609. RYHOVE to FREMYN.
I am writing a line to M. des Pruneaux, offering my service as
freely as I have written to him ; and to make an entry upon
friendship, as we say in our language, this begins with you. I
hope that no one will be able to take it from us. I write this back
frankly, and such as you requested me. Please instruct my son,
who is still inexperienced, that he may present this to M. des
Pruneaux and salute him from me. I am writing to his Excellency
to take steps on behalf of Count Lamoral of Egmont, which I pray
him not to refuse, and if ever a gentleman did anything for a
house fallen into decay, I beg you to do what is in your power to
prevent it going to ruin. Pray pardon me for this succinct and
untidy (maculée) letter. I write in that way, trusting in my friends.
I have nothing to write that I could impart to you ; and to put it
shortly, affections are increasing day by day, and everyone at Ghent
is pining for the arrival of his Highness, our Count of Flanders.
The enemy, on the other hand, are spreading in their camp that
we shall make a difficulty about receiving him. O what a delusion
(abus) ! All those who do not receive him cordially, we are turning
them every one out of the town. It is to the profit of his secretaries,
because when he comes, they will present petition upon petition
to be recalled, and it will come to pass, as the saying is, tel refuse
qui après muse.—Ghent, 16 March 1582. (Signed) de la Kethulle.
Note by Fremyn : Letter of M. de Rihauve, grand bailiff of Ghent.
Add. Endd. in England. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 64.]
610. GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
M. 'd' Alegonde,' as I heard, dealt this week very amply and
earnestly with the States-General about her Majesty's satisfaction ;
but no resolution thereupon, other than that after the chief causes
for the general state of the country ended, it should be further
considered and determined. The States of Brabant sent for me
on Monday, and after protestations how far they acknowledged
themselves bound to her Majesty, insisted instantly that I should
receive their parts for the interest past, which had been ready and
should be so at each time of payment, but to answer for others was
more than they hoped her Majesty would press 'of' them, as a
thing most impossible, their present state and want considered.
To which I answered 'not to have' any other commission than to
receive the whole interest for the year past ; howbeit I would
advertise of their request, and should shortly hear further.
Assuredly if the parts were taken as they offered, and those
unwilling to contribute their portions somewhat dealt with by
extraordinary means, it would mean less trouble or alteration and
presently procure their conformities.
Our company, as I understand by a letter from Mr Governor,
have or mean to appoint me to travel to the Diet of Augsburg,
there, so far as need may require, to answer their cause against the
Hanses. Of this commission I could wish to be discharged, and
otherwise employed as occasion might require. Howbeit, as their
servant I must obey ; yet I thought good to signify this much to
you, that you might command me if in any way I might be able to
do you service.—Antwerp, 17 March 1581.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 65.]
611. STOKES to WALSINGHAM.
My last to you was the 11th inst. at which time by means of the
foul weather few speeches were stirring here ; and yet much less
has been stirring this week.
This week the enemy lay before Meenen two days with all their
camp, making great shows as though they would have laid siege to
it. But they found the soldiers there so well disposed to receive
them, and also during the time they lay there the Scots issued out
two or three times every day and made stout skirmishes against the
whole camp to the great loss of the enemy's side ; in such wise that
on the third day their camp removed suddenly thence and is gone
to a castle belonging to M. de Vendeville called Zouterstey, which
those of Ypres hold, standing by a river that goes to Lille, within
3 miles of Loo, a place of importance, 'and' troubles la Motte very
much, and keeps Lille from victuals and wood. This castle the
enemy have besieged ; there are 150 good soldiers in it, and the
place is strong.
The Allmans that serve the enemy continue still in their mutiny
for their pay. They lie between Tournay and Lille, and will not
stir from thence till they have received all their pay. By good
advice from Lille, this mutiny has put the enemy 'from beside'
some enterprise which they had in hand, greatly to their hinderance
M. la Motte of Gravelines has made great preparation there and
at St. Omer's to lay siege to some town ; and by good advice from
those parts, after they have taken the castle of Zouterstee, it seems
they will come to Dunkirk, therefore the Four Members of Flanders
have sent thither 3 ensigns of French that lay here in this town,
and one ensign of Flemings that lay at Damene, so that there will
be 10 ensign of good foot and one cornet of horse, beside the
burghers in the town.
The enemy's great hasty preparations and stout dealings make
them half in doubt of their estate here in Flanders ; and they fear
the more, because it seems it will be yet four or five months before
they have aid to any purpose from France. So it seems their hope
and trust is to have sooner some aid of 3,000 or 4,000 men from
England, or else it will not go well with them.
The day after the enemy's camp departed from Meenen, the
Scots went out with 50 lances from thence as far as Tournay, and
there within half a mile of the town they took a messenger with
the Prince of Parma's packet going to the enemy's camp, to the
Marquis of Risbourg ; wherein he wrote that though the Allmans
had not 'used themselves' well, they shall be contented within five
or six days, and then they shall be sent to the camp. Further he
wrote him that he was sure the States were not able to impeach his
enterprise by no manner of means, and that he should have the
rest of his necessaries with all possible speed.
Upon the grant of the 'religious frede' at Antwerp, the Catholics
in Ghent began to use some stout speeches, as though they would
make suit to his Highness at his coming thither, for the like.
When these speeches came to the magistrates' ears, they sought
out the principal talkers hereof, and also some others that said
they would take no oath to him, and banished them altogether
from the town, about 200 in all.—Bruges, 18 May 1581.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 66.]
