Elizabeth
October 1581, 1-15

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Arthur John Butler (editor)

Year published

1907

Pages

325-341

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: October 1581, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 15: 1581-1582 (1907), pp. 325-341. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73525 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

October 1581, 1-15

Oct. 1. 349. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 24th of last month, having since received the following. M. de Neveu, secretary to Monsieur, came this week in post from him to the Prince at Ghent and is returned in like haste. It is said that M. de Sainte-Aldegonde will follow him in three or four days from the Prince and States to Monsieur ; for it seems this side has some misliking of the delays of the French, which they say is not Monsieur's fault. Monsieur's troops lie scattering between Boulogne and Ardres, being but 800 horse and 3,000 foot. But it is said the Prince Dauphin and M. de Clervant with others are marching with some good troops of horse and foot for Monsieur's aid ; but it is feared these are but speeches given out to comfort the commons, because they are in some doubt of Monsieur's coming. For now it is said it will be this month or more before he will be in the country, and then he will come from Calais to Dunkirk by ship. These speeches greatly mislike all men here, for they fear it is all but delays to win time for the enemy till all their forces are come together. The Malcontents have received out of Luxemburg 1,500 foot, all pikemen, well in order. Besides these, Duke Eric is past the Rhine with 3,000 horse also for the aid of the Malcontents, so that it seems when all these forces are come together they will be very strong. The Prince of Parma is come to Saint-Omer. He has brought all his forces into those parts and has placed them within two small miles of the Flanders camp. The Flanders camp seeing the enemy approach so near them, who is much stronger than they, have removed under Dunkirk, where it seems they lie not without some fear of the enemy. It seems the enemy has some great enterprise in hand, which it is feared they will exploit very shortly ; for they have made great provision at Corttrick, Lille, and other places, of scaling-ladders, sacks of wool and 'straye,' with many other engines for the assaulting of some town. By advices from the enemy's camp it seems the Prince of Parma has better advice out of France than the States have ; for which cause 'it is greatly feared of' some treason in the Flanders camp, for the enemy vaunts greatly upon some suchlike matter. It is said that the Prince of Orange with all the Council of Flanders will be here in this town within these two days, and will continue here till Monsieur's coming. I surely see in the magistrates of this place, as also among other wise men, a sudden misliking of their state ; and all by the delays that are made of Monsieur's coming, which they say is done by some that are about him, only for the enemy to win time, who is now so full of great courage and jollity as can be, saying that Flanders shall 'pay for the balls' ere it be long.—Bruges, 1 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 105.]
Oct. 2. 350. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Understanding your return in safety, for which God be praised, though I have nothing worthy the writing, yet both for the direction of the enclosed, and to offer my service, I would not omit to trouble you with a few 'rewde' lines. How the cause with the States for her Majesty's satisfaction has succeeded and stands since Mr Governor's departure hence, I have both by the last and by this post advertised him, and therefore refer me wholly thereto. I have received this morning the bond of Scheurmans, copy whereof I sent Mr Governor in my former, and await your pleasure how and when I shall send it over. The money of Flanders is daily expected, and that of Holland shall be again written or sent for. All other assurances required by her Majesty will be here dealt in and determined at the meeting of the States, which is appointed to be in this town, and to begin the 6th of October. The Prince departs tomorrow for Bruges, and thence for Dunkirk, it is said, to meet Monsieur and bring him into this country. The Princess will be here within three or four days, being very near her time to be brought 'a bed.' The Archduke Matthias has made himself in such readiness that it is said he will depart some day this week, this town having already taken order for the payment of his debts. The enemy has of late made some attempts on Endhoven, but did not prevail. In Friesland Mr Norris has again put the enemy 'to some foil,' but the particulars are not certainly heard. M. Languet on Saturday morning, after eight days' sickness of a burning fever, departed this world very quietly and godly, in quiet memory and speech to the last breath.—Antwerp, 2 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 106.]
Oct. 3. 351. COBHAM to [?] BURGHLEY.
