349. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 24th of last month, having since received the
M. de Neveu, secretary to Monsieur, came this week in post from
him to the Prince at Ghent and is returned in like haste. It is
said that M. de Sainte-Aldegonde will follow him in three or four
days from the Prince and States to Monsieur ; for it seems this
side has some misliking of the delays of the French, which they
say is not Monsieur's fault.
Monsieur's troops lie scattering between Boulogne and Ardres,
being but 800 horse and 3,000 foot. But it is said the Prince
Dauphin and M. de Clervant with others are marching with some
good troops of horse and foot for Monsieur's aid ; but it is feared
these are but speeches given out to comfort the commons, because
they are in some doubt of Monsieur's coming. For now it is said
it will be this month or more before he will be in the country, and
then he will come from Calais to Dunkirk by ship. These speeches
greatly mislike all men here, for they fear it is all but delays to
win time for the enemy till all their forces are come together.
The Malcontents have received out of Luxemburg 1,500 foot, all
pikemen, well in order. Besides these, Duke Eric is past the Rhine
with 3,000 horse also for the aid of the Malcontents, so that it
seems when all these forces are come together they will be very
The Prince of Parma is come to Saint-Omer. He has brought
all his forces into those parts and has placed them within two small
miles of the Flanders camp.
The Flanders camp seeing the enemy approach so near them,
who is much stronger than they, have removed under Dunkirk,
where it seems they lie not without some fear of the enemy.
It seems the enemy has some great enterprise in hand, which it
is feared they will exploit very shortly ; for they have made great
provision at Corttrick, Lille, and other places, of scaling-ladders,
sacks of wool and 'straye,' with many other engines for the assaulting
of some town.
By advices from the enemy's camp it seems the Prince of Parma
has better advice out of France than the States have ; for which
cause 'it is greatly feared of' some treason in the Flanders camp,
for the enemy vaunts greatly upon some suchlike matter.
It is said that the Prince of Orange with all the Council of
Flanders will be here in this town within these two days, and will
continue here till Monsieur's coming.
I surely see in the magistrates of this place, as also among other
wise men, a sudden misliking of their state ; and all by the delays
that are made of Monsieur's coming, which they say is done by
some that are about him, only for the enemy to win time, who is
now so full of great courage and jollity as can be, saying that
Flanders shall 'pay for the balls' ere it be long.—Bruges, 1 Oct.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 105.]
350. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Understanding your return in safety, for which God be praised,
though I have nothing worthy the writing, yet both for the direction
of the enclosed, and to offer my service, I would not omit to trouble
you with a few 'rewde' lines.
How the cause with the States for her Majesty's satisfaction has
succeeded and stands since Mr Governor's departure hence, I have
both by the last and by this post advertised him, and therefore
refer me wholly thereto.
I have received this morning the bond of Scheurmans, copy
whereof I sent Mr Governor in my former, and await your pleasure
how and when I shall send it over.
The money of Flanders is daily expected, and that of Holland
shall be again written or sent for. All other assurances required
by her Majesty will be here dealt in and determined at the
meeting of the States, which is appointed to be in this town, and to
begin the 6th of October.
The Prince departs tomorrow for Bruges, and thence for Dunkirk,
it is said, to meet Monsieur and bring him into this country.
The Princess will be here within three or four days, being very
near her time to be brought 'a bed.'
The Archduke Matthias has made himself in such readiness that
it is said he will depart some day this week, this town having
already taken order for the payment of his debts.
The enemy has of late made some attempts on Endhoven, but
did not prevail. In Friesland Mr Norris has again put the enemy
'to some foil,' but the particulars are not certainly heard.
M. Languet on Saturday morning, after eight days' sickness of a
burning fever, departed this world very quietly and godly, in quiet
memory and speech to the last breath.—Antwerp, 2 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 106.]
351. COBHAM to [?] BURGHLEY.
In your last letter you delivered me your judgement concerning
the breach of the treaty, which I conceive to have depended on the
considerations specified by your lordship. But now that it seems
they have discovered here that there is no further hope of marriage,
it is likely they will seek some other corners to bestow their devices ;
as that they will procure Monsieur's marriage elsewhere, which will
be rather in France than otherwise, for so the king will always
have him in his power, being but meanly bestowed. This I fear
will the rather happen because his Highness has no means to maintain
his estate, and is not otherwise 'inabiled,' and 'there wanteth
not daily solicitations from this Court which may entice his mind.'
