January 1582, 21-31


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'Elizabeth: January 1582, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 15: 1581-1582 (1907), pp. 459-478. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73537 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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January 1582, 21-31

Jan. 21. 512. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last to you was the 14th, since which matters have been still in these parts. The Prince of Parma has been this week at Corttrick, where he was but one night, and thence returned to Tournay. The cause of his coming is not known. The general meeting of the Malcontents that should have been at Mons will now be at Douay, for it is said the Prince of Parma has no mind to be at Mons. By letters from Lille and Corttrick there is great discontent among the nobility and gentlemen of the Malcontents ; partly because the government of the town and castle of Tournay is put into a Spaniard's hands, and also because the King of Spain is preparing 10,000 troops in Italy to be sent hither next March. The Prince of Parma has stayed the forces that were coming to these parts from Artois and Hainault ; for it seems they have some enterprise in hand 'about Brabant side,' for this week the enemy has withdrawn from these parts 7 cornets of horse and 1,000 foot, who have marched towards Hainault, saying they will be here again shortly. M. de Villeneuve, colonel of M. de la Noue's companies that are lying at Eccloo has leave from the Prince to go to France for two months, and is gone. This week M. de Rochepot and M. de Villers with 3 cornets of horse and 500 foot went to take a house which the enemy keeps within a small mile of this town, in which are but 40 soldiers, whom they found in such good order that they turned back and durst not meddle with them. There is great fear here that the long tarrying that Monsieur makes of his coming will make some 'alteration' here on the States' side, for they fear that he will not come hither at all ; so they greatly fear their estate.—Bruges, 21 Jan. 1581. P.S.—'By means' the post does not come this way, here is 'scant' of conveyance for England, and the posts might pass this way as they have done without danger from the enemy. Enclosed I send a letter from M. Rossel, sent me from Eccloo. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 11.]
Jan. 22. 513. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
It seems that they have been advertised here that the Earl of Desmond has fallen into her Majesty's hands, whereon they are curious to understand the truth of me. I let M. Brulart know that I had seen some letters written about it ; which I was the more willing to do, because they informed me that some of the Papists and Scottish faction looked to have seen the said Irish earl within a few days. I am further told that the Pope's nuncio has signified to Rome that the Earl of Desmond remains prisoner ; which being so, it would seem there were other expectation. Morgan, sometime the Earl of Shrewsbury's secretary, sent from hence, four days ago, a Welsh boy about the age of 17 years with letters for England, by way of Calais. His name is Price ; he is full-faced, apparelled in a black cloak and black hose, with sky-colour nether stockings. There is a packet of small books which Dr Allen sent from Rheims to Dr Darbishire hither, to the intent that they may be conveyed into England ; which books 'should' only contain matter concerning the burning of English Smith [sic ; but qy. Atkins] in Rome. They inform me that one Parsons, an English Jesuit, was in the house of Mr Yates, where Campion was taken, at that instant, and not found out ; haunting still the same house. It is written lately from Scotland that James Stewart, Earl of Arran, 'pretended' to have slain d'Aubigny ; wherewith the Scottish Papists and others are much discontented. I forgot in my other letter to tell you how the king has appointed for every one of the Swiss commissioners a chain of gold weighing 300 crowns, with his portrait in gold hanging to it. The two Boroskys of Poland, of whom I told you in my former etter, are come hither because they are not well liked by their own king, and the elder of them has slain a gentleman in their king's Court. And since they have sought money of this king, the countenance they at first had in the Court has failed them. It is 'delivered' in Court today that Laverdin and Randan have fought together, having, as they report, slain one another, and the other gentlemen who were on both sides are 'evil' wounded. 'It is sent me word' there is some meaning that Villeroy was to pass into England from their Majesties. I have had advertisements from Bordeaux that 8 ships of 140 tons apiece are 'pressed' in that port for the service of Strozzi and Lansac, who have been there together and have given order for the rigging and victualling of them. Notwithstanding, those ships cannot be in readiness before April. They bring me word that Count Vimioso was to arrive here today. The Queen Mother 'this other day' showed in Court her Majesty's picture, made in full length and proportion by her own French painter who was lately in England ; of which this queen seems to make great estimation. The ladies highly commended the Queen's rare gifts and princely comeliness with exceeding praises and admiration, marvelling very much at the number of those great pearls wherewith her gown is set forth and beautified ; supposing that all the other princes of Christendom had not the like quantity of pearls of that sort. The great princesses noted, and were very much satisfied to see her apparelled and attired all over à la Françoise. I thank you for the comfort I received in your last letter, awaiting the fruit of it when it pleases God to send it, and her Majesty to do that long longed-for good.—Paris, 22 Jan. 1581. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. VII. 12.]
Jan. 22 514. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
After I had made up the packet to you, I was advertised that two English Jesuit priests had arrived in this town. They have been newly admitted into that Order this Christmas at Rheims. One is named Harvey, a bald man with a round leg, somewhat long-visaged, and 'flexsone' [qy. flaxen] -haired, which he wears long ; apparelled in a black cut doublet, wearing a white pair of stockings. The other's name is Freeman, a man of very low stature, red-headed, narrow-eyed, and little hair 'in' his face ; wearing a russet cloak, a black 'frise' coat, and a 'sky' pair of nether stockings. They are to pass at once, by the way, as I am informed, of Calais ; but they will pass towards the North by sea, if they can. I thought good to signify this to you ; wishing them condign punishment according to their intents.—Paris, 22 Jan. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 13.]