In your last letter you delivered me your judgement concerning the breach of the treaty, which I conceive to have depended on the considerations specified by your lordship. But now that it seems they have discovered here that there is no further hope of marriage, it is likely they will seek some other corners to bestow their devices ; as that they will procure Monsieur's marriage elsewhere, which will be rather in France than otherwise, for so the king will always have him in his power, being but meanly bestowed. This I fear will the rather happen because his Highness has no means to maintain his estate, and is not otherwise 'inabiled,' and 'there wanteth not daily solicitations from this Court which may entice his mind.' So that not being assisted either by counsel or aid, he must yield to the weakness of his estate. I write this to you that you may 'measure this much' so far as it may concern the estate of her Majesty. In my former letter I told you how there is come to this Court a Turkish ambassador ; whereon I would remind you 'to be informed' whether any service may be done with him, or 'accomplements' in respect of the favour the great Turk has shown to the English merchants.—Paris, 3 Oct. 1581. Add. and endt. gone. 1 p. [France VI. 41.]
Oct. 3. 352. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have just received your letters, sent me by M. de Reux [? Réau] agent to his Highness, by which I perceive your return was as welcome as it was desired by many who had need of your presence. It is here conceived that Monsieur will shortly withdraw, either to Mantes or Alençon, consequently whereon he must be constrained to seek by his repair hither to win the king's and his mother's good grace, which will serve him to small purpose, other than that it may entangle him with some small base marriage and so frame his mind to be bent against those of the Religion. And whereas some are armed with the opinion that there is intelligence between the brothers, surely how [sic] this king has no such hearty affection that way, which has many ways appeared, and will become more evident when his Highness returns. But how this may be remedied I think is better known to you, who have means to persuade or compass the relief thereof. The king sent M. Gondi to me, to command me to see his mask and dance on Sunday night, whither I went, meeting the ambassadors of Savoy and Ferrara in the court. We were brought on the stairs to be let into the place, but we stayed there from 5 till 8 in a very 'homely' place, without light. At last, with the press, in homely manner, we were brought in this rude sort, and thrust without respect into the great chamber, where we sat fasting till 12 at night. The other ambassadors have complained thereof. I think they should in this Court enter into consideration of the gracious manner of proceeding which the Queen uses to the French. But I cannot tell how it comes to pass that her princely example does not move their Majesties to take better order. The Palatine of the Rhine, George Hans, after I desired that he would let me see the Queen's letter which he sent me word he had received to move him to repair thither, presently, as I hear, resolved to stay his way to England. Notwithstanding, I have sent him a letter, the copy of which I enclose, sending back her Majesty's letter to him, since he is not present, and that I am contented he shall rather blame me for his stay than otherwise. Mr Archibald Douglas was with me, and showed me that Lord Hamilton had informed the Bishop of Glasgow of the contentment you received from the conference that passed between you and him. The same day in the evening Coningham was with me, to tell me how Archibald Douglas, having been informed by you as before, had communicated this to the Bishop of Glasgow. I cannot gather yet which of them speaks the truth ; but one speaks after the Scottish manner. I am appointed to day to meet the Lord of Arbroth at his request in the place where you saw him first. Though the king makes great expenses, he suffers no part of his treasure to be disbursed, so that he continues the amassing of his revenue and has in his coffers certainly great sums. He pays the Duke of Maine's army and all other charges with the assignations on the last edicts. All other affairs pass in that sort that is known to you. They have conceived an opinion in the Court that the credit of Villequier and Chiverny is decaying ; but I will not be one of the first to believe it. I fear the King of Navarre will receive some evil measure, if he be not well advised. It is understood that M. Mauvissière desires to be 'revoked,' wherein he now employs his friends.—Paris, 3 Oct. 1581. P.S.—I am advertised the Viscount of Turenne is very sick. I beseech you that I may know her Majesty's pleasure whether I shall visit the Turkish ambassador when he comes, because of the favour shown to English merchants by his master. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France VI. 42.]
Oct. 2. Enclosed in the above :—
353. COBHAM to the DUKE OF LÜTZELSTEIN.
Since hearing from the gentleman whom you sent to me that you were moved to make a journey to England, I have been informed from thence that the Queen thinks you had better not take that trouble just now, since it would be a great hindrance to the business you have in hand, and on which you have been addressed. It would be the means of arousing some suspicions which might greatly prejudice my Sovereign and her friends ; but she is always ready to show you favour, and desirous of your friendship.—Paris, 2 Oct. 1581. Add. to his Highness George Hans, Palatine, Duke of Bavaria and Lord of Petite-Pierre. Copy. Endd. Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. VI. 42a.]
Oct. 3. 354. DUKE CASIMIR to WALSINGHAM.