So that not being assisted either by counsel or aid, he must yield to
the weakness of his estate. I write this to you that you may
'measure this much' so far as it may concern the estate of her
In my former letter I told you how there is come to this Court a
Turkish ambassador ; whereon I would remind you 'to be informed'
whether any service may be done with him, or 'accomplements'
in respect of the favour the great Turk has shown to the English
merchants.—Paris, 3 Oct. 1581.
Add. and endt. gone. 1 p. [France VI. 41.]
352. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have just received your letters, sent me by M. de Reux [? Réau]
agent to his Highness, by which I perceive your return was as
welcome as it was desired by many who had need of your presence.
It is here conceived that Monsieur will shortly withdraw, either
to Mantes or Alençon, consequently whereon he must be constrained
to seek by his repair hither to win the king's and his mother's good
grace, which will serve him to small purpose, other than that it may
entangle him with some small base marriage and so frame his mind
to be bent against those of the Religion. And whereas some are
armed with the opinion that there is intelligence between the
brothers, surely how [sic] this king has no such hearty affection
that way, which has many ways appeared, and will become more
evident when his Highness returns. But how this may be remedied
I think is better known to you, who have means to persuade or
compass the relief thereof.
The king sent M. Gondi to me, to command me to see his mask
and dance on Sunday night, whither I went, meeting the ambassadors
of Savoy and Ferrara in the court. We were brought on the
stairs to be let into the place, but we stayed there from 5 till 8 in a
very 'homely' place, without light. At last, with the press, in
homely manner, we were brought in this rude sort, and thrust
without respect into the great chamber, where we sat fasting till
12 at night. The other ambassadors have complained thereof. I
think they should in this Court enter into consideration of the
gracious manner of proceeding which the Queen uses to the French.
But I cannot tell how it comes to pass that her princely example
does not move their Majesties to take better order.
The Palatine of the Rhine, George Hans, after I desired that he
would let me see the Queen's letter which he sent me word he had
received to move him to repair thither, presently, as I hear, resolved
to stay his way to England. Notwithstanding, I have sent him a
letter, the copy of which I enclose, sending back her Majesty's letter
to him, since he is not present, and that I am contented he shall
rather blame me for his stay than otherwise.
Mr Archibald Douglas was with me, and showed me that Lord
Hamilton had informed the Bishop of Glasgow of the contentment
you received from the conference that passed between you and him.
The same day in the evening Coningham was with me, to tell me
how Archibald Douglas, having been informed by you as before, had
communicated this to the Bishop of Glasgow. I cannot gather yet
which of them speaks the truth ; but one speaks after the Scottish
I am appointed to day to meet the Lord of Arbroth at his
request in the place where you saw him first.
Though the king makes great expenses, he suffers no part of his
treasure to be disbursed, so that he continues the amassing of his
revenue and has in his coffers certainly great sums. He pays the
Duke of Maine's army and all other charges with the assignations
on the last edicts. All other affairs pass in that sort that is known
They have conceived an opinion in the Court that the credit of
Villequier and Chiverny is decaying ; but I will not be one of the
first to believe it.
I fear the King of Navarre will receive some evil measure, if he
be not well advised.
It is understood that M. Mauvissière desires to be 'revoked,'
wherein he now employs his friends.—Paris, 3 Oct. 1581.
P.S.—I am advertised the Viscount of Turenne is very sick.
I beseech you that I may know her Majesty's pleasure whether I
shall visit the Turkish ambassador when he comes, because of the
favour shown to English merchants by his master.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France VI. 42.]
Enclosed in the above :—
353. COBHAM to the DUKE OF LÜTZELSTEIN.
Since hearing from the gentleman whom you sent to me that you
were moved to make a journey to England, I have been informed
from thence that the Queen thinks you had better not take that
trouble just now, since it would be a great hindrance to the business
you have in hand, and on which you have been addressed. It
would be the means of arousing some suspicions which might
greatly prejudice my Sovereign and her friends ; but she is always
ready to show you favour, and desirous of your friendship.—Paris,
2 Oct. 1581.
Add. to his Highness George Hans, Palatine, Duke of Bavaria
and Lord of Petite-Pierre. Copy. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. VI.
354. DUKE CASIMIR to WALSINGHAM.
I was glad to hear from M. de Clervant that which you asked him
to tell me, and to assure you that it will not be my fault if all does
not go well for the common cause. But you know that my resources
are of themselves insufficient for such great effects, and have been
still further reduced by my expedition to the Low Countries. It is
for great people, and notably for the Queen of England, as those
whom it touches most nearly, and who have most to lose, to put
their hand once for all seriously to the task ; as you will hear more
fully from M. de Clervaut.—Fridelsheim, 3 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Germany II. 25.]
