in his camp before Stenwick, that as it is reported
'of truth,' by Mr Norris's order, 30 men entered the town each
with a bag of powder, of which there was great lack, on his neck.
Certain small ships or boats are also ready at Enckhuisen, to be
sent 'upon the sudden' to rescue Steenwick ; and for their readier
passage the 'dytches' will be cut so as to bring in the water the
next spring-tides. By this means it is hoped that not only the town
will be helped, but the 'siege' be forced to remove without further
A letter from you to the States of Brabant, and another to those
of Flanders, or a general one to them all, would do good, and urged
them to forward the suit, which I wish were ended.—Delft, 31 Dec.
Add. Endd. 12/3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 89.]
1580. [After June 30.]
533. "EXTRACT out of a Letter written to the PRINCE OF
The legate Riario is at great variance with the ministers here
over the affairs of Ireland, which the Pope thinks much of, and
will do the more, since they write that the Catholics have a great
footing in that island with the aid that he has in these days sent
them. The captain wrote that if 4 or 5,000 soldiers are sent from
hence, it will be the easiest thing to get possession of that island ;
and from this good beginning the enterprise of England can then
be set on foot, which is the Pope's principal aim. He has just
offered the King of Spain 300,000 crowns whenever he makes up
his mind to that enterprise, and the king has begun to give ear to
this practice, and has deputed Don Juan Diaquez [Idiaques], the
secretary Delegado, and Zoaial [sic ; qu. Zayas] to meet the legate,
and treat of this matter, and they meet every third day.
Copy, in hand (?) of L. Tomson, and endd. by him. Ital. ½ p.
[Spain I. 61.]
534. A general view of Spain and Portugal, with names and
revenues of the nobility, names of cities, note of harbours and
shipping, copy of the king's muster-book of 1571, course of the
principal rivers, &c.
MS. book of 26 pp. stitched. [Ibid. I. 62.]
535. Report to the Secretaries of all such persons as are
delivered by the Queen's letters out of the 'holy house'
in Spain and those remaining there.
Delivered :— Randolph Shawe, William Melsam, John Dobson,
Delivered and yet remaining captive in the galleys :— Roger
Hankin, Edward Taylor, Thomas Celye, one of the Queen's guard,
William Collins, Thomas Kelley.
Remaining in the prison perpetual, commanded to wear the coat,
according to the order of the house :— Robert Massey, John Birche,
Remaining in the holy house :— Robert Fitzwilliam.
The five remaining in the galleys are condemned for four years,
and after that to prison perpetual during life.
All the persons named are troubled only for saying service in
the churches in her Majesty's realm and saying it in ships at sea
according to her laws and 'proceedings,' for which they have
sustained all their troubles, the fact being done before their
Endd. 1 p. [Spain I. 63.]
[? 24 Dec.] (See No. 527.)
536. [HODDESDON] to BURGHLEY.
Having, contrary to my expectation, found Mr Cartwright, at my
coming over, in the ministry of our Church here, and fearing such
displeasure as might grow both to myself and the company by
retaining one against whom I doubt her Majesty to be offended, I
endeavoured by all means so to remove the danger that our Church
might nevertheless be sufficiently provided for. Thereupon, after
conference with the rest our company, it was thought convenient to
write to Mr Travis, being then in England, and lately elected for
our preacher, that either he should repair to his charge here, or
send some fit man to supply the room. Whereupon he procured
one Smith to come over to us, who being sundry times requested by
the company to take the function upon him, refused, I know not
why, to do so. So we were forced to write again for Mr Travis's
return, with express order set down in our general Court that if he
did not come by Christmas at the furthest, his stipend should forthwith
surcease, thinking by this means to have hastened him forward.
But he being resolved to remain in England has answered that he
cannot repair again to us. I have also dealt by letter with other
learned men about coming over, but none will meddle with the
place so long as Mr Cartwright continues in it ; for which cause I
moved him to abstain from preaching any more in our church,
considering he was neither chosen nor entertained by our company.
To this he alleged inasmuch as he received no allowance at our
hands we had the less to do to restrain him from preaching, and
that he thought our Church was as free for him in that respect as
for any other minister ; which allegation, as the time and condition
of things stand at present, I cannot greatly impugn, especially as
he is very well thought of by the preachers and learned of this
What course it were best to take, I desire your opinion, hoping to
use such secrecy and wariness in following it as shall agree with
your good liking. I have not frequented his sermons since my
coming, 'for doubt of the worst.' If I might do it without danger,
I should be loth to be absent from the public exercise, yet I rather
mind to resign my place here and return home, than do anything
to incur her Majesty's displeasure. But by your direction I trust
to be thoroughly resolved touching this matter.