612. FREMYN to WALSINGHAM.
I wrote my last to you on the 11th inst. Since then the enemy
has made a show of besieging Dunkirk. It is held that it is already
invested, since all the necessary gear had already been made ready
at Gravelines, where they say there are 30 pieces of artillery,
intended to batter it. His Highness has sent Col. Chamois with
his regiment to enter the place, where Admiral Treslong will be
in command. He has assured them that he has 6 months' provisions
in the town. His Highness has the preservation of the
fortresses greatly at heart, seing that if there were any default
therein now he is come, strange things would be said of him.
The Prince Dauphin is not yet gone, but it will be soon. He will
be his Highness's lieutenant-general in the army which is being
raised in France ; to which end a good many gentlemen of his
Highness's train are setting out for France to make their levy.
The Prince of Parma is at Tournay, with most of the gentlemen
of his party, except the Marquis of Risbourg and la Motte, who
are at the camp.
Mr Étienne Lesieur, whom you dispatched on the business of
Mr Daniel Rogers, is here ; who arrived yesterday from those
countries, and is writing to you at length about it.
The Prince of Parma and the Malcontents do not attach much
importance to the reception of his Highness when they speak of it
openly, but think much of the forces the King of Spain is sending
hither. His Highness and his Excellency will soon show them that
they are reckoning without their hosts, provided that things go
[voisent] forward, as they are planned. His Excellency is employing
all his means to provide this.
The deputies of Friesland and Guelderland united with the rest
of the generality for the reception of his Highness, and the oaths
taken reciprocally, one to the other ; it being understood that there
is to be no exercise of the Roman religion in their provinces at
present, except as may be hereafter decided in the assembly of the
States-General. The mass was first said last Friday at St. Michael's,
where his Highness appeared. They have sent to Brussels to have
a church for the Catholics. Theron was the messenger, but did
not do much. They answered that when his Highness was there,
they would consider ; which will not be so soon as with an army (?)
As for the other provinces, he is not asking there for any exercise
for the papists, knowing well that it would be the way to spoil
everything. Meanwhile he sees affairs going along slowly, when
there has been talk of the facts and the re-establishment of
religion's-vrede ; which is why nothing more is said of that.
His Highness has sent 10,000 florins from his own purse to the
soldiers at Bruges. For the little diligence shown here in obtaining
money, or if they go often to his purse, it will soon be exhausted ;
and the people here find it very pleasant not to put their hand into
theirs. His Highness's establishment is not yet settled, neither his
household nor his Council ; it will be seen that they will be French.
It appears too that his Highness may send M. du Plessis to the
Imperial Diet about to be held at Augsburg. These are ruinous
commissions, but he is a wise and honourable gentleman, who well
knows how to discharge what he undertakes. He goes at present
to Court, where his Highness gives him a good reception, but to
tell the truth he does not go very often unless he is sent for, or
has some thing to do for the public good.
They are trying (on est après pour) to get Count Egmont set free
in exchange for M. de Turenne and the Count of Ventadour, his
nephew ; and they are giving to M. de la Noue, to set him free,
M. de Champagny and M. de Selles, who is at Rammekens, provided
that the Ghent people let M. de Champagny follow to the
castle of Rammekens. M. de Teligny, M. de la Noue's son, is
prosecuting this matter strenuously.
His Highness has pacified and settled all the quarrels that there
were at Court in such wise that everybody is content. He will
start for Ghent at the end of this month.
The garrison of Meenen has taken a lot of prisoners from the
enemy, including two bishops and some principal commanders of
Albanians.—Antwerp, 18 March 1582.
Add. (in English). Endd. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 67.]
613. HERLE to BURGHLEY.
I wrote to you by these late posts five or six letters, wherein
were contained sundry advertisements and papers of collections,
which I hope will not mislike you, nor leave unexpressed my
desire to serve you. But as the season has been, the posts
are as yet detained on this side, with the 'troublesomst' weather
that has been here these 40 years, and with a continual contrary
wind, which has hindered many things, and cast away above 30
'sail of ships' here in Holland, and broken down the dykes and
walls of the country, and therewith Monsieur's arms, that were
fastened at the quay-gate of this town, and with the violence of their
separation from the place they were tied to, brought with them a
great part of King Philip's crown and 'armorye' which were directly
under the scutcheon of Monsieur's arms. 'Consequently' have
been seen fearful bloody and fiery impressions in the air in the nighttime,
which has ministered matter of much speech here, both of
apprehension in some, and of calculation in others, what those
tokens may portend to Monsieur and the King of Spain by way of
Since that time, Monsieur has made his propositions to the States-General.
I send enclosed the copy of his oration to that effect.
Touching the articles that were delivered with it, I am not sure at
this instant to have them time enough to enclose with this letter,
for some scruple that is made in the delivering of them ; but by
Monday noon I shall not fail of them, or to send them to you.
Meanwhile the articles in general 'subsist' of these points :—
First, Monsieur requires the maintenance of the 'Religions Frede,'
the restitution of justice, the establishment, with sufficient persons
fit and able thereto, of the three Councils, viz. : that of State, the
Secret Council, and that of the Finances, with the Chamber of
Accounts and Aids 'appendent' thereunto. Fourthly [sic], that
prompt and speedy means be found to levy men, to provide munition,
and to appoint the order that shall be convenient for resisting the
enemy. Fifthly, that whereas they are agreed to contribute 300,000
guilders monthly for the charges of the wars, they will set down
when and how that sum shall be 'answered.'
