165. The COUNT OF EAST FRIESLAND to the QUEEN.
You doubtless remember what I wrote to you in the business of
the Hanse Towns, and your answer thereto. I think it well to let
you know what has since happened in that matter. A meeting was
summoned last summer by our lord the Emperor at Nuremberg, to
be held with the Electors. It was several times postponed by the
Emperor, but the Hanse Towns had not selected their representatives
at it. However, it unexpectedly came to nothing.
Notwithstanding, the cities of Lubeck and Cologne, in the name
of the other Hanse towns, sent two doctors, namely Henry
Sudermann and (for Lubeck) Calixtus Schein, syndics of the
Hanse, to the Emperor's Court. On their way to Prague they
stopped to see the Electors of Brandenburg and Saxony ; and
furnished with testimonials from them reached the Court on the
5th of last January. My envoy, Dr Henry von Holtze, presented a
petition to the Emperor, that if any complaint against me and the
English adventurers was exhibited by the commissioners of the
Hanse Towns, he would let us have a copy of it, and decide
nothing till we had been heard. Although this request was agreeable
to all law, divine and human, and the Emperor's councillors
gave good hopes that nothing would be decreed until the case had
been legally gone into, nevertheless Cæsar, by a special messenger,
sends me severe orders for the second time, on the misrepresented
statements of the Hanse towns, to turn the English at once out of
my territories on the ground of monopolies and usurious contracts.
My envoy was not even allowed to read the letters written to me,
much less to have a copy of them or of the Hanse Towns' complaints.
But whereas all orders issued by princes contain a tacit clause
making it a condition that petitions shall be based on truth, and he
who tells the wrong story does not obtain aright, and whereas the
Roman Emperor cannot wish to render benefits to another's hurt, I
replied frankly and modestly, as is proper, and refuted the Hanseatics'
complaints with, if I mistake not, the most solid arguments.
And that your Majesty may be fully informed I send a copy of
Cæsar's letters and also of my reply. He has not appeared in public
for twenty weeks, so that it is the less likely that he should have
been fully informed of the merits of the case. Your Majesty's
envoy who, you wrote to me, was to go to the Diet at Nuremberg
and refute the unjust complaints of the Hanse Towns, came neither
to the Emperor's Court nor to the Diet. My ambassador mentioned
this several times to the Emperor's councillors, and begged that
everything might be put off till his arrival. He is said to have been
intercepted by the Spanish troops.
I have thought it necessary to signify this to you that you might
fully know the present state of the case ; and with your supreme,
not to say almost divine prudence, refer it to the judgement of your
mind, what is to be done that such a charge may not be branded on
the illustrious Company, and redound as it seems to the discredit
of the whole English nation. I cannot sufficiently wonder, seeing
how clearly it is to the prejudice of the Adventurers' company to be
grievously accused to the Emperor by the Hanse Towns, that they
do nothing in the case—send some suitable envoy, or at least write
to the Emperor, and ask for legal cognisance and decision of the
case, the proper persons being cited and heard, a place fixed, or commissioners
deputed. The Hanse Towns are not only pressing the
business before the Emperor ; but before the Electors, both secular
and ecclesiastical, and the chief dukes in Germany. I myself have
sent to the Emperor's Court my councillor, the doctor aforesaid,
that no blame may be imputed to me.
And whereas in this matter I have been and shall be put to great
expense, I pray you to grant to the sons-in-law of my Chancellor,
a man deserving well of me and of all the English, Matthew Maier
and John Sprekelson, and to their agent, the bearer of this, leave to
transport out of your realm to Embden free of duty 1,000 pieces of
English cloth, or 3,000 kerseys (pannorum Corisaicorum), and to
give them your royal letters for the same. I shall deem this kindness
done to myself, both because I wish well to my Chancellor on
his merits, and also because a great part of the cloth in question
will go to clothe my household. If I can give you any gratification
in return you will find me always most ready to do so.—Embden,
6 May 1581.
Add. Endd. by L. Tomson. Latin. 4½ pp. [Hanse Towns 1, 64.]