I have with much content heard of the prosperous voyage of the 'Conte di Lesmonte,' and I pray God to give her Majesty grace to profit by the favours which He has long done to her, and which if she well considers them, are not small. Not only may this please Him, but may He guard and preserve her from the wiles of her enemies, and especially those of the King of Spain and the Pope. The capture of Tournay has set the Prince of Parma up again ; and the King of Spain is taking occasion from it to take order in the affairs of those countries. If something is not done from another quarter,—God grant that I be not a true prophet in this as I have been in other things—next summer Brabant from Antwerp outwards, and Flanders, will be in great peril. Here, more solito. The Swiss are here, and I only hope we shall satisfy them, and renew the league with them. Affairs in the West go so that I do not expect much of them. The Queen Mother goes at it very warmly, and has already embarked more than 100,000 crowns. If I had been of her counsel, and she willing to believe me, I would sooner have employed them on her son, than where I fear they will bear no fruit ; and if only I had seen that her Majesty does not wish to pay any attention to the affairs of the Low Countries, to thwart the King of Spain in that quarter, to make him lose patience. But he would sooner let one put his fingers in his eyes than break off the war before he has reconquered the Low Countries. All which things I have preached for the last six years, but as they say a noiaporri (pestering deaf ears) ; nor have I gained anything by this and many other signal good offices that I have done. God be praised for all. I am very eagerly awaiting till, in pursuance of what you said here, you use your offices with the Queen that she may employ me in something ; and I promise that I will not excuse myself. I heard here of his stay and I lay the blame on the winds.—Paris, 22 Jan. 1581. Add. Endd. Ital. 2½ pp. [Ibid. VII. 14.]
Jan. 23. 516. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I had given my last dispatch to this bearer, Mr Needham, but that one of the ordinary posts had waited for it. Now, having been advertised of the following, I would not 'leave' to impart it to you : how Madame d'Aumale came to Queen Mother and required to have justice on those who had said that the king had lain with her. Duke d'Aumale said as much to Queen Mother, wherewith she was astonied, not determining at first what to answer other than "Jésus Maria, qu'est-ce que vous dîtes? Vous vous faîtes fort. Qui estce qui a dit cela?" To which the duchess answered that the Princess of Condé and Mad. de Sauve had said it. They have denied it, and Duke d'Aumale says that Mad. de Sauve has not said it ; and that they lie who so affirm. This may grow to a little broil. The king sometimes now in the evenings begins to visit the houses where there is any honourable assembly of ladies, accompanied by the 'Prince Genovaise' [de Genevois] and the Dukes of Guise and Joyeuse. I received now at this instant your letters, sent by 'Du Beas [Bex], secretary to M. Marchaumont.—Paris, 23 Jan. 1581. Add. Endd. Cipher (deciphered) parts in ital. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 15.]
Jan. 27. 517. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Having 'commodity' to write to you by this merchant the bearer hereof, called Hankin, I may advertise you of such little affairs as pass here in Court or otherwise, which have come to my knowledge, though of small importance. As first, how the king and his wife proceed in their determined form of devotion, giving to understand they hope through such merits to obtain grace to get that issue which they, as it seems, greatly desire. Whereon the young queen departed yesterday on her journey towards the Lady of Chartres, intending to pass some part of it on foot, whereby her pilgrimage may be more meritorious. It is moreover thought that the king will meet her at Chartres for the better accomplishment of their vows. Meantime the king and Duke Joyeuse say their mattins together, and other prayers assigned for that purpose ; so it appears the king admits the duke to be his 'intrinsical coadjutor' as his dear brother. M. Joyeuse seems to be entirely devout therein. They daily observe this custom, though the king passes his time abroad, as at present he is 'on' hawking, accompanied by the Dukes of Guise, Joyeuse, Aumale, Mercœur and Épernon, and the Cardinal of Guise ; who all eat at the king's table with him. Whereas I wrote to you in my last concerning the king's disposition in the matter of the chief gentlemen of his chamber, since they also conceive in the Court that Villequier will leave that office, as the Marshal of Retz is to do, I hear there is some stay at the instance of their friends. Some think the king will bestow the office on Joyeuse and Épernon, meaning they shall wait by quarter. I have otherwise understood the office will be bestowed on Lavalette, Épernon's older brother, if the Marshal and Villequier are deprived. The 'bruit of Court' which I told you in my last concerning Laverdin and Randan does not prove true. They have not yet fought nor met, it is understood. The petty broil I wrote of in cipher in my last letter is smothered, and only the Duke of Aumale's brother charged with the report, being young and of the prelacy. Therefore no further respect is had of that cause. The courtiers say that de Roissy 'prevailed himself on' the favour that he has with the young queen to the prejudice of Villequier ; whereon Villequier has likewise used his credit to thrust back Roissy. But Roissy's behaviour bred a kind of jealousy, which perhaps was the chief cause. I hear no further of M. Villeroy's departure to any place. Count Vimioso, who lately was here about the furtherance of his king's causes, has returned to Tours, and Rodrigo de Souza remains there in prison. They have taken John le Gendre, sent from the Spanish agent to Rodrigo de Souza with order to advise him to escape, because the agent perceived their dealing together was discovered. This le Gendre is companion and friend to the party who spoke to you in Carnavalet's garden concerning the 'pretence' intended against the Prince of Orange. But seeing that he is discovered to be affected to the Spanish cause it is to be suspected that the other is bent that way and lingers waiting in Amiens about those affairs ; which party Monsieur may 'consider on,' as pleases him. I am told