355. The QUEEN to the STATES.
In your letter of the 1st inst. in answer to ours of Sep. 7, we do
not see the satisfaction we expected of the moneys due from you to
us, of which the term for payment has expired, nor that you have
taken order for the payment on the debt of £27,000 sterling already
due for a term past in June, or for another which will be due next
December, to Horatio Palavicino and Baptista Spinola, according to
your obligations passed to them for our indemnity. Whereon we must
remind you that you have not shown the consideration due to the
infinite benefits which at your solicitation we have shown in coming
to the aid of your necessities, besides the trouble we have taken for
your good and that of those countries. Wherefore you must make
up your minds by some other means than sending messengers and
letters to satisfy us and those merchants who have been addressing
us very importunately, as well for their principal as for the interest
ever since the month of June, besides threatening to lay hands on
our good citizens of London and their goods, for the execution of
To which, as to the rest of the foregoing, if you do not take heed,
and provide as is fitting, besides the ingratitude, and forgetfulness
of our favour of which you have availed yourselves, with which you
will be taxed, we shall be constrained to take steps by some like
means, from which no good can result to you. To obviate which
you will take counsel betimes, as you would desire the continuation
of the favour of which hitherto we have not been sparing to you and
Draft. Endd. Date (year only) in Burghley's hand. Fr. 1 p.
[Holl. and Fl. XIV. 107.]
356. VILLIERS to HODDESDON.
The letter which you were good enough to write me on your
return to England reached me a little late, and in the worst of my
illness, so that I have been unable to answer it sooner, as I should
have desired. Please hold me excused. As to what you write
touching his Excellency's sending someone for the affair of Don
Antonio, he would have done it ; for he has had such an answer
from his Highness as he hoped and asked for. But at the same
time, news came from divers quarters that Strozzi was at Dieppe
waiting for the said king, who had left London, and that his Highness
was expecting him at Pont Dormi on the Somme, which
hindered him from making up his mind. However, four days ago
we heard that he was ready to grant it, and that a gentleman from
him had passed to Flushing and thence to Antwerp. This has
caused the deliberation to be suspended till further news. I hope
to start tomorrow for Bruges, where I shall find his Excellency
and see what conclusion will be come to.
As to writing for the said king, I have up to now had my head
so little at my command that I have not dared to undertake it, but
I hope to do it with God's help. I am in trouble about two things,
on which I pray you to give me your advice. The first, if you
think it best that it should be done in the form of letters missive,
or of a discourse, or apology, or accusation against the King of
Spain. The second, in order to present it to Don Antonio, to
whom shall I address it, and if one ought to send it before printing
it, or print it first? If you will kindly answer me on both heads,
you will oblige me.—Antwerp, 6 Oct. 1581.
P.S.—Please send word also if it would be well to translate it
when done into Spanish or Portuguese, and if the said king has had
time to read the Prince's apology.
Add. to Monsieur Hasdon. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XIV. 108.]
357. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
It has seemed good to Mr Archibald Douglas to return to those
parts, upon such considerations as he will declare to you. He is the
rather moved to depart hence because they stay proceedings until a
commission shall come from the young king to George Douglas. I
think he can inform you likewise of some Imps which are bent a
contrary way from her Majesty's devotion.
Since I mean shortly to dispatch a direct courier, with these lines
I recommend to your devotion [sic] only this gentleman, whom I
think her Majesty may find very able and apt to do her service.
For the time of his abode he has often visited me, and informed me
of their proceedings. I wish her Majesty had some such able and
well-disposed subject abroad in 'lue' of the worser sort.—Paris,
6 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. 'Dougl. recomm. Also a list in Walsingham's
hand of eleven Scottish lords. ¾ p. [France VI. 43.]
358. "A Form of Quittance for the 100,000 crowns lent to the
Duke of Anjou."
Acknowledgement of a promise to repay the sum in question—
50,000 gold crowns of the sum sent by the hand of Lord H. Seymour,
and the like sum by that of Jean du Bex. The crown reckoned at
6 shillings English, or 60 sous French.
Draft in Burghley's hand, and endd. by him as above. Latin.
1¼ pp. [France VI. 44.]
359. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the first inst. since when these speeches are current
Two days ago the Prince of Orange and the Princess his wife,
the Count of 'Swatsenbrugh,' and the Council of State, came to
this town, and it seems their abode will be here long, for it is said
the Princess will lie in childbed here.
Yesterday the Four Members of Flanders were with the Prince,
who gave them sharp words and told them it is their fault, through
their slack sending of men and money to the camp, that Monsieur
and his forces are not yet come. But they cleared themselves of
that matter, for they had sent both men and money in good order ;
and after long debating of many matters between them, the Prince's
conclusion was that they should provide and make ready all things
necessary for the wars against the next spring. So it seems
Monsieur's coming into these parts stands more doubtful, and the
wars shall lie still all this winter till the spring ; which greatly
mislikes the States and commons here.
Also M. de Sainte-Aldegonde is here with the Prince ; who it is
said will be sent to France to Monsieur with 100,000 guilders in
ready money as a present from the Prince and States ; which many
mislike of, because it is so small a sum.
The Prince of Epinoy with the Flanders camp still lies under
Dunkirk and there they lie and do nothing.
This week the Prince of Parma with all his force suddenly and
in great haste retired his camp which he had beside Dunkirk, and
marched towards Armentierès and Lille. As he passed he gave out
in every place they were marching towards Cambrésis. They have
with them 12 pieces of great artillery, and yesterday there came
hither to the Prince from Ghent sundry posts, with news that the
Prince of Parma with all his camp lay about Tournay, so that it is
thought he has besieged it ; and there are no horsemen in it,
and very few soldiers, but good store of stout burghers to the
number of 900. So it is hoped the Prince of Parma will do no
good at it.
Also those of Cambray and Cambrésis make great wars against
the Malcontents of Bouchain, Douay, and all those parts ; in such
sort that they dare 'scant' look out of their gates. It is said that
M. de 'Farfacke' is the greatest doer hereof.
For Monsieur and his forces, there has been this week no speech
of them nor of their coming nor where they are, which is no small
grief to the commons, who long greatly for his presence ; and now
that the enemy is gone, he may come without any let.—Bruges,
8 Oct. 1581.
P.S.—Even now I received your letter of Sep. 30, and thank you
for it. Your letter to the Prince of Orange I delivered into his own
hands, and herewith send you his packet in answer.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 109.]
360. WALSINGHAM to DU BEX.
The gentleman in charge of her Majesty's ship has informed me
today that he hopes to be tomorrow evening at the Downs near
Dover. You will therefore do well to send Davis to that place, to
let him know the time of your embarkation.
I send you a draft of the obligation which his Highness is to give
her Majesty for the 100,000 crowns, and the indented bill containing
the various species of coin and the weight of the bullion, signed
by me. You will kindly advertise me of the time of your embarkation
by letter. If you will give it to the lieutenant of the castle he
will not fail to send it promptly to me.—Richmond, 8 Oct. 1581.
Holograph. Add. Ital. 1 p. [France IV. 45.]
361. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last to you, M. 'Bellyveu' [? Bellièvre] has been
dispatched into Guyenne ; and from thence he is to pass into
Spain, as it was conceived from some words 'which were overheard
that he spake' in his last conference with the Queen Mother.
Meantime Pinart has been sent to Monsieur, where he still
remains. Monsieur will, as I hear, be given by him to understand
that his Majesty intends to procure rich marriages for some of the
House of Bourbon. He will give to the Marquis of Conti, the Prince
of Condé's brother, the daughter and heir of Villequier, who was
once promised to M. d'O, lately one of the minions, and now disgraced,
the king having bestowed his office of Master of the
Garderobe upon the Duke of Joyeuse's brother, a fair comely young
The king blames M. d'O for his excessive play, imputing this
fault as the only occasion of his displeasure, because through
following play he neglected his affairs and service, following therein
his own humour.
M. Villequier has shown constant affection to M. d'O, beseeching
the king that his daughter may have no other husband ; for he could
not depart from his promise to him, having known him to be
heretofore so agreeable to his Majesty. Howbeit the king has
answered that he would take on him M. Villequier's promise, and
that his daughter 'was [? of] his meaning to dispose of her.'
Notwithstanding, he gives M. d'O recompense in money for
leaving his offices, so that he is now retired to his house in Paris,
enjoying 60,000 crowns a year in fee simple, rent, bishoprics and
abbeys, of which I send you particulars.