166. Duplicate of the above.
Add. Endd. : A long relation what he hath done by sending to
the Emperor's Court at Prague, etc. His request for 1,000 broad
cloths or 3,000 karseys for his chancellor. [Ibid. 1, 64 a.]
167. FREMYN to WALSINGHAM.
I received yours dated the 29th ult. on the 4th inst. As for what
is going on here : the Mass is entirely driven out of the churches
at Brussels, and it seems they would like to do the same at Antwerp.
All the pictures are being taken out of the churches, our Lady and
all the others ; and all in orderly fashion.
Last Thursday, 4 guns left Antwerp and some 800 men were got
together to besiege the fort of 'Villeburg,' where a company of
soldiers of the country were in mutiny for want of pay, with their
officers, and would not let any boats pass for Brussels, Mechlin,
or Lierre, till they were satisfied. Seeing that they were about to
be attacked to some purpose, and brought back to their duty, and
that the guns were pointed, and two gunboats ready to bombard
them in flank, they came to terms ; viz. that they were to have two
months' pay at once, and their old dues to be allowed, and to be forgiven
for all that had happened : which was granted. So this
passed off quietly ; and if the captain who was in the fort had been
courageous or intelligent, it would have needed a very different outfit
to take it. In short they would have been glad to pay him and
his company all that was due to them, lest he should league himself
with the enemy. His ignorance was useful to his masters and ruinous
Colonel Stewart is taking steps to come to terms again with his
men. However they are cutting down his regiment of 10 ensigns
The camp which is being made in Flanders gets on slowly enough.
The enemy has sent a reinforcement of 500 lances into Friesland,
and to some towns on the frontier of Brabant, inasmuch as
Monsieur's troops which were on the frontiers have withdrawn
into their country as far as Beauvais, 25 leagues, and that in two
days' march, and in disorder. It is said that the King of France
had given the Prince of Parma leave to enter France to attack them
at the Prince's request, and that he disavowed them ; and that at
the same time he had sent word to M. de Fervaques to retire. This
makes the people murmur greatly in these parts, and gives a fine
opening to the partisans of Spain to calumniate the doings of
the French. And to tell the truth, it is a great disgrace to announce
so long that such forces are assembled, without undertaking any
valorous action for the relief of Cambray. Instead of that, those
forces have done infinite harm to the people of France. Nevertheless
it is said that this retreat is a stratagem 'to make a better
spring,' and that Monsieur is coming to join the camp with some
fine forces, which do not wish to be commanded by Fervaques.
Monsieur had written to his Excellency that he would be on the
frontier this month, to fight the enemy. Nevertheless his unfulfilled
promises hitherto make all classes, and especially the people,
suspicious, and if Cambray is lost Monsieur has lost his credit here.
All these delays are at present referred to the treaty of a league
between the realms of England and France ; and if you are willing
to give Monsieur the means of undertaking this war, you will do
him much pleasure. But it seems to me that if you do, it will be
upon good security, and that you do not give by sowing rods to beat
you with. If you wish now to undertake anything in these parts, it
seems to me that such an opportunity is prepared as you could
wish, provided that you damp down the fire smouldering between
England and Scotland, and that you do not irritate this young
There is an English prisoner at Brussels who came quite recently
from Mons with a letter from the Prince of Parma to suborn the
Scotch who are at Vilvorde and elsewhere. He was taken at the gate
of the town ; but I cannot at present tell you the details. I shall
take the road to Brussels to learn them.
The Prince of Parma is doing all he can to persuade the Estates
of Artois and Hainault to raise an army corps of 40,000 men, to be
composed of foreigners, and especially of Italians and Spaniards, as
being in several respects more useful for warfare that those of the
country ; taking example from the Prince of Orange, who has more
foreigners than anything else. Also to find means to pay them.
The Malcontents are badly paid ; they are entertained with hopes
of 600,000 crowns, which the King of Spain is sending, and which
are on the road.
Our people in Friesland have routed a regiment of the enemy
and sent the ensigns to Amsterdam to his Excellency. No English
were killed in that fight.
It is hoped that at this meeting of the Estates all things will be
settled to the advancement of God's glory and the safety of the
country, and that that Council of State, of which we have heard
talk so much, will be set up.
