586. The PRINCE OF ORANGE to WALSINGHAM.
I have heard from M. de Sainte-Aldegonde and others of your
continued friendship towards me, and of your good affection towards
the affairs of this country, as well as of the good offices you have
done and still do daily for it. I thank you for them, and beg you
to continue. As for affairs here, you will have heard how everything
has gone from the report which the Earl will have given you
on his return. Since then things have remained stationary, but I
hope that his Highness will shortly begin to get them into good
order. His task shall be made easier (en recevra soulagement) in all
things within my power. Meanwhile I beg you to keep me in her
Majesty's good graces.—Antwerp, 6 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 45.]
587. HERLE to BURGHLEY.
You shall have the 'Joyous Entry' in French, that Monsieur was
sworn to at his coming to this town ; but in the mean time you have
one of your own, which I presented you, in folio and in written
hand, with a translation of mine in the 'margent,' out of Dutch
into English, of the substance of every article, and you have another
also in Dutch and Latin of my procurement, among the things
I exhibited to you of the state of Holland.
Let me humbly pray your favour, for the honour that is in you,
to join with my Lord of Leicester to make an end with Wm. Wade,
and incline Mr Secretary to aid therein, that my poor sureties
m . . . . . . . and respected. If you will vouchsafe to send for
Mr Os[borne ?] and Fanshaw, they are to receive £100 which the
said Wade is to have of me. Then my brother Johnson has a
bond of Wade's brother of £10, lent him by me, which upon the
'accord' shall be delivered him by the said Wade, and that makes
£110. My Lord of Leicester has promised to 'set him contented,'
of his own liberality, £40 ; which once dispatched, my conscience
and credit were relieved of a great burden, and I should pray to
God for your charity on this behalf during life. One word of Mr
Secretary's may end it ; and therein to do [sic] a good turn also to
Wade. I dare not write to Mr Secretary before it be ended ;
wherein make him my friend, and I will do him any acceptable
service I am able in 'lyew' thereof ; otherwise I shall be forced to
be a banished man out of my own country. If further her Majesty
would vouchsafe to contribute any part towards my charger, either
openly or secretly, I would deserve it in such sort that she should
find herself greatly satisfied many ways. Your letters of favour
and commendation to the Prince and Sainte-Aldegonde would
increase my credit and means of service. The next Diet of the
Empire is worthy of ob [servation], whereunto I offer myself
humbly to do all the offices that shall be con . . . . If Mr
Secretary were well inclined to me, which is only hindered by this
matter of difference of mine with Wade, his commendatory letters
would avail me much, and he would find that he were not unserved
by me again, in serving still your lordship for my principal patron
and director. Speed or dispatch in my poor causes is a double
benefit, which I humbly commend to you.—Antwerp, 6 Mar. 1581.
Add. Endd. 1 pp. [Ibid. XV. 46.]
The Grand Duke of Tuscany made knight of the Golden Fleece,
and was gone to Leghorn.
The Cardinal his brother was in charge of all the Catholic King's
business with the Church.
The Grand Duke was lending the king 400,000 crowns ; and it
was said that he would have Orbetello, a sea-port in the country of
Eight captains sent to Rome by the Catholic King.
Many people were being levied for the king in Naples, Milan, and
the county of Tirol, and it was said that Archduke Ferdinand would
come to the Low Countries as general, and that the Prince of Parma
would return to Italy to be married.
Troops were continually coming from Italy à la file, and some
Italians and Spanish captains of account had arrived at Namur.
Giannin Andrea Doria had had from his Majesty the banner of
the sea, and the king would have regularly 150 galleys in commission.
The king had got what he wanted of the King of Barbary for
200,000 crowns down.
They had routed and taken 3 ships of Don Antonio, going with
money to the Azores.
Sivan Pasha had returned to the favour of the Grand Signor, and
the people certainly held with the Soffi.
Colonel Verdugo was gone with a force, and it was thought he
would fortify some place to hinder the passage of the Rhine.
The Spaniards and Italians who had accompanied the Empress
to Spain were to be employed in the Low Countries. They might
be 4,000 men, veteran soldiers.