that the ambassador ligier of Savoy is grieved that the Queen Mother does not press the marriage between his duke and the Princess of Lorraine so earnestly as she was wont to do. He has said in some place how his duke hoped that after the sending of Count Montreal into England to return the Order of the Garter the Queen would be pleased to send some one to him with compliments, as other princes have done. The Swiss will have their money delivered to them at Solothurn. I perceive the Bishop of Ross intends to go into Poitou for the ordering of some of his 'spiritual livings.' M. de la Mothe-Fènelon was with him on the 20th, remaining in conference with him above an hour. The bishop has 'delivered' that there are sixteen noblemen in Scotland who have 'subscribed their hands' to maintain the Popish religion ; 'discoursing' further how there were in Scotland not above five or six principal ministers, who easily on a sudden might be 'attrapped' and imprisoned. He hoped further that Mr. John [sic] Creighton, their learned Scottish Jesuit, would prevail much with the young king. The advertisements which the Scottish bishops had concerning James Stewart's falling out with d'Aubigny, came by the means of a Scotchman dwelling at Dieppe. On the 24th inst. Morgan was met coming out of the Louvre by a friend of mine with a packet of letters a span high under his cloak, and followed till he entered the house of Madame 'du Seze' [qy. d'Uzès] in which house nobody lodges but herself. The same day the Bishop of Ross went to Count Saint-Aignan, to entreat him to be his friend 'towards' Monsieur for a benefice which he promised him long since. The count has assured him of his furtherance. On the 24th some gentlemen departed hence towards England. Mr Thomas Page, late servant to Lord Mordaunt, Mr Browne, late servant to the Earl of Leicester, and Mr Digby, who spoke with Dr Darbishire before his departure, receiving of him letters to carry into England. Others went in their company, whose names I cannot learn. There has passed one William Duckham, late of Exeter College, Oxford, born in Gloucestershire. He is departed to Rheims, with letters of recommendation to Dr Allen and others. He brought letters with him out of England, and passed by Dover, pretending to the searchers there that he was a cook, and went to seek service. Two Englishmen have lately been robbed going to Rheims, and their letters taken from them. There is also gone to Orleans one Hodgson, whose father is a vehement papist, dwelling in Newcastle-on-Tyne. He brought with him about 300l. in gold. I have written you these particulars, doubting they will serve to small purpose. Howbeit I would not 'leave' to signify them. I send herewith a book in French, containing a brief discourse of those who have been principal martyrs for Christ's religion.— Paris, 27 Jan. 1581. Add. and endt. gone. 3½ pp. [France VII. 16.]
Jan. 28. 518. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last was the 21st ; since which certain speeches have come to the magistrates of this town from Lille and Corttrick, which are these. At Tournay the Marquis of Risbourg has slain M. de Capres, Governor of Arras, with his dagger, sitting at table at dinner together. Some say the cause was that M. de Capres wished the aid of the Spaniards, some that it was for some words about the death of M. de Hèze, and some that it was for some displeasure the Marquis had against him about the government in Artois, for Capres was his lieutenant there. It is said that the Malcontents have proclaimed war against the Duke of Alençon in Artois and Hainault. The Baron de Selles, who was prisoner at Cambray, has been brought thence to the castle of Rammekens in Zealand, where he lies prisoner for M. de la Noue. An ambassador has come to Zealand from Don Antonio to the Prince and States for some aid of ships for his money. There continues to be great discontent among the nobility of the Malcontents about the government. It seems this discord has stayed some enterprise that they had in hand upon some places in these parts and elsewhere. The enemy continues in these parts, and ranges from place to place spoiling and burning. This week they have burnt 3 or 4 churches and divers houses between Corttrick and Ghent, so that they deal cruelly against the poor peasant, as well their friends as their enemies. M. de Rassinghien, Governor of Lille, and M. de Swevinghem, Governor of Corttrick, have protested against the Marquis of Risbourg and M. de Montigny for suffering their soldiers to spoil the country as they have done ; by which means the peasant is now unable to pay them any more tribute, money or victuals, which every village paid them every week according as they were 'sesced' ; which was the chief help they had for money and victuals, which now they will greatly want. The Scots of Meenen have this week slain about 150 Germans of the enemy's side, who lay in a village within two miles of Meenen, and taken many prisoners. There is still great longing here for Monsieur's coming. They think his abode in England very long, and the Prince and States are yet in Zealand, awaiting his coming. His long tarrying has raised many fearful speeches here among them ; for which cause it seems the General States who are now in Zealand are determined if he come not speedily to deal some other way. The Scots at Meenen are half in a mutiny for want of their pay. The Four Members of Flanders owe them since their first coming into Flanders above 200,000 guilders, and great sums to other soldiers in like case, and daily they come still into great debt ; so that by the judgement of most men here it is not possible for them to continue long unless better order be amongst them, for all their Church goods and abbey lands are sold and gone to small profit to the general purse. While those goods lasted, every one sought to fill his own purse, and none that 'sorrowed' for the general cause ; such is their great covetousness here, which will be their overthrow. Besides, every man will command, and few 'that' will be commanded, so there is no order nor good government among them. All manner of grain and victuals is scant and very dear here ; for which cause they seek to have some grain out of England. At present comes from Sandwich and out of the Isle of 'Tennett' great store of wheat and malt to this place ; which will 'occasion' to make some dearth in those parts.—Bruges, 28 Jan. 1581. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 12.]