This then is how the game stands ; it will be seen who are the
best players. He who deceives his comrade will be esteemed a
clever man. The report of M. des Pruneaux's death was a stratagem
to gain time. He is about to leave these parts, and will not return
without bringing whatever is useful and necessary for them, with
full contentment of their desires in regard to Monsieur.—Antwerp,
6 May 1581.
P.S.—There are no news of Stephen since he left this town,
which was a fortnight ago ; nor of Mr Rogers.
My salutation to Mr Wilson.
Add. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 62.]
168. HODDESDON to WALSINGHAM.
Before the receipt of yours dated the 29th ult. Mr Gilpin was by
the Company's appointment dispatched with her Majesty's letters
to the Emperor—the Duke of Saxony having nevertheless orders
to stay a certain time in Holland about the Company's affairs, but
chiefly to solicit the States for some speedy accomplishment of the
promise that they made in writing to her Majesty at their last
meeting at Delft. In which behalf I commended him by letter to
the Prince of Orange, of which I enclose a copy ; writing in like sort
to the States-General for some expedition to be used in the case,
So I trust shortly to know what course is to be taken for her
Majesty's contentment ; of which I will not fail to advertise you
with all speed. I mean to enter again into the pursuit of this
business, which of late upon the order sent to Mr Gilpin I wholly
intermitted and referred to him. And though it falls out
that he is now absent, yet the matter shall be as effectually
prosecuted as if he were here. By reason of sickness I
cannot myself go abroad, but to-day, sending my servant to
M. Junius, I understand from him that he has imparted your letter
to the council of this town, who have ordered him to send it, with
their own letter, to the States in Holland, to stir them to some
present agreement to her Majesty's satisfaction. The matter, he
thought, would be concluded within 8 or 10 days at furthest, and
M. d'Ammian, one of the States of Flanders, should carry the
resolution to her Majesty. This town, he says, has been always,
and still is, ready to 'answer' their portions ; yea, and are content
to bind themselves for the whole, so far as Holland and Zealand
will 'put them in assurance' to discharge that which in all
equality the said two provinces ought to bear. Therefore I hope
the matter will be stayed from growing to an arrest till it appear
what effect these delays and excuses bring forth : for as yet I see
no fit time to move our company on a sudden to provide for their
own indemnity in this place, lest, the most part being but young
men, factors should upon suspicion of some danger make a more
speedy and profitable dispatch of their commodities from hence,
and run too violently forward in their actions, which as matters
stand now might prove somewhat dangerous, and minister further
occasion of a tumult ; a great number in this town finding themselves
already very much discontented 'by means of' displacing the
Papists from the chief churches here ; which was put into execution
And as you wish me to think of some order whereby our
Company may be saved harmless, if her Majesty should proceed by
way of arrest, it will not in my judgement be amiss to make these
imposts and new tolls which are exacted of us contrary to our
privileges, the very ground and foundation of our removing hence ;
for upon these occasions some stay may be justly made of shipping
any more cloths to this place, and so our company being cleared as
it were by degrees from all danger here, may without manifesting
the secret cause of their departure withdraw orderly to some part of
Holland or Zealand. This can be easily done in three or four
months' space, and yet be taken only as a matter of difference
between our company and this town ; whereby her Majesty shall
have better opportunity to 'work her own satisfaction' and her
subjects receive no damage through it. If this 'platt' is liked, I
beseech you that all intermeddlers 'or interlopers, as we call them,'
may be strictly prohibited from trading into these parts, and that
you would let me know into what place in Holland or Zealand you
think it best that we made our repair. In my opinion the fittest
choice is at Middelburg in Zealand or Delft in Holland.
To terrify these people there is no such way as to deal by protest,
of which I have had good experience within these 14 days ; when
one of the Company's ships being cleared from hence was upon
suspicion of not paying the full impost brought back to be searched
'with extremity.' And although I sent Mr Gilpin several times to
the lords to have the ship dismissed, nothing was effected till I went
myself to them with open protest ; upon the delivery of which they
at once released the ship and goods. Therefore if that course be
taken they will think her Majesty means good earnest ; and the
protest being made will cause them to stand in more fear, as remaining
subject to the daily execution and danger of it.
