§ 1. GENERAL.
Capture of Port Royal. Murder of Governor Parke.
The most striking events in the Colonies during the
years 1710 and the first half of the year 1711 were the
preparations for an Expedition against Quebec and Montreal; the successful Expedition to Nova Scotia and the
capture of Port Royal, and the murder of Daniel Parke,
Governor of the Leeward Islands.
Major Livingston's journey to Quebec.
But perhaps the most remarkable of the documents
included in these pages is the "Journal of the Travails of
Major John Livingston from Annapolis Royal to Quebec and from thence to Albany and soe to Boston" (673).
Col. Vetch, in introducing the hero of this extraordinary
adventure to Lord Dartmouth, says that Livingston endured "not only the greatest fatigue but danger ever
mortal perhaps undertood and escaped" (741). He can
hardly be accused of exaggeration. For the tale of
Livingston's experiences includes almost every conceivable form of hardship and disaster into which the liveliest
imagination of a romancer could plunge his hero, if his
hero were, like Livingston, a pioneer amongst the shows
and half-frozen lakes of Canada.
The occasion of this amazing journey, which was
begun on Oct. 15th, 1710, was the carrying of a letter
from General Nicholson and the Council of War to the
Governor of Canada, announcing the capture of Port
Royal, demanding the surrender of English prisoners,
and threatening reprisals if the Marquis de Vaudreuil
perisisted in raiding the frontiers of the British Colonies
(427, 427 i.). Landing in the neighbourhood of Penobscot, at a harbour which he named after the Baron de
St. Castien, who was detailed by the late Governor of
Port Royal to accompany him, Livingston set forth with
a party of Indians, well supplied with provisions and
canoes. They worked their way along the Penobscot
River and presently laid in a stock of snowshoes. A
party of Indians from Penobscot, infuriated by the escape of an English prisoner whom they had captured
at Winter Harbour, would have killed Livingston in
revenge, but the intervention of M. de St. Castien saved
his life. So threatening was their aspect, however, that
he was obliged to empty his kegs of rum, for fear of its
effect upon the exasperated Indians, should they get hold
of it. "We suffered much after in our journey for want
of it" he observed. The snow was already knee-deep
upon the mountains, and the rivers were full of ice. The
waters of Penobscot River were running very fiercely at
"the Riplings" (rapids). The very day after they had
begun their journey in earnest a canoe was capsized in
which Livingston lost all his clothes and provisions and
his gun. One Indian was drowned. Through snow,
rain, mud and ice, over rough carrying-places and across
beaver dams which compelled them to unload their
canoes; occasionally shooting some geese or ducks, or
finding a beaver in a trap; sometimes carrying their
canoes for lack of water, sometimes breaking the ice for
miles at a stretch to make a way for them, they pushed
indomitably on. Ere long they were obliged to abandon
their canoes, which were cut and torn by the ice. After
going for ten days, provisions began to run short. They
reached a chain of lakes, but were obliged to skirt it,
the ice being too weak to bear them. But more than one
lake they did in desperation cross, creeping on their
stomachs with a long pole in their hands, for the ice was
so thin that it bent in waves beneath them. It seemed
little better than madness, the narrator admits, "but
Death was before us … and the Indians were resolved
to go over being sharp set with hunger" (pp. 376, 377).
They were compelled to delay their progress whilst they
hunted for beaver, the Indians feasting all night when
they killed, and making no provision for the morrow.
Presently they were weather-bound and forced to pass
some days in wigwams. Wet to the skin with alternate
snow and rain, sometimes wading rivers waist high, they
came at last to the Great Lake. But it was not frozen.
They were obliged to circumvent it by "extraordinary
bad way, through most prodigious doleful woods" (377).
After one day of desperately bad going and having been
"forced to haul very short" for lack of food, when their
lives depended upon every league they made towards
their goal, they suffered the most depressing experience
which can befall a traveller. "About two in the afternoon we came across our own tracks." They had been
travelling in a circle.
Vaudreuil and English prisoners.; Account of French in Canada.
Through such hazards they worked along a branch of
Penobscot River, apparently in the direction of the
Chesuncook and Moosehead Lakes and St. John River,
and over spurs of the Green Mountain Chain. On Nov.
25th their breakfast was a walk over a mountain "which
was prodigious high and steep." Their shoes were torn
from their feet, but having the good fortune to kill a
beaver, they were able to repair them. They were now
reduced to eating the bark of trees and roots. At
length, by the 5th of December, after travelling 10 or
12 leagues a day with nothing to eat since they killed
a couple of porcupine on Nov. 30th, they were utterly
spent. When they were reduced to the last extremity
they came upon a house. "I cannot express the joy I
felt at so comfortable a sight." They had reached
Quebec River. A few days later Livingston was being
nobly entertained by the Governor of Canada "with
musick and dancing," and sharing in the Christmas festivities of Quebec. Vaudreuil, however, said he could
not undertake to exchange prisoners who were in the
hands of the Indians. (p. 380). By the 10th of January
Livingston had set out again for Albany and Boston with
Vaudreuil's reply to Nicholson's letter, Later, he sent
in a detailed account of French forces and fortifications
in Canada (569).
Expedition against Canada abandoned.
The abandonment of the Expedition against Canada in
1709, due to the diversion of the Fleet upon more urgent
coccasions, had caused uneasiness among the Five
Nations. Governor Dudley expressed the fear lest the
Mohawks would now be more easily detached from their
allegiance by the French Missionaries among them
(81). In February a mission of Sachems accompanied
by Col. Schuyler sailed from Boston in order to wait
upon the Queen and Ministers, and to urge the renewal
of the enterprise against the French (103, 194). The
dispatch of this mission had been decided upon by the
Congress of Governors, etc., in October, 1709, as is shewn
by the document printed C.S.P., 1709, No. 794 i.
Doyle is therefore wrong in supposing that it was undertaken by Schuyler on his own responsibility (English in
America, Middle Colonies, p. 346). The visit of the
Indians, which has been described by Smith and immortalished by a paper in Addison's Spectator, created a
considerable sensation in London (See also p. xv.).
Disappointment at the abandonment of the Expedition
was keenly felt also by the New Englanders. The cost
of preparations in the previous year had been great.
Not only was Massachusetts not relieved from the heavy
burden of defending the frontiers, but seaborne trade
suffered severely from the privateers for whom Port
Royal still provided a secure base. Nine vessels in five
days were taken by them outside Boston in May (237).
Petitions, as we have seen, were sent praying for a renewal of the Expedition. But those who had been most
eager to help were discouraged at the absence of any
instructions for a further attempt (81, 81 xvi., 237).
Expedition sails for Boston.
General Nicholson, however, was sent over by Sunderland in the spring to make preparations. On July
15th he arrived at Boston, where he had long been impatiently expected (240, 241, 246, 288, 357, 380, 396).
The Naval and Military forces which accompanied him
are shown (241, 241 i., ii., iv.).
The Governors of the Northern Provinces were summonded to Boston; a Council of War was held, and the
several Governments were warned to contribute their
quotas of men, provisions and transports. This proved
to be a matter involving some difficulty and delay owing
to the lateness of the season and the discouragement of
last year's postponement. Deficiencies had also to be
made good of stores of war "pretended to have been sent
over from the Tower" (396). Still, Governor Dudley
had his contingent ready by Aug. 22. The quotes from
the other Colonies arrived at Bostion in the Second week
of September (p. 267).
The Expedition welcomed.
Addresses of thanks for the promised Expedition and
assurances of co-operation were sent to the Queen by
Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut and
Rohode Island, with a request from Massachusetts that
Port Royal, if captured, should be garrisoned by regular
troops, and a suggestion, from Rhode Island, that the
quotas might more justly be based upon the numbers of
the Militia in each Colony (337 i., 356, 357 i., 358).
Fall of Whig Ministry.
Meanwhile, at home, the Whig Ministry had fallern
Emboldened by the manifestations of Tory enthusiasm
which followed upon the ill-advised impeachment of Dr.
Sacheverell by the Whigs, Queen Anne hastened to
change her Ministers. Sunderland was dismissed.
Dartmouth succeeded him as "Secretary of State for the
Southern Province with the West Indies" (327, 497).
Sunderland and State Papers.
It was Characteristic of the way in which State Papers
were still regarded as private correspondence of a particular Minister, that Sunderland took with him the
papers of his Office, and in the following February had
not yet delivered them over to his successor (699).
Some light may be thrown upon this proceeding by
Burnet's story that Nottingham and the extreme Tories
wished to impeach Sunderland, but Dartmouth refused
to help them with material from his Office.
General Nicholson and Col. Vetch wrote anxiously
from America to the Secretary of the Board of Trade
asking for Court news (392). Mr. Popple's reply was
sent after the General Election and indicated the formation of an entirely Tory Ministry under Robert Harley.
St. John had succeeded Boyle (497). It was with this
Ministry that Louis XIV. attempted to renew the negotiations for Peace which had fallen through in 1709. The
change of Ministry did not, however, immediately affect
the fortune of the Expedition.
Baron Dartmouth and the Expedition.; Lord Shannon appointed to command.
Baron Dartmouth approached his duties and Colonial
problems with the energy and careful investigation of a
good man of business. On the 6th of July, in response
to his exquiries, Mr. Jeremy Dummer reported that it
was not too late for the Fleet to saild. He based his
reply upon the experience of ships in 1690 and recent
navigation. The time for going up the St. Lawrence
was September, and it the Fleet sailed from England
by the last day of July, it would still be early enough,
though it would have been better had it been earlier
(290). Preparations were then pushed forward (297).
Lord Shannon was appointed Commander in Chief of
the troops to be employed in the reduction of Canada
and other places in America (301, 302). He was directed to proceed with all haste to Boston. There he
was to hold a Council of War with Cols. Nicholson,
Vetch, some senior sea-officers, and the provincial Governors, before advancing on Quebec. (302).
Expedition against Canada postponed.