M. d'O took his leave in the king's cabinet on Thursday morning,
the 5th inst., whence he went to the Queen Mother, desiring the
continuance of her good favour in his behalf, and beseeching her to
move the king to be gracious to him, which she promised to do ; so
that thereon she repaired incontinently to the king's cabinet. The
door being open, she entered, finding the king 'set' on a low stool,
with his young wife on his knee, and Lavalette beside them. The
king at the unlooked-for entry of his mother blamed the groom of
his chamber for leaving the door open ; whereon the Queen Mother
would have returned, but the king stayed her. So she took occasion
to move her son on behalf of d'O, but the king remained constant
in his resolution, alleging his unreasonable play, and likewise how
he procured dissension between Joyeuse and Lavalette, in such sort
that they were like to have fought. The young queen showed at
the same time some 'overthwart' countenance to the Queen Mother,
in such manner that no words have since passed between the two
The king desiring to give better satisfaction to the Duke of
Lorraine and to please the queen his mother, has resolved to send
the Marshal de Retz into Piedmont, to treat with the Duke of
Savoy for the marriage with the Princess of Lorraine. Howbeit
the marshal is not well pleased, and cannot tell how to take the
answer that the king made to the countess his wife when the other
day she brought him a placet to be signed for the payment of 65,000
crowns which the marshal had laid out on his journey last year,
when he dealt in the appeasing of the troubles in the Marquisate of
Saluces. The king received the placet from the marshal's wife, and
having read it, told her it was good reason it should be answered ;
and therewith entered into his cabinet, writing at once with his own
hand upon the placet that he accorded that the sum demanded
should be paid out of the coffers of M. de Perron, by which name
the marshal was called when he was in meanest estate. Howbeit,
it is understood the king will content him in some sort.
The king has requested the Duke of Lorraine to ratify and 'set
to' his hand to the contract of M. de Joyeuse and that of Lavalette
with the younger sister of the Duke of Mercœur ; but the duke has
hitherto forborne to do so much, excusing himself 'how' he has
not been accustomed to sign the like contracts save for the marriage
of his own children.
There is some 'meaning' shown by the king that he desires the
Duke of Joyeuse should have the government of Languedoc which
Marshal Montmorency now enjoys, in exchange for which the
marshal should have the government of Paris and the Isle of
France as his late brother had. Of this the marshal has been
advertised, misliking the match, and therefore has for his better
safety placed a new captain in Saint-Esprit and the strong towns
M. de Guise was 'stricken with' the horse of the Duke of Joyeuse
on his sore leg ; wherewith he has been driven to be lanced, but he
will be able presently to go abroad again, as his surgeons promise.
There came in the Duke of Lorraine's company, Bassompierre,
one of the king's Almaine colonels, who has won great sums at
The king has given the Duke of Joyeuse an 'assignation' of
400,000 crowns, to be levied on the receipts of Caen in Normandy.
It is written from Monsieur's Court that du Ponts [sic], M.
Marchaumont's brother, returned lately from England with a discontented
It is advertised from Dieppe that Don Antonio has arrived
there and has had conference with Monsieur.
The Pope, as I am told, has given severe orders that all
Englishmen who shall come to Rome on 'bargains of return' are
to be apprehended, imprisoned, and executed as felons. Some are
upon this lately imprisoned, and others who last passed this way
will be in great danger. The execution of this tyrannical order was
offered to the English College there, but they refusing it the
Inquisition has taken the matter in hand.
Marshal Cossé was written for by the king ; whereon he sent his
secretary the other day, with a wilful excuse to his Majesty, but the
king has sent the secretary back with express command and fair
promises. So it is thought the marshal will repair hither and be
sent to Monsieur ; the rather because Monsieur seeks to draw
Marshal Biron to him, which is not to the king's liking.
For the matters of Scotland, I have been advertised that the
Scottish queen has 'yielded' to resign her estate to her son, if the
young king will capitulate to follow her and her friends' counsel for
his marriage, and he together with his wife and her 'alliance' will
employ themselves on their part for her deliverance and in such
causes as may concern her. Further, the king shall be bound to
restore her and her friends and their children who have suffered
loss of goods and life for her sake, to their estate, and moreover
will consent that certain Catholic persons may repair into Scotland,
to dispute with the ministers for the better informing of the king in
the Roman religion. Likewise that 'Catholic Romans' in Scotland
may live without vexation. Lastly they have here agreed that George
Douglas shall remain in Paris till he receives a commission from the
Scottish king to conclude with the queen's friends and ministers in
this Court concerning the points aforesaid and such like.