In the Dukedom of Milan many great murders have been committed
of late but specially at Pavia, by the insolence of the students,
by whom among others the 'father of the Inquisitions' was slain.
There is a great levy of soldiers, both in sundry places, and
generally everywhere [sic].
Endd. by Herle : Occurrents from Monsr. de Byllyott, a principal
person about the P. of Parma, and a Tuscan born ; and by Burghley
with date. Ital. all but two last pars. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 47.]
589. TOMMASO SASSETTI to WALSINGHAM.
A Florentine gentleman, a friend of mine, has asked me to introduce
him to the ambassador Cobham, because he had something to
communicate to him for the service of her Majesty and the benefit
of her subjects, a pious Christian work, and not a matter of
scandal. This gentleman has more than once communicated with
the ambassador, and has begged me, knowing how much I am your
devoted servant, that I would recommend to you the matter of his
request, and beseech you to favour him and help him to obtain his
pious and righteous desire of having the privilegio therefore, according
to the . . . . . which he has given to the ambassador. Of
which business you will be fully informed both by the privilegio
and by the memorial he has given the ambassador. He looks for
nothing if he does not give satisfaction to her Majesty. And since
Mr Jacopo Mannucci, to whom I have written, will tell you what is
occurring, I will not trouble you with a longer letter.—Paris,
7 March . . . .
Add. Endd. with date, 7 March 1582 (i.e. day of the month as
given by the writer, and therefore probably before change of style).
Ital. 1 p. [France VII. 37 bis.]
590. HERLE to BURGHLEY.
This morning I was prayed by Paul Buys of Holland to come by
10 o'clock to him. He uttered many things of his affection and
duty to you, and my Lord of Leicester, and of his desire to do her
Majesty service ; and truly he is most honestly inclined that way,
and of great ability to perform it.
He declared in brief that looking to the obligation these countries
had to her Majesty, and to the necessity of the present time, he
had thought good to make a motion to some principal person here,
that a league might be treated of between the Queen of England and
these countries of Holland, Zealand, Friesland, and some of the
maritime towns, for the defence of either state, and their assurance
against such preparations as might be made by sea, by any of the
adversaries of the Religion and common cause ; which might be
such a bulwark to meet all the devices of the enemy, that it would
terrify and confound, and break the projects before they began.
The person that he had moved this to, was of like opinion, and
the 'platt' ought to be first laid, and others proceeded in with the
respect that appertained to so great a cause and such a princess as
the Queen, and good substance and secrecy ; with such contribution
and caution as she should impose. This the said Paul Buys
desired me to let you and the Earl of Leicester understand beforehand ;
to prepare your 'wisdoms and favours' to consider what
were necessary to further the course thereof, when time were.
By this he said that the States of the Low Countries were ever
likely to fall into the hands of England and to depend entirely on
her Majesty, without her charge, to whom they bore true and
loyal affection, howsoever things 'had their revolution.' Further
he was not scrupulous, he said, if she were made acquainted with
his pure intentions on this behalf, if you thought meet, in private
sort, as of a thing yet undigested, to impart it 'with' her ; yet as
of a matter that will be negotiated with her as soon as it may be
brought to maturity and shape, and that with speed ; whereof he
willed that your Lordships should take knowledge, for he would be
ready to do anything that was for the service of England and his
He signified further to me, to be imparted speedily to the Queen
by you, that above five weeks ago the King of Denmark dispatched
secretly by ship to Spain his principal councillor and Stadtholder
of Zegensbergh from Copenhagen called the Rich Henryck
Rantzow ; for matters, as may be conjectured, prejudicial to the
States of the Low Countries and consequently to England.
The King of Denmark has two virtues in him that are remarkable ;
the one that he is changeable and heady, the other, covetous
and busy above measure, which is also the natural disposition of his
minister Rantzow, a person well known to both your Lordships by
fame and 'notion.' It is likely that in returning from Spain, and
the Danish ships are easily observed, and his person withal.