But on the last day of August Dartmouth, in a dispatch
to the Governors concerned, announced that though, like
last year, all necessary preparations had been made to
provide a force of sufficient strength to beat the French
in North America, it had been found necessary to lay
them aside for the present "by reason of the contrary
winds which happened when the season was proper for
the Fleet to sayle, and in regard of other important services which intervened." They were ordered to proceed with the Expedition against Port Royal under Col.
Nicholson (380, 381).
Expedition against Port Royal.; Syrrender of port Royal and Nova Scotia
Nicholson sailed from Boston for Port Royal when
September was a fortnight old (392, 395, 396). Only
four hundred out of five hundred Marines ordered had
arrived from England. Some fear was felt lest this
weakness combined with the strengthening of Port
Royal "upon last year's alarm and this year's expectation" might render the undertaking more difficult than
it would have been in the spring. But these gloomy
forebodings were happily falsified. Port Royal had received no supplies from France for three years. The
place was in no condition to resist a siege, and fell almost
at the first blast of the trump (241, 241 i., ii., iv., 396,
613, 879). After "a week's service on the shoar" the
Governor, M. de Subercase, surrendered the fort and
country on Oct. 2nd (411, 412, 491). A Journal of the
Expedition was printed in the Boston New Letter, Nov.
6th (491 xiii.).
Annapolis Royal: name and plan.
The name of the place was changed to Annapolis
Royal in honour of the Queen (460). A plan of the
Fort is given (434). Col. Nicholson described the extent of the territory acquired (460), and a memorandum
of the bounds of the coast was sent by Capt. Southack
Articles of Capitulation.
The Articles of Capitulation were destined to prove the
occasion of some trouble in the future (411, 412). It
was provided that the inhabitants within gun-shot of
the Fort were to be allowed two years in which to decide
whether they would leave or take the oath of allegiance
to the Crown of England. In the mean time they
might remain upon their estates undisturbed, "with their
corn, cattle and furniture." Certain arrangements were
made for the transport of those who wished to retain
their allegiance to the French King. A list of the inhabitants of the banlieu is given (433). The rest of
the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, as Nicholson was quick
to point out, were "left absolutely prisoners at discretion"
(412, 427 i., 460). The Garrison were to march out with
the honours of war and return to France (412).
Disposal of inhabitants.;
News sent to Quebec.;
Col. Vetch Governor of Annapolis Royal.
In announcing their success to the Queen, Nicholson
and the rest of the Council of War asked for instructions
as to the disposal of the French inhabitants. They
recommended that all the French inhabitants of the
country who would not adopt the Protestant religion
should be transported without delay, and that a settlement of British Protestants should be sent over to develope the lands, Fishery and Naval Stores. A Collector
of Customs was required, and a frigate to guard the
coast as well as 500 men to garrison the Fort (460, 613,
879). News of the surrender of Port Royal was sent to
the Governor of Canada through the agency of Major
Livingston, whose journey we have already described
(427, 673). Using the French inhabitants as a pawn,
the Council of War notified M. de Vaudreuil that reprisals would be made upon the chief of them, if he persisted in permitting the savage raids upon the frontiers
which resulted in "inhumanly murthering a great many
poor innocent people, and children." They demanded
the surrender of British prisoners in the hands of the
French or their Indian allies, particularly the daughter
of the Minister of Dearfield. In the event of refusal,
the like number of the chief inhabitants of Nova Scotia
would in the same manner be made slaves amongst
our Indians (427 i.). Nicholson returned to Englands,
leaving Col. Vetch as Governor of Annapolis Royal with
a garrison of 500 troops, partly composed of Colonial
volunteers. Annapolis Royal was proclaimed sole port
and place of trade for Nova Scotia (419, 420, 425, 460,
491). By way of asserting the Queen's sovereignty,
Vetch presently assumed the title of Governor "of all
the territories of Accadie and Nova Scotia" (613). Hen
was able in the New Year to announce that all the inhabitants remaining within the banlieu had taken the
oath of allegiance. But as for the rest, he had granted
them no terms, in spite of their requests for protection
and offers to take the oath of allegiance, since he was
awaiting anxiously instructions from home upon that
head. Uncertainly as to their fate was keeping them
in a ferment and the Indians hostile. Steps were being
taken to repair the ruined Fort (460, 613, 613 i., ii., 879).
The problem of supporting the garrison and providing
for their pay caused the usual anxiety to a Governor who
was not sure whether his bills would be honoured at the
Treasury (741 i., ii., 742, 879), and who was himself left
without pay or salary. Col. Nicholson himself found
difficulty at the Treasury both as to his own pay and the
meeting of bills drawn for the cost of the Expedition
Plight of the Garrison.; An Indian Ambush.
The garrison suffered severe losses during the ensuing
winter, partly from the cold and partly by the desertion
of numerous Irish Papists. They were, moreover, unsettled by lack of any instructions as to the establishment of this mixed force, whilst the French and Indians
rendered the task of repairing the fortifications hazardous
and difficult. Vetch pressed for reinforcements either
from the Five Nations or the Independent Companies at
New York. He repeated the request for a frigate to
protect the port and coasts. In June a large fraction
of the much reduced garrison was ambushed by Indians
from Penobscot and destroyed (879, 879 i., 884, 887).
Vetch reported that he was hemmed in and threatened
by the enemy on the land side, whilst two French ships
appeared off the coast with provisions and reinforcements
Resources of Nova Scotia.; Order of Baronets.
One of the inducements offered by the supporters of
the project of taking Nova Scotia had been that the
country would be able to supply the whole Navy with
Naval stores (396, 460, 479, 482). Col. Vetch was soon
able to announce that a first shipment was ready (884).
The fishery, furs, coal and mineral wealth of the country
were also represented in glowing colours (482, 579, 884).
Addresses of congratulation upon the success of the venture were sent to the Queen from Massachusetts Bay
(482, 579), New Hampshire (435), Connecticut and
Rhode Island (503–505). Her Majesty was reminded of
the promise that had been made, that the Governments
which participated in the Expedition should enjoy a
preference both in regard to the settlement of the land
and the trade and fishery of the Province. The leaders
of the Expedition made a similar request, and asked in
addition that the Honourable Order of Baronets of Nova
Scotia should be revived in their favour (425, 426).
(No Baronets of England, Scotland etc., were created
after the Union, the title being changed after 1707 to
Baronets of Great Britain, v. Pixley. History of the
Baronetage). The retention of the country in the
coming Treaty of Peace was particularly urged (482,
Renewal of Expedition against Canada.
At the same time the New Englanders petitioned for
the renewal of the attempt upon Quebec and Montreal
in the Spring, whilst suggesting that the quotas required
from them should be reduced, and that the other Colonies, as far South as Virginia, should be called upon
to contribute their share (435, 482, 491, 503–505, 575 i.,
579, 769). No settled repose, it was declared, could be
expected until Canada, "the American Carthage," was
subdued (579). On October 14th, a fortnight after the
fall of Port Royal, five regiments were embarked at
Portsmouth under Viscount Shannon, but to not purpose
(428, 430, 430 i.). In the following February the Expedition was once more put in train. The preparations
were to some extent entrusted to the new and able Commissioner for Trade, Arthur Moore (678, 681, 697–701,
The alarm of the attempt in 1709 had occasioned a
strengthening of the defences of Quebec (528 vi.). Endeavours were made to keep the new design secret. But
Mr. Moore reported on the 4th of March that it was already public property (699–701). General Nicholson
was now prepared to sail (681, 701). But, as usual,
there was delay in dispatching the ships (701). Nichol
son having communicated his instructions to the several
Governors, a Council of War was held at New London,
June 21, which was attended by the Governors of New
York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and
Connecticut. Measures were concerted for providing
transport and supplies. The Minutes are given (893).
Strict embargoes were laid on all the ports in the hopes
of maintaining secrecy. The Proclamation issued for a
General Fast to intercede for success would hardly seem
to be the best means of securing that object. The
provincial quotas were ordered to concentrate at Albany
on July 2nd. The offer of some of the regular officers
sent over with Nicholson to command these contingents
was not received with enthusiasm (893).
The arrival of the Fleet and forces under General Hill
was then awaited.
On land, apart from preparations for resisting the
British attack upon Canada (which included the building
of a stone fort at Chamblis), the French made the best
use of the reaction caused by the postponement of that
enterprise (317, 528 vi., 673). Their intrigues with the
Five Nations once more caused anxiety (81, 834 i., 863,
863 i., 864 i. and see below, p. xv.). Encouraged by
M. de Vaudreuil, the Canada Indians raided the New
England frontiers (v. supra). Governor Dudley's intention of inflicting reprisals for the rewards offered by
Vaudreuil for English scalps received the approval of
the Board of Trade (34).
French at sea.
At sea, enemy privateers were "thick as bees," and
raids were made upon the Leeward Islands (v. § 3. p.
xlv. The capture of Port Royal, however, gave great
relief in this respect to the New England coast (237,
In the spring of 1710 we hear of a large fleet of merchantmen, with a convoy of five men of war under M.
du Clair, sailing unmolested from La Rochelle. Its
destination was said to be Brazil, where its attempt miscarried (232 i., 241, 241 iii., 838).
Early in 1711, M. Ducasse arrived in the West Indies
with a squadron which was intended to convoy the
Spanish galleons from Cartagena and Havana. His
presence caused some perturbation in Jamaica (843).
Indians: The Five Nations.
In spite of French intrigues, the Five Nations
remained loyal. We have seen that their Sachems visited England in order to urge the renewal of the
Expedition against Canada. In the course of their
Address to the Queen of this occasion they begged
that Missionaries should be sent to instruct them, and on
their return asked that a chapel should be erected and
a garrison installed in their Fort (194, 310). Minutes of
the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts
upon these proposals are given (210). Nicholson also
urged the importance of complying with their request
Governor Hunter's Conference at Albany.