And since, having an especial care of my credit, for which I thank
you, you would not perhaps have me solicit these and suchlike her
Majesty's affairs in person oftener than some principal and urgent
occasion requires, lest otherwise I might seem more like a common
suitor than a dealer for her, I have at my own charges 'entertained'
a young man whom both for his language and sufficiency in matters of
importance, I may very well use in following this business, having
several times had trial of his doings both in the Company's causes
and when I was last in Holland ; where I assure you he stood me
in more stead about the speedy obtaining of my dispatch from
the States than either Mr Gilpin or Mr Bruyn, who were better
acquainted with the matter of my commission.—Antwerp, 6 May
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 63.]
Enclosed in the above :
169. HODDESDON to the PRINCE of ORANGE.
You well remember, I hope, the decision taken by the States at
Delft in January last, with regard to satisfying her Majesty. Since
then I have received several letters from Sir F. Walsingham and
others of the Council informing me that she daily expects the
promised bonds. Some of them are beginning to be surprised
at seeing that the decision in question has so far had no
result, while the term assigned for the dispatch of the business
has already expired. I have therefore thought good, in pursuance
of orders from the Council, to send this bearer to your Excellency
and the States to receive the bonds as decided at the last meeting,
assuring myself that by your means he will soon have his
dispatch, namely the bonds, without further delay. Please also
lend a kind hand in regard to our merchants, for whom her
Majesty has written so much both to you and to the States of Holland
and Zealand, that they may obtain some reasonable satisfaction for
the debt appertaining to them.
Copy. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Ibid. XIV. 63a.]
170. ROGERS to D'ASSONLEVILLE (sent by 'Sidney's Stephen').
If I could have written to you in the absence of the Baron of
Anholt I should have been glad to add this letter to my former
one, that I might reply to a new calumny spread concerning
me. Last March when Schenk was here on his way from the siege
of Steenwyk to Blyenbeck, as he was departing he accused me of
tampering with the soldiers of the garrison by offering them
payment to bring me off. I felt sure therefore that he would
burden my cause at Court with new prejudices, seeing that he
caught eagerly at the smallest occasions for accusing me ;
and I hear from the bearer of this that he did not falsify
my opinion. Yet how absurd that accusation is I hope you will
easily perceive. It fell out early in last March that the soldiers
serving under the Baron of Anholt were by common agreement preparing
to desert, not having received their pay ; as, when on duty
in their turn as my guards, they admitted without circumlocution.
One of them told me among other things that he had a father, who
was a chaplain to the Duke of Zweibrücken ; to whom he said he
would return, that he might get a post in the household
troops (prætorianos) of that Duke or of Casimir. If he could be of
any use to me with them he offered his services. I replied jokingly
that I wished when he was there that I could by paying 1,000 florins
be placed with him ; and added that he would do me a favour if he
would take some letters there for me. He was a mere private
soldier, serving at the lowest rate of pay, and therefore quite unfit
to execute the designs of which they say I treated with him. Others
however who were officers in the regiment, and whom I knew
better, though they came to see me every day, and lamented my
misfortunes, complaining in the same way and talking about
desertion, never heard anything of the sort from me ; and they
were the people with whom I should have dealt to take me away
with them if I had had such an idea in my mind. For I understood
them better, and they could better have carried it out, commanding
the regiment as they did. So far was I from thinking this the line
to be taken, that on the contrary when they were grumbling about
not getting their pay and preparing to go, I consoled and exhorted
them and the other soldiers, pointing out that they were much
better off than other soldiers under other commanders, on account
both of the Baron of Anholt's natural generosity, and of the trouble
he was taking to get their pay out of the Prince of Parma.
Further, the letters I gave the man clear me from this calumny,
for I wrote to certain persons to intercede for my freedom with the
Duke of Cleves and the Prince of Parma ; to others, to send me
some books from the Frankfort market, wherewith I might beguile
my tedium and solace my mind. So I thought of nothing so little
as going off in that way.