I was glad to hear from M. de Clervant that which you asked him to tell me, and to assure you that it will not be my fault if all does not go well for the common cause. But you know that my resources are of themselves insufficient for such great effects, and have been still further reduced by my expedition to the Low Countries. It is for great people, and notably for the Queen of England, as those whom it touches most nearly, and who have most to lose, to put their hand once for all seriously to the task ; as you will hear more fully from M. de Clervaut.—Fridelsheim, 3 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Germany II. 25.]
Oct. ? 355. The QUEEN to the STATES.
In your letter of the 1st inst. in answer to ours of Sep. 7, we do not see the satisfaction we expected of the moneys due from you to us, of which the term for payment has expired, nor that you have taken order for the payment on the debt of £27,000 sterling already due for a term past in June, or for another which will be due next December, to Horatio Palavicino and Baptista Spinola, according to your obligations passed to them for our indemnity. Whereon we must remind you that you have not shown the consideration due to the infinite benefits which at your solicitation we have shown in coming to the aid of your necessities, besides the trouble we have taken for your good and that of those countries. Wherefore you must make up your minds by some other means than sending messengers and letters to satisfy us and those merchants who have been addressing us very importunately, as well for their principal as for the interest ever since the month of June, besides threatening to lay hands on our good citizens of London and their goods, for the execution of the bonds. To which, as to the rest of the foregoing, if you do not take heed, and provide as is fitting, besides the ingratitude, and forgetfulness of our favour of which you have availed yourselves, with which you will be taxed, we shall be constrained to take steps by some like means, from which no good can result to you. To obviate which you will take counsel betimes, as you would desire the continuation of the favour of which hitherto we have not been sparing to you and your country. Draft. Endd. Date (year only) in Burghley's hand. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 107.]
Oct. 6. 356. VILLIERS to HODDESDON.
The letter which you were good enough to write me on your return to England reached me a little late, and in the worst of my illness, so that I have been unable to answer it sooner, as I should have desired. Please hold me excused. As to what you write touching his Excellency's sending someone for the affair of Don Antonio, he would have done it ; for he has had such an answer from his Highness as he hoped and asked for. But at the same time, news came from divers quarters that Strozzi was at Dieppe waiting for the said king, who had left London, and that his Highness was expecting him at Pont Dormi on the Somme, which hindered him from making up his mind. However, four days ago we heard that he was ready to grant it, and that a gentleman from him had passed to Flushing and thence to Antwerp. This has caused the deliberation to be suspended till further news. I hope to start tomorrow for Bruges, where I shall find his Excellency and see what conclusion will be come to. As to writing for the said king, I have up to now had my head so little at my command that I have not dared to undertake it, but I hope to do it with God's help. I am in trouble about two things, on which I pray you to give me your advice. The first, if you think it best that it should be done in the form of letters missive, or of a discourse, or apology, or accusation against the King of Spain. The second, in order to present it to Don Antonio, to whom shall I address it, and if one ought to send it before printing it, or print it first? If you will kindly answer me on both heads, you will oblige me.—Antwerp, 6 Oct. 1581. P.S.—Please send word also if it would be well to translate it when done into Spanish or Portuguese, and if the said king has had time to read the Prince's apology. Add. to Monsieur Hasdon. Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 108.]
Oct. 6. 357. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
It has seemed good to Mr Archibald Douglas to return to those parts, upon such considerations as he will declare to you. He is the rather moved to depart hence because they stay proceedings until a commission shall come from the young king to George Douglas. I think he can inform you likewise of some Imps which are bent a contrary way from her Majesty's devotion. Since I mean shortly to dispatch a direct courier, with these lines I recommend to your devotion [sic] only this gentleman, whom I think her Majesty may find very able and apt to do her service. For the time of his abode he has often visited me, and informed me of their proceedings. I wish her Majesty had some such able and well-disposed subject abroad in 'lue' of the worser sort.—Paris, 6 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. 'Dougl. recomm. Also a list in Walsingham's hand of eleven Scottish lords. ¾ p. [France VI. 43.]
Oct. 7. 358. "A Form of Quittance for the 100,000 crowns lent to the Duke of Anjou." Acknowledgement of a promise to repay the sum in question— 50,000 gold crowns of the sum sent by the hand of Lord H. Seymour, and the like sum by that of Jean du Bex. The crown reckoned at 6 shillings English, or 60 sous French. Draft in Burghley's hand, and endd. by him as above. Latin. 1¼ pp. [France VI. 44.]