Shortly after his arrival in New York, Governor Hunter reported that the Senecas had affirmed their loyalty,
which had been under suspicion, and that the Waganhas,
who had formerly been in the French interest, had entered the Covenant Chain (317). At a Conference held
by him with the Five Nations and River Indians at
Albany in August, 1710, they reiterated their resolution
to "keep the Covenant Chain bright." They renewed
their demand for missionaries and garrisons, and asked
that forts should be built to protect them from the
French (414, 834 i.). They promised that, on their part,
they would not receive "those dangerous people, the
Jesuits" in their Castles (p. 496). Hunter gave them
the presents from England expected from a new
Governor, and promised to build a fort at Schaahkook.
He commended them for opening a path for the
Far Indians. He required them to entertain no more
Jesuits or French emissaries, and bade them hold
themselves in readiness for their part in the coming
Expedition. Amongst the recommendations of the
S.P.G. (210), was one in favour of the prohibition of
the sale of intoxicating liquor to the Indians. This
measure was also urged by the Sachems at the Conference, and Hunter promised compliance (pp. 490, 539).
Their desire for sobriety, however, would appear to have
been mainly altruistic. For when Col. Schuyler presented them with twenty gallons of rum, the gift proved
"very acceptable" (p. 539).
The French and the Senecas.;
French build fort at Onnondage.; The Senecas persuaded to destroy it.; The agreement of Neutrality.
The Interpreter, Lawrence Claes, who had been sent
to the Senecas' country "to watch the motions of the
French," reported that he had found French emissaries
at Onnondage, endeavouring to persuade them not to
join in the Expedition against Canada. The Senecas
refused to inform him what their answer was, but communicated it to Hunter (pp. 490, 491, 497, 498). They
suggested that the English should build them a fort
(p. 491). In the following spring, however, it was reported that the French mission had returned to the
charge, with a large present from the Governor of
Canada, and that they were busy building a fort at Onnondage. Upon receipt of this news, Governor Hunter
dispatched Col. Peter Schuyler to restore the wavering
allegiance of the Senecas. By the exercise of his great
influence with them, and the persuasive power of a
goodly present out of the stores sent from England,
Schuyler achieved this object. He secured the immediate destruction of the blockhouse the French had begun
to erect (863 i., ii., 864 i.). It was evident that there
was a considerable section of the Indians whose loyalty
was wavering (834 i., 859, 863 i., ii., 864 i.). But in spite
of such indications of the use to which the Agreement
of Neutrality was being put by the French, and the dissatisfaction of the neighbouring Colonies therewith, New
York remained wedded to that policy. "Rather than be
at the expense of supplying them with ammunition, and
defending their frontiers …, they choose to sit contented under this precarious security." So wrote the
Secretary of New York (859). The Assembly adhered
to its refusal to raise funds either for the presents which
were necessary to counteract French largesse, or to provide for spies sent out to Canada etc. (859, 863 i., ii.).
Cruel treatment of prisoners.
Some instances of the terrible cruelty practised by
Indians upon their prisoners, and not discouraged by the
Governor of Canada, are given (190 ii., iii.). The lot
of prisoners who fell into the hands of Spain was little
better (780 ii.).
Acts of Parliament affecting the Plantations.
Several Acts of Parliament affecting the Colonies were
contemplated. Apart from those concerned with the
encouragement of Naval Stores and the preservation of
mast trees referred to below (p. xxi.), the most important
of these was the proposed Act for settling the revenue
of New York (see p. xxxi.).
At the request of British exporters of manufactured
iron and steel, clauses were prepared to be submitted to
Parliament enacting that no drawback of customs should
be allowed upon unwrought steel and iron re-exported
to the Plantations (621 i., 637, 641). For the effect of
the existing system, it was complained, was to penalise
the British manufacturer and to encourag the production
of iron and steel ware in New England, contrary to the
recognised trade policy of Great Britain. New England, it was asserted, already had the advantage that
labour was cheaper there than in England, and they had
coal in their neighbourhood cheaper than the smiths in
London (578, 578 i., 621 i.).
The question was still raised as to how far Acts of
Parliament applied to the Plantations, unless they were
specifically mentioned (710). They were sometimes
ignored, even when particularly directed to them, as in
the case of the Act for ascertaining the value of foreign
coins (31, 113, 491). The enforcement of this Act was
again pressed by the Council of Trade (34, 35, 39).
The African Trade.
In the Act for settling the trade to Africa, which had
been shelved in both sessions of the last Parliament, (p.
307), the Plantations were vitally concerned. For upon
the issue of renewing the monopoly of the Royal African
Company or throwing open the trade in negroes to the
Separate Traders, depended the supply of slaves for the
tobacco and sugar planters and the prices at which they
were to be obtained. There was also the Assiento trade.
Jamaica, which was most concerned, was in favour of
free trade (582 i., 866 i., ii.). Barbados, on the other
hand, preferred the Company's monopoly, declaring that
competition had raised prices (541 iii.). The Separate
Traders replied with the more probable explanation,
that the rise in price was due to the issue of paper money
in Barbados (632 i.). They state their case (544, 581).
The Company renewed their application for a monopoly,
explaining their position and financial difficulties in a
petition to the Queen (541 i.), upon which the Council
of Trade reported, after obtaining returns of imports and
prices, and hearing both sides (461, 462 i., 632 i.).
An alteration in the duties upon prizes and prize goods
was found necessary (v. § 3. p. xxxviii.).
Illegal trade and flags of truce.
Information was laid before the Board of Trade as
to the trade which continued to be transacted with Curacoa, St. Thomas, Martinique etc., in defiance of the Acts
of Trade and Navigation. A circular letter was therefore addressed to the Governors of Plantations calling
their attention to this traffic and directing them to find
out and prosecute delinquents (42, 47, 47 i., 83, 114).
The arrangement of cartles and the sending of flags of
truce for the exchange of prisoners, easily lent itself to
the carrying on of illegal trade. An Additional Instruction was sent to the various Governors calling upon them
to take care to put a stop to such abuses (47, 47 i., 147,
The Council of Trade; Arthur Moore.
It was not only the Governors in New York, Massachusetts Bay or Jamaica who were involved in financial
difficulties by the policy of Assemblies or "stops" at the
Treasury. The Lords Commissioners of Trade had to
represent to the Lord High Treasurer that their salaries
were five quarters in arrears at Christmas, 1709 (27,
494, 495). In spite of this discouraging experience, and
the indifference with which Ministers treated many of
their suggestions, they continued to do their work in
business-like fashion. They repeatedly ask for information and statistics from the Governors, and insist that
Acts, accounts of revenues and stores of was should be
sent in regularly. An important appointment to the
Board was that of Arthur Moore, who was afterwards so
closely connected with Bolingbroke's commercial treaty
with France, and now took a leading part in the preparations for the Expedition against Canada (578 etc.).
Naval Occasions.; Spanish galleons arrive at cadiz.; watch kept upon Cartagena.; M. Ducasse in the West Indies.; Protection of the Leeward Islands.; Loss of H. M.S. Garland.
The Naval Squadron stationed at Jamaica achieved
little beyond the capture of some privateers. The ships
were in poor condition and the personnel was so enfeebled by desertion and disease that they could only put to
sea if manned by soldiers from the Jamaica Regiment
(170, 253, 277, 415). The Spanish flotilla of richly laden
gallenons slipped away from Havana on Jan. 7, 1710, and
though very weakly convoyed by French and Spanish
ships, reached Cadiz in safety. It was not till many
weeks later that the Governor of Jamaica learned that
the birds had flown (170, 313). The Council of Trade expressed disappointment that no warning had been sent of
their movements in time for the Home Fleet to intercept
them (182, 277). Watch was then kept by the Jamaica
Squadron and privateers for the next flotilla of galleons
which was reported in June to be preparing to sail from
Cartagena. (253). They were still in port in October,
and Governor Handasyd was confident that, if they
sailed, the British ships would "dust their doublets"
(415). But they returned without success. In December a French and Spanish merchant fleet reached
Havana unmolested. The men of war which accompanied them were said to be intended to convoy home the
flotilla from Cartagena (530). Still in hopes of intercepting these galleons, British warships cruised off
Havana and Cartagena in the following spring (738).
In May, however, whilst the Squadron was engaged in
protecting Jamaican traders on the Spanish coast, Ducasse was reported to have arrived with eight men of
war intended to convoy the Spanish galleons (843, 843 i.,
857, 866). This force was too strong for the Squadron,
but Governor Handasyd sent timely news of it (857, 866).
At the same time Governor Lowther going out to take
up his Government at Barbados, also heard of Ducasse
at Madeira, and on arriving at Barbados was informed
of the preparations being made at Martinique and Guadeloupe for an invasion of the Leeward Islands. The
convoy which had escorted him at once proceeded to
Antigua, as had previously been arranged (750. v. §3).
The presence of this force, combined with the activity
of the guardships sent from Barbados and a successful
engagement by H.M.S. Newcastle, effectually frustrated
the threatened attack upon the Leeward Islands (877,
877 ii.-iv., 891, 891 i., 897, ii., 899, 902, 904). H.M.S.
Garland was lost off the Capes of Virginia (21).
Nomenclature of ships.
The continuity of nomenclature observed in the Navy
is illustrated by the names of men of war which occur in
these pages. No less striking is the continuity of names
in the merchant service. The Lusitania appears (466,
877) in the West Indies; and of all those that figure in
Lloyd's list to-day or are mentioned in Mr. Kipling's
"Sweepers, Unity, Claribel, Assyrian,
Stormcock, and Golden Gain,"
a large proportion will be found sooner or later in the
pages of this Calendar.
Guardships and Victualling Stations.