There is come hither an Armenian 'named himself' to be a
bishop of that country, attended only by two mean servants of the
country. Apparently there is nothing meant but a pretence to
wander, to see the countries and get relief.
Yesterday Signor Cavalliero Cavalcanti resorted to me, signifying
that he is returned well satisfied and ready to do any service agreeable
to her Majesty.
I enclose a note of the advertisements from sundry places, and a
brief note of the king's manner of running at the ring in armour ;
with papers of the figures of the 'padgens' in 'collers,' which have
been shown.—Paris, 9 Oct. 1581.
Add. and most of endt. cut off. 6 pp. [France VI. 46.]
362. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have been informed that Pinart after he has passed some conference
with Monsieur might go to England. The truth of this will
quickly appear to you there. If he makes the journey I hope it will
be to some better purpose than the last he 'passed.'
I have also heard that the king seeks to win the Prince of Condé
to him, meaning to offer him the great 'La Muy's' daughter and
only heir, whom Lavalette should have had.
It is muttered among those of the Religion that a levy of
10,000 reiters is being made on their behalf ; but I pray God they
may never have cause to employ them in France, for hitherto they
have decayed with those bargains ; but what God will, so must it
be. On the other side they speak of marrying the Duke of Condé
to one of the German princes' daughters, which methinks can
'prevail' him but little.
It is likely that Marshal Montmorency will for his own sake join
willingly with those of the Religion.
Mr. Archibald Douglas departed hence two days ago, for he longs
to confer with the Earl of 'Anguysshe.' I think him able to handle
any cause he has been acquainted with.
Last Thursday I was invited by the king to be present at his
running at the ring, but being sick I requested M. Gondi that Lord
'Pyerce' might be placed, and used with courtesy. When he came
to the place appointed for the ambassadors, the Lord Copley was
there, and saluted Lord Percy, offering to enter into further speech.
But after Lord Percy had answered Mr Copley's first salutations,
he requested him to 'pass' no further, for he could not like to
enter into acquaintance with one who he understood was in these
parts without the Queen's leave and otherwise in her disfavour ;
wherewith their speech ceased. But methinks I should have found
it strange to be placed with one known to be in disgrace with my
Sovereign, in that public place.
Mr Sidney has come hitherto from Germany. He is a proper
gentleman, and methinks like his elder brother.
I suppose you will remember the conference you passed with M.
Strozzi. He is still with Don Antonio, on the way hither, as I
hear.—Paris, 10 Oct. 1581.
Add. and endt. gone. 2 pp. [Ibid. IV. 47.]
363. DU PLESSIS MORNAY to WALSINGHAM.
I am back from Gascony these four or five days. I left the King
of Navarre there in a very good will to do right, and full of zeal
and affection towards the service of God and the good of the
Churches. I can assure you that I know no prince who proceeds
with more sincerity, even though the hot blood (les bouillons) of
youth snatches him away at times, more than I could wish, to his
pleasures. Surely he deserves to be well loved and well served by
his own people, and a favourable reputation among his neighbours.
You know what he commanded me lately to write to you. I am
expecting an answer in accordance with our letter ; I beg that it
may be worthy of both her Majesty and him, that is agreeable to
your affection. He desires nothing so much as peace, and has of
late shown it to good purpose ; for while I was there M. de Biron
was about to take up arms, hoping to draw him to a skirmish,
because he knows that in peace his own authority diminishes. The
king stood on his guard, warned his places to keep a look-out, and
for the rest made no movement, contenting himself with complaining
and demanding justice of their Majesties. Meanwhile he looks
carefully after his own preservation and that of the Churches, that
they may not be crushed by the malice of those who would try to do
them harm, as has often happened without the knowledge and
against the intention of the king.
Monsieur is still at Saint-Valéry, doubtful of his journey.
Everything possible has been done to break it off, though on the
other hand the Low Countries strongly urge (convient) him to cross.
I shall see him, God helping, one of these days, and give the best
advice I can. For the rest, I am writing to M. d'Anquerque of our
private affair.—Paris, 11 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [France VI. 48.]