Oct. 8. 359. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the first inst. since when these speeches are current here. Two days ago the Prince of Orange and the Princess his wife, the Count of 'Swatsenbrugh,' and the Council of State, came to this town, and it seems their abode will be here long, for it is said the Princess will lie in childbed here. Yesterday the Four Members of Flanders were with the Prince, who gave them sharp words and told them it is their fault, through their slack sending of men and money to the camp, that Monsieur and his forces are not yet come. But they cleared themselves of that matter, for they had sent both men and money in good order ; and after long debating of many matters between them, the Prince's conclusion was that they should provide and make ready all things necessary for the wars against the next spring. So it seems Monsieur's coming into these parts stands more doubtful, and the wars shall lie still all this winter till the spring ; which greatly mislikes the States and commons here. Also M. de Sainte-Aldegonde is here with the Prince ; who it is said will be sent to France to Monsieur with 100,000 guilders in ready money as a present from the Prince and States ; which many mislike of, because it is so small a sum. The Prince of Epinoy with the Flanders camp still lies under Dunkirk and there they lie and do nothing. This week the Prince of Parma with all his force suddenly and in great haste retired his camp which he had beside Dunkirk, and marched towards Armentierès and Lille. As he passed he gave out in every place they were marching towards Cambrésis. They have with them 12 pieces of great artillery, and yesterday there came hither to the Prince from Ghent sundry posts, with news that the Prince of Parma with all his camp lay about Tournay, so that it is thought he has besieged it ; and there are no horsemen in it, and very few soldiers, but good store of stout burghers to the number of 900. So it is hoped the Prince of Parma will do no good at it. Also those of Cambray and Cambrésis make great wars against the Malcontents of Bouchain, Douay, and all those parts ; in such sort that they dare 'scant' look out of their gates. It is said that M. de 'Farfacke' is the greatest doer hereof. For Monsieur and his forces, there has been this week no speech of them nor of their coming nor where they are, which is no small grief to the commons, who long greatly for his presence ; and now that the enemy is gone, he may come without any let.—Bruges, 8 Oct. 1581. P.S.—Even now I received your letter of Sep. 30, and thank you for it. Your letter to the Prince of Orange I delivered into his own hands, and herewith send you his packet in answer. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 109.]
Oct. 8. 360. WALSINGHAM to DU BEX.
The gentleman in charge of her Majesty's ship has informed me today that he hopes to be tomorrow evening at the Downs near Dover. You will therefore do well to send Davis to that place, to let him know the time of your embarkation. I send you a draft of the obligation which his Highness is to give her Majesty for the 100,000 crowns, and the indented bill containing the various species of coin and the weight of the bullion, signed by me. You will kindly advertise me of the time of your embarkation by letter. If you will give it to the lieutenant of the castle he will not fail to send it promptly to me.—Richmond, 8 Oct. 1581. Holograph. Add. Ital. 1 p. [France IV. 45.]