But there are stronger arguments from which you will easily be
induced to believe this a vain calumny ; for I had no authority to
that effect from the Queen, who places her hope for my liberation
in the kindness and justice of the King of Spain ; nor does my
impoverished state agree with the payment of such sums. The
whole thing is frivolous, and quite unfit to take in men of sense
(fucum faciant viris prudentibus).
I hear too that Schenck has been spreading a story that I offered
him 40,000 florins by way of ransom, whereas I never thought of
giving him or his men a threepenny bit (teruntio) nor promised it.
Nay, like the Queen, my mistress, I have placed all my hope in the
kindness and equity of the king, the Prince of Parma, and yourself,
feeling sure that such charges will never find a place among men of
sense, the Queen's friends.
Lastly, I hear that you are much moved by papers containing
instructions in regard to Portugal, which were taken in my boxes,
as to which I recently, in my last letter, gave you my views. They
are of a kind to show the Queen's mind towards you quite simply.
I wish Schenck had taken me with him to the Prince of Parma, as
with tears I implored him to do, at the beginning of my captivity.
You would have had an explanation of the things which now
keep you perplexed in reading my papers. Pray consider the time
when the Queen sent me on a mission to various people. It was
at the turning point for the Low Countries, if I remember right,
when owing to the disorder among the Spanish troops at Alost,
Antwerp, and Maestricht, the king's Council and the States took
fresh steps against them together with the Prince of Orange. At
that time, though it seemed well to hear the various proposals made
to her Majesty, the drift of her letters always was that she wished
the provinces to remain in the king's power. I wish you could be
persuaded of this, and rather vie with the Queen in mutual goodwill
than listen to vain suspicions devised against her ambassador. I
do not throw the blame of my imprisonment on the Prince of
Parma, or on yourself and your like ; far be it from me to judge so
of his Highness or your lordships. I justly set down to Schenk's
troopers, greedy for plunder, what was done within the Empire to
me, an envoy to the Diet of the Empire ; who to shield (? tueantur)
the enormity, charge me in various ways in order to prejudice you ;
no difficult matter for such craftsmen. If by your business I am
delivered from them, it will be honourable to the former and all of
you. I am now in my eighth month here, spoiled of my goods, in
addition to the trouble caused by the undeserved illtreatment of my
people ; and I beg you to use your influence with the Prince of
Parma to get me out of it.—Bredeford, 6 May 1581.
Copy in writing of D. Rogers, and endd. by him. Lat. 2 pp.
[Ibid XIV. 64 (2) ; on same sheet with No. 47.]
171. COBHAM to [? WALSINGHAM].
Whereas in your late letter you commanded me to 'hearken' after
the progress of affairs in these parts, or for any matter which concerned
the marriage, I may assure that since the departure of the
commissioners nothing has been spoken concerning that treaty ; only
that upon the delivering out of certain notes by la Cerre, the copies
of which I sent to her Majesty, there rose some doubt in the minds
of those who deal for Monsieur in this Court, whereupon they
resorted to me to know if I had received any advertisements from
England of alterations. They were the more moved because at that
instant there was 'vented' likewise that the commissioners were
being well feasted and honourably received, but no further treaty
of marriage had passed.
I have signified to my lord of Arbrothe that part of his pension
is delivered to his brother, of which he had as yet heard nothing,
but desired he might receive it, and requested to have some news of
his country. In this I have not satisfied him till I know your
pleasure what I shall write to him from thence [sic]. It may be
that extreme want may tempt this lord, but truly I think no
necessity can carry him from Religion, nor transport him easily
from her Majesty.
The king 'shows' to mislike Monsieur's repair to Alençon without
visiting their Majesties, and as some think holds the Prince of
Conde's coming to him suspected ; and is not much pleased with
the entire amity which appears to be between Monsieur and the
King of Navarre. In this sort I understand the course of affairs
seems to stand.
I have again solicited Cavaliero Giraldi for the money he owes
you, and enclose his answer. I have sent this bearer with this
because I would 'use' him to taking pains in his youth, and I
beseech you to send him with the next dispatch, that he may lose
no time from his exercises. He is a poor kinsman of mine.—Blois,
7 May 1581.
Add. and endt. gone. 2 pp. [France V. 69.]
172. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was April 30, since which little has passed here, for on
the States' side nothing goes forward for want of good government.
The French camp at Miraumont has retired from thence 12 or
15 leagues back into France ; some say by command from the
French King, and some because they were too weak to abide the
coming of the enemy. So their retiring so far into France is something
It 'continues still' that Cambray is victualled with 80 waggons ;
notwithstanding many speeches go here that the town is in great
For want of victuals and forage since the departure of the French
camp the Malcontents have separated their camp, and lie 6 leagues
compass round about Cambray, where they make great vaunts that
the French dare not abide them.
It is also said that the Prince of Parma has put a new government
into Bapaume, and M. de 'Nowelles,' who was governor there
before, is displaced thence upon some suspicion.
The camp which the Four Members of Flanders were preparing
it is now thought will not go forward ; so all their doings here go
backwards and all for want of good government, 'which' the lack
thereof will be their overthrow if it be not 'foreseen' in time.
Those of Menin and Ypres this week had an enterprise in hand
upon Armentières ; but it was espied by the enemy before they
came to it, so they retired and did nothing. And in returning to
Menin they came by 'Comen' castle, which the enemy keeps ; who
shot a great piece, and slew one of the best Scots captains named
Maxfeld, who was captain of a cornet of Scots horse, and none
slain but him.
The Four Members of Flanders have lately written sundry letters
to the Prince in Holland to have him come and lie a little nearer to
them, because they can do nothing but by his order and counsel.
But he makes them no answer, which I perceive by the Lords of
this town grieves them very much.—Bruges, 7 May 1581.
P.S.—I have received yours of 29 April ; thanking you for it and
noting your pleasure, which shall be done when occasion serves.
Enclosed I send a letter from M. de Plessis, who with his wife
has been here these 5 or 6 days. To-day they are gone to Ghent.
I also send a letter from M. Rossel, who continues in this town.
It seems by his speech to me that he is in doubt his letters do not
reach your hands, because he has not heard from you for a long
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 65.]
173. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
Being about to leave Bruges in order to lay out the camp which
we intend to collect in three days, it seems well that I should let you
know that the French army has withdrawn from the neighbourhood
of Cambray after a great skirmish 'given' by the Walloons before
Miraumont, where the French lost 9 killed and six prisoners. M. de
Fervaques has been recalled by Monsieur, who is just now at Alençon,
where they say his forces are preparing. M. de Rochepot is at
his house near Amiens. He has the command of Fervaques's troops,
which I think are very equal [sic]. Such is the hope of aid for
Cambray. M. d'Inchy has written a letter saying that while he
expects no aid, and albeit he has nothing to eat but bread and water,
he will not give up fighting and doing the best he can, herein
showing his generosity and valour. The papists are very cheerful,
to the point of firing salvos for joy, which perhaps will not last
long. There is a report that M. de Montigny is coming this way
into Flanders with 2,000 men. If he is no stronger than that, he
will not do us much harm, for we hope to be a good troop in the
field. Our people lately gave up the execution of a great enterprise
through some misunderstanding.
I fear that Monsieur's delay will make Guelders, Utrecht,
Overyssel, Holland, and Zealand back out of accepting him as he
wishes, which will shortly appear.
You will have heard that at this meeting of the Estates at
Amsterdam the Mass and the priests have been driven out of
Brussels and Antwerp, to the great disgust of the papists.
I learn that M. de Clervant has gone to the King of Navarre to
set on foot a good understanding among the princes of the Religion,
Duke Casimir with the Prince of Orange, and others. So far as I
can see, France is not too secure ; but I know not who will be the
first to recommence the war, for the Queen Mother desires to
content the Prince of Condé, and to this end there is a meeting at
Montauban. I know not what will come of it.—Bruges, 8 May
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIV. 66.]
174. STOKES to the SECRETARIES.
Yesterday came letters to this town, to the Four Members of
Flanders, from the Prince of Epinoy, wherein he writes that
M. de Montigny is marching towards these parts with 2,000 foot
and 1,000 horse, for the French camp is retired so far back into
France that the Malcontents can spare that number from their
camp. He writes further that he greatly fears Cambray will be
lost. So I perceive that he and the Four Members have no great
liking of the French dealing in retiring so far, considering the
great danger that Cambray is in.
