July 1581, 1-5


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'Elizabeth: July 1581, 1-5', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 15: 1581-1582 (1907), pp. 232-243. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73518 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1581, 1-5

July 1. 240. PROCLAMATION by the CORPORATION of ANTWERP, 1 July, 1581.
Whereas the burgomasters and aldermen of Antwerp, with the advice of the collects, captains, and masters of the 6 sworn companies of that town, for the security of the same have thought good to cause to supersede and cease by provision the whole exercise of the Romish religion, it is on their behalf commanded that nonesoever do advance himself within this town, its liberty or jurisdiction, to do or cause to be done, or hear, any mass or other exercise of that religion, privily or openly, except only of baptising, marrying, or visiting the sick, and that without notable or great assembly. Likewise they shall bury their dead without any ceremonies ; and likewise in respect of the citizens and inhabitants of the town, without that so that [sic] intent is shall be permitted to the strangers to come hither, whereunto every captain in his quarter shall take good regard for such exercise of baptising and marriage. That the aforesaid of the Romish religion shall be appointed places ; to wit, the Chapel of Grace and the Chapel of the Lady, 'Godtshuse' in the Rerck Street. And for the executing of the said permitted exercise shall be chosen 6 quiet spiritual persons, who shall make oath of fidelity to the magistrates, upon penalty of 100 crowns to be forfeited for the profit of the poor. Item, all persons spiritual and temporal, who heretofore, and especially upon the 28th June last and after, out of this and any other places with us in league, being bidden to depart, although by tolerance they have come or remained here again, shall within 24 hours avoid this town and the freedom and marquisate of the same, without returning again except with express consent of the said lords and others thereto deputed, upon penalty and to the use as aforesaid. Item, shall depart, the 'nations' only excepted, all those who within these four years are come to remain within this town from any of our 'leight' [?], or outlandish towns or places, unless within the next 14 days or more according to the places, they bring lawful or laudable testimony of themselves granted to them by the judges or consistory where they were last resident ; which evidence they shall be bound first to show to the captain and quartermasters where they go to dwell, and in case of difficulty they shall repair to the judges and colonel of the town. 'Forbidden likewise each one' upon like penalty to lodge or harbour such persons within his house. Item, it is prohibited to all who resort among the Spanish or Italian nations, except only those who are subject to the watch of this town, to have any long weapons or short dags in their houses, to sell them same, or otherwise [sic] to put them, under due bill and promise of restitution, into the hands of the captains of that quarter, their rapiers and daggers excepted, upon forfeiture of the said weapons, which shall be taken away by the captains and officers. Item, no traveller shall be suffered to wear upon the streets any long weapons or dags, but shall leave them in their lodgings till their departure, unless by consent of the captain under whom they lodge, upon forfeiture of the said weapons.—'Decreed in the college, I being present.' (Signed) Hobocken. (Countersigned) G. Kyf. Translation, 'written in haste.' Endd. by (?) R. Beale. Walsingham's mark. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 88.]
July 2. 241. [?WALSINGHAM] to [?COBHAM].
This bearer is dispatched in such haste, and I have been all this day so oppressed with other business, that I cannot write to you at large by him as I would. Don Antonio presses her Majesty to furnish him with some ships out of hand, but she answers that she cannot in due course of policy, nor with her own safety, enter into the action until she understands how far the French king means to proceed in it. You will, I suppose, receive by the next directions to deal with him. Meanwhile, since our resolution in that behalf will not perhaps be taken so soon as the necessity of the cause requires, I think you may of yourself prepare the king's mind the best you can 'against you receive' directions to deal further with him, putting him in mind of the answer he made you last, that upon the return of the Commissioners who are now with him, he would confer with them about their causes, and then you should hear further from him ; letting him withal understand that the stay of her Majesty's resolution proceeds only from his deferring of his, which by protracting the time, may breed a great hindrance to the cause.—2 July 1581. Draft in the hand of L. Tomson. ¾ p. [France. V. 100.]