Jan. 28. 519. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
According to my last I failed not to ply the burgomaster and other magistrates particularly, in order to drive them thereby to such consideration of the cause, that the better end might be concluded on their appointed day of meeting about it. This part I repaired last Tuesday afternoon for answer. Though they had then resolved, the Pensionary Van der Werke had not made it ready as it was to be given me, and therefore desired my forbearance till next day, which continued till the Thursday after. Then in the afternoon they delivered their answer, with solemn affirmations and protestations that it was all they could do for the present ; trusting and humbly desiring it might be so taken, with other words to like effect. I received all at his hands, without prejudice of any right, and reserving that which upon sight of it I should see cause to reply thereto. After I came home, finding it to be in no point answerable to what was required in her Majesty's name, I found it needful to proceed with the Senate according to your commands ; and having set down a discourse of her Majesty's favourable dealing, and their slender requital notwithstanding the long and continual suit about the cause, concluded in form of protest contained in few words. Yet as some lawyers, and the notary whose opinion I took therein, say, it will suffice and is as effectual as if a number, of more circumstance, had been used. This being ready the Friday morning after, since no notary would willingly go to deliver it, by advice aforesaid I went with two witnesses to the Town House, and after a while was permitted to come into the 'college,' where the greater number of the Lords were assembled, who looked somewhat strangely to see the others come in with me. I began to repeat my dealing since the first time I delivered her Majesty's pleasure to them ; and that forasmuch as their answer delivered to me by their Pensionary was in no sort as I hoped in respect of what was required for her contentment, I was forced, as I had somewhat forewarned them at former times, to proceed with the rest of my commission and to protest against them. After other speeches I delivered the protest in writing ; which they received and requested me to withdraw for a while till they had read and considered it. This done, they called me again into the college, where their Pensionary Van der Werke after accustomed order began to say that as before, so still the Lords hoped that her Majesty would be content upon sight of the first and especially of the second answer in writing by them delivered to me, because thereby would appear their willing readiness to endeavour (notwithstanding their present necessity and low estate) by all possible means to procure such reasonable satisfaction for her as the favours received merited ; acknowledging themselves so far bound to her that all the ways they now had were not sufficient to show the due requital. Howbeit, as they were not to be put in oblivion, her Highness need not doubt but such gratefulness should be showed on their behalf as they trusted would stand with her good liking, and to the full discharge of their dutiful goodwill. They were also most sorry that any cause was given (or at least, as he said, taken), to proceed by any extreme ways against this town, which would be not only to their utter overthrow and ruin, but a great harm to the present oppressed estate of the whole country ; for help whereof they trusted in God, and humbly eftsoones desired, her Highness might continue her accustomed neighbourly care. These and many other like words passed, he concluded : That forasmuch as they took the payment required to touch not only them of Antwerp, but the States generally, and that their part or portion had been, was, and should be ready, besides their endeavour, at no time wanting, to draw the other provinces, so much as in them lay, to prepare the money, and yield due contentment, which they wished had been long since accomplished, they did not accept the said protest ; howbeit, would keep it, thereby to work all they could both at the coming of his Excellency and the States, sundry of whom were already arrived, and also forthwith among themselves and with those of the Council of State and others of other provinces, that such resolution might be wrought for her Majesty's better indemnity as was requisite. Thus much they desired me to take and advertise as their answer, which their Pensionary should in like sort deliver to me in writing. I replied briefly, that although they 'seemed and said' not to accept of the protest for reasons by them alleged, yet I took the keeping of it to stand and suffice for sufficient acceptation. And as they desired, I would as near as I could remember write over the effect of their present answer, and doubted not but her Majesty and the Lords of the Privy Council would fully consider upon the one and the other, and take that way to see her satisfied either by the General States or any of them in particular, being comprehended within compass of the words singuli in solidum, were it this place or other at her choice and pleasure, as their Honours should find most agreeable with equity. This done in substance as above-written, I left them, and at a notary's house did myself, and procured the aforesaid witnesses in his presence to subscribe and put their seals to two copies of the protest ; one of which I send you enclosed. The one with the last answer 'per' the college given me. If the other now promised be made ready, for which I solicited them most earnestly, you shall likewise receive it. To deal any further till I hear your good pleasure, I think not convenient ; only, as opportunity may serve, to require their carefulness, and all endeavour to travail so that her Majesty be not occasioned to proceed with such rigour as their 'longness' and irresolution has, does, and may provoke her to. Thus you understand what has passed since my last, and to repeat again what I 'enlarged of' in my former (though they harp still upon the same string, viz. their estate, disability, necessity, and causes of continual forced charges, etc.) is needless, since I know you sufficiently remember and consider it ; and therefore I await your further pleasure to the 'premisses.' The Prince is still in Zealand and divers of the States with him, awaiting Monsieur. If his Highness come not ere long, they are looked for here, to enter their general meeting, and take some order to prepare for this year to withstand the enemy and define their limits. Both the Prince's authority as Lieutenant general, and the 'provincional' Council of 30 expire this month, so that a new course must be taken, and choice made of Governors. The 'platt' for the Union of Utrecht, the Council of States of Brabant, and other particular and late-devised councils, cease in effect, or at least are so little respected and accounted of that nothing is done ; and whatever is begun for redress of former faults or abuses and to pass their business more resolutely and with expedition, within few days fall into wonted courses, so that the poor common people 'grow' in a manner into desperate terms. And for those of Flanders, I heard credibly that if some apparent help come not ere long trial will be made to enter into communication with the Malcontents about an agreement. It seems they would hearken thereto ; yea, if it were to make peace with the States and United Provinces. There is a speech here that the Malcontents have declared Monsieur and all that take his part to be enemies to the King of Spain, and no pardon to be showed to any that serve the French against them. To begin which, we hear that certain Frenchmen that were going out of Cambray or coming thither, were met with, and now saved. I understand that Mr Norris has laid siege to two castles or strong houses in Gelderland, and it is hoped will have them if the frost continues. The Malcontents in Flanders keep their old courses and do nothing further. The book which I sent herewith was sold publicly, but called in suddenly and all copies forfeited by the 'Scout.' It 'began to procure great murmuring' of many by reason of the oath ; and would have 'moved some alteration,' and expelled a number that would have forsaken this and other towns, being loath to take any new oaths until appearance of a better new Governor or government.— Antwerp, 28 Jan. 1581. P.S.—I have made a suit to Mr Governor, which if he move to you for, as I judge he will, I beseech you to continue your favourable goodness towards me, the reasonableness of it considered. Add. Endd. 3½ pp. [Ibid. XV. 13.]