Oct. 9. 361. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Since my last to you, M. 'Bellyveu' [? Bellièvre] has been dispatched into Guyenne ; and from thence he is to pass into Spain, as it was conceived from some words 'which were overheard that he spake' in his last conference with the Queen Mother. Meantime Pinart has been sent to Monsieur, where he still remains. Monsieur will, as I hear, be given by him to understand that his Majesty intends to procure rich marriages for some of the House of Bourbon. He will give to the Marquis of Conti, the Prince of Condé's brother, the daughter and heir of Villequier, who was once promised to M. d'O, lately one of the minions, and now disgraced, the king having bestowed his office of Master of the Garderobe upon the Duke of Joyeuse's brother, a fair comely young gentleman. The king blames M. d'O for his excessive play, imputing this fault as the only occasion of his displeasure, because through following play he neglected his affairs and service, following therein his own humour. M. Villequier has shown constant affection to M. d'O, beseeching the king that his daughter may have no other husband ; for he could not depart from his promise to him, having known him to be heretofore so agreeable to his Majesty. Howbeit the king has answered that he would take on him M. Villequier's promise, and that his daughter 'was [? of] his meaning to dispose of her.' Notwithstanding, he gives M. d'O recompense in money for leaving his offices, so that he is now retired to his house in Paris, enjoying 60,000 crowns a year in fee simple, rent, bishoprics and abbeys, of which I send you particulars. M. d'O took his leave in the king's cabinet on Thursday morning, the 5th inst., whence he went to the Queen Mother, desiring the continuance of her good favour in his behalf, and beseeching her to move the king to be gracious to him, which she promised to do ; so that thereon she repaired incontinently to the king's cabinet. The door being open, she entered, finding the king 'set' on a low stool, with his young wife on his knee, and Lavalette beside them. The king at the unlooked-for entry of his mother blamed the groom of his chamber for leaving the door open ; whereon the Queen Mother would have returned, but the king stayed her. So she took occasion to move her son on behalf of d'O, but the king remained constant in his resolution, alleging his unreasonable play, and likewise how he procured dissension between Joyeuse and Lavalette, in such sort that they were like to have fought. The young queen showed at the same time some 'overthwart' countenance to the Queen Mother, in such manner that no words have since passed between the two queens. The king desiring to give better satisfaction to the Duke of Lorraine and to please the queen his mother, has resolved to send the Marshal de Retz into Piedmont, to treat with the Duke of Savoy for the marriage with the Princess of Lorraine. Howbeit the marshal is not well pleased, and cannot tell how to take the answer that the king made to the countess his wife when the other day she brought him a placet to be signed for the payment of 65,000 crowns which the marshal had laid out on his journey last year, when he dealt in the appeasing of the troubles in the Marquisate of Saluces. The king received the placet from the marshal's wife, and having read it, told her it was good reason it should be answered ; and therewith entered into his cabinet, writing at once with his own hand upon the placet that he accorded that the sum demanded should be paid out of the coffers of M. de Perron, by which name the marshal was called when he was in meanest estate. Howbeit, it is understood the king will content him in some sort. The king has requested the Duke of Lorraine to ratify and 'set to' his hand to the contract of M. de Joyeuse and that of Lavalette with the younger sister of the Duke of Mercœur ; but the duke has hitherto forborne to do so much, excusing himself 'how' he has not been accustomed to sign the like contracts save for the marriage of his own children. There is some 'meaning' shown by the king that he desires the Duke of Joyeuse should have the government of Languedoc which Marshal Montmorency now enjoys, in exchange for which the marshal should have the government of Paris and the Isle of France as his late brother had. Of this the marshal has been advertised, misliking the match, and therefore has for his better safety placed a new captain in Saint-Esprit and the strong towns thereabouts. M. de Guise was 'stricken with' the horse of the Duke of Joyeuse on his sore leg ; wherewith he has been driven to be lanced, but he will be able presently to go abroad again, as his surgeons promise. There came in the Duke of Lorraine's company, Bassompierre, one of the king's Almaine colonels, who has won great sums at play. The king has given the Duke of Joyeuse an 'assignation' of 400,000 crowns, to be levied on the receipts of Caen in Normandy. It is written from Monsieur's Court that du Ponts [sic], M. Marchaumont's brother, returned lately from England with a discontented message. It is advertised from Dieppe that Don Antonio has arrived there and has had conference with Monsieur. The Pope, as I am told, has given severe orders that all Englishmen who shall come to Rome on 'bargains of return' are to be apprehended, imprisoned, and executed as felons. Some are upon this lately imprisoned, and others who last passed this way will be in great danger. The execution of this tyrannical order was offered to the English College there, but they refusing it the Inquisition has taken the matter in hand. Marshal Cossé was written for by the king ; whereon he sent his secretary the other day, with a wilful excuse to his Majesty, but the king has sent the secretary back with express command and fair promises. So it is thought the marshal will repair hither and be sent to Monsieur ; the rather because Monsieur seeks to draw Marshal Biron to him, which is not to the king's liking. For the matters of Scotland, I have been advertised that the Scottish queen has 'yielded' to resign her estate to her son, if the young king will capitulate to follow her and her friends' counsel for his marriage, and he together with his wife and her 'alliance' will employ themselves on their part for her deliverance and in such causes as may concern her. Further, the king shall be bound to restore her and her friends and their children who have suffered loss of goods and life for her sake, to their estate, and moreover will consent that certain Catholic persons may repair into Scotland, to dispute with the ministers for the better informing of the king in the Roman religion. Likewise that 'Catholic Romans' in Scotland may live without vexation. Lastly they have here agreed that George Douglas shall remain in Paris till he receives a commission from the Scottish king to conclude with the queen's friends and ministers in this Court concerning the points aforesaid and such like. There is come hither an Armenian 'named himself' to be a bishop of that country, attended only by two mean servants of the country. Apparently there is nothing meant but a pretence to wander, to see the countries and get relief. Yesterday Signor Cavalliero Cavalcanti resorted to me, signifying that he is returned well satisfied and ready to do any service agreeable to her Majesty. I enclose a note of the advertisements from sundry places, and a brief note of the king's manner of running at the ring in armour ; with papers of the figures of the 'padgens' in 'collers,' which have been shown.—Paris, 9 Oct. 1581. Add. and most of endt. cut off. 6 pp. [France VI. 46.]