364. BERNARDINO DE MENDOZA to the QUEEN.
I have been so much grieved to hear that your Majesty said I
need not think of frightening and threatening you, after I have
been watchful only to serve you, and preserve the long peace
between these two Crowns, that in order that you may see clearly
the proof of this, and my verity, I have ventured to write to you at
once, and send you this letter of the king my master, which I did not
like to give you. It will serve as clear witness, when you only look
at it, of the intention and desire of Don Bernardino de Mendoza,
which is only to avoid a breach in a friendship of so many years. I
did not like to give it to you, for which I am certain that I shall
receive very grave blame. I shall be content to do so, for you to
have tangible proof how warily (coito) I go in the duties which the
king has bidden me perform, and that my only desire and wish is
to serve your Majesty, and do every good office, not forgetting my
duty to the service of my master.—London, 12 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. Span. 1½ pp. [Spain I. 74.]
365. WALSINGHAM to VILLIERS.
I received yours of the 8th, but as it only arrived just when the
post was starting to return, I could not answer it in detail so fully
as I could have wished ; wherefore please have me excused.
As to Bureau, whom you mention in your letter, it is true that
when I was in France he spoke to the ambassador and me in similar
terms to those contained therein, and the ambassador informed
the Duke, to whom by the advertisements I received I gave the
details [qy.—tiltre]. As for the other, I can give you no information
other than you may understand by my former letters, nor have I
received further news from him who gave me the first advices of it.
I will not fail to impart to you anything that may be for the honour
and service of his Excellency.
The regret and distress which has seized me on hearing of the
general loss which has befallen all honest men in Christendom in
consequence of the news of the death of M. [? Languet] has so
overwhelmed me when I thought of it that I could not express it to
you in a letter. I consider that the countries which have to bear
the loss of persons of such piety may feel it as a judgement of God
for their sins.—Richmond, 13 Oct. 1581.
Copy. Fr. 1 p. [Foreign Entry Book 162.]
366. FR. SIMÃO DE VARRO to the QUEEN.
Kings and princes are wont to be well-content when they are
well served by their vassals ; your Majesty may be so with the
services which Captain Henry Richards has done in this island in
aid of our lord the king to the satisfaction of all loyal persons ;
because he came for the salvation of this land in the greatest
necessity it ever had, and after that we defeated all the people that
Don Pedro de Valdes had in the country, even when Lope de
Figueiroa had come to his aid with 22 ships. God brought Captain
Henry to our company with a prosperous voyage, whose coming
animated and cheered the good, and confounded the bad, and broke
their wings. By his presence he did so much that we may say that
by his means the conservation of this island is in great part due to
the realm of England, that most ancient ally of Portugal, by whose
help it has twice been restored from the hard captivity of the
Castilians. All those good deeds cannot fail to be perpetuated by so
friendly a kingdom, in which our king is, and on which depends the
restoration of our kingdom, so unjustly tyrannised by enemies.
That you may with the better mind succour so justified a
necessity, you must know that the maintenance of this island by
our Lord God for its natural king with so great miracles is not
without a deep meaning (qy.—sem misterio), because the importance
of this land is so great, that I dare to say that without it the King
of Portugal could never be king of his realm ; and if the King of
Spain had it against him, he would not be securely king, even of
Castile. It is the key of all the navigation of Spain and those who
hold it have no necessity to go to the Indies, nor pass into the South
Sea ; so much so that if this summer he had had only four English
galleys in this island, we could have collected in it more than ten
millions of gold.
Hitherto God has preserved a cause of such importance with
repeated miracles ; what He will do in the future, He knows. What
I think is that unless our king provides in the government of this
island one who has the necessary parts for it, the affairs of his service
will decline. And in order that it may be understood what must be
the necessary provisions for these things, there may be taken for an
infallible rule the outline in the advices which Captain Henry sent
by Maurice Brum, in whose company was Father John of the
Holy Spirit, whom Don Francisco [Vimioso] sent from France to
these islands. And although they are taking some Portuguese of
this island, entire reliance must not be placed in Portuguese loyalty
and its fair words, inasmuch as I know some who go more to put
their hand into the side, like St. Thomas, and to defend the false
than to do careful service to their king ; as for strangers coming
for succour, it is clear that native loyal people are necessary.
Let a careful examination also be made of all the letters written
to the king, for neither is it well that he should receive them all.
And some think it is not contrary to the common weal to harbour
men who in time will boast of being against their king, thinking
that we are to be taken by Castile without trouble (a mãos lavadas),
and that then their better luck will come to stay (?).
And if in anything the advices of the Governor of this country are
contrary to what I have written concerning the falseness of certain
private persons let Captain Henry deem it the ignorant kindness of
a man who knows not what war is, and was not brought up in it.