Since the enemy got the castle of Bronkhorst, Keppel, and the castle of Werd belonging to the 'Grave' of Culenborg, nothing worth the writing has happened in these quarters. We have been these nine days 'ensconced' before Bronkhorst, and played with the cannon two hundred times to batter the walls ; being persuaded by the Estates that it was a place of small defence, but we find it both strong and defensible. Also the Baron of Anhalt and Schenck are this day come with a regiment of Frisians of 9 'ancients,' 2,000 strong and 2 cornets of horse to the rescue of it. Heghman, colonel of a 'Dutch' regiment, was shot before the castle, and died next day. We still hold our enterprise good. I cannot conjecture the event of this enterprise ; as it falls out, you shall be advertised.—Bronkhorst, 29 Jan. 1582 [sic]. P.S.—Before the sealing of this, the enemy have put powder into the castle and have retired, not finding it good as yet to assault our fort. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 14.]
Jan. 30. 521. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Since I wrote my last, the king has continued abroad in his pastimes. An opinion is grown in Court that Marshal Biron will have commission to go into Picardy towards Flanders. There-withal they speak much of Monsieur's preparations which he commands to be made in France. I certified you in my letter of the 27th, sent 'this other day' by Hankins, and English merchant 'trading Bordeaux,' of the young queen's going on pilgrimage to the Lady of Chartres, waited on by the Duchesses of Mercœur, Aumale, and Guise ; and now follows Mme de Joyeuse, the queen's sister, having been a little 'crased with Mallancoly.' With her went Mesdames the Maréchale de Retz, Dampierre, Bouchage. It was bruited in Court that Marshal Montmorency had taken Carcassonne ; but the contrary is understood from a secretary of his who came yesterday to Court. Howbeit, they of the Religion have entered into an uplandish town in Languedoc, towards the said Marshal's government, occasioned [sic] through some injustice shown them. It is named Montfort, in the county of Armagnac. 'Monsieur Marquis de Malespina,' lately sent extraordinary nuncio from Rome, deceased on the 28th. He was of noble birth, entirely esteemed by the Pope, and was 'in election' to have become Cardinal. As he was passing out of his miserable life, he received news that the Pope had bestowed on him the bishopric of Albenga besides Genoa, in his own native country. He was buried in St. Paul's church yesterday towards evening, accompanied to the church by all the Orders, and the nuncio resident, with all the other ambassadors. The Cardinal of Bourbon, the Prince of Condé's brother, was present, with other principal personages of the clergy. The Queen Mother had placed herself in a house not far from the church, where she saw the order of the funeral. I am told that the Florentine secretary seeks to win favour with their Majesties, and to 'return' the duke his master into their good graces ; offering some better composition to the Queen Mother for the palaces and lands in Florence and those territories to which she pretends title and right. They say the Duke of Florence is moved to return to this course, because he misdoubts the Pope's malevolence towards him. He has offended him by showing favour to Piccolomini and others, the Pope's fugitives ; and now lately Signor Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, has fled from Rome to the Duke, the Pope having imprisoned La Accorambona, whom Paolo Giordano 'pretends' to marry, as in my former letters has been specified. But that this Pope's stoutness has in appearance 'mated' the courages of all the princes of Italy, this hard manner of proceeding with Giordano Orsini might in some other time have given cause of trouble to the Pope's state. Howbeit it seems that he has forced the Duke of Florence to dissemble his injuries received, and has made the stateliness of the Duke of Ferrara to quail. As for the Dukes of Mantua, Urbino, and Parma, they have bowed their neck as vassals of that see ; and San Marco now with the rest has been contented to cry 'Peccavy,' yielding to have the Inquisition, and all things else as pleases the Pope. Whereon the Pope, finding himself thus well settled in Italy, begins to enlarge his practices hitherwards, into France, and likewise in Germany. So it is no marvel though all subjects bend their necks to this tyranny, when the greater number of princes also abase themselves to the government of a most unworthy and unlawful superiority, and but few cast their minds to withstand the practices and poisonings of the Romish malice which daily proceeds infesting every country. I am told that Nicolson, servant to Lord 'Vause' is come over, passing at Dover, with a great packet of letters, and is gone hence to Rheims ; from whence they say he goes to Rome with information of Lord 'Vause's' troubles and 'estate,' together with new instructions of Campion's and his confederates' acts. Lord Hamilton yesterday sent me by a friend of his a message that the two Scotch bishops here have received new advertisements and confirmation that James Stewart, Earl of Arran, had taken arms and was gone with forces into the field ; being 'at debate' with d'Aubigny, Duke of