(1) Draft in French of Somers's instructions for his mission to the French king, couched in the form of an address to the king. In hand of L. Tomson, as are the two following. Endd. with date. 1¼ pp. [France V. 101.] (2) Another draft of the same ; first line in English. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. V. 101 a.] (3) Draft, rather fuller, of the same in English ; a few sentences in French, with translation. Your ambassadors lately in England have advertised you that after many conferences with the Queen and her Commissioners, she finally deferred proceeding to a full conclusion of marriage till she might be assured how the Duke of Anjou should be maintained in the prosecution of his enterprise in the Low Countries, for otherwise the burden of those charges might be perhaps chiefly thrown on her, to the grief and misliking of her subjects. Whereto it appears that you answered ; for the day before their departure hence they gave her Majesty to understand that upon that point you were content (the marriage proceeding for the advancement of the Duke) to assist him in this enterprise, and also to enter into a league offensive and defensive with her Majesty, upon such reasonable conditions as she should propound, and that the said league should be made and ratified after the marriage consummated. Thereupon she most heartily thanks you for so friendly an offer, and desired to understand whether they had authority to treat of the particulars depending on those offers. They answered that they had no authority to treat on them, but wished us to set down the particulars of our demands. If we would make promise to marry, they would give us assurance that you would assent to the league on the particular demands. Seeing that, and finding that their longer stay in England would be unnecessary, she gave them leave to return. But before departing they prayed us to send ample instructions to her ambassador here to propound her particular demands, and so to proceed to the treaty of them. Meaning to pursue the matter, she has found it expedient to send me to you, with her ambassador to treat and negotiate with your Majesty in that behalf. She has commanded me to say two things to you : first, that 'by the advice given to my lord ambassador by you, Madame,' how necessary it appears to both your Majesties to advise how to stay the growing greatness of the King of Spain, which without speedy prevention it is apparent to all men of judgement will be dangerous not only to the Crowns of England and France, but also to all Europe, considering what treasure he will yearly receive from the East and West Indies, if he may enjoy them, the credit he has in Italy, the Pope and most of the princes of Italy being at his devotion, his 'alliance' in Germany, and his late pretensions in Scotland. Which to impeach, according to man's judgement, your ambassadors were of opinion to have the Crowns of France and England united in a more strait and perfect amity by a marriage between her Majesty and the Duke. Having very advisedly considered of this matter, and considering that it behoves not that the marriage should be accompanied with a charge to her, nor our people to enter into a present war, she is desirous to know, the marriage proceeding, whether Monsieur's action towards the Low Countries may not be effectually pursued by your help and that of your brother, and by the countries, without any charge to her and her realm ; for otherwise she cannot conveniently, without offence to her realm, assent to the marriage. Endd. with date : Somers to negotiate with the French king. 1½ pp. [Ibid. V. 101b.]
Thursday, June 29, was the first time of the late French Commissioners going to the king, and therefore our audience was deferred till next day. But in the morning M. Pinart being sent to us from the king, said that the king and Monsieur having appointed to meet that day at St. Germain's at 3 p.m. (the day and hour set down by Monsieur on a sudden) and the king and Queen Mother meaning to be there, he put off our audience till Sunday the 2nd inst., praying us to be content therewith. For it was thought that the king and Monsieur meeting together that Friday towards the evening, they might tarry together all that night, and therefore he could not well give us audience till Sunday. That day, after we had dined at 'St. More' at the king's cost in the company of MM. Brisson, La Mothe, and Pinart (Lansac and Carrouges having dined in another place), we were brought to the king. After I, Sir H. Cobham, had told him that though he had heard by his late ambassadors what had passed in their negotiation with the Queen and her Deputies, she has yet thought good to send a gentleman to propound certain things to his Majesty, as he shall understand from him ; and after Somers had delivered him the Queen's thanks for sending her such a legation of so honourable personages, and her letters of credit, the king answered that he ought rather to thank her for her honourable treatment of them, who had come from her with such contentment, and made thereof so honourable 'resite.' He would requite it by all the best 'reciproke' means and amity that he can devise. When Somers had propounded his instructions to the king, ending with the second article, viz. Seeing this marriage cannot be accompanied with any charge to her Majesty nor her people, etc., the king answered that he had understood from the ambassadors the effect of what I had said to him, saving the latter point, Seeing