Sixthly, that a sufficient able man be chosen to be treasurer, to
be answerable for the said contribution, in order that meaner
officers may not consume it while it is in their custody, by their
multitude and 'lowsnes' [qy. looseness].
Lastly, that it be declared and set down what the authority is of
the colonels of this town and how they may be limited. This point
proceeds from the Prince of Orange, thereby to make Monsieur
beholden to him, and the colonels also.
The rest of the points, and of the conclusion to be taken by the
States, with their answer to each particular, shall be sent you
by the first messenger that comes ; and I pray an answer to my
former letters, when they have come to your hands, with as
convenient speed as may be.
I send you also herewith the occurrents of Italy, which are
delivered me by a person of account, and therewith a minute of
Monsieur's entry and 'auguration' here. When it comes out in
point, you shall have the first 'draught' that shall be seen of it.
If I were rich (as these things cost money) you should have more
things : but you will bear with this in the mean time ; for I have
no aid here but God and myself, and you best know my ability.
Touching the enemy, they raised their camp from 'Ingellmister,'
'Rowssellar' and Iseghem on the 13th inst., burning their cabins,
and marching by Corttrick to 'Deddissell' (Dadizeele), a village
within two English miles of 'Mennyng.' They had brought part
of their cannon from Tournay and Rousselaere to Corttrick, and
part also, to the number of 20 pieces, to Gravelines. Meenen is
situated upon the river Lys, distant from 'Risselles' (Lille) three
leagues, and from Corttrick two ; now very strongly fortified to the
landward from the river, but commanded by a hill which discovers
their whole rampart and the chief street that leads to it. If the
enemy were masters of this town, they had no impediment to stay
them from the gates of Ghent. In Meenen are 9 ensigns of Scots
and 2 cornets of horse with Captain Seton, with provision of
victuals and necessaries for three months.
There has been controversy in the enemy's camp between the
Walloons and Allmaynes, which occasioned their long stay about
'Rowssler.' Now they are reconciled, and yesterday the Prince was
advertised, to his great perplexity and Monsieur's, that they were
departed again from 'Deddissell' towards Dunkirk ; but what they
will do is not certain as yet, the Prince of Parma being earnestly
solicited by la Motte of Gravelines to besiege that place, which
obtained, with the little town of Berges St. Wynock which joins
near unto it, would exclude all aid of the French by Calais,
assure Gravelines, and be a port for the King of Spain to trouble
them greatly here, and to draw aid of men and ships out of
This was foreseen, and advertisement given of a great chain that
was made at 'Risselles' to stop the mouth of Dunkirk haven ;
whereupon 6 ensigns of French were dispatched thither on Thursday
morning, and with him [sic] the Admiral of Zealand, Treslong,
who is also Governor of Dunkirk, supplied with things necessary
for enduring a siege. Monsieur also took up upon his credit 18,000
crowns here, to be repaid in Paris, whereof he disposed 12,000
towards the expedition of the said 6 ensigns. There are 6 companies
of Scots and Walloons in Dunkirk already, and one cornet of
horse. The Scots are of Col. Preston's regiment.
The chain which is made for the haven will be of no effect, for
beside that the late storm has made a larger breach in the mouth
of it than the chain is able well to comprise, it has been 'experimented'
in Holland that a chain in a narrow river is not able to
endure the force of a hoy under sail, much less of a ship that has
the 'sea ocean' under foot. Yet it is feared that the town will be
lost, and then Monsieur loses his credit here ; and if the enemy
follow his victory, a great part will revolt, and Monsieur be driven
to provide for his further safety. The enemy has 36 pieces of
battery, great provision of munition, and store of baskets to defend
There are some who think those 8,000 soldiers, 30 great ships,
12 galleys and 2 gallions that are ready at Lisbon, may be employed
for Dunkirk, if the Prince of Parma besiege it in earnest. Some
others mistrust the preparations in France, under the pretence of
helping Don Antonio.
Monsieur is practising here secretly with Count de Lalaing and
Montigny, to draw them to his part ; using for argument their own
reasons whereby they first persuaded him hither, and next the
security that they may be in by his and their conjunction, the
estimation that will be had of their virtue and persons, the danger
they stand in by the coming of the Spaniards and new supplies, the
assurance they shall have of the 'Religions vrede,' and to enjoy all
such ecclesiastical goods and lands as they are already possessed of,
of which, if the Spaniard prevail, they will be wholly deprived, and
of the 'premisses' withal.
The Prince of Épinoy and his wife, sister to Lalaing and Montigny,
are made great instruments herein, and 'largely promised' in case
they can work so great a good to the general good of the cause and
their country ; which they have undertaken to do, and meantime
are much coveted by Monsieur and the Prince of Orange. The
winning of these brethren would 'alonely' dissolve the King of
Spain's enterprise here, 'expulse' the Prince of Parma, and exclude
the entry of the foreign power that is expected ; whereby the aid of
France 'would not need,' and they would as little regard England
then. Some of judgement suppose that if Lalaing and Montigny
be once brought in to join Monsieur in action, this state will become
wholly French, which would be a near peril to England, and the
fortifying of France and Scotland against us ; whereunto some are
prompt to set forward the advantages thereof, and to intimate the
same in their negotiations, having already conceived hardly of us,
and desiring but the means to cry quittance. Therefore it is
wished by those who 'counterpays' things, that Lalaing and
Montigny might remain in the state they do, to serve as instruments
of Spain ; to draw the wars only in length, for the good of
the soldiers and the quietness of the neighbourhood. On the other
side, if Dunkirk should be lost, the French king will be utterly discouraged
from giving any assistance to his brother, being ill-affected
already that way ; and then of necessity the Queen of England will
be entreated, they say, to 'succour the common peril,' which concerns
her as near as them.