Lennox. He also sent me word he supposed that the said James Stewart could not have undertaken so great an enterprise unless he were supported by her Majesty. He was sorry she did not rather make choice of him than of James Stewart to do that kind of service, which he hoped he might better have undertaken ; James Stewart being but of mean birth and of new creation. He doubted withal that through the respect of the grace shown in this sort to him, his own pension was on that consideration detained. I heard this message and desired the messenger to answer Lord Hamilton, that 'when' those news should be true, he as I thought mistook the cause of the lingering of his pension ; for I had just cause rather to assure him that it happened through other important affairs which for the present thoroughly occupy her Majesty's mind and those who are nighest about her, considering his Highness was yet in England. I besought him not to be induced to enter into any such conceit till he saw some further cause. They inform me that with these two or three days two Irish priests have arrived with letters from Ireland. They 'pretend' to go to Rome. I am told that Covert, the 'procuror' here for the Papists, received on the 24th inst. 400 crowns from London. He sent it at once to Rheims for the maintenance of the seminary. It was the contribution of sundry Papists, of whom there are named to me Mr Roper of the King's Bench, Hopkins of London, Dr Smith the physician, of London, one Burgen of Hertfordshire, and one Busterd of Oxfordshire. I trust this advertisement may do none of them any further harm than 'shall appear otherwise they have given just cause.' Yesterday went from this town towards Rheims, John Hedley of Glosterhall in Oxford. The King of Navarre has written here that the queen will depart on the 25th from those parts towards Bordeaux by river. There she will stay some time till the king comes by land to Coutras, whence he goes to meet his queen at Blaye. So they will go thence to sojourn together fifteen days at Cognac, taking their 'joint further voyage' to Saint-Jean-d'Angely, where they will rest and refresh themselves. Afterwards the king thinks to return to Guyenne, and she purposes to repair to this Court. The peace in the parts of Gascony and Guyenne begins little by little to take good foundation ; the better because Marshal Matignon shows his willing endeavours therein. M. de Bellièvre and Clervant are in Languedoc, using all their means to establish the Edict of pacification ; which proceeds in very good sort. It is thought M. 'Rosas' the queen's preacher has used as little discretion as religion to persuade the young queen to go afoot on pilgrimage this foul weather, 'having had' both snow and rain. I hear young Pinart arrived here yesternight, and is gone to the king, who is looked for today.—Paris, 30 Jan. 1581. Add. and endt. gone. 4 pp. [France VII. 17.]
We have here a general embassy of all the Swiss and Grisons' leagues. They have returned very well content, and if we maintain our promises to them the league will be retied with a closer knot than ever. What has been promised is that at Easter men shall be sent to them with full powers to act and with a part of what is due to them. The business about Larache in Africa seems to have remained incomplete ; and similarly the provisions for Tercera do not go on as I could have desired, nor any of the others of that set (banda). Our queen took the opportunity there has been these days to fulfil a vow of going barefoot to Our Lady of Chartres, in order that she may grant her grace to have offspring. The first frosty day, in spite of all, she did not fail to carry out her pious purpose, and some tell me that his Majesty will follow her, to the same end.—' Paris, 31 Jan. 1582. Add. Endd. Ital. 1 p. [France VII. 18.]
To let you know that I am not a private person in this Court, you will do me a very great favour to read this letter from his Catholic Majesty. But perhaps the Lord Treasurer esteems my quality by my fortune ; would to God I were what he thinks.
Illi mors gravius [sic] incubat
Qui notus nimis omnibus
Ignotus moritur sibi.
I pray you also of your kindness, and by the service which Mr Edward Dyer (born for the ornament and splendour of England) has done, that you will let that bankrupt poltroon know that sheriffs' officers are not wanting in England to hang men who go bankrupt after having notice of their losses and misfortunes ; for I understand that many have already been satisfied by order of the Council. Add. Endd. with date by L. Tomson. On the back a list of names in Walsingham's hand : Sir Amias Paulet ; Scotland ; Hor. Palavicino ; Ant. Castillo ; Darcey ; Throgmorton ; Sir H. Cobham ; The Lord Henry ; The Lady Delvin ; Return Fogaza ; Mr Rauley Bowcer ; the Earl of Shrewsbury. Ital. 1 p. [France VII. 19.]
January. 524. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
Because a license on a great deal of barley and malt will make a great show and be small benefit to me, if you would let me have a license on 700 tuns of beer, I should think myself much bound to you, and so beseech you, when Monsieur has left England, to stand my good friend herein. Endd. 8 ll. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 15.]
January. 525. M. DE PENA to WALSINGHAM.