the marriage etc., which being of great importance, required further consideration. He said therefore he would advise thereupon with his mother and other of his Council, and then make answer as soon as might be. So having asked us of her Majesty's health, the place of her 'being,' how glad he would be to be so happy as to see her, that if this marriage took effect, she would be not only married to his brother, but to himself and to his realm, and all he had in the world, and other great demonstrations of goodwill, we left him, and repaired to the Queen Mother in another chamber. After the like speeches used by me, Sir H. Cobham, as I had done to the king, Somers delivered the Queen's letters of credit and proceeded with her as he had done with the king. She asked what answer the king had made ; which when she had understood, she concurred with him. As touching Monsieur's enterprises to the Low Countries, which was touched in the instructions, she wished that he would therein follow good counsel, and then he would not throw himself into them, and said that she had treated with him therein, but could not prevail, 'so is he led by others.' 'He is' quod she 'young, of courage enough, and too much, but courage sans conduite, il vault mieulx n'en avoir point.' The reply to this was that his enterprises were for the benefit of this Crown, and that it imported him very much to see to the safety of those that put their trust in him, and 'namely' of Cambray, and of them that for his sake and the service of this Crown have endured so much in it. Besides, which is the greatest of all, he had so much engaged his honour in that matter, that he cannot without infinite blemish leave it so. Moreover, if this should be neglected, it were to open the way to the greatness of the King of Spain, which they are 'advising' how to prevent, and to suffer him to come to an end of his intents. The Queen answered that she had now but two sons, both yet without children, and therefore must be more careful of their safeties. 'If, Monsieur, my son' quod she 'should receive any misfortune, or be taken, that were to make the King of Spain greater than ever he were' ; showing in these speeches great affection, not without passion of mind, and adding that she was sure the Queen would be sorry of any such mishap to him. After she had uttered these speeches, which she could hardly do without 'motherlike yielding,' Somers, remembering the Queen's command delivered to him touching that matter, and lest upon conference for answer to us the king and she might resolve to stay those proceedings of Monsieur's, to save her Majesty's charges, to avoid war, etc., said to her that seeing upon her 'occasion' we were fallen into this 'purpose,' she should see that the reasons we used came not from ourselves, but from the Queen's command. And for credit thereof he delivered her the Queen's letter written with her own hand, and another for the king, which Somers said he meant to deliver at another time, had not this occasion thus fallen out. After receiving the letters and hearing again her Majesty's earnest motions for Monsieur's proceedings, she said, with a heavy cheer, that she would talk with the king her son thereon. And so for the time we departed. Next day, Monday morning, M. de Vray came to us and told us that the king had appointed all the commissioners that had been in England to be with him about noon to confer about the matter propounded by Somers. He thought that the same night, or very soon after, some of them would repair to us with the king's answer. That evening de Vray brought us word from the king that he, the Queen Mother, and all the commissioners had been in council together all that afternoon about the matter, and that the king, minding to be not only a brother but a father to Monsieur and to do everything that might be for his advancement in this matter with her Majesty, wherein he himself had interest for the great affection he bore to her and his brother more as a matter that touched him most in particular, it was in that council resolved that to-morrow, being Tuesday the 4th, the Queen Mother, the Prince Dauphin, Marshal Cossé and all the rest of the commissioners shall repair to Monsieur at Mantes, to understand his full determination and conclude with him upon the same points. And the next day, or as soon as might be, the king had appointed M. de la Mothe, Brisson, Pinart, and himself, de Vray, to bring us answer.—Paris, 3 July. Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. V. 102.]
244. Copy of the above. Endd. 3½ pp. [Ibid. V. 102a.]
[July 3.] 245. Paper containing
(a) A rough draft of the above, with the following, cancelled :
Touching the intended meeting between the king and his brother to be at St. Germain's, true it is that on Friday, about 3 p.m. the Queen Mother, and with her M. de Lansac and Pinart and a very few others went there, and about 4 the king followed with a small company. But before he was within a league of St. Germain's, his guard and others to a good number on horseback were with him. And about the last ferry, M. de Buy, sent from Monsieur, met the king, and after a few words the king returned to Paris and Monsieur to Mantes. The cause, as far as I yet hear, was that Monsieur being near, and hearing of such a company with the king, and coming himself with a few, forbore to come to the place at that time, reserving their meeting till some other. One cause of such meeting may appear in Queen Mother's earnest speeches to us.