It is daily confirmed here that the French king disavows all his
brother's actions and enterprises, 'renouncing' the aid that is
demanded for the establishing of him in these countries. This
clears the Queen of England of any conditions and contracts passed
with Monsieur, a matter that rejoices some persons of good 'post'
here. Du Vray is looked for daily. He left Paris ten days since.
Monsieur also reposes great trust in his sister of Navarre's
negotiations with the French King for him ; expecting by Neufville
to have 'resolution' both that way, and from others of his friends
in France. But small hope remains of success from thence ; therefore
if matters thrive not here, Monsieur 'makes an estate,' as some
near him newly affirm, to return to England, and from thence work
his peace with his brother, and ground his further course thereupon ;
it being hard they say that the French King will neither suffer his
only brother to live in France peaceably in his degree, nor elsewhere
to make that advantage of his own assurance and greatness, which
argues that there was a snare laid by the French King to have
entangled her Majesty with the whole expense, hazard, and envy
of the wars.
A grant has been made by Monsieur of 12 ships for the service of
Don Antonio, with 1,200 mariners from hence. The furniture and
charge of them is to be 'answered' at Tercera, but it appears that
money must be provided here beforehand for them, otherwise the
enterprise will grow cold and vain. The Prince of Orange on
Wednesday, at midnight, to terrify the more, sent for the principal
merchants of Portugal that are here resident, to be with him the
next morning before 7 o'clock ; to whom he exposed in a long speech
the justice of Don Antonio's cause, their natural and lawful king,
the necessity of their country, now oppressed by their enemies the
Spaniards, and their ability here to relieve this by money, whereunto
they were bound by duty and nature to supply their parts
therein, and to satisfy the expectation of their king, and of the
action [qy. nation] general ; otherwise he could not favour nor
esteem them as he had done. The merchants having time given
them to deliberate, made answer the next day that they were only
factors who were resident here, and had no authority to dispose of
other men's goods, whose masters, being many, were in Portugal
with their wives, families, and substance, under the hands of King
Philip, subject to suffer confiscation of all and violence in their
persons if they should make but show to aid Don Antonio. It
appertained not to them as merchants to decide the titles of kingdoms,
but to attend the issue of God's disposition ; at which time
they would render good account of their duty and loyalty, either to
Don Antonio, or to him that were placed in that seat, with the
'expense' of their goods and bloods. In the meantime they prayed
that they might be preserved in this neutrality here ; or if not to
have 3 months' respite to retire with their things to a place of
security. This answer has satisfied the Prince at present. He was
urged to deal with them in this warm manner by Don E. di
Crasto, ambassador here for Don Antonio ; a very child.
They are now coining new money in gold and silver, bearing
Monsieur's arms quartered with those of Brabant. But the Prince
and he would 'of new' raise the valuation of the money to 5 per
cent more, which our nation, and the rest of the inhabitants here
with the foreign merchants, flatly refuse to agree to ; and will
rather depart altogether than be subject to such an inconvenience,
as has already undone many, and the traffic withal. It is said that
the bullion of gold and silver out of which they coin their money
was supplied from England.
On Thursday it was proclaimed from the Town House that both
Protestants and Catholics should abjure the King of Spain and
swear to Monsieur. Such of the Catholics as are not yet sworn
are kept out of the church that is assigned for mass, till they have
performed the order appointed in that behalf.
This day Monsieur solemnizes the remembrance of his nativity,
having prepared a great banquet of 14 'mess of meat' to entertain
the State-General and the magistrates and colonels of this town.
There will likewise be running at the ring and quintain, with other
The Duchess of Parma is at Namur, smally respected ; Lalaing
at Mons, and Montigny with the Prince of Parma, and sometimes in
Villiers's cornet of horse,—who is marshal of the States' camp,
brother to 'Hawtyn,'—was overthrown last week by an ambush of
the Malcontents ; the cornet taken, the lieutenant and 57 slain, the
rest prisoners or dispersed.
The uniting of 'Bollduck' to this town, and 'to receive' Monsieur
as their sovereign, is still treated of and entertained.
Brussels is 'tolerated with' touching the mass, and 'Religions
vrede,' since it is a frontier town, and 'has' brought in information
to Monsieur by record, that the papists have sought four sundry
times since the contract was agreed upon between the States and
him, to betray Brussels to the enemy.—Antwerp, 18 March
P.S.—It is reported very credibly that a gallion is arrived at
'Sluice' (?) out of Spain with 500,000 crowns for the service of
King Philip's wars in these parts. The Malcontents have had 'a
pay' of late made to them.