Although I fear that the repetition of my request to you touching the matter of 'Monsieur de Manssel' may be wearisome to you, your goodness emboldens me, as well as the promise you gave to let yourself be reminded of it when necessary. Since then an affair so pressing and important has come in my way, that the recovery of that sum would be as profitable to me at this moment, as if some one were to make me a present of it. Wherefore I humbly beg you to arrange this favour for me ; especially as the occasion is so appropriate for the presence of the debtor, and of Mr James Thomas, who is the principal middleman to whom I have written. This kindness will plunge me into eternal obligation towards you. Undated and unsigned. Add. Endd. by L. Tomson, with date and name : To procure the payment of the debt due to him by Mr Mansfeld [sic]. Fr. 1 p. [France VII. 20.]
? January. 526. "The copy of the chapter of a letter of Francis Anthony of Sousa, dated the 10th of January last, and directed to Diego Botelho from Antwerp." The Duke of Anjou as yet is not come. Before the holidays he had shipped his household stuff to come away, 'and was asaltead by the saint dronken and kissing of him' in such a sort that it kept him there the holidays, and there were made tourneys. But according to the opinion I have of the affairs of England, I think it will not be concluded, for the reasons following. The Earl of Leicester knows well enough that if the Duke should be married in England, he cannot be 'sure' to live there. Because after the marriage was 'in talk,' he procured some place in Germany, to dwell there if the marriage should take place. And therefore he speaks as much as he can against this marriage. And because most of the lords are his enemies, he persuades the people to withstand, and there are those that speak against it, that it shall not take place. Some others say that the lady is not barren, and that by God's grace she has two girls, and that the marriage shall be concluded with one of them. And let it be as it will, there goes much 'brablinge,' insomuch that there is no talk of any weighty matter of the realm ; and the Queen does not attend to other matters, but only to be together with the duke in one chamber from morning to noon, and after till two or three hours after sunset. 'I cannot tell what a devell they dooe.' As concerning his Majesty's business, you can understand she will not deliver a boat, neither would she lend any money upon the colour ; therefore make no account of her, that she will do anything to the value of a pin. Therefore his Majesty upon this plain speech may take order in his business. Writing and spelling as in a letter of Dr Hector Nunez of 10 Oct. 1582. Add. in a different hand : For Mr Lopez. Endd : Secret advertisements out of a letter of Ant. Sousa's dated in Janu. 1581. 1 p. [Ibid. VII. 21.]
? January, 1582
[or, qy., earlier].
527. 'Orders on the equipment of vessels of war under the Admiralty of Zealand.'
We, William Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau, on behalf of the King's Majesty, as Lieutenant and Captain-General of Holland, Zealand, Friesland and Utrecht, have appointed as our Lieutenant at sea, and admiral, William of Blois and Treslong, who will have command over all ships of war, both those in the service of the country, and those seeking adventures at sea [original draft : à la picquorée]. The admiral or our vice-admiral will take the oath required from all captains fighting under our commission, on the following points, before putting to sea. All prizes acquired by the adventurers shall be brought to the same port from which they started, saving the fortunes and perils of the sea, without calling elsewhere. Nor shall they proceed to break bulk until a proper disposition has been made by the Admiralty, that the general cause be not injured. Nor may they sell, ransom, or otherwise alienate any prize or booty acquired at sea ; nor any persons. Any captain or other who may be guilty of doing so shall be punished by attachment of their persons, ships, and goods. No ship is to go to sea insufficiently found in admonition and victuals according to the requirements of the voyage it is proposed to make. Whenever the word of God shall be proclaimed and preached, all persons shall listen and pray reverently for God's grace. No man shall take God's name in vain, or swear, or blaspheme, on pain of being fastened to the mast and thrashed (? chargé) by all the ships' { watch company } (? quartier). A provost-general is appointed, whom everyone shall be bound to assist and obey for the preservation of good police to punish malefactors. Any resistance to him, verbal or other, to be punished by imprisionment. And he shall appoint a provost on every ship that sails, who shall be paid as the captain appoints. All lieutenants, masters, officers, and seamen shall obey their captain, and not leave their ship without his consent on pain of death (? forfaicture du corps). Every man shall be answerable for and bound to defend his office ; the masters and pilots for the ships, the gunners for the guns and ammunition, and if any damage is incurred through their neligence or ill will, they shall be corrected according to the value (selon taxation). Every man shall be on board when ordered, and not remain ashore but by express orders and leave from his commander, on pain of forfeiture of pay besides other correction. Every man shall hand over to the admiral-general all booty, concealing nothing great or small, on pain of physical punishment. He is to keep a full register. If any ship, friends or enemies, is met with and taken, no one shall open any boxes or examine any secret letters, but place them in the hands of the admiral-general, on pain of the gibbet. If any prisoners are taken, they shall not be concealed or kept in secret, but brought before the admiral-general without delay to be examined. Captains and sailors shall ask no questions and make no complaints of each other during the present fitting-out of ships of war, under such penalties as the law may direct and the captain-general appoint. No one during this outfitting shall sue afresh for any debts or damages, nor mention them ; except in the case of misdeeds, of which the captain-general