(b) M. Pinart being with us on Friday the last of June to defer our audience upon occasion of the intended interview, being ready and willing, as he said, to do all good offices in anything that (next his master) might be for her Majesty's service, as being thereunto bound by her 'obligations' towards him, 'moved' whether we would not impart to him some little thing of the charge to be imparted to the Queen Mother, whom he would find at dinner at the 'Twilleries' ; for, said he, she going now towards Monsieur, the fore-knowing of some part of our charge might serve to good purpose. After we had considered awhile of this motion, we answered that seeing it was moved as of himself, and that our charge was to deal first with the king, we thought good to forbear till we had audience ; and yet considering that in this intended interview the king and queen might perhaps dissuade Monsieur from the enterprise towards the Low Countries, and 'namely' from the rescuing of Cambray, for the danger to his person, we saying that upon the Queen's earnest instance the king was to have more consideration of Monsieur's engaged honour in that behalf, and also to sound Pinart therein, we said upon 'warrantise' from her Majesty that we trusted, notwithstanding his open 'defenses,' the king would resolve privately with Monsieur for his proceeding towards the Low Countries, and to relieve Cambray, depending wholly upon his devotion ; the Queen being heartily sorry of such prohibitions, and of levying of horsemen upon the passage to 'impeach' Monsieur, which we 'pretended' to be come to her knowledge. Thereto M. Pinart said, with great protest of dealing plainly with us, that the king was determined 'to be' known in his realm and believed that he would not suffer Monsieur to go forward in that enterprise ; 'for' said he 'it cannot be dissembled but that the King of Spain and all the world will well know it to be the king's doing or open suffering.' Beside that the king not being well assured of his people at home, it were not reasonable that he should suffer a matter which might breed a war, without the assistance of some other prince. Then by way of friendly conference he was asked, how could then the King of Spain's greatness be stayed, as they here so much desired, if these proceedings of Monsieur should be thus impeached, and Cambray, now in distress, be suffered to be lost, a matter of great importance in general and of dishonour to Monsieur, for whose sake they endured. He answered that it might be done by other means. We desired to know his opinion what they were. He said, this marriage proceeding, the king would agree to anything that her Majesty required to be done, either openly or underhand ; so that she would declare herself plainly to the king as he had done to her by his ambassadors, and thereof looked now to be resolved by Somers. We answered that the making or promising of marriage first was of greater importance than the making or promising of a league to be ratified after ; the one not to be altered, the other on very slight causes to be changed or broken, and therein the marriage was dangerous to proceed. He said that the Queen promising to marry, a league offensive and defensive might be made, fully resolved upon and finished first, with caution in writing that, the marriage not 'succeeding,' the league to be void and as not made. And then so soon as the words of the marriage shall be reciprocally pronounced by her Majesty and Monsieur, the league is to be delivered by deputies thereunto appointed, or else to be first made and ratified with such a caution as aforesaid. He assured us he thought that the king would not hearken to any other treaty, until her Majesty would declare herself to him either to marry or not to marry, and that if she will resolve and say she will marry, he will do anything she will require. But if she resolves not to marry, and so answers the king, yet will he esteem of her as of his good sister and friend, and will continue good amity with her, and in that case will also enter a league with her such as has been made beforetime. But as for other league, the king will 'be advised,' and will take that course where his brother may happen to marry ; 'for' said he 'the king and Queen Mother will seek to marry Monsieur as soon as they may, this marriage failing, as they think assuredly it will not, considering what has passed.' Thus much he was content to utter to us, of very good will to do your Majesty's service, as things with which he had been made acquainted ; beseeching that this may be kept private, as not coming from him, which nevertheless we have thought meet to deliver to your Majesty, finding by the late commissioners and other means that the king earnestly presses a resolution. [In margin.] Letter to go with that.—Our dutiful desire to please your Majesty, and to advertise 'the same' privately of things important in the great matter now in hand, presuming also that you can be content to be troubled with the reading of some things to be kept to yourself or uttered as you shall advise, has emboldened us to direct to you a conference we have had with a personage of credit here who shows good will to serve you by 'opening' beforehand that which hereafter may be the resolution here in this negotiation now in hand. He must not be named, for such is his desire, but . . . of this, or Somers will tell your Majesty. Draft, or rough copy, partly in hand of (?) Somers, partly in another. Endd. : To Mr Secretary Walsingham, per Crow Woodward. 3½ pp. [France. V. 103.]
July 3. 246. COBHAM to [WALSINGHAM].