'Aquisgrane,' that has long been besieged by the Prince of
Parma's appointment 'in' cutting off the villages that hold with
the town is brought to some extremity ; but the Duke of Bipont has
travailed to dissolve the siege, protesting otherwise to the Prince of
Parma and to the Duke of Cleves who deals in this matter for him,
of the wrong that is done to the Empire thereby, and of the inconveniences
that may follow. By reason that the Protestants made
themselves masters of the town, the Prince of Parma's 'pretence'
of war is grounded thereupon, to remove them from the government
and possessions ; for he would not be so 'neighboured.'
Add. Endd. by Burghley : Wm. Herle by Anth. Mildmay. 9 pp.
[Holl. and Fl. XV. 68.]
614. ROSSEL to WALSINGHAM.
The state of things here is that the mass remains restored, to the
disgust of honest people, who from such dissimulation can expect
nothing but a judgement of God ; as was sufficiently witnessed the
day on which it was granted by the horrible influences and agitations
of the storms and winds, whirlwinds (tormentes) at sea, never
before seen by all the pilots or navigators. Neither papists nor
others apprehended the terror of these movements, but were
rather hardened. Re-establishment of the mass in the temple of
St. Michael, where his Highness took possession the 16th, not
without great importunity. During those 'messalic' solicitations,
the States-General, irresolutely, some not being authorised, the
others not heeding their authorisation, are contending over the
establishment of the state, as well the Councils of State, the Privy
Council, the Finances, as other orders required, so that military
affairs remain unsettled.
Those of Guelders yesterday agreed to the union, subject to their
authority and privileges. Overyssel and Utrecht did not come.
This delay and irresolution makes his Highness deliberate about
going to Ghent to receive the oath, and coming near the enemy,
who during our disputes say they mean to make some attempt on
Dunkirk. His Highness, hoping to make provision for their
designs, has sent off M. Chamois to enter that place with 8 French
companies, in addition to the 3 of Scotch and 3 of Flemings that
are there. He has, by letters of exchange drawn at Paris, found
12,000 crowns to give the troops who have followed him, awaiting
the general muster which will be made of all the garrisons in these
parts, which should be the 1st April. To this effect have been
struck 30,000 marks of silver and 400 of gold, minted with the
effigy of his Highness, and the arms of France quartered with those
of Brabant up to a million florins ; which will serve to manifest
the ducal possession in Brabant. Now it behoves to strike out
(forger) other faculties and forces, which, being promised on the
king's part, we are awaiting, and without which we shall be ill
able to subsist. For against the opinion of many who hoped for a
revolt of the Malcontents, they have decided on the contrary to
endure the yoke of the Spaniard rather than that of a Frenchman,
and have sent the Bishop of Arras and a certain Abbot of St.
Ghislain to the King of Spain to let him know that the decision of
the disunited provinces is to receive and welcome as many Spaniards
as shall seem to him good, against the tyrannical designs of the
Prince of Orange, who has brought in the Duke of Alençon as a
usurper of the provinces of Brabant, Flanders, &c. To manifest
their resolution they have 'broken quarter,' and have executed
some prisoners as traitors and disloyal to their natural prince,
against law human and divine ; which has so frightened some
papists that they have put off making the renunciation ; indeed,
later [plustart ; ? plutôt] leave their properties and houses.
I cannot tell you anything of the state of the military arrangements,
in as much as the principal posts remain suspended. While
both the resolution of the States-General is being awaited, and
hopes are entertained for France, they continue the defensive.
Many are scandalised to see so little expedition and order in affairs.
Not perceiving any movement in things, to such purpose that they
will have no end save provisionally, one cannot perceive the hope of
the King of France's favours, which are awaited from day to day,
and which they pretend to perceive by human wisdom ; for my part,
I refer it to the divine will.
I leave your agents to furnish you with a copy of the proposition,
the speech on entry, the reply and rejoinder, part of which I have
got for them, as I do not wish to take an advantage of them.—
Antwerp, 18 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XV. 69.]
615. Two proclamations by Cornelius van Mansdale, undersheriff,
the burgomasters, aldermen and council of Antwerp :
(1) Calling upon all who had any acquaintance with or knowledge
of Jean Jaureguy to give any evidence in their power about him or
his accomplices ; (2) Appointing the next day but one as a general
fast with prayer for the recovery of the Prince ; no work to be done
on pain of a fine of 6 Carolus gulden, half to go to the army and
half to the poor.
Printed. 2 pp. of a f'cap. sheet. [Ibid. XV. 70.]
616. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
At the receiving of your last packet the king was not come to this
town. After his return he spent two or three days in his particular
devotions ; as going privately, he and the young Queen, sadly
apparelled, to the churches to obtain the jubilee and other pardons.
So till to-day, Monday, I could not have access to him.
Now I have, according to the commands received from you,
signified to him how the Queen had been induced to fear he
conceived that at my last conference I had required that he should
support the whole charges for the enterprises his brother might
make in the Low Countries, because his ambassador had been
advised from hence to that effect. I was therefore now again
commanded to repair to him, to let him know that the Queen sought
no further of him than that he would be pleased for the better
advancement of Monsieur to defray half the charges for the
maintenance of his estate and the defence of those people who have
put themselves under his government, and that the States might
defray the other moiety ; whereby, the marriage proceeding, her
Majesty and her realm should not be overburdened with those great
Upon this the king broke off my speech, and told me that he had
the other time, as he did now, very well understood the purpose and
meaning I had delivered touching that he should defray only the
half, and has not written otherwise to his ambassador of the
'conceit' of my last speech ; to which he said he must answer as
he had done heretofore, seeing no cause to alter his resolution,
which was that he had promised that after the Queen had made
him and his brother so happy 'as the marriage might be
accomplished,' he was then to do in all things as much as she
should perform on her side. This he desired I would let her know
to be his absolute intention.