In Lisbon, where the King's Court now is, it were an easy matter
to decipher him ; and to come along with him as a passenger.
He is of stature but mean ; not much hair, and that must now be
white, or most [sic] 'gryssell.'
In examining some circumstances with P. Buys, I find that the
King of Denmark has grievously and newly enhanced his toll
within the Sound ; which the Hollanders, and next them the
Hanse Towns, do 'stomach' and will not yield to. And hereof it
may be that the King of Denmark, desirous to satisfy and
strengthen his doings by the King of Spain against his rebellious
subjects, seeks, by way of a double commodity to reserve his
unlawful exertions, and to employ his navy also in his service,
which it would be as dangerous to her Majesty and her subjects to
suffer as harmful to the Hollanders and Hanse Towns. It is of
most perilous consequence that the King of Spain should have
two such furnished and able navies at his command as those of
Denmark and Sweden, which latter is already to be employed in
any action of his, as may appear from the King of Sweden's own
original letter intercepted and extant, after it had been put in
cipher, by the Viceroy of Naples, and then returned again to the
King of Sweden, who, as you know, is an Apostata.
The Martinists, being now joined everywhere with the papists,
will procure the King of Denmark to 'change some course' in this
next Imperial Diet, touching the difference in the Religion, and to
be heavy on the Protestants, and thereby procure others to do the
Thirdly, Paul Buys advertised me that there were certain in
Flanders, whether towns or men, for he spoke in general terms,
who sought means to join the Malcontents. (Note by (?) Leicester
in margin : This is meant 'by' certain Magistrates and gentlemen
of Gaunt, papists, who would not swear to administer under the
Duke of Alençon ; who hereupon are expelled the town and charged
with conspiracy and defection.) It is a thing much noted, that the
French king stays so long from sending some persons of degree,
to congratulate 'with' Monsieur his new estate. This defect, with
other observations, increases suspicion and diffidence of some harm
that the state of these things 'are' to receive by debility, and by
the commixture or permission of two religions, 'having their minds
fixed' still towards England, as to a 'saved' anchor.
The enemy makes a bravery, as though he would besiege
Dunkirk, which is the sum of what passed between Paul Buys and
me. I beseech your lordships that I may hear from you with
speed, or 'namely,' that I may be able to entertain him with
thanks from her Majesty and you. He has bidden me say to you
that he will, to me alone, impart all the secrets and acts that shall
be treated here in Council, or elsewhere abroad, that her Majesty
may be served thereby ; commending himself to your lordships.—
Antwerp, 7 March 1581.
Add. 'by Mr Anthony Mildmay.' Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and
Fl. XV. 48.]
591. HERLE to LEICESTER.
Copy of the last.
Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XV. 49.]
592. HERLE to WALSINGHAM.
I presume in the good mind that I ever bore to your virtue and
person, and in the duty I desire [sic] to do you the best service I
can, to 'expone' to you my hard estate, and to pray you with good
favour to amend the same. You have understood how it pleased my
Lord of Leicester to make choice of me to attend him in his journey
hither, and that at his return I remained here, which has been
occasioned by the strait dealing of Mr Wade towards me ; who
for the non-payment of £50 [sic] at the day has proceeded in suit
of law against me, and finally condemned me. It has been a matter
much labored by my Lord of Leicester, to entreat him to come to a
reasonable end with me ; wherein my Lord Treasurer dealt also
somewhat. By my Lord of Leicester, to the end it might be an
onward between us, considering my poverty, and that I was utterly
unable to satisfy Mr Wade's appetite, 'granted' to pay £40 out of
his own purse, and that the rest should be made up by men to the
sum, in the whole of £150. Mr Fanshaw and Mr Osborne offered
him the assignment of £100 at their hands, of the first money they
should receive out of Wales (?), and I to 'content' him the other
£10. But he, 'grating' to have further assurance, such as I
could not yield, broke off wholly, and now would have £300. The
extremity whereof, considering that my liberty is the only thing that
remains to me, has made me take a voluntary exile upon me, yet
ready to perform anything in my power for the gentleman's
satisfaction ; whereof my Lord of Leicester and my Lord
Treasurer will witness for me. I have entreated either of them
by letters at this present, as I likewise do you, to 'send
for before you' Mr Fanshaw and Mr Osborne, that order
may be taken with them for the £100 ; and for the £10. Mr
Wade knows how to be satisfied by a bond of his brother's that
shall be delivered him. The other £40 my good Lord of Leicester
is inclined to answer for me. My humble request to you in particular
is to draw the gentleman's consent to be satisfied herewith,
which you will find to be an act of equity and conscience, and
thereunto have done Mr Wade a good turn also, for he will find
nothing in me to 'pursue' but want ; and to 'control thereof' to
his own harm will give small taste of tractableness or policy, much
more to add affliction to the afflicted. He is wise, and can measure
wisely who deals with him, and for whom. If I find your favour
extended towards me, poor soul, in this, as I ever assure myself well
of you, I will strive to do you such service as shall show my thankfulness
ever after, and to him a mindfulness that shall yield him
a good turn, according to my ability, before it be long ; having
quietness of my own, and liberty entirely, which I commend humbly
to your hands.