Harassed by privateers and threatened with raids upon
their coasts, the need of more guardships was generally
urged by the several Governors. Nor did Virginia and
the Leeward Islands appreciate the arrangement by
which the ships upon their stations were obliged to leave
them unprotected and go to New York and Barbados
to refit and re-victual. New victualling stations were
therefore requested. These demands, and demands for
convoys for the Trade Fleets, were backed by the merchants of the City and the Out-ports. They were
satisfied to the full extent of the Admiralty's resources
and perhaps in excess of the requirements of the strategical position.
Privateers and Pirates.
The activity of privateers upon both sides was great.
Numerous captures are reported. The taking of Port
Royal had closed that port as a starting point for French
privateers which had harassed the coasts of NewEngland. But from Martinique and Havana they continued to infest Jamaica and the Leeward Islands.
Several instances of very gallant fights with enemy
privateers by English merchantmen are recorded. In
one, the crew of a Liverpool galley, after strewing the
deck with broken glass bottles in order to cramp the
style of bare-footed boarders, retired to close quarters
and repelled a fierce attack from a French sloop. In
another, after two engagements in which he was boarded
by greatly superior numbers, the master of a London
galley reached Jamaica "with more prisoners than he
had crew" (177, 287 i., 415). Nor was the evil confined
to enemy vessels. Complaint was made that British
privateers, hailing from Jamaica and Carolina, were
ruining the trade with the Spanish main, and producing
a shortage of sailors for merchantmen. They were not
always easily distinguishable from pirates in their behaviour, and, it was plainly foreseen, were "breeding a
nest of pirates" for the future, when Peace was made
A few pirates surrendered themselves upon the
Proclamation of Pardon, and others were absorbed by
privateers. But having come in and wiped their slate
clean, they were not infrequently tempted to sail again
under the Black Flag (84, 253, 313, 313 i.). Piracy,
indeed, was so tempting a profession that soldiers from
the Independent Company at Bermuda conspired to run
away with the sloop Flying Fame and goe a pirateing
(266, 266 i.-iii.).
An alteration in the duties on prize goods was found
to be necessary (v. §3. p. xxxviii.).
Attention continued to be paid to the encouragement
of the production of Naval Stores. Both from an
economical and a political point of view, the scheme of
granting a premium upon naval stores imported from the
Plantations appeared to be justified. If the Empire
could supply English shipping with timber, masts, pitch,
tar, flax and hemp, it would be freed from the danger of
a shortage of supplies and an enhancement of prices in
war-time. The Navy would no longer be at the mercy
of a Swedish Company which preferred to supply the
French (61 i.). From the point of view of the English
manufacturer, the attention of the Colonist would be
turned advantageously from spinning flax and wool,
whilst the Colonist himself would reap the harvest of a
more profitable industry by exporting raw material in
exchange for English manufactured goods. "I have
experienced" writes Mr. Bridger, the Surveyor General
of H.M. Woods in America, "that a man shall earne as
much by makeing of tar, that will buy two coats in the
same time that he's spinning and weaving wool enough
to make one" (86, 491). In the development of this
industry the premium granted to the Colonies by the
Act of Parliament for the encouragement of the importation of Naval Stores from America was already beginning to have effect. It had had the immediate result of
bringing down the prices of pitch and tar from Sweden
(61 i., 127 i.). A return shows that in 1709 imports of
pitch, tar and rozin from Carolina, New England and
New York were already beginning to be of importance.
In New York, the colony of German Protestant Refugees,
which was being settled upon the Hundson River, was
under contract to devote itself to the manufacture of
naval stores. At the close of this period Col. Vetch
reports that he has prepared a shipload of masts from
Nova Scotia (884). But for masts and hemp British
shipping remained dependent upon precarious supplies
from the Baltic (597 i.). There were still vested interests in the Naval Yards as well as ignorance and carelessness in the producers to be combated. Some readjustment of the method of paying the premiums was
proposed by the merchants of Boston. This, amongst
other suggestions, was recommended by the Board of
Trade, in a representation to which the Admiralty gave
their reply (81 i., 127 i., 172 i.). Enquiries into the subject were made by Lord Dartmouth (585). Later in
1711 the Board of Trade gave a full report upon the
working of the Act to the House of Lords (734, 745).
Further premiums on spars and boards were proposed by
Governor Dudley (491, 585). From Virginia came a
proposal for the payment of quit-rents in naval stores
instead of tobacco (427 v.).
Bill for preservation of white pines.; The claim of Massachusetts Bay.
The great waste of pine-trees fit for masts for the
Navy was continued in New England (81, 86 i., 113, 117,
205, 283, 846, 847). In view of the refusal of the Assemblies of Massachusetts Bay, New York and New Jersey
to pass an act for their preservation similar to that of
New Hampshire, a bill for the preservation of white
pines in New England was prepared, based upon the
draft submitted by Mr. Bridger. At the instance of the
Board of Trade, it was brought into the House of
Commons at the close of one session, and re-introduced
the next (34, 36, 215, 319, 481, 626, 832). It has taken
two hundred years of use and waste by fire and clearings
to bring the question of timber supplies once more to the
front. But it must be remembered that the resources
in sight in those days were limited by transport and
other difficulties. The absence of roads and the
presence of enemy Indians lurking in the woods rendered
only those trees of any account which were near settlements and close to river-banks (44, 846). This consideration may account for the importance attached to the
claim of Massachusetts Bay that the mast-trees reserved
to the Crown by their Charter did not include those which
stood upon any lands granted to towns or bodies politic
(205, 846). The Solicitor General was consulted upon
this point, and his opinion is given (234).
The evil of placemen and their deputies in Patent
Offices continued to grow. A list of 27 licences of
absence for Patent Officers is given (852). It is scarcely
surprising that there was a tendency throughout the
Plantations for Assemblies to endeavour to encroach
upon the Prerogative of the Crown in the appointment
of such officers. The Act of Barbados directing how
Clerks and Marshals shall be appointed was repealed
on this account (131, 134). It is to be observed, however, that merchants and others of Barbados themselves
petitioned for the repeal of this Act. After experiencing
the effects of giving the Judges power to nominate their
own Marshals, they were led to request that persons of
credit should be nominated by the Crown (66 ii., 72 i.,
100, 101, cf. 283, 508). A special order for the maintenance of the Royal Prerogative in this matter was added
to the Instructions of the new Governor of Barbados
(354 i.). In Jamaica, the Act for regulating fees was
represented by the Patent Officers concerned as prejudicing their offices and "intended to make them rather
dependent upon the planters than upon Her Majesty"
New Seals were dispatched to the Plantations (17
etc.). The care with which the Treasury under Godolphin watched over the public money is well known.
When Goldolphin signed a warrant for a new silver
trumpet for a troop of the Guards, he minuted it with
an enquiry what had become of the old one. So, too,
orders were given for the return of the old Seals from the
Colonies, after they had been broken in Council. When
the old Seal of the Leeward Islands was not returned,
enquiries were made. It turned out that the ill-facted
Governor had had it converted into a thankard for his
own use (782).
Epidemics are registered in Jamaica, Bermuda and
Virginia (31, 170, 266, 555, 566, 843 etc.).
There are some further references to the institution of
a postal system on the Continent. Lt. Governor Spotswood welcomed its establishment in Virginia. But he
pointed out that some difficulty would be experienced in
paying the small sums for postage (required no doubt
upon delivery), because tobacco was the common currency
and only specie of the country (437, 835 xiv., 911).
The effect of the Post Office Act of 1710 upon the American Postal System has been dealt with recently by Mr.
William Smith, History of the Post Office in British
§ 2; THE AMERICAN COLONIES.
At the end of 1710, Charles Craven was appointed to
fill the vacancy caused by the death of Major Edward
Tynte, Governor of Carolina (536). By his instructions
he was directed to cultivate the friendship of the Indians
and to inspect accounts etc. (871). Orders had already
been given for the transmission of revenue "every quarter in rice or money" (98), and that no grants of lands
should be made except by the Lords Proprietors themselves on terms named (9, 10, 98). Grants of land were
made to German Protestant Refugees (96, 167).
A Charter was granted for erecting a port upon Port
Royal River, to be called Beaufort Town, with a view to
the export of Naval Stores, for which a contract had
been proposed (120, 597 i., 605, 871).
Political disturbances in North Carolina had led to
the neglect of the defences of the country. Left at the
mercy of the Indians, many settlers were preparing to
migrate to Virginia (638). Edward Hyde was appointed
Deputy Governor (883 i.). The questions of the settlement of the boundaries and Indian trade with Virginia
are referred to below (p. xxxv.).
Although harassed by the French and Indians on the
frontier, Connecticut contributed its quota to the Port
Royal Expedition "with unanimous and chearfull obedience" (337 i.). But the expence lay heavily upon a
Colony "living wholly upon husbandry," and the address
of Massachusetts Bay upon the subject was fervently
The Colony proceeded with the printing of its laws
(338). The dispute over the boundary with Massachusetts Bay dragged on (81).
Maryland. Council assume administration of Government. Acts repealed.
Upon the death of Col. Seymour, the Council of
Maryland assumed the powers of the Governor, enacting
laws which were disallowed upon account of that irregularity (93 i., 441, 442, 468). In reply to the Council
of Trade, it was explained that the Instruction, directing
that the President of the Council should undertake the
administration of the Government in such cases, had
never been communicated to the Council. (836).
Census.; Protest against Acts for relief of debtors etc.; New Governor's Instruction as to Acts concerning Trade and Navigation.; Agent ordered to be appointed.
A census of the country for 1710 was transmitted (474
i.). Attention was called to the increase of negroes, and
also to the difficulties in which many planters were involved owing to the low price of tobacco. An Act
intended for the relief of such debtors was passed (474).
Protests were entered by merchants and creditors in
England against the tendency to make such laws at their
expence and injurious to commerce. They proposed that
the Governor should be instructed not to pass any Act
relating to Trade or Navigation, unless a sufficient term
was allowed for H.M. pleasure to be known upon it
before it came into operation (342). In the new Governor's Instructions, a clause was added relating to the
passing of laws affecting the property of H.M. subjects
in Great Britain (472). The appointment of an Agent to
look after the business of the Colony in England was also
ordered (903, 906, 910). Col. Corbet had been appointed
by the Crown to succeed Col. Seymour. But after he
had been urged in vain to proceed to his Government,
his Commission was revoked (292, 309, 472, 610, 622).