I declared to him that though he should assure the Queen to her
contentation that he and the States would disburden her from those
charges, yet he might consider how after she has married Monsieur,
who is the chief person and enterpriser, the burden would otherwise
become very great to her and her realm in respect of the kindness
she 'was' to use after her princely manner towards her husband upon
all occasions ; as also the nobility and other estates of the realm
'were' to show themselves dutiful to him by employing their
persons and goods in his service. So in this manner the realm
would be much burdened, and drawn to an extraordinary charge.
The king answered that he could not say otherwise than he had
formerly 'delivered' to me.
Afterwards I further signified to him how the Queen found it very
strange he did not like to give assurance for the defraying of his
part of the charges before the marriage was accomplished, and she
had fastened herself to his brother by an indissoluble pact ; considering
those of the Low Countries had now chosen and 'erected'
Monsieur to be Duke of Brabant. It was esteemed by all men,
though the marriage was not yet accomplished, that he will not
suffer his brother's estate to take any decay for 'lack of want' of
support ; which being in that sort meant by him, he might justly
now before the accomplishment of the marriage assure the Queen
that he will bear half the charges of the war, through which
act he 'was to' bind his brother exceedingly. He would also
take away that great impediment which has so long impeached
the effecting of the marriage ; which he might be the more easily
induced to, when he remembered that in all marriages the contracts
are signed and sealed and assurance given before proceeding to the
consummation. He might in this case the rather incline to satisfy
the Queen, since all Monsieur's acts and conquests must needs
bring him both honour and strength, inasmuch as Monsieur is his
subject, and the enterprise to be achieved by the French, his
To this he said that when the Queen takes his brother to be her
husband, she will enjoy the fruit of all his travail to her contentation
and glory ; and when the marriage is consummated, he
will consequently bind himself in writing to do as much for Monsieur
in all manner of ways as she does for him being her husband. This
he said was his resolution ; and thus finding that this negotiation
was not pleasing to him, I left off importuning him further, and
took my leave.
Now I will tell you how according to the advice in your last, on
the 14th inst. before the king's return, I visited M. Pinart, to
'accomplish' with him, in respect he had taken pains to cross the
seas to the Queen's Court, and done so good office ; delivering
honourable reports in such a sort that I said I was bound as her
Majesty's minister to come and thank him, and I besought him to
continue his honourable disposition.
He took occasion to speak of the great satisfaction he had received
from her Majesty and the lords ; entering into some discourse how
he had negotiated and persuaded her to proceed to the marriage.
Of this he found sometimes that Monsieur had very good hope, and
at other times he was in despair of it ; but for himself he had not
opinion now that it would take place, and verily doubted that Monsieur
would not return thither again. Moreover he 'enlarged' to me
that Monsieur had sent du Vray to the king to entreat him not only
to give the Queen assurance to defray half the charges, but to
become fide jussor for the Estates that they and Monsieur should
defray the other moiety. To this he told me the king had answered
du Vray resolutely that he would not join with the Estates in any
manner of way, nor become bound for them to the Queen. So again
this other day, du Vray pressing to have his dispatch with his
Majesty's further declaration to Monsieur's request, the king wrote
to Pinart that the more he considered the matter, and his own
affairs, the less willing he found himself to satisfy his brother's
request. This letter Pinart showed me ; and in it he was also
commanded to persuade du Vray to return, considering Monsieur
had sent for him. It was, as I thought, all written with the king's
own hand. Of this negotiation of du Vray's concerning that
point, which 'intends' that the king should be bound to her
Majesty that the Estates should defray their moiety, I never
heard, nor was I by du Vray or any other made privy thereto.
This request I fear has displeased the king and taken away the
opinion of the marriage.
M. Pinart further gave me to understand that he carried with
him to England full commission to conclude a league offensive and
defensive in case the marriage proceeded. If the Queen had
accomplished it, or appointed some certain prefixed day, the king
would for his part have given assurance for the moiety of the
charges. Since his return he has moved the king with many reasons
to assure her Majesty that she shall be unburdened of those charges
before she passed an indissoluble covenant. Howbeit, finding
the king so absolutely bent to do nothing until the marriage be
past, he did not write to England, not having the means to give
her the satisfaction he desired. Seeing he thus delivered his mind
in these affairs, I told him I had received letters whereby it seems
that the king has mistaken my last conference ; since it was understood
I had declared to him that the Queen required him to defray
the whole charges of the war in the Low Countries, as also that
she found it strange he did not give security for his part before the
marriage were consummated. To the first point he answered that
it could not be so taken, because the king and his mother conferred
with him at the time, and he perceived by their speeches that I had
only dealt as heretofore for half the charges. As for the second
point touching the giving of security before the marriage, he wished
me to press the king thereon, but he assuredly thought his Majesty
would show his determination to be as heretofore declared.
I then asked him if there were no other means to induce the
king to take away that difficulty as to the defraying of the charges.