shall take notice. If anyone is sent ashore by his superior officer, he must not stay longer than he is ordered, without notable and legitimate excuse, on pain of forfeiting a month's pay, besides being 'arbitrarily' corrected. If any man is not at his post, he shall be punished at the direction of the admiral and the other captains. Anyone who wastefully spills his beer, or throws victuals overboard, or takes them ashore and sells them, or anything of the sort, shall be corporally punished, and may be hanged. Whoever does not wake at the sound of the whistle, shall the first time be punished at the captain's discretion, on the second occasion be thrashed (? chargé) by all the crew, and the third time keel-hauled (jetté sous la kille du navire). If anyone having taken the oath or received pay departs without written permission from his captain, he shall be corporally punished, and proscribed as a rogue (forfant). If anyone wounds another in the hand, he shall lose his hand at once. If anyone kills another with blow or thrust, the dead and the living shall be tied back to back, and thrown overboard. If anyone on board goes on fighting after hostilities have ceased, he shall lose the hand with which he broke the peace. If anyone signs on in two or more ships, he shall be incontinently hanged. No one shall handle fire, candles, or anything of that sort, save those appointed thereto by the captains. No one shall receive or send any letter save in the presence of the captain, who shall first examine them, and be bound to declare them to the admiral-general, on pain of corporal punishment. No one shall venture, after beating to quarters (après que la garde sera assise), to speak in a foreign language, or give the signal for fire, or make any noise or alarm, unless he actually sees the enemy about to attack, on pain of personal arrest. No one in any vessel, merchantman or other, shall venture to speak with the shore save by express order of the captain, nor commit any violence in such vessels by beating, wounding, or otherwise maltreating, under pain of such punishment as the offence demands. No officer, gunner, seaman, or other, shall hide, sell, or take ashore any casks, clothing, or horns ; nor any powder, balls, or munitions ; under pain of being punished for a thief by the gibbet. No person whatever shall hide, sell, or make away with any implements or materials belonging (compétents) to the gunners or the carpenters, under pain of being punished without favour, as right demands. Gunners and seamen shall be bound to keep their watch, to look out, to go to the boat, and take charge of, and manage the small boat, under pain of 'arbitrary correction.' No one shall move from the mess (? plat) assigned to him to go and eat in another mess, nor hide or sell victuals, under pain of correction at his captain's direction. No one shall give food or drink to prisoners in confinement, under pain of losing a month's pay, and being under arrest for eight days on bread and water. No one shall remain standing still after beating to quarters, but shall at once go to his appointed place, under a penalty of two souls gros, half to go to the poor, and half to the provost. When it is anyone's place or turn to stand by the boat, when the quartermaster calls to go to the boat [altered from 'Val, val, aisi'] any defaulter shall be liable to the last-named penalty. When the whistle goes for morning or evening prayers, any defaulter shall be placed before the mast, and thrashed (?) by his watch ; and also pay a fine as above. All these articles the King's Majesty and the Prince of Orange, his lieutenant-general for Holland, Zealand, Friesland, Utrecht, etc. order to be observed under pain of the penalties therein contained, by all captains, officers and seamen, and all persons great and small ; who shall take the proper oath to the admiral-general, or person by him appointed. Draft, or copy, with some corrections in a non-official hand. Endd. in English, and on the verso of first (blank) leaf, in Portuguese. Fr. 12 pp. (4 blank). Stitched. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 16.]
? January. 528. "Touching sugars at Holyhead." 428 chests of sugar, and 6 sacks of cotton wool, laden at the Bay of Todos los Sanctos in Brazil.
Resident in Lisbon
John Halcher, Almayn Proprietors of sugars and cottons laden in Brazil in a ship called the St. John.
has 85 chests of sugars.
Conrad Coimans Dutchmen
Francis Lawrence
Dutch resident in Brazil John Vanderbeke, Dutchman resident in Brazil
Portugals.—Jasper Roderiges, Portugal and master of the said ship, has 38 chests of the same sugars appertaining to him, and 40 chests belong to him and the company, and 50 chests or thereabouts were lost in Ireland. The merchants aforesaid have appointed William Vermeyden to be their procurator to recover both the said goods and all others which should happen to arrive in England, Holland, or Ireland, by procuration bearing date Lisbon, 5 January, of this year 1582 according to the account of Portugal. The said Jasper Roderiges, sworn and examined before the Judge of the Admiralty deposes that all these sugars and cotton wools appertain to the said merchants, except the 38 and 40 chests, belonging to himself and the mariners. The marks of every man's chests are laid down in the procuration, whereby they claim property in the goods. Vegleman, that went to Holyhead with process of this Court, for Vermeyden the procurator of the proprietors, has concluded and agreed with Sir Richard Bulkley so that Sir Richard is to receive for charges and his 'travail' in ready money £80, 6 chests of sugar and the Portugal bark. Of the 428 chests of sugar there are left to be delivered to the merchants proprietors but 280, whereof some are little worth, as is reported. Endd. as at head. 1 p. [Spain I. 84.]
? January. 529. "A note of the ships to be lent unto Q. Mo."
The Mary Rose 700 The West.
The Bonaventure 700 Plymouth—The Salomon - 300
The Dreadnought 500 Dartmouth--Bark Chapeley - 200
The Swiftsure 400
Subjects' ships. The Primrose 200
London. Newcastle.
The Gullyon - 300 The Isabella - - 200
The Royal Merchant 350 The John Bonaventure 260
The Salomon - 220
The Anne Parnell 200
Mem. in Walsingham's hand. 1 p. [Portugal I. 73.]