For occurrents, I know you are satisfied from here in other sort
than I can write ; besides that I would not hurt the sufficiency
of this worthy gentleman, Mr A. Mildmay your nephew, who is
instructed in all things. But if you will give me leave from henceforth
to make you acquainted with what I know, I will willingly
endeavour myself to content you in some good sort, for I have the
I have sent you for novelty a new 'Guisiardyn,' amplified much
and corrected, and a piece of Monsieur's new coin, 10 stivers. You
shall have his 'Joyous Entry' the first impression and before it
come to public show.—Antwerp, 8 March 1581.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 50.]
593. M. DE BUZENVAL to WALSINGHAM.
I thank you for the trouble you have taken to get my letters to
hand, and for sending me the answer, by which I recognise that
the person whom you wot of finds less difficulty in the execution of
the enterprise for the furtherance of which you have seen
solicitation made, than the fear which we feel regarded a good
result in this action allows us to do. As for us, our affairs in these
countries do not go forward so much that we should meddle in
others so far away. I see from the King of Navarre's letter,
written on the 20th ult. to M. du Plessis, that he considers all this
embarkation very suspicious and that throughout Guyenne they
were almost in alarm.
I wrote to you four or five days ago of what was taking place
here ; the difficulty which had arisen in the matter of religion went
on till yesterday, when it was granted to his Highness, after many
representations on either side, that the 'temple' of St. Michael in
the abbey of which he is lodged should be allowed to the Roman
Catholics for the exercise of their religion, with power to ask for
others, till the end of the war. This difference came very
inopportunely amid these beginnings which had been so joyful and
glad (alegres), and has somewhat delayed the course of most urgent
affairs ; to which however a hand has now been put, to provide for
levying an army, and to make preparations according to the answer
that is received from the king. We have every reason to pray, for
I see nothing either in public or in private to make us very elated
I have a favour to beg of you, which is to send me the copy of a
cipher which M. de Maninville left you. He left me its fellow, but it
was lost with some other baggage (hardes) a few days ago. It might
serve me sometimes to impart to you things which I could not
otherwise write. The lack of it is the reason why I could not
understand all his letter, and am not filling this with what I should
have liked. I am your servant, loving and honouring you as your
virtue merits, as does M. de Laval, who commends himself to your
good graces.—Antwerp, 9 March.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 51.]
594. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
My last served to inform you that the claim for a mass (la
prétendue m.) was delaying the establishment of order in these
countries. In which matter his Highness, urged by his people, and
backed by his Excellency with incredible importunity, and by threats
of the potentates, of the disfavour of the king his brother, with
other 'incidents' has obtained from the breede raed, the magistrates,
and the Estates of Brabant the church or temple of St. Michael, to
have mass muttered [? fluster] and sung, where all Catholics—
what I call papists—will assist, provided they have been resident in
Antwerp for three years past, and that they renounce the King of
Spain and take the oath to his Highness. These conditions were
settled last Wednesday, the 7th, to the contentment of his Highness,
who up till then had deferred making his proposals to the States
General. Today, the 10th, he has set forth the state in which the
country is, and the order which ought to be taken to re-establish it ;
to wit the Council of State, the Privy Council, the finances and other
necessary councils, the management of the war, the maintenance
of order, the establishment of his household. I will send you the
proposals and the reply by the first post. The intention of the
States is that his Highness should swear and make oath to all the
United Provinces before they reply to his proposals, since he has
been received and admitted Duke of Brabant, and in pursuance of
the treaty cannot be transported into each province to take the
oath. However, I perceive he will be bridled as regards the
ordering of the finances, by the promotion of sundry people who
are at the devotion of his Excellency and the States, who will lead
us into a perpetual necessity ; on which matter I leave you to
ponder, seeing it is the sinews of authority.
Many details are treated of during these claims, which are
delaying the progress of military affairs, for which reason the
enemy, foreseeing our actions, is disposing his affairs to get the
advantage over us. He has collected 36 pieces of artillery at Lille,
the order (?) of all his munitions and all the outfit, according to
the advices. Those of Lille insist on an attack upon Meenen ; la
Motte wants to have it on Dunkirk. All dispositions and preparations
have been made. This information, certain as it is, has
urged his Highness to call our people together to consider steps
against the enemy, to break their designs. To this end all the
chiefs are starting for some good exploit, whither I think of
betaking myself ; awaiting another opportunity to let her Majesty
know of some performance worthy of her service, which has not yet
reached the mark which they claim to have set for it.—Antwerp,
10 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 52.]
595. BAPTISTA SPINOLA to WALSINGHAM.
The master of that unlucky youth, Giovanni Scotti, not only
gave to Signor Horatio and me the care of protecting his interests
in the Queen's credit, but also took part in all the expenses
incurred by us in regard to it over there, in order to get the
desired assignment of it. Now, as you know, her Majesty gave
express order in writing to yourself and two others of the Council
to make an appointment with me ; which they not only did, but
also passed a writing of their own which must still be in Signor
Horatio's hands, in which is included no less the share of that
master of Scotti's than ours, and he has no less right to have his
own bills, and the course of his interest, than Signor Horatio, who
has obtained the one and the other. Now he finds it very strange
that after so much inconvenience and expense, his youth should
have been so long uselessly entertained there, and complains not a
little to me of this his misfortune ; and I can do no less than beg
you that for the sake of her Majesty's credit, of the deed you passed,
of justice, and of the service that I claim with you, you would let
the aforesaid youth have what was once so solemnly promised
him ; and I pray you the more, because I should not like the
principal in question under stress of desperation to indemnify
himself in any abnormal way.—Antwerp, 10 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 53.]
596. ANTHONY MILDMAY to WALSINGHAM.
Pardon me that since coming into this country I have not written
to you. I looked every day to have returned, but the wind has
overruled my determination, being always contrary since my
Lord of Leicester's departure. Notwithstanding which, to avoid
her Majesty's displeasure, I endeavoured lately to embark, but
before I had gone a league from Antwerp there arose such a storm
that by no possible means could I recover the town again, but was
constrained to cast anchor, where I remained from 7 at night till
4 the next morning, all which time the storm continued with so
great violence that I looked every moment to have been cast away,
but God preserved me beyond my expectation. It may perhaps
seem strange that in a river there should be so great danger of
shipwreck, a place rather of 'harbouroe' for ships ; but the loss of
22 ships between this town and Flushing may satisfy your doubt.
I myself saw these before the very 'key' of the town. Please
signify this to her Majesty ; I hope she will rather pity my hard
adventure than be offended with my staying here against my will.
I shall not fail to take the first opportunity of returning, which will
be with the better will, if I may understand she is satisfied on that
point. I am persuaded you are sufficiently advertised how matters
pass here, wherefore I will not trouble you with what is already
known to you. At my coming home you shall know, if it please
you, what observations I have made.—Antwerp, 10 March.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 54.]