He said he doubted there was no remedy. I asked him whether,
if the Low Countries and Monsieur would be bound to the Queen
to defray their moiety, the king would be at once bound to do the
rest. He thought not, because he found the king no way inclined
to join them in that sort ; but to contract with the Queen in case
of marriage. I told him, it was but a thought of my own, and I
had no command to deal so far therein ; and he likewise said he
would be loth it were known he had spoken so largely. He thought
it good to tell the king I had visited him passing by ; to which I
consented, begging him to procure that I might have access to the
king at his return, which he promised and 'accomplished.'
M. Pinart also let me know that Count Brissac was to embark
about the 22nd ; but for Don Antonio and Strozzi there was no
'opinion' of their going at present.
I have been advertised that the Queen Mother, being pressed by
the Pope's nuncio to stay the sending of forces to the Isles of
Terceras, answered that if King Philip would leave Portugal in the
same state as he found it, withdrawing his forces and means from
that realm, she would likewise recall the French who were gone to
the Isles ; and will be content to refer her right to be judged by
the Pope, if King Philip will consent thereto. Otherwise, as he
had entered with forces into Portugal, she meant to take what she
could in other places.
I send herewith a book treating of Don Antonio's right to
Portugal, with the genealogy.—Paris, 19 March 1582 [sic].
Add. and endt. gone. 4 pp. [France VII. 40.]
617. ETIENNE LE SIEUR to WALSINGHAM.
I arrived at Tournay on the 27th ult. and found the Prince of
Parma there, but could not have access to him to deliver her
Majesty's letter until the 6th inst. at which time after verbally
declaring to him the purpose of my coming and of the charge I
had from her Majesty, and giving him the aforesaid letter, he
enquired of me sundry things touching her Majesty and the entertainment
of the Duke of Alençon in England, and his journey to
the Low Countries, accompanied by several English lords. I
answered that I knew almost nothing of any of these things, having
been absent. Then, leaving this discourse, he told me that he would
read her Majesty's letters, and I should have his answer in a day
or two. It came on the 9th, to the effect that to please her Majesty
the King of Spain was content that Mr Rogers should be released.
Touching the dissatisfaction felt by her Majesty at his long imprisonment,
he excused it on the ground that he had not been able
to release him without the king's command, which he received a
month since. He said some things to me of certain harsh expressions
used by her Majesty in the letter which I brought him, which
I will omit for the present, until I reach England ; and further said
that considering I was not going direct to her Majesty, he would
write to her through Don Bernardino de Mendoza.
Having finished his remarks, which were on various subjects, I
desired to know from him in what manner Mr Rogers would be
handed over to me. He answered that it would be without payment
of ransom. As for what he had when he was taken, such as
money, jewels, clothes, and horses, he had seen nothing of it (and,
so far as I could understand from his words, he had no wish to
know or hear anything about it). Touching her Majesty's letters,
and other papers which he had, they were in Spain, and accordingly
out of his power to hand over to me. He added that her Majesty
only wrote to him to send her Oratorem. I pointed out that although
these particulars were not specified in the letter, nevertheless she
understood that he would be liberated and have all his property
restored, and such was my commission. But to this they [sic]
would never consent, also throwing all expenses on the Queen of
England to pay, or on the prisoner ; he refusing totally to do it.
On this I argued a little, pointing out to him how inequitable and
unjust it was that Mr Rogers being sent from her Majesty to the
Emperor and the Princes of the Empire should be robbed on
neutral territory and kept prisoner nearly two years. I could get
no other satisfaction or reply from him than that Mr Rogers should
be handed over to me provided that I found means of satisfying
those who had maintained and kept him. To this effect he gave me
two letters, one to the Baron of Anholt, the other to Schenk, towards
whom I shall with God's help set out in two or three days. I
doubt if I shall be able to get Mr Rogers out, owing to the difficulty
of the expenses, which will be great. Nevertheless I am going,
as much to deliver him from the close prison in which, as I
understand, he is languishing, as to learn the total sum. When
I know it, I will not fail to advertise you, to know by what
means it may be obtained. If her Majesty does not assist
him, or write afresh to the Prince of Parma resolutely, saying
specifically that Mr Rogers is to be delivered to her without
detainment (detènement) for expenses, I do not see how, considering
the small amount of his own means—for he has lost much—'nor
of' his friends, Mr Rogers is ever to get out ; so that he will finally
die of misery and grief in prison unless by your favour her Majesty
uses her accustomed benevolence towards him. Therefore I beseech
you that at my return to this town I may hear what you wish me
to do, whether to go back to England and leave him, or prosecute
his liberation in any case, a thing which requires both time and
When I was at Tournay there came into my hands the little book
which I send you. It is publicly sold there, and at Mons, Lille,
Douay and Valenciennes. Having read it, I found it, in my simple
judgement, to be a thing both false and distorted (contrefaicte),
treating in many places prejudicially of the Queen of England. Not
knowing if you have seen it, I thought it my duty to send it to you.
You can easily judge what it amounts to. I spoke of it to M.
d'Assonleville, president of the Council of State, begging him that a
thing so invented might be 'reformed.' I was also bold enough to
assure him that it had never been made in England, and so was an
injustice to her Majesty. He was somewhat abashed and promised
to speak of it to his Highness ; who, as he told me, commanded him
to find out whence it came. I replied that I believed the author
was not very far off, without disguising much. He excused himself
somewhat, on the ground that he had never seen it. This time I
took my leave, waiting for my dispatch and passport, which I could
not get till the following 14th, when I left there, and arrived here
On the 18th between noon and 1 o'clock a strange rumour arose
of the wounding of the Prince of Orange. The details of this I will
excuse myself from writing to you, several gentlemen having been
there who by this time are on your side, besides that I am sure you
will hear it in detail from those who know how it all happened.—
Antwerp, 19 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XV. 71.]