Also M. de Fervaques is gone to Monsieur or else to the French
king, and in his absence M. de Rochepot has charge of the French
camp. He has written to the Prince of Epinoy, who has sent his
letter to the Four Members ; I send you a copy enclosed. As you will
perceive, it is some comfort to them, but for all that they have small
hope of the matter. Surely they are here in some fear of their
state at present, and all their trust is in Monsieur. If his forces
come not speedily without further delay, it seems matters will not
go well here. Besides they have great hope that 'some part of the
coming of the French nobility into England is for their safeguard
here.' I mean they think that their course will be talked of there ;
so that when the posts or any other come from England, the magistrates
send straight to know what news there is. Truly since these
troubles began, I never knew them so fearful as they are at present.
I write thus much, because this morning I had some talk with
the chief burgomaster, who has been the only advancer of the
gospel here in this town. So I pray God send them some better
comfort in time, and that Monsieur may come speedily : for I see
matters stand in some dangerous state.—Bruges, 8 May 1581.
Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. 67.]
175. COUNT VIMIOSO to BURGHLEY.
For the reasons that move me to requite your friendship, I wished
to write and beg you to regard me from this day forth as wholly at
your service. As the ambassador is going, with whom I have spoken
more particularly, I remit myself to his dealing with your Lordship.
—Tours, 8 May '581. (Signed) Don Francisco.
Holograph. (Seal.) Add. Endd. : To my L. Ital. 9 ll.
[France V. 70.]
176. JOHN RODRIGUEZ DE SOUSA'S INSTRUCTIONS.
He is to remind the Queen of the ancient amity, relationship, and
alliance of the two Crowns, confirmed on so many occasions ; and
of the treaties made between the sovereigns, by which her Majesty
is bound to break with the King of Castile, and to aid the king my
master in all possible ways, especially as this will redound so greatly
to the advantage and security of England, and seeing the harm
which will ensue if the King of Spain peacefully becomes lord of all
Spain, the more part of Italy, the states of Flanders, the Indies
East and West, Peru, Brazil, the African coast, and of all the other
states which he has added to himself with the Crown of Portugal,
and of all the riches and precious things in the world.
Treaties have been made with the Turk and the Shereef, and
so much in France, by his industry, as is known.
That for these reasons, and for her own greatness, the Queen will
be pleased to succour the king my master with 4,000 English, armed
and victualled for three months, embarked in ships of war, and with
so much powder as may seem needed to provide the kingdom.
And the expenses that shall be rightly incurred shall be paid by the
king one month after these people are landed in Portugal.
That to assure her estate there shall be given to her Majesty the
castle of St. George of Amina on the coast of Africa to hold until
the said expenses are paid in such form as her Majesty may
Free trade shall be granted to all English in all the 'conquests'
of the king, my master, in the direction of the East Indies, on the
terms in force there, and all favour shall be shown them in those
The 4,000 men to be embarked in the course of July, when the
French also will embark. And if her Majesty has any suspicion of
the people who are being raised in France, she shall have therein
such assurances as she desires.
If she hears anything in matters concerning the Crown of Portugal,
in which she could be better pleased, let her declare it ; because
therein she will do a greater favour to that realm than in coming to
Whatever the ambassador has to report on these observations, he
will send it to me with all brevity, advising me of all that may be
necessary to effect them.—Tours, 9 May 1581. (Signed) Don
Copy in hand of L. Tomson. Endd : A copy of Don Roderigo's
instructions. Portuguese. 1 p. [Portugal I. 56.]
K. d. V. & D.
177. The DUKE OF ANJOU to the STATES GENERAL.
You have heard both from your ambassadors and by my
dispatches sent during the negotiations for peace of the extraordinary
delays and difficulties which I have at length settled and have left
the King of Navarre, the Prince of Condé and all those of the
Religion determined to maintain and execute it. Its happy issue
will ensue, as I have always promised myself. Please consider
that a work of this kind cannot be finished at a given moment,
and that it is nevertheless necessary to the maintenance and execution
of our treaties. For their accomplishment I am come to this
place, and have already made so good a beginning of assembling the
forces, that I hope within a few days to take steps for the relief of
Cambray, where I shall be in person. The levies of the foreign
troops which I wish to add to my army have already begun, and I
hope to be assured before the Queen my mother leaves this place,
where she is doing me the honour to visit me, of the means which
the king my brother is to give me to meet this expense.