Ld. Proprietor's Petition.
Lord Baltimore had once more petitioned that the
right of appointing a Governor should be restored to the
Lord Proprietor. Mr. Blathwayt explained that the
reason why it had been taken away was that "it appeared
noways fit to continue that Government under the
direction of Papists" (636 i., 718 i.). Examples of
Jesuit correspondence in the usual jargon of shopkeeping
are given (527 i.-vi.).
Act for qualification of Surveyors.
Confusion caused by unnotified alterations in the terms
of grants of land and abuses by the Lord Proprietor's
Surveyors were the reasons advanced by the Assembly
for their Act for the qualification of Surveyors. Lord
Baltimore replied to their grievances in this connection
Itinerant Judges.; Secretary's fees.
Not approving of the institutions of itinerant Justices,
the Assembly refused to grant any salaries for them (31,
474). Their duel with the Secretary as to the fees of
his office continued (93 i., 155, 156, etc.). The new
Governor was instructed to see to it that that Patent
Officer, Sir Thomas Laurence, was allowed the fees upon
ordinary licences and that he should receive compensation for the fees that had been withheld from him by the
Act for punishing Blasphemy.
An instance of the operation of the Act for punishing.
blasphemy occurs in the case of Charles Arrabella. In
an unguarded moment, this unfortunate mariner had
uttered some blasphemous words "in a great passion
occasioned by the spilling of some scalding pitch upon
one of his feet." He was recommended to H.M. mercy,
after three holes had been bored in his tongue, a fine
of £20 had been imposed upon him, and he had lain
over six months in prison (489, 561).
Massachusetts Bay. Cost of Defence.
Whilst Governor Dudley could take credit for his
successful defence of the frontiers of New England
against the French and Indians, much dissatisfaction
was felt at the heavy charge which it involved, and the
Neutrality of the Five Nations, whilst New York and the
neighbouring Colonies "sat quiet from losses or charges"
(81, 575 i., 769). Accounts of expenditure upon the
abandoned Expedition against Canada were rendered.
Renewal of it was urged, but it was suggested that the
Southern Colonies should bear their part of the burden,
and so lighten that of New England (81, 81 iii., 579,
769). The share taken by Massachusetts Bay in the
Port Royal Expedition is shown (356, 482, 491, 491 ix.,
and see § 1).
Mr. Dummer appointed Agent.
Jeremiah Dummer, jr., was appointed Agent for the
Colony in succession to Sir Wm. Ashhurst (226, 488,
Drought. Fast and Thanksgiving.
Military efforts delayed the production of Naval
Stores, and a scorching drought occasioned fears for
the harvest. But that evil was averted, and a General
Fast was followed by a Thanksgiving (81, 81 xii., xiv.,
86, 491 xii.).
Bill for preservation of woods.
The question of the preservation of the woods and
Crown rights is referred to above (§ 1. p. xxi.).
Lists of causes. Paper money.
Lists of causes in the Courts are preserved (491 i.-vi.).
The action of an economic law is illustrated by the
complete disappearance of silver coinage following upon
an issue of paper money (pp. 267, 271).
New Hampshire had occasion to send an Address of
thanks to the Queen for a supply of military stores, and
the decision in the case of Allen v. Waldron, and to
urge the renewal of the designed expedition against
Canada and Nova Scotia (81 xvi., xvii.). The Province
welcomed the expedition to Port Royal, and contributed
its quota cheerfully (358).
A new Assembly. Lt. Gov. Usher.; Suspends Waldron.
In August, 1710, a new Assembly was elected, more
to the mind of Lt. Governor Usher (335). That egregious person visited the Province and saw to the defence of
the frontiers. He drew attention to some irregularities
in the Council, and was mortified by the Governor's
contemptuous remark that he put everything in a flame
when he went there. He retorted with querulous complaints against Dudley (335, 382). Usher pursued his
quarrel with Waldron, and finally suspended him for
acting as Councillor without warrant (283, 335, 348, 508
ii., iii., 510, 510 i., iii.). The opinion of Usher held by
the Council and Dudley is shown (509, 509 i.). and as for
Waldron, he calls him outright "an envious malicious
liar" (492 i.), made poor and angry by the long-delayed
settlement of Allen's claim (492). The difficulty in finding persons suitable to act as Members of Council is
mentioned by Dudley (860).
New York: Grants of land and quit rents.
The question of the old grants of land upon which no
quit-rents were being paid, was raised again by the
Attorney General of New York (95 i.). The Council of
Trade, however, did not recommend his proposal for
prosecuting the patentees, "in regard it may discourage
the seating and cultivating of lands" (144). Upon the
suggestion of Governor Hunter, the period within which
a patentee was required to cultivate three acres in every
fifty of a grant of lands, was extended to three years after
the conclusion of the war. For it was recognised that
the danger of the French and Indian enemy on the
frontier rendered it impossible in many cases to proceed
with the clearing of lands (317, 447).
The new Governor.
Lt. Col. Robert Hunter, like Col. Parke and Col.
Spotswood and the Earl of Orkney, had fought at Blenheim. A protégé of the latter, he was also the friend
of Addison and Swift. His first year in the Government
of New York and New Jersey was an anxious and trying
experience. His management of affairs proved that he
possessed in a very high degree the qualities of a good
administrator. He showed himself patient and conciliatory in dealing with difficult groups of men. Fertile
in expedients for solving a crisis, he was too wise to
provoke one upon minor issues. When conciliation
failed and firmness was needed, he did not hesitate to use
the sternest measures. Before making up his mind, he
was at pains to render himself familiar with every aspect
of a problem. Once he had arrived at a decision, he
was ready to impose his will without shirking the consequences. He knew when to act and when to hold his
hand. In dealing with several critical situations which
arose in these first years, he exhibited sound judgment,
prudence and tact, and was evidently inspired by an
honest determination to conduct his Government in the
best interests of the Colony and mother-country alike.
Arrival in New York.; Settlement of German Protestant Refugees on Hudson River.
Like his predecessor, Lord Lovelace, Hunter had a
long and stormy voyage to New York, where he arrived
14th June, 1710. The band of some 3000 destitute
Protestant Refugees from the Palatinate of the Rhine,
who accompanied him, suffered much from sickness on
the voyage, and the loss of stores by wreck (271, 317,
362). In view of his subsequent treatment by the
Treasury and the Refugees, it is important to observe
the instructions he received from Sunderland as to carrying out his scheme for their settlement. That scheme
had been revised and approved by Godolphin, the Lord
High Treasurer (12, 13, 32, 71, 414).
No time was lost in surveying the Schoharie lands
which had formed part of Col. Bayard's grant. These
lands, however, had been restored to the Indians when
Bayard's grant was resumed. They afterwards made a
present of their title to the Crown (317, 414). But
though said to be good agricultural land, this tract, being
destitute of pitch-pine, was not suitable for the production of the Naval Stores which the Refugees were
under contract to manufacture (317). Hunter therefore
purchased some land from Mr. Livingston and Mr.
Fullerton, on both banks of the Hudson River, and was
soon able to report that the Refugees were comfortably
established in villages and in train to produce Naval
Stores (413, 414, 487, 832). For here was pitch-pine
enough to supply all Europe with tar (223, 261).
Hunter's troubles, however, had only begun. The £8000
which had been allowed him was soon exhausted,
and he drew bills on the Treasury for £4,700 more. Two
year's subsistence at £15000 a year was still required
before the land could be cleared and the trees tapped.
After that, the settlement of Refugees would be selfsupporting and begin to repay the capital which had
been expended upon this enterprise. But although
Hunter submitted his accounts to the Treasury and was
a careful steward of the funds entrusted to him, the bills
he drew were left unpaid. He was obliged to support
the Refugees upon his own credit, or leave them to
starve (414, 487, 640 i., 832, 833). Sunderland and
Godolphin, it must be remembered, fell a few weeks
after Hunter's arrival in New York (327, 497). Harley,
St. John and Dartmouth ruled in their stead. Hunter's
accounts, with the names and details of the recipients,
are preserved (574).
Revolt of the Refugees.; Quelled by Hunter.; Natural isation.
Before long, the minds of the settlers were disturbed
by agitators, who from various motives (862, 863), persuaded them to abandon their undertaking to manufacture Naval Stores and demand to be transferred to
the fat lands of Schoharie. Hunter endeavoured to
reason with them. But so mutinous was their attitude,
that he was compelled to march against them with a
detachment of soldiers from the garrison at Albany,
and to disarm them (862–864). The Refugees then
settled down to work under the direction of Mr. Sacket,
whom Hunter had appointed to instruct them in the process of manufacturing tar in place of Bridger, the
Surveyor General, who refused to act unless his salary
was increased (5, 640 i., 832, 863, 864). An Act for
naturalising the Palatines without fee was refused by
the Assembly "for no reason but that it was recommended to them" (pp. 288, 289, 486).
Assembly votes inadequate supplies.; Their motives.
Such, indeed, was the general demeanour of the
Assembly. Upon their first meeting, Hunter found
them in "a very indifferent humour," but by his conciliatory attitude he endeavoured to bring them into a
better state of mind. Amongst other Acts, they brought
in an Excise Act whereby they insisted upon appointing
their own Treasurer, instead of the Receiver General,
to receive the money voted (414. cf. Barbados).
They proceeded to vote a quite inadequate sum for the
carrying on of the Government, appropriating their
grants after cutting down the estimates severely, and
they would only allow the Governor half the salary
directed by the Queen's instructions (414, 487). When
Col. Morris urged a reconsideration of that point, they
expelled him from their House (487). Hunter gives
an interesting analysis of their real and pretended reasons
for this course of action. The misapplication of former
Revenues was one of these. But they refused to accept
Hunter's straightforward offer to insure against a repetition of this legitimate grievance (p. 258). One of the
real reasons he gives is that since the payment of
Members, politics had become a profitable trade and
Assemblymen were anxious to secure re-election by "the
popular argument of having saved the Country's money."