618. JOHN NORRIS to WALSINGHAM.
I persuade myself that ill news fly faster than any letters can
pass ; yet I could not but advertise you of the villainous treason
invented and executed against the Prince of Orange, who on Sunday
last, at the castle, retiring from dinner to his chamber, was shot
through the cheeks by a Biscayan, who also was presently killed by
the Prince's guard and others. He had about him a letter from
Paris, dated the 5th inst., two dried toads, and a paper whereon
was written Jesus Maria etc. superscribed in Spanish : "To all
those that favour this holy enterprise, greeting." Of his
confederates and other particulars when we know more you shall
be advertised. 'Presently' we had a hot alarm through the city,
with great lamentations, and posts dispatched to the cities about to
stay all sudden tumults and innovations. The Prince, fearing
death, highly commended Monsieur, and the country to his
protection. His surgeons as yet find no apparent tokens of death.
Add. Endd. with date. ½ p. [Ibid. XV. 72.]
619. COBHAM to WALSINGHAM.
There is little to advertise other than was in my last dispatch,
since the king makes no show that anything is in his mind but his
devotions. He seems nowadays to answer some demands, that he
cannot grant them, 'for offending' his conscience ; and otherwise
he answers, he cannot gratify such requests for fear he should
thereby displease God. These words are much noted, because he
has not been heretofore accustomed to use such. He has appointed
a monastery of Cordeliers behind the Louvre, for the instant
beginning of which he has already assigned 50,000 crowns.
The king uses a great deal more familiarity and open kindness
towards his wife than he has been accustomed.
His Majesty seeks to purchase of the King of Navarre the county
of Rodez in Rouergue, to bestow on Duke Joyeuse, and buys the
county De Vertu in Champagne in like manner to bestow on
Épernon. These two dukes, together with the Duke 'Mercury,' are
to go to visit the Duke of Lorraine, Madame de Vaudemont, and
the Queen's youngest sister, who is promised for wife to M.
d'Épernon. This journey they have undertaken upon their promise
given to the Duke of Lorraine. They go jointly, lest the one
remaining behind might give some cause of jealousy to the other.
The king is borrowing of the Count of Retz 5,000 crowns, of the
Count of Chàteauvilain 3,000, and of divers others, for the payment
of the Swiss. He has now at last consented to create the
Count of Retz duke and peer of France.
They write that the Queen Mother is on her journey towards
'St. Mesants,' where it is thought within three or four days she is
to meet the King of Navarre and his wife, together with the Prince
The King of Navarre has made divers reconciliations in the
countries of Poitou and Saintouge between sundry gentlemen of
the one and the other religion who had private quarrel together ;
having 'procured' the Prince of Condé to receive into his good
grace M. de Ruffec, governor of Angonlême, by whom that prince
had been very exceedingly injured.
Now lately the King of Navarre and the Prince of Condé, with
seven or eight other gentlemen, 'put themselves into a mask,' and
went unlooked for to the marriage of a lady of the Religion, who
was sometime married to M. de la Ferté, and brought with them
prizes for those who would run at the ring ; and after they had
had divers courses masked, discovered themselves, to the great 'contentation'
of most of the gentlemen of those parts. In this sort
the king and prince obtain the good wills of the nobility and
The Queen Mother, in a conference with la Neufville, lately sent
by Monsieur, declared to him that she meant nothing less than to
persuade the King of Navarre to come to this Court so long as she
saw the king her son possessed with such bad company ; and that
she would 'procure' by all means to establish the good intelligence
between Monsieur and the King of Navarre.
The king has sent for his mother to be here at Easter at the
To content Lavalette, Épernon's brother, the king has displaced
from the government of the towns in the marquisate of Saluces, the
Count of 'Samphrey,' seneschal of Saluces, and son of the late
grand 'esquier' of Savoy. He has besides given Lavalette the
inheritance of a town in the marquisate, with 20,000 francs.
The king continues to send more than ordinary garrisons into
Picardy, who pass daily. And there has been some opinion that
he can be content that Marshal de Retz should compound for
money with the Prince of Condé for his government there.
It is said he has now almost got together his 600,000 crowns to
pay the Swiss ; having appointed M. de Fleury, elder brother to
M. de Marchaumont, to go as ambassador to them to disburse the
money, and take their oath for the continuance of their league and
alliance with him.
There is going from hence of our papists one Pilcher, who looks
asquint with both eyes. He has in his company one Getor, a priest.
They both go to bring over money. This other day two papists
went hence towards England, one named Clayton, the other
Middleton. Both are to be heard of at Mr Gilford's of Sussex.
One Page, a professed papist, is gone towards England.
Bailly, the steward of the seminary at Rheims, has repaired
hither to confer with the nuncio and the Bishop of Glasgow about
the publishing of the bull the Pope has granted in favour of the
English papists ; a copy of which I send you herewith.
I enclose a copy of Morgan of Islington's letter, written in favour
of some who are imprisoned in Rome, directed to the Bishop of
Ross ; with a note taken out of the Bishop of Ross's letter, directed
to Thomas Morgan in Paris.—Paris, 20 March 1581.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France VII. 41.]