Yesterday after our audience of their Majesties I found the ambassador of Scotland ready in the outer chamber to have access likewise to them. I was informed since that he showed them that he had commission from the young Scottish king, and from the Queen his mistress to inform them that since the alliance is likely to proceed between Monsieur and his Majesty, his Queen and the young king desired to know if it was their pleasure to continue the ancient league and amity between the French and Scottish kings ; for otherwise they would enter into the friendship which is offered them, with good conditions. To this I understand the king answered he would maintain the wonted amity, but otherwise was loath to do anything that might impeach the marriage which his brother so greatly desired. The ambassador very much solicited the king's councillors to favour the Scottish king, putting them in hope he will become a 'Catholic Roman.' It is advertised that the Duke of Savoy is levying 3,000 or 4,000 Swiss, having put new garrisons in his towns. It is likewise certified the King of Spain levies 8,000 or 10,000 Swiss. The Pope continues to put a dissension between the Catholic cantons and those of the Religion about choosing the Bishop of Lausanne. It is written from Genoa that 1,100,000 crowns have come thither out of Spain, part of which is by letters of exchange made over to Lyons and part to Paris, whence most part is carried in crowns to Flanders. For the matters of Dauphiné, since the king will not favour them with the two towns by them requested, rather than enter into war, they will accommodate themselves to the king's will. M. de Clervant has been 'tempted by the king to be won' with princely promises, but it has not prevailed. The Prince Dauphin has earnestly entreated the king he might command in his government, 'without the Duke of Mayne should' govern the new-appointed army in the same province ; but it is thought the king will not draw the duke back thence if there are wars there. M. Strozzi the other day sent Captain Gourgoys of Bordeaux to the Queen Mother, to have her 'good liking' that the Captain might make a voyage with 500 men to the Isles of 'Assurez' to impeach the landing of the Spaniards there. However she did not encourage him, wishing him first to know the king's pleasure.—Paris, 3 July 1581. Add. and Endt. gone. 1½ pp. [Ibid. V. 104.]
July 3. 247. SOMERS to BURGHLEY.
By my lord ambassador's letter to Mr Secretary upon our last negotiations here, you will see that we expect answer from the king to the things propounded to him by me. Before my audience they thought that I had brought a full answer with authority to conclude ; but finding it otherwise—and yet some believe that I have not yet unfolded all my papers—some have 'uttered' that they are further off now than when they returned. The ambassador finds that they will earnestly press a final resolution, for their affairs depend much upon an end of this matter. Nothing else will be hearkened to for her Majesty, as my lord is informed, until they know her yea or no. If yea, then she shall have what she will desire, even to break with Spain or otherwise as shall please her. And a league to be first made, offensive and defensive, as is secretly 'informed,' with a caution, as in the contract, that 'not happening the marriage' the league to be void. If no, yet amity and league as formerly has been made ; which has no great sinews, for the king (say they) must respect those with whom his brother may match failing this, as they will seek to match him as soon as conveniently may be. You may happen to hear more hereof from her Majesty, to whom 'a private conference is enlarged hereof.' And yet as a matter to be thought on by you, by whom it must pass, I thought meet to let you know thus much, that this great matter may be digested and the sooner made ready at home, to be answered, if the king will indeed stand upon these points, yea or no ; for it is very likely it will be pressed. Upon this my message ('they looking for other') those here that know of it were appalled ; so that our collation was not so good as our dinner. Very great means are used here to stay Monsieur's proceedings for the Low Countries. The Queen Mother's earnest speeches and reasons (grounded, as reason wills, upon natural affection) show that she is no friend to that journey ; and so far as I can perceive, the matter is yet as a body without a soul, and unless the king or Queen Mother or some other breathe into it by day or by night, it will soon turn into dust. I beseech you, 'stand still my good lord' towards her Majesty, as you have always done in 'succouring' the wants which may be found in my doings here, wherein I will with good help have that care which my simple skill will yield me. I will not forget to tell you that some of the commissioners have asked me if I have authority to propound her Majesty's demands and so to conclude ; according to her promise to send one to that end. I have been fain to answer, that being satisfied in certain points which I have propounded to the king, she will satisfy him within the time limited ; which does not satisfy them. I beseech you, keep this yet among your secret papers, or otherwise bestow it.—Paris, 3 July 1581. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 105.]