Inasmuch as in all affairs of life there are apparent reasons for
both sides, Captain Henry hears that Father John of the Holy
Spirit sufficed for his living letter of credence, who for love of him
wished to go to that kingdom in the company of Maurice Brum,
to give certain information of all the affairs of these isles, and
inasmuch as none of us would accompany him. And further he
could not be without some doubt whether in staying with him he
was embarking and deserting the country at the best moment ; for
which reason I stayed in his company, and am keeping him in my
house with his brother and his companions at my own cost ; and
will keep him as long as he stays here, as if he was a subject here,
such is his love to our natural king, though a stranger.
If a letter of a poor friar to so excellent a lady as your Majesty
could be allowed to be longer, I would say yet more on this matter ;
but I refer in all points to the credit given by the letters of Captain
Henry and the words of Maurice Brum and Father John of the
Holy Spirit ; and of me you may rely that in all that touches the
service of the king I shall speak within the truth, since in that
country where he was, I was so loyal to him that when a brother
of mine arrived there, sent by Philip to be corregidor there, I
sought that they should hang him, as being more for the service of
my king ; and because there were not lacking men more merciful
for him, and less friendly to their king, they let him go to
St. Michael's, where today he is governing the country for Castile.
—Angra, 13 Oct. 1581.
Add. : To the most Christian Queen of England. Endd. Port.
2 pp. [Portugal I. 64.]
367. FR. SIMÃO DE VARRO to SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
As men are known afar by the eminence of their work, I think
you will not hold it any merit for me to know your name so far
away ; and in this Captain Henry Richards has aided me, who has
been pleased to honour me by accepting my poor lodging. From
him I learnt the great obligation under which all good and loyal
Portuguese are to you, for the love and goodwill with which you are
resolved to succour the cause of Portugal, of which this island alone
remains with the name of loyal, and preserves the fidelity which
has been lost in all Portugal.
For this obligation owed to you, I think I should not be doing
my duty if I did not tell you specially what has happened, and of
the arrival of Captain Henry in this country. You must know
that after we had routed all the people whom Don Pedro de Valdez
landed, came Don Lopo de Figueiroa with another fleet of 22 sail
to his aid, whereat some lost confidence. At such an urgent time,
Captain Henry came into port here, whom God, to preserve us in
our good purpose, delivered from the midst of 30 ships of the enemy,
and put him in a secure port ; after which all of us, seeing his
valorous endeavour, began to despise the enemy, and there was not
a person in the whole island who was not very sorry that he did
not again disembark (?).
Such is the state in which this country at present remains. Of
the things necessary to preserve it, I believe Captain Henry has
given a full account to the Council of that kingdom, because he saw
everything with his own eyes, and talked with men who could
inform him with perfect integrity. What remains is for you to tell
the king not to make provision for the government of this island
except upon the information and outline which Captain Henry has
sent ; and I say not even on bearers of it, nor on the letters
of the Governor himself ; for there is no gold without dross. So
much depends on it that if he strays from this bearing (este norte),
he will lose all that has hitherto been saved to him with so much
honour. The details of all this Maurice Brum has related, and
Father John of the Holy Spirit, who was in his company. And
that we are worthy of all the credit that can be given to us in the
matters of the king's service, Maurice Brum will say ; albeit we are
obliged by a conscience zealous for the honour of God and for the
king's service to reveal these deceits.
Captain Henry will write the other things of importance ; with
whose modest companionship the whole island is so content that
we hold him for no less than our countryman (natural).—Angra,
14 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. (by one of Walsingham's men). Port. 1¼ pp.
[Portugal I. 65.]
368. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Upon doubt conceived by the States of Holland lest arrest or stay
might be made in England on the goods or ships of their country
people, for satisfaction of the debt due by them to the Spanish
merchants, they wrote to me, if any were having commission or
being interested, that I should deal with them requesting forbearance
of such proceedings in consideration they were about to do all
endeavours for the providing of sufficient contentment. I have sent
a copy of their letter, translated into English, to Mr Governor with
'larger advice,' trusting he will impart it to you. Here I found
none that could do anything or had commission in these causes, and
have answered so much to the States, 'together of' my writing to
Mr Governor, to shew their case and offer to you. In my simple
opinion it could, for the reasons set down in my letter to him, do no
harm to forward their desire, so that it were not too much to the
prejudice of the interested, and limit a condition for satisfaction,
which would do good a pleasure one or the other, as also otherwise ;
the consideration whereof I leave to you.—Antwerp, 14 Oct. 1581.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 110.]