Endd. : The copy of the letter sent to my Lord Treasurer. 1 p.
[Holl. and Fl. XIII. 90.]
537. On April 24 last, the Emanuel fell with the North Cape.
The prima May she came to Typone [Tiepna] near Cola, where
they fished, and tarried there till the 16th.
Thence they went to Aragooba, about 14 leagues from Cola and
there fished till the 29th.
On May 30 they went to Kildyna [Kilduyn] to fish and to meet
the boats which were to come from St Nicholas [i.e. Archangel]
They tarried at Kildyna till June 4 ; and that day in the morning
came one of the company's [?] ships, called the Brave, to them ;
the master of which told them that there were 14 sail of the King
of Denmark's ships and galleys coming for that place to take such
ships as trafficked there.
The same night came seven of the King of Denmark's ships
which found them at an anchor. The Emanuel's boats being
at sea fishing (in which were 20 of her men) espied the king's
ships and forthwith came aboard their ship ; and then the
ship let slip an anchor and cable and put to sea with three boats
and a skiff at her stern. But when they perceived the king's ships,
which were all 'in the weather' of them and fetched upon them, they
sent away two of their great fishing-boats with certain Russes
to the shore, and ran off, with their own boat and skiff at their stern,
to seaward, the ship being wholly untrimmed and not well able to
bear sail ; and the Brave also ran off with a skiff at her stern.
The master of that ship promised to keep them company, but his
ship being in good trim went from the Emanuel and cut off his
skiff from his stern. Which when the master of the Emanuel
perceived, and seeing that the king's ships fetched upon them, he
cut off his boat also and made as much sail as he could to get away ;
one of the king's ships still to weather of them and on their broadside,
and a great galley on their quarter, still plying them with
terrible shot. Yet they durst not lay them aboard, because the
other five ships were not able to fetch them. Thus they ran off
with them 24 'owars' or thereabouts, one shouting at the other ;
and when the king's ships saw they could do no good they cast
about and left the Emanuel.
After this the merchants requested the master to go to St
Nicholas, and thereupon they set their course for it and lay close
by a wind till June 9 ; upon which day they espied a tall ship of the
King of Denmark's, of 300 tons by their judgement, to leeward of
them. And immediately the mariners went to the top and said
they saw 3 more great ships to leeward of them, of the same
company as they supposed ; whereupon they kept close by to keep
the wind of the four. And then the merchants and the master
judged it to be true, what the master of the Brave had told them,
that 14 sail of the king s were come to that coast, which they judged
would go to St Nicholas ; whereupon they determined to come
back again for England. Yet within two days after the merchants
and the master would have had the ship return again for St
Nicholas, but in no 'ways' would the company consent to it, but
said they were content if they met with the rest of the fleet to go
back with them, but else not.
Endd. by [?] R. Beale : The report of those of the Emanuel.
2 pp. [Denmark I. 10.]
538. SUGGESTIONS as to the CONDUCT of the WAR.
It seems to me that there is no means more expedient for getting
the war in these Low Countries off our hands and of restoring
the required religion and authority, than an invasion of Portugal
on behalf of Don Antonio, in force and with all diligence ; to the
end that that kingdom may serve as a barrier between Spain and
England, and that the King of Spain may have war in his own
country, with the result that the resources of his country and of the
Indies will be lost.
The Queen of England to attempt nothing against the Hollanders
and their associates here until Portugal is secure, and the places
which hold for her service to be well secured meanwhile, succours
from England being always continued so that resistance can be
made during the expedition to Portugal, and that we may not be
undone here for want of good men ; while the English conduct
themselves gently towards the people and soldiers of this country,
to win their affection and remove all rancour and jealousy.
When the expedition to Portugal is secure, then will be the time
when her Majesty will be able to use more authority here in
matters of government, in virtue of her rights under the treaty
made with her in consideration of the said succours, until a prince
of great power is established in these countries having the means to
maintain religion, authority, and justice ; and for this she holds keys
and fortresses enough, from the moment she is assured of Portugal.
There must be a powerful prince in this country, or it is
impossible to maintain it in repose, true religion, and justice ; for
it is too rich and strong by nature, with too many fortified towns,
and the people too much used to arms, arrogant and petulant
through wealth, which ordinarily makes them mutinous against
prince or magistrate, or at least causes them to make war one on
another, province against province or town against town, or even
one lot against the other within the towns, as has been from of
old the custom for the smallest cause, as the histories show, till
about 100 years ago their princes increased in power.