I will ask you also to use alldiligence on your side, that we may
join our forces and so produce a greater effect on the enemy. My
only design at present is to aim at your preservation and accomplish
all that is in our treaties without default in a single point, as you
shall judge from my behaviour, which is wholly directed to the
maintenance of your liberty, reason and dignity.—Alençon, 10 May
1581. "Recepta 23 May 1581."
Copy. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 68.]
178. The DUKE OF ANJOU to the PRINCE OF ORANGE.
I have always put off writing to you, though I had two of yours to
answer, one received through M. de Laval, while the other of April
12 was received only after my arrival here. The first informed me
(m'a fait capable) of the just cause which moved you to reply to the
proscription laid upon you by the King of Spain ; wherein you
justify your past actions and enable us to judge of his, insolent and
full of ambition, which he essays to nourish on the reputation,
honour and blood of his relatives and nearest servants. The second
mainly urges me to take the road on which I have started, as may
be seen, beginning by raising the army which I am bound to conduct
to the Low Countries. As to this I am taking such order that I
hope to march straight to Cambray and aid them, whatever resistance
the enemy may make.
As for what concerns the States-General and the contracting
provinces, I may say that my mother, who is coming to see me,
should be here to-morrow ; from whom I hope to obtain the means
of aiding, which the king my brother is to allot me ; whereof I will
advise you at once. Meanwhile I am levying the foreigners of
whom I mean to compose part of my army, in order to lose no time.
Kindly let the States know this, and that I did not wish to fail of
my promise, rather to show the affection I bear them, to which end
I will devote all the resources that God has given me.
(The rest much as in the last.) Alençon, 10 May 1581.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. 69.]
179. NEGOTIATIONS with DON ANTONIO.
The King my master desires that all the gold belonging to him
that is in his fortress of St. George of Amina on the coast of
Ethiopia shall be delivered to the persons deputed by the Queen of
England to that end, to be brought to these parts. Senhor Vasco
Francisco Pimentel, governor of the fortress, shall have it delivered
to the persons who shall be declared the Queen's provisors ; and
this writing shall be their warrant for the shipment of it.—Tours
in France, 10 May 1581. (Signed) Don Francisco.
Copy in hand of L. Tomson. Endd. : A Commission to the
Governor of Mina for the delivery of the king's treasure. Port. 14 ll.
[Portugal I. 57.]
180. NEGOTIATIONS with DON ANTONIO.
The Constable Don Francisco etc. I announce that it is for the
service of the King my master that when the squadron arrives
which the Queen of England is sending to the fortress of St. George
of Mina, some ships of Portugal as one of the 'conquests' shall take
its orders and come in its company to the realm of England. And
if they do not, I give them [the English] licence by force of arms to
take them and bring them to that realm. And if the squadron falls
in with any ships of Don Philip, King of Castile, or his subjects, it
may enter them and take the goods therein, paying one-fifth to the
King my master.—Tours, 10 May 1581. Written by Custodio
Leitam, secretary to the said lord. (Signed) Don Francisco.
Copy in hand of L. Tomson. Endd. Port. 15 ll. [Ibid. I. 58.]
181. "A message delivered by Secretary Wall."
Whereas her Majesty had appointed the commissioners to come
this afternoon to treat with him, finding upon conference with her
commissioners that she can grow to no resolution in the matter of
marriage, for which only they 'pretend' to come, until she hear
from the Duke of 'Danjowe,' who is, she is informed, now at
'Dallanson,' and therefore doth shortly [sic] to hear from him, she
prays them to have patience for a few days ; being sorry that things
so fall out that they should receive any 'grief' through their stay
Memo. in Walsingham's hand and endd. by him. ¾ p. [France V.