He suggests a scheme for abolishing payment of Members, which was costing the country, for one session
only, nearly half as much as they would vote for the
support of Government for one year. "Then we shall
have men of substance, sense and moderation for Representatives who come with a true intent to serve their
country and not themselves" (p. 259). One of the chief
motives for their conduct was a desire to be put upon
the same footing as the neighbouring Charter Governments, which appeared to be exempt from the expences
for which they were invited to raise a Revenue. Hunter
pointed out that whilst Massachusetts Bay was at a
charge of £20,000 a year at least for the defence of the
frontiers, New York was defended by forces which cost
the Queen at least an equal sum.
Retrenchment of Governor's Salary.; Amendments to Money bills.; The Council.; Assembly dissolved.; Act for enacting a standing Revenue drafted.; Conference with Five Nations.
The Assembly was determined to stretch its claim to
privileges to the uttermost, whether against the Council
or the Crown. One of their chief reasons for retrenching
the Governor's salary was that they maintained that the
Queen had no power to appoint salaries (p. 259). As
for the Council, the issue which was being raised elsewhere in the West Indies, was joined here also. For the
Assembly insisted upon making the Treasurer accountable to themselves alone, and once more refused to admit
the right of the Council to make amendments to money
bills. They took no notice of the Queen's letter in favour
of Lady Lovelace's claim, and sent up a bill for reducing
the fees of officers "so low that no officer could live."
Hunter prorogued the Assembly, and was left, as before,
to carry on the Government at his own expense (487, 517,
517 i.–v., 832). After making one or two suggestions
for a way out of the impasse, he was forced to acknowledge that only strong measures from home would have
any good effect. The Council were almost unanimous
in their support of Hunter and the Queen's right (517).
The Assembly met again in no better mood. The old
hare was started again that they were dissolved by the
Governor's proroguing them whilst he was in the Jerseys.
They practically forced a dissolution, and Hunter was
left to carry on with officers starving, the forts on the
frontiers in ruin, no public money and all the expence of
the Government and Garrison thrown upon his private
credit. A new Assembly would be but a repetition of
the last. Relief must come from home (832–834). The
Council of Trade reported upon the whole situation (654
i.), and in accordance with an Order in Council thereupon, the draft of an Act of Parliament enacting a
standing Revenue for New York. was prepared (693,
725, 725 ii.).
Hunter had better success in dealing with the Five
Nations in a Conference held at Albany (317, v. § 1).
New Jersey.; Place of Assembly.; Removal of extremists in Council proposed.; Place of Assembly.; Removal of extremists in Council proposed.
In New Jersey the new Governor's Speech in Council
had an excellent effect. His tact and moderation soon
won over Col. Quary and the Chief Justice, Mompesson,
who were weary of the extremists in the Council. For
here the position was the opposite of that in New York,
the Assembly supporting the Governor, and the Council
proving irreconcileable (288, 473, 832). By a sensible
compromise, Hunter solved the first difficulty raised,
which concerned the place of meeting of the General
Assembly (223, 414). He had been instructed to reconcile the differences between the Council and Assembly, or, failing that, to report the true cause and cure.
Reconciliation he found to be impossible. In his report, after describing the action of the extremists in the
Council, who set themselves to hinder all business and
pursue their quarrel with the Assembly, he gave his
considered opinion that there would be no peace or quiet
in the Province until the leaders of the party in the Council—the old supporters of Lord Cornbury—were removed
(768 i., 823, 832). The case of the Assembly against
them and the Secretary, Basse, is given (835 i. –xlii.),
and Hunter's report upon the work of the session (832).
Lord Lovelace's salary.
Amongst the Acts sent up by the Assembly, but rejected through the tactics of the Council, was one for
making good to Lady Lovelace the money which had
been voted to the late Governor and then assigned to
Lt. Governor Ingoldesby (119, 323, 644, 832).
Acts passed under Lt. Governor Ingoldesby.
In obedience to his Instructions Hunter reviewed the
Acts passed under the administration of Ingoldesby
Originals of Acts lost.
A curious situation arose through the loss of the
originals of some Acts passed just before Lord Lovelace
died. An Act was introduced for making the printed
copies valid (644, 832).
Pennsylvania; Penn's surrender.
In the summer of 1710, William Penn approached the
new Ministers upon the question of compensation for the
surrender of his Government. He took occasion to
intercede for liberty of conscience for the Friends and
some hereditary mark of distinction for his own family.
Correspondence then ensued in which the Council of
Trade endeavoured to arrive at what might be regarded
as a reasonable consideration for his services and sacrifices. They made their report in Feb. 1711 (473, 537,
633, 649 i.).
Rhode Island's share in the Expedition is referred to
above (pp. ix.–xiv., and see 357, 357 i., 504).
Virginia. Lt. Governor Spotswood.; Relational with Council and Assembly.; Proposal for mutual defence.
The Earl of Orkney continued his absentee Governorship of Virginia, occasionally intervening or being consulted in the business of the Dominion (702). In Feb.,
1710, Col. Alexander Spotswood, an officer who had
been wounded at Blenheim, was appointed Lt. Governor.
Capable and energetic, he devoted all his powers to the
development as well as to the administration of Virginia,
Arriving in June, he at once proceeded to business with
the Council upon matters touched upon by his Instructions (349). He won their praises and those of the
Burgesses without, as he says, any undue compliance
with their humour to the prejudice of H.M. service
(350, 555, 710, 710 i., ii., 711). With the first Assembly,
however, he could make but little way. Like Hunter
in New York, he found that their chief aim was to
recommend themselves to the electors by opposing every
measure that involved expense. They would neither
provide for the defence of the country nor make good the
treaty with the Tuscoruros which had been concluded at
the instance of their own House. Spotswood was
obliged to avail himself of the assistance of some of the
Councillors for the latter purpose (638). The threatening attitude of the Senecas rendered this precaution
doubly necessary. Spotswood asked that Virginia.
Maryland and Carolina should be instructed to assist each
other in the event of an attack upon any of them (638).
Method of granting lands.
Widespread confusion and discontent had been caused
by the Instruction as to the new terms upon which lands
were to be granted. These new terms were reasonable
enough in themselves, and were, indeed, well calculated
to prevent land lying waste on large grants with a view
to unearned increment, but they perturbed those who had
already received grants on terms less rigorous (53, 437,
pp. 5, 6). One of the objections urged was that settlers
would be tempted to migrate to other Governments where
lands could be obtained on much easier conditions (p.
5). Spotswood demonstrated to the Burgesses that their
grievance was much exaggerated. An Act of 1666 for
the granting of lands, which was then in force and was
open to the objection that it tended to bring all the ungranted lands into the possession of a few rich men, was
repealed. The new Instruction was then the only rule
for granting lands, and it was ordered to be passed into
an Act (555, 670, 709, 755, 756, 812). In discussing this
question, Spotswood showed practical foresight. He
suggested that planters should be enticed to settle one
side of James River by retaining the terms of the old
grants for that district. A line of settlements would thus
soon be carried up to the source of that River and would
threaten to cut the communications which the French
were endeavouring to establish by way of the Lakes
between Canada and their new Mississippi settlements
(pp. 316, 317).
Exploration of Appallachian Mountains.
In this connection he refers to a Company of
Adventurers whom he had encouraged to explore the
Alleghany Mountains. Their reconnaissance seemed to
open up good prospects of trade with the Indians beyond
Rivers and parishes.
In course of dealing with the problem of re-arranging parishes to meet the requirements of the growing
Dominion, Spotswood directs our attention to a principle
of early colonization, describing the influence of rivers
in drawing the flow of settlers along their banks (437,
Tobacco.; Naval Stores.
From the very first he was keenly interested in the
development of the country's resources. The heavy
fall in the price of tobacco had been severely felt in
Virginia. Whilst the war had closed or contracted many
European markets, an excessive importation of negroes
had led to the production of an excessive supply. For
this reason it was hoped that the proposed tax on imported negroes would check their numbers (710).
Many of the planters were in difficulties, and turned to
growing flax and cotton and manufacturing their own
cloathing, to the detriment of English trade. Tobacco,
however, remained practically the only form of currency,
so much so, that Spotswood feared it would prove a
serious obstacle to the establishment of the General Post
now contemplated (394, 437, 744). To turn the minds of
the planters from the cultivation and manufacture of flax
and cotton, and to reduce the surplus of tobacco, Spotswood proposed that the production of Naval Stores
should be encouraged by accepting them as payment
for the duties levied upon tobacco in England (744).
Iron Mines; Proposed working by State.
He took an eager personal interest in the development
of another industry. Iron mines, reported to be very
rich, had been discovered at the Falls of James River.
It was proposed that they should be worked by the State
and the profits applied to defraying the expenses of Gov
ernment. The Assembly, however, rejected the scheme
(pp. 235, 317). Nor was the Council of Trade of opinion
"that it would be óf any advantage to this Kingdom that
such an undertaking should be encouraǵed in the Plantations" (624, 911).
In the election of the new Assembly, Spotswood
reports "a new and unaccountable humour of excluding
Gentlemen from being Burgesses" (p. 234). He
reports on various laws (710), and especially that he had
obtained a new Revenue Act free from the objections
taken to the old one (p. 414).
Upon the whole the condition of the country was quiet,
but a dangerous conspiracy for an insurrection of negroes
was discovered and nipped in the bud. The ringleaders
were executed, and a bill was brought in to prevent
similar combinations. But the measures proposed were
thought too severe, and the bill was thrown out (206,
263. p. 318).
Epidemic Privateers.; Guardships.