Oct. 10. 362. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I have been informed that Pinart after he has passed some conference with Monsieur might go to England. The truth of this will quickly appear to you there. If he makes the journey I hope it will be to some better purpose than the last he 'passed.' I have also heard that the king seeks to win the Prince of Condé to him, meaning to offer him the great 'La Muy's' daughter and only heir, whom Lavalette should have had. It is muttered among those of the Religion that a levy of 10,000 reiters is being made on their behalf ; but I pray God they may never have cause to employ them in France, for hitherto they have decayed with those bargains ; but what God will, so must it be. On the other side they speak of marrying the Duke of Condé to one of the German princes' daughters, which methinks can 'prevail' him but little. It is likely that Marshal Montmorency will for his own sake join willingly with those of the Religion. Mr. Archibald Douglas departed hence two days ago, for he longs to confer with the Earl of 'Anguysshe.' I think him able to handle any cause he has been acquainted with. Last Thursday I was invited by the king to be present at his running at the ring, but being sick I requested M. Gondi that Lord 'Pyerce' might be placed, and used with courtesy. When he came to the place appointed for the ambassadors, the Lord Copley was there, and saluted Lord Percy, offering to enter into further speech. But after Lord Percy had answered Mr Copley's first salutations, he requested him to 'pass' no further, for he could not like to enter into acquaintance with one who he understood was in these parts without the Queen's leave and otherwise in her disfavour ; wherewith their speech ceased. But methinks I should have found it strange to be placed with one known to be in disgrace with my Sovereign, in that public place. Mr Sidney has come hitherto from Germany. He is a proper gentleman, and methinks like his elder brother. I suppose you will remember the conference you passed with M. Strozzi. He is still with Don Antonio, on the way hither, as I hear.—Paris, 10 Oct. 1581. Add. and endt. gone. 2 pp. [Ibid. IV. 47.]
Oct. 11. 363. DU PLESSIS MORNAY to WALSINGHAM.
I am back from Gascony these four or five days. I left the King of Navarre there in a very good will to do right, and full of zeal and affection towards the service of God and the good of the Churches. I can assure you that I know no prince who proceeds with more sincerity, even though the hot blood (les bouillons) of youth snatches him away at times, more than I could wish, to his pleasures. Surely he deserves to be well loved and well served by his own people, and a favourable reputation among his neighbours. You know what he commanded me lately to write to you. I am expecting an answer in accordance with our letter ; I beg that it may be worthy of both her Majesty and him, that is agreeable to your affection. He desires nothing so much as peace, and has of late shown it to good purpose ; for while I was there M. de Biron was about to take up arms, hoping to draw him to a skirmish, because he knows that in peace his own authority diminishes. The king stood on his guard, warned his places to keep a look-out, and for the rest made no movement, contenting himself with complaining and demanding justice of their Majesties. Meanwhile he looks carefully after his own preservation and that of the Churches, that they may not be crushed by the malice of those who would try to do them harm, as has often happened without the knowledge and against the intention of the king. Monsieur is still at Saint-Valéry, doubtful of his journey. Everything possible has been done to break it off, though on the other hand the Low Countries strongly urge (convient) him to cross. I shall see him, God helping, one of these days, and give the best advice I can. For the rest, I am writing to M. d'Anquerque of our private affair.—Paris, 11 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [France VI. 48.]
Oct. 12. 364. BERNARDINO DE MENDOZA to the QUEEN.