Whereas at the beginning of last April I was before your honour, by means of the ambassador of Portugal, namely Ruy Lopez, doctor of physic, and one Edward Prynne, 'Portingale,' to show you of the state of the country of the Isles of 'Surres,' and thereupon next morning I received a letter from your servant to be delivered to the Chamber and Justices of the Isle of Tercera in the city of 'Angos' ; which letter was delivered and well received by both the Justices and the Commons on the last of May ; you shall receive the answer to it by this bearer, enclosed in letters directed to Dr Lopez, which being enclosed with others to her Majesty, I thought it my duty to send first to you, since the whole depends on the succour they expect at her hands. I myself departed thence on June 14 ; at which time the whole island was standing at defence against the King of Spain. A ship of his called the Gallion, of 400 tons burden, arrived there on May 25 with pardons from the king to them in case they would submit and yield the island to him. This the people 'put off' and rejected, saying they received no island from the King of Spain, and none would they deliver him, but would keep it to the use of their king Don Anthony. So the Gallion departed for St. Michael's, and by some flattering words, as the report goes, has got those isles for the use of the King of Spain. Tercera wants no provision of victual or riches, but of skilful men of war. They will die rather than yield the island, unless to her Majesty or the King of France. There was at my departure a French ship of the river of 'Naunce' with an ambassador of France, as he himself reported, who was well received, but not nigh so well liked as if never so little aid should come from England.—Lyme, 3 June 1581. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Portugal I. 63.]
I arrived at Flushing on the 3rd inst., where I understood that the Malcontents had by practice got Breda, and used very great cruelty towards the inhabitants and others in the town, a place of great strength and of great importance, for it hinders the traffic of our merchants and all others into the east countries, besides that it gives the enemy free scope to range to the walls of Antwerp. The town was got by corruption practised by a prisoner who was kept in the castle, through which place the enemy entered by a 'false port.' By this you see 'that they overslip no time which be at liberty,' seeing that prisoners work such profitable practices for them. It is thought by some that Don Antonio is not in England, but that a kinsman of Count Vimioso is there arrived who takes upon him the name of Don Antonio. I have seen 'two for one' given, and thousands to be laid if any will take it. If this be true the abuse of it is very great, and dangerous so deeply to dissemble.— Flushing, 4 July 1581. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 89.]
July 5. 250. [COBHAM] to [WALSINGHAM].
I received your letter last night by Adams, with the enclosed commands, which shall be obeyed as occasion may serve. This 'bringer,' Mr Prim, is returning to England, being sent for by Don Antonio, as he informs me. They have given him to understand that Count Vimioso has in custody jewels to the value of 200 crowns, but he has not had the sight of them. The consul 'Perador' brought the said Count lately very favourable letters from this king, but there appear no dealings nor means to undertake any enterprise for Portugal. The Queen Mother and commissioners are still with Monsieur at Mantes ; their return is looked for to-morrow. The king is at Saint Maur. Mr Somers and I 'think it long,' because our desire is great that her Majesty were somewhat satisfied concerning our last negotiation. Advertisements are this day come from Flanders that the towns of Breda and Ypres 'should' have been taken by the Malcontents. I received the letters you sent by Mr Bourham, but as I was from my house at his arrival, he had not the 'commodity' to speak with me. Mr Prim is in haste to be gone, the day being spent, and therefore I could not further enlarge my letter. I returned Crowe Woodward two days since with a packet, to content you the better therein.—Paris, 5 July 1581. Signature cut off. Add. and Endt. gone. 1 p. [France V. 106.]
I know that you have too important business to be impeded and delayed by a little fellow (petit compaignon) ; but your kindness towards me emboldens me to write this word to you, in the first place to thank God for having made you so stout and so constant for the good of the Church, of the realm, and of her Majesty, to whom you have spoken frankly of what may hurt her. Without teaching you your duty, that is how you ought to act, and is the way to make your name eternal both on earth and in heaven. You know it well, and the Lord confirm you in it. For my part, I am French by nation, but truth should be our friend. Citizens of heaven have their country everywhere, and God's glory should be dear to them above all. I am sure that He whom you serve will recognise it. Since you have been good enough to recommend me to the governor of this island, it is proper for me to let you know that I am obliged to withdraw, the people having been so much irritated by the letter which you got for me from their Honours, that most of them refuse me my entertainment. For this reason I shall go back to France, to serve there. Hereupon I take leave of you, and meanwhile beg you to recommend to the governor my wife and children, whom I am leaving here for some time.—5 July 1581. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. V. 107.]