The country suffered a good deal from an epidemic
(206), and more from the visitations of privateers,
which defied the heavier and slower sailing guardship
among the shoal waters of the Capes. Guardships, too,
were obliged to refit and re-victual at New York, thus
leaving the coast unprotected. Spotswood therefore
proposed the establishment of a victualling station at
Point Comfort, whilst a sloop was hired for defence of
the Province. Want of sufficient guardships also opened
the way for illegal trade which was carried on from all
quarters with Curaçoa and St. Thomas. Upon these
considerations, a new sixth-rate was appointed to Virginia (21, 154, 208, 263, 349, 363).
Boundary Commissioners; delay by Carolina.
Commissioners were appointed to settle the disputed
boundaries with Carolina, as had been ordered (206,
263). Frivolous objections were made by the representatives of Carolina in order to avoid arriving at a
decision (437, 437 iii., iv., 709, 709 ii.). The Council of
Trade therefore proposed the appointment of new Commissioners with orders to report within six months (671).
Fresh interruptions occurred in Carolina to Virginian
trade with the Indians (p. 318).
Opinion upon Act for naturalisation.
The Solicitor General delivered an important opinion
upon the Virginian Act for naturalisation (514).
§3. THE WEST INDIES.
(See also Section 1).
The Bahama Islands.
The Bahama Islands were visited by H. M.S. Enterprize in the summer of 1710. Captain Smith reported
them to be semi-derelict and almost defenceless against
the plundering raids of the enemy. But no French
settlement had been effected. On Harbour Island Capt.
Thomas Walker kept the flag flying, and was confident
that he would be able to resist the enemy. On Eleuthera and Providence Islands the few remaining inhabitants had sought refuge in the woods. The rest of the
islands were deserted, owing to the frequent raids (421
Order for appointment of Governor.; Estimates for defence.
Following upon the report of the Council of Trade
printed in the previous volume, orders were at length
given for the appointment of a Military Governor and
the defence of the Bahama Islands (69). That was in
January, 1710. Nothing apparently was done. Seven
months later a report of the Committee of the Privy
Council was approved, and referred back to the
Council of Trade to devise the best way of putting it
into speedy execution (361). They repeated their proposals of former years, whilst pointing out that the
situation had deteriorated with the lapse of time, and
that a larger garrison and ampler stores and means of
defence were now required. At their suggestion, a
Royal Engineer was dispatched from Jamaica to make
an estimate of what was needed for the fortification of
Providence Island (394, 400, 405, 465, 507 i.).
Barbados. Crowe delays his return.; Lillington President of Council.
In Barbados, the Governor, Mitford Crowe, continued
to disregard instructions from home, and pursued his
vendetta against the Secretary, Skene, and the three
Councillors. The value of the address in his favour,
obtained from the illiterate mob and militia is described
in terms which remind one of Dr. Johnson's analysis of
the signatories of a petition in his "False Alarm" (175 i.,
235, 274 i.). It was only after considerable delay that
he obeyed the summons to return and account for his
conduct. He left the Government in the hands of
George Lillington, President of the Council (149, 150,
221, 222, 276).
Quarrel between Council and Assembly. Revenue not voted.; Committee of Correspon-dence.; Decision in favour of the Assembly.
He reported that the country was in "a very divided
and turbulent condition." The quarrel between the
Council and Assembly immediately broke out afresh.
Issue was joined upon the right of the Assembly to
appoint a Treasurer, who, it was felt after the experience
of the Paper Act, must be above suspicion. In spite
of the conciliatory efforts of the President, and some concessions on the part of the Assembly, the Council refused
to give way. The Excise bill was therefore thrown
out, and the country remained without a revenue for
many months. To counteract the effect of a representation by the majority of members of Council, the
Assembly appointed a Committee of Correspondence to
present their side of the case in the dispute (201, 264, 264
i.–v., 296, 332, 379, 384, 459, 623, 655). The question
was carefully weighed at home. Both the Council of
Trade and the Law Officers of the Crown reported in
favour of the Assembly (377, 386, 402 i., 403, 406, 407).
The President of the Council was accordingly instructed
to pass the Excise Bill with a Treasurer appointed by
the Assembly, and this was done (679). The decision
arrived at was largely based upon a consideration of the
established usage (402 i.).
Accounts and returns.
Lillington sent home various accounts, and returns of
christenings, burials and causes depending for 1710 (332
iff., 379 i.).
Robert Lowther, Governor.; Instruction as to Patent Officers.
Robert Lowther was appointed Governor in place of
Crowe in July, 1710 (316). But nearly a year elapsed
before he reached Barbados (901). His Instructions
included a particular direction to take care that no encroachment was permitted upon the rights and perquisites of Patent Officers. This instruction arose out
of the repeal of the Act concerning the appointment of
marshals and the complaints of Skene and Gordon. A
new Act fixing the salaries of Judges and restoring the
fees of patent officers was ordered to be passed (99, 131,
134, 354 i., 577, and see §1).
There is an echo of the project of settling Tobago
which "fell by the death of" King William, in a petition
by Capt. Edward Cowley for compensation for his losses
in connection with that undertaking. (193 i., 223, 248,
Bermuda; Mutiny and Epidemic.
Little of importance is reported from Bermuda except
a plot amongst the soldiers to kill the Governor, run
away with a sloop and "goe a pirateing." Rumours
of a raid caused Bennett to ask for an increase of the
garrison (897). His replies in the case of the St. James
sloop and to enquiries as to illegal trade indicate the
course of trade from Bermuda (567, 568 i.–iv. etc.). An
epidemic which raged there is described (266–268, 521,
566, 567, 897).
Jamaica, too, was troubled by outbreaks of smallpox and other sickness (170, 182, 530, 843).
Privateers and duties on prize goods.
The Island was pestered by French privateers (170,
258 etc.), though the country fitted out sloops to act as
guardships in addition to the Naval squadron, and the
Governor reports that "when ours meats with them, they
commonly dust their dublitts" (170, 253). The English
privateers, however, were much discouraged by the duties
on prizes and prize goods, which, under the Act intended
to encourage the trade to America, did in effect exceed
the intrinsic value of the captures themselves (170, 170 i.–iii., 219). The result was an exodus of seamen from
Jamaica. Indignation was felt with the Collector, Peter
Beckford, jr., who exacted payment of these duties, but
the Commissioners of Customs upheld his action.
It was found necessary to amend the Act (220, 239,
543, 543 iii., 588, 625), and whilst the authority of Parliament was being obtained, the new Governor was empowered to give a promise to the Assembly to that effect
(341 i., 369, 570).
The report that a French squadron had sailed for the
West Indies caused some apprehension for the safety of
Jamaica where the Naval Squadron was now very weak
(133, 182, 218, 277, 843, 857). The desirability of reinforcing it was considered (239, 284, 289, 291). It was
still incapable of putting to sea without the aid of soldiers
from Brigadier Handasyd's Regiment (170, 172, 253, 313,
514, 772). Besides watching in vain for the Spanish
flotilla (v. § 1), it was sent to cruize off the Spanish
main, with the object of preventing French ships from
trading there and French privateers from interfering with
Jamaican traders (313, 415). But the competition of
French goods in the South Seas (253, 738) caused that
trade to languish (253, 738, 866).
The Assembly and Council.
The meetings of the Assembly were accompanied by a
good deal of heat owing, first, to the discontent caused
by the duties on prize goods, and, secondly, to the influence of the "firebrand" Totterdale, and a dispute with
the Council as to their right to amend a money-bill
Partiality of Juries.
Handasyd echoed the complaint of other Governors
as to the partiality of Juries, which were as loath to
convict a fellow-planter of a murder of felony as to bring
in a verdict in favour of the Crown (262).
Handasyd succeeded by Lord A. Hamilton.
In compliance with his oft-repeated request, Handasyd was at length relieved, and Lord Archibald
Hamilton appointed in his stead. Sailing nine months
later with the convoy for the West India trade fleet, he
was instructed to hold an enquiry on his way at Antigua
into the murder of Governor Parke and the condition of
the Island (303, 305, 409, 750, 807).
For the long standing and bitter feud between the
Planters and the Governor of the Leeward Islands had
ended in the savage and deliberate murder of the latter
by the Antiguans in arms. Space cannot be spared for
analysing in detail the numerous accounts of that culminating event which are included in this volume. But
attention may be drawn to certain facts which emerge.
The murder of Lt. Governor Johnson, and the acquittal
of his murderer and several others by their fellowplanters, as well as repeated attempts at assassinating
Parke himself, point to the lawless and violent atmosphere which prevailed (391, 483). The murder was,
indeed, anticipated upon the London Exchange (677).
Nor was it the result of a sudden outbreak of individual
violence. It was the deliberate act of the Assembly
and people rising in arms, after prolonged altercations
and repeated warnings (821). Assassination of a representative of the Crown, even by people justly provoked
by a sense of personal wrongs and real or imaginary
political grievances, is not to be condoned or excused.
But that Parke's temper and behaviour were calculated
to madden a rough and lawless body of men is beyond
Parke and the L.I. Regiment.
The intense hatred which the man inspired is revealed
not only by his relations with Col. Codrington and his
party, and the planters in general, but also in his quarrel
with Col. Jones, the Commanding Officer of the Regiment stationed at the Leeward Islands. The discipline
of the Regiment was undermined by their feud. Whilst
on behalf of the soldiers Parke had forwarded petitions
for their arrears of pay and clothing (204, 204 i., 228–230), complaints were received that he encouraged them
to commit outrages upon those who had brought
charges against him. Sunderland sternly ordered an
enquiry (169). Col. Jones proposed to punish some
of the delinquents. But Parke interfered to protect
them (324 ff., 329, 516).
Parke recalled.; His delayed.