I have been so much grieved to hear that your Majesty said I need not think of frightening and threatening you, after I have been watchful only to serve you, and preserve the long peace between these two Crowns, that in order that you may see clearly the proof of this, and my verity, I have ventured to write to you at once, and send you this letter of the king my master, which I did not like to give you. It will serve as clear witness, when you only look at it, of the intention and desire of Don Bernardino de Mendoza, which is only to avoid a breach in a friendship of so many years. I did not like to give it to you, for which I am certain that I shall receive very grave blame. I shall be content to do so, for you to have tangible proof how warily (coito) I go in the duties which the king has bidden me perform, and that my only desire and wish is to serve your Majesty, and do every good office, not forgetting my duty to the service of my master.—London, 12 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. Span. 1½ pp. [Spain I. 74.]
Oct. 13. 365. WALSINGHAM to VILLIERS.
I received yours of the 8th, but as it only arrived just when the post was starting to return, I could not answer it in detail so fully as I could have wished ; wherefore please have me excused. As to Bureau, whom you mention in your letter, it is true that when I was in France he spoke to the ambassador and me in similar terms to those contained therein, and the ambassador informed the Duke, to whom by the advertisements I received I gave the details [qy.—tiltre]. As for the other, I can give you no information other than you may understand by my former letters, nor have I received further news from him who gave me the first advices of it. I will not fail to impart to you anything that may be for the honour and service of his Excellency. The regret and distress which has seized me on hearing of the general loss which has befallen all honest men in Christendom in consequence of the news of the death of M. [? Languet] has so overwhelmed me when I thought of it that I could not express it to you in a letter. I consider that the countries which have to bear the loss of persons of such piety may feel it as a judgement of God for their sins.—Richmond, 13 Oct. 1581. Copy. Fr. 1 p. [Foreign Entry Book 162.]
Oct. 13. 366. FR. SIMÃO DE VARRO to the QUEEN.
Kings and princes are wont to be well-content when they are well served by their vassals ; your Majesty may be so with the services which Captain Henry Richards has done in this island in aid of our lord the king to the satisfaction of all loyal persons ; because he came for the salvation of this land in the greatest necessity it ever had, and after that we defeated all the people that Don Pedro de Valdes had in the country, even when Lope de Figueiroa had come to his aid with 22 ships. God brought Captain Henry to our company with a prosperous voyage, whose coming animated and cheered the good, and confounded the bad, and broke their wings. By his presence he did so much that we may say that by his means the conservation of this island is in great part due to the realm of England, that most ancient ally of Portugal, by whose help it has twice been restored from the hard captivity of the Castilians. All those good deeds cannot fail to be perpetuated by so friendly a kingdom, in which our king is, and on which depends the restoration of our kingdom, so unjustly tyrannised by enemies. That you may with the better mind succour so justified a necessity, you must know that the maintenance of this island by our Lord God for its natural king with so great miracles is not without a deep meaning (qy.—sem misterio), because the importance of this land is so great, that I dare to say that without it the King of Portugal could never be king of his realm ; and if the King of Spain had it against him, he would not be securely king, even of Castile. It is the key of all the navigation of Spain and those who hold it have no necessity to go to the Indies, nor pass into the South Sea ; so much so that if this summer he had had only four English galleys in this island, we could have collected in it more than ten millions of gold. Hitherto God has preserved a cause of such importance with repeated miracles ; what He will do in the future, He knows. What I think is that unless our king provides in the government of this island one who has the necessary parts for it, the affairs of his service will decline. And in order that it may be understood what must be the necessary provisions for these things, there may be taken for an infallible rule the outline in the advices which Captain Henry sent by Maurice Brum, in whose company was Father John of the Holy Spirit, whom Don Francisco [Vimioso] sent from France to these islands. And although they are taking some Portuguese of this island, entire reliance must not be placed in Portuguese loyalty and its fair words, inasmuch as I know some who go more to put their hand into the side, like St. Thomas, and to defend the false than to do careful service to their king ; as for strangers coming for succour, it is clear that native loyal people are necessary. Let a careful examination also be made of all the letters written to the king, for neither is it well that he should receive them all. And some think it is not contrary to the common weal to harbour men who in time will boast of being against their king, thinking that we are to be taken by Castile without trouble (a mãos lavadas), and that then their better luck will come to stay (?). And if in anything the advices of the Governor of this country are contrary to what I have written concerning the falseness of certain private persons let Captain Henry deem it the ignorant kindness of a man who knows not what war is, and was not brought up in it. Inasmuch as in all affairs of life there are apparent reasons for both sides, Captain Henry hears that Father John of the Holy Spirit sufficed for his living letter of credence, who for love of him wished to go to that kingdom in the company of Maurice Brum, to give certain information of all the affairs of these isles, and inasmuch as none of us would accompany him. And further he could not be without some doubt whether in staying with him he was embarking and deserting the country at the best moment ; for which reason I stayed in his company, and am keeping him in my house with his brother and his companions at my own cost ; and will keep him as long as he stays here, as if he was a subject here, such is his love to our natural king, though a stranger. If a letter of a poor friar to so excellent a lady as your Majesty could be allowed to be longer, I would say yet more on this matter ; but I refer in all points to the credit given by the letters of Captain Henry and the words of Maurice Brum and Father John of the Holy Spirit ; and of me you may rely that in all that touches the service of the king I shall speak within the truth, since in that country where he was, I was so loyal to him that when a brother of mine arrived there, sent by Philip to be corregidor there, I sought that they should hang him, as being more for the service of my king ; and because there were not lacking men more merciful for him, and less friendly to their king, they let him go to St. Michael's, where today he is governing the country for Castile. —Angra, 13 Oct. 1581. Add. : To the most Christian Queen of England. Endd. Port. 2 pp. [Portugal I. 64.]