If God take it not in hand, by the means of the Queen of
England, we must be sure that it is all up with religion and justice
and the countries will either have constant civil war, or not only
lose ordered liberty, but fall into slavery to our enemies, whether
Spaniards or French ; whereby either one of those realms may
receive such increase as the realm of England may feel seriously,
inasmuch as but for this present war no one knew the forces and
riches of this country. And if governed by a prince with authority
it will be as good as the mightiest realms of Europe, and will have
the means to keep more than 50,000 fighting men constantly in the
field, the country remaining in good condition.
Thus acting, it seems to me that her Majesty will do the best
thing for this country and for her own realm ; for there they will
have a fine guarantee against that horrible beast of Rome, and
deliver us and our posterity from all these miseries of civil war ;
which cannot be done if steps are not taken in time to deal with the
proceedings of certain who only further democracy and a liberty too
great in a country furnished with so many strong towns and so
much wealth, if I am to refer to the judgement of the wisest.
The realm of Portugal being assured, and her Majesty having
the opportunity to have more authority, notably in this country of
Brabant, many noblemen who have done good service in these
parts might be recompensed there by some Church property, of
which there is great quantity there, very pleasant and profitable.
Copy. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 91.]
539. Certain Edicts which the King will employ to raise a
sum of money :—
First, an Edict of Registries (greffes).—We call greffiers those who
put into writing the decisions given by the judges, whether supreme
or subordinate, and the place where these acts are kept and the
office performed is called greffe.
All greffes, alike of parliaments, bailiwicks, and seneschalries,
belong to the royal domain. The greater part of them have been
alienated since the reign of Louis XII, and those not alienated are
farmed by the year, by the king's receivers-in-ordinary.
Those who make the arrangement with the king do it on this
wise. For the space of 10 years they are to enjoy the greffes,
alienated or not, reimbursing the purchasers of them, or paying
them interest on the sum which bona fide entered the king's coffers,
at the rate of 5 per cent. ; and they shall enjoy them as their own
property. At the end of the time all the greffes shall revert absolutely
(francs et quittes) to the royal domain. They provide the
sum of 600,000 crowns, or 1,800,000 livres.
Second Edict.—All crowns soleil shall bear the king's mark, and
pass at 5 sous (marginal note : which is 6d. sterling) more than
Third Edict.—On all contracts executed before notary and witnesses,
whether purchase, redemption, obligation, mortgage, the
king will take 1 liard per livre, i.e. 9 deniers in the crown.
Fourth, Edict of Fees (espices).—Espices are the remuneration
which judges get for the decisions given by them, and thus put so
much into the fund pro speciebus.
The word comes from the fact that the judges when occupied in
judging causes, took no remuneration except some refreshment, as
they called it ; and what was called anciently 'bringing spices' was
bringing this refreshment. But now the spices are so excessive
that sometimes they exceed the sum at issue (le principal).
Endd. by Burghley's Secretary : 1580. Edicts pour amasser
quelques sommes de deniers. Fr. 1 p. [France IV. 195.]
540. Extracts from the 'Apology' published by the Prince of
Orange in reply to the King of Spain's Ban. Headed and endd. :
Matters objected to the King of Spain by the Prince of Orange in
his Apology against the proscription published against him by the
King of Spain. They refer to 'his incestuous marriage with his
niece,' 'murder of his lawful wife, the sister of the King of
France,' suffering Don Carlos his son 'to be sentenced by 3 or 4
friars and inquisitors and put to death,' etc. 1 p. [Holl. and
Fl. XIII. 91.]
541. Another copy, in a hand of late seventeenth or early
eighteenth century. [Ibid. XIII. 91a.]
542. "Discourse containing the reasons and causes for which
we are entering upon a divorce with the King of Spain ; issued
about the close of the year 1580."
MS. pamphlet of 74 pp. setting forth the grievances of the Low
Countries, bidding the King take warning by other sovereigns who have
been rejected. "Let him above all set before his eyes the reason
why Hugh Capet Count of Paris was preferred to Charles Duke of
Lorraine, the true successor and heir to the Crown." In defence of
their recourse to a French alliance, they point out that Gaul is all
divided into three parts, of which the Belgae are in that from the
Seine-Marne to the lower Rhine.
Fr. [Holl. and Fl. XIII. 92.]
543. "Proposition on the behalf of the Emperor for the
reducing of the Low Countries to their ancient estate before the
Endd. as above by [?] R. Beale. 15 pp. stitched. Fr. translated
from German. (May be any time from 1580 to 1583.) [Ibid. XIII.