Oct. 14. 367. FR. SIMÃO DE VARRO to SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
As men are known afar by the eminence of their work, I think you will not hold it any merit for me to know your name so far away ; and in this Captain Henry Richards has aided me, who has been pleased to honour me by accepting my poor lodging. From him I learnt the great obligation under which all good and loyal Portuguese are to you, for the love and goodwill with which you are resolved to succour the cause of Portugal, of which this island alone remains with the name of loyal, and preserves the fidelity which has been lost in all Portugal. For this obligation owed to you, I think I should not be doing my duty if I did not tell you specially what has happened, and of the arrival of Captain Henry in this country. You must know that after we had routed all the people whom Don Pedro de Valdez landed, came Don Lopo de Figueiroa with another fleet of 22 sail to his aid, whereat some lost confidence. At such an urgent time, Captain Henry came into port here, whom God, to preserve us in our good purpose, delivered from the midst of 30 ships of the enemy, and put him in a secure port ; after which all of us, seeing his valorous endeavour, began to despise the enemy, and there was not a person in the whole island who was not very sorry that he did not again disembark (?). Such is the state in which this country at present remains. Of the things necessary to preserve it, I believe Captain Henry has given a full account to the Council of that kingdom, because he saw everything with his own eyes, and talked with men who could inform him with perfect integrity. What remains is for you to tell the king not to make provision for the government of this island except upon the information and outline which Captain Henry has sent ; and I say not even on bearers of it, nor on the letters of the Governor himself ; for there is no gold without dross. So much depends on it that if he strays from this bearing (este norte), he will lose all that has hitherto been saved to him with so much honour. The details of all this Maurice Brum has related, and Father John of the Holy Spirit, who was in his company. And that we are worthy of all the credit that can be given to us in the matters of the king's service, Maurice Brum will say ; albeit we are obliged by a conscience zealous for the honour of God and for the king's service to reveal these deceits. Captain Henry will write the other things of importance ; with whose modest companionship the whole island is so content that we hold him for no less than our countryman (natural).—Angra, 14 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. (by one of Walsingham's men). Port. 1¼ pp. [Portugal I. 65.]
Oct. 14. 368. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Upon doubt conceived by the States of Holland lest arrest or stay might be made in England on the goods or ships of their country people, for satisfaction of the debt due by them to the Spanish merchants, they wrote to me, if any were having commission or being interested, that I should deal with them requesting forbearance of such proceedings in consideration they were about to do all endeavours for the providing of sufficient contentment. I have sent a copy of their letter, translated into English, to Mr Governor with 'larger advice,' trusting he will impart it to you. Here I found none that could do anything or had commission in these causes, and have answered so much to the States, 'together of' my writing to Mr Governor, to shew their case and offer to you. In my simple opinion it could, for the reasons set down in my letter to him, do no harm to forward their desire, so that it were not too much to the prejudice of the interested, and limit a condition for satisfaction, which would do good a pleasure one or the other, as also otherwise ; the consideration whereof I leave to you.—Antwerp, 14 Oct. 1581. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIV. 110.]