In Feb., 1710, Parke was recalled, to answer before the
Queen in Council the charges laid against him. He was
ordered to return home on the first man of war sailing
after depositions had been taken and exchanged (106,
125). He affected to welcome the opportunity of exposing his enemies. But he protested against the Court
of Inquisition, as he termed it, for taking depositions
(260, 344). Lack of support from home, he declared,
was the cause of all his troubles. His opponents, who
had made three attempts to assassinate him, were a pack
of Round-heads, a "Calves Head Club," who were determined to encroach upon the Prerogative of the Crown.
His insistence upon maintaining that Prerogative and
suppressing illegal trade was, he averred, his real sin
in their eyes (161, 228–230, 391). When the Trade Fleet
sailed, Parke did not sail with the man of war which
convoyed it. His enemies, he explained, had, by a trick,
given him no time to answer their faked depositions (324,
330, 344, 783 iii. ff.).
His reply to charges.
The Governor's reply to the Articles of Complaint
lodged against him was drawn up by Andrew Boult
(391, 809). In it the Articles are answered point by
point. To many of them, his reply is good. He
demonstrates that in some of the proceedings urged
against him, he was merely following his Instructions.
When he found juries would not convict their fellowplanters for brutal murders, he had done his best to
secure Justice. As for the Assembly, "they squeak for
their privileges," and pretend that their constitution is
invaded, when their real object is to engross the whole
Prerogative of the Crown. He was, indeed, upon firm
ground in refusing to admit their claim to the "negative
voice" in legislation. For the Council of Trade upheld
the Governor in that controversy. "Their pretending to
assume the right of their Speaker's signing last will
never be allowed here" they asserted; it was an undutifull attempt upon H.M. Prerogative (62, p. 192).
The complaint as to his fortifying St. Johns touched
Parke as a soldier. He writes with acid contempt of the
planters' military arguments and of their behaviour under
arms (pp. 194, 195). As to his arbitrary actions in the
Court of Chancery, that accusation, he retorts, arose from
his impartial decisions without regard to the status of
the litigants. If his judgments were faulty, why did
they not appeal?
The fact was, that they held it "abominable and without precedent that a stranger that came out of England
should recover his money from an inhabitant" (pp. 196,
197. cf. Jamaica, supra). As to the charge of turning
out the Chief Justice, Mr. Watkins was not turned out,
but resigned. In any case, he was not a very fit person
to try criminals, since his hands were stained with the
blood of an unarmed man (pp. 199, 200). Parke returned
to his favourite thesis of the evil of latifundia, pointing,
with his eye no doubt upon Codrington, to the rich
men who, by means of the Act of 1698, combined to
engross the land and forced small landowners off the
Island (pp. 196, 197). Chester's stories he dismissed
as the outcome of malice due to his continually checking
him in illegal trading (483, p. 200), (omitting, of course,
to mention his own relationship with Mrs. Chester, which
was made sufficiently evident by his will). The charge of
assuming the power to dispense with the powder Act was
brought by the very men who petitioned him to do so in
accordance with an Address by the whole Council and
Assembly (p. 201). Parke concluded by reciting evident
signs of the increased prosperity of the Islands
under his administration (p. 205), and remarking that the
accusations of his "leading a lewd life and conversation"
were brought by those very Codringtons and Perries
who themselves starved the Clergy, lived in open adultery
and owned a mongrel, sooty race of bastards (p. 206).
The Tory Ministry.
Such was his defence. But before this document
had left the Leeward Islands an event occurred at home
which probably signed his death-warrant. Sunderland
fell. The success of the Tories was complete.
Parke changes his tone.; Suspends Col. Jones.; Antiguans grow desperate.
The reactions of the English political situation upon
temper and events in the Colonies were swift and sure.
Parke himself reported that the attitude of the Assembly
was attuned to the latest news from England. It was
rumoured that he was put out and, says he, the Assembly
was truculent; that he was confirmed, and they were
ready to come to terms. So now, when Dartmouth succeeded Sunderland (327), his own confidence suddenly
revived. It was his turn to be truculent. He writes bitterly of the fallen Minister who had rapped his knuckles
so severely, and stopped his promotion in the army. Now
he looked to Dartmouth for protection and favour. He
applied to him for the Lord Lieutenancy of Middlesex
and Hampshire, and proposed to stand for Parliament
on his return home. He rejoiced that the Episcopal
Church "was like to be trumps." His enemies were
Scotch Cameronians and Presbyterians, whilst he himself
was no Republican. That was why they had found
favour in Sunderland's eyes (230, 390, 484). (Sunderland
had been a theoretical enthusiast for Republicanism, but
with Halifax disclaimed it in this year. (fn. 1) ) His enemy,
Codrington, too, was dead, and had had the mortification
of leaving a "Volpone" will (228). In this new humour
one of Parke's first steps was to suspend Col. Jones
(347). Surrounding himself with a chosen bodyguard
from the Regiment, whom he encouraged to bully and
outrage the inhabitants, he faced the enraged and disappointed planters of Antigua (674 i.–iv., 783 iv. etc.). As
the impression grew that Parke would not now leave
his Government, the Antiguans grew desperate. A wild
and most improbable rumour spread that the Governor
was proposing to turn traitor and to hand over the Island
to the French. In the heated atmosphere prevailing
anything would be believed. Parke was invited by the
Assembly and advised by the Council to quit the Island
(623, 623 ii., 674 ii.–iv., 677 i.).
Whatever his faults, cowardice was not one of them.
He refused to surrender the Queen's Commission, but
surrounded himself with his guard, fortified his residence,
received the Sacrament and prepared himself for the
end which was now seen to be inevitable (589, 674 etc.).
Murder of Governor Parke.; His papers seized.
Details of the final tragedy on Dec. 7, 1710, and the
steps which led up to it are given in the several conflicting accounts which reached London from March
onwards (589, 623, 674, 674 i.–vi., 677, 677 i., 683, 783 ii,–iv., 809, 827, 838). Parke was savagely killed and barbarously mutilated, after he had killed Capt. Piggott in
an interchange of pistol-shots (683, 809). Some of the
soldiers of his guard were murdered in cold blood, after
quarter given (683 etc.). Parke's papers were seized.
Some of them were destroyed. Others were published,
revealing his intrigues with wives and daughters of the
planters (674, 677 i., 683), which may account for the
brutality of the murderers.
Enquiry shirked.; Place of burial.
The Lieutenant General, Walter Hamilton, was immediately summoned from St. Kitts. He called a
General Assembly of the Leeward Islands to enquire into
the circumstances of the murder (674 ff., 809). Some
refused to attend on the ground that they were liable
to be murdered, if their verdict should be unpopular.
There followed a general conspiracy of silence and an
endeavour to hush up and gloss over the atrocity of the
crime (783 ii. ff., 809). Hardly any witnesses appeared
in response to a Proclamation inviting evidence. The
General and Council therefore contented themselves with
declaring that "the generality of the inhabitants were
concerned therein." This, indeed, was evidently the
case (783 ii.). Hamilton concurred with the general
attitude, which was to suggest an act of oblivion and
indemnity (782, 809). The course of events in Antigua
after the murder is illuminating. Apart from the suppression or perversion of evidence, Parke's supporters
were bullied and intimidated (677, 821 i., 837, 899).
Threats were uttered that, if any of the guilty were punished, the country would rebel and go over to the French
(623, 683, 899). The references to Parke's burial-place
are of particular interest. No trace of it has hitherto
been found, and it has been suggested indeed that it was
purposely concealed. (v. Aspinall, West Indian Tales
of Old. p. 49). But we now learn that he was handsomely buried by the Lt. Governor in the Church, after
the consent of the Assembly had been with difficulty
obtained. The Church of St. Johns was destroyed by
an earthquake in 1843, and replaced by the present
Cathedral (623 ii., 683).
Effect in London.
The Council refused to hire a vessel to dispatch the
news of the murder. It was not, therefore, until the
following March that the news reached London. It
came first from Montserrat and Barbados (589, 623, 674,
Major Douglas appointed Governor.
Thereupon the Committee of the Privy Council conferred with the Council of Trade (735). Ministers had
to decide between practically condoning the murder of
an officer with whom little sympathy could be felt, but
who represented the authority of the Crown, and risking
disorder and perhaps rebellion by punishing the offenders. Hamilton, who had been appointed Lieutenant General during Parke's absence, was directed to
keep order and await instructions (146, 743, 782). Major
Walter Douglas was appointed to the Government and
ordered to proceed to the Leeward Islands without delay
with the convoy which was about to sail (758, 802, 823).
Commission for trial and pardon of rioters.
After consulting with merchants and planters in town,
the Council of Trade formulated some proposals for
dealing with the situation. They suggested that Lord
Archibald Hamilton, who was then about to sail with
the West India Trade fleet for his government at Jamaica,
should first proceed to Antigua and there, in conjunction
with the Commodore of the convoy and Lt. General
Hamilton, hold an enquiry on board the flag-ship. If
necessary, forces were to be landed to restore order.
As for punishing the chief offenders, no good result
could be expected from a trial in Antigua. The ringleaders, with evidence and witnesses, should therefore be
sent over for trial in England under the Act of 35th Hen.
VIII. for the trial of treasons committed out of the King's
Dominions (750). In accordance with these proposals,
an additional Instruction was given to Governor Douglas
to grant a general pardon to all offenders on account of
the late rebellion, with the exception of a number not
exceeding six and not less than three of the most notoriously guilty, whom he was to bring to trial at Antigua,
or, if he found good reason to believe that Justice was
not like to be had there, to send them over into Britain
with witnesses. This Instruction was afterwards converted into the form of a Commission (764, 764 i., 767,
774–776, 792, 794, 795, 800, 806).
The details now published correct in several important
particulars the article on Parke in the Dictionary of
Instructions to Douglas.
Whilst warning Governor Douglas to maintain the
Prerogative of the Crown in the matter of the "negative
voice," the Council of Trade invited him to report upon
the usage of signing Acts. He was also recommended
to advise the appointment of an Agent and the passing of
a new Act for establishing Courts in place of that repealed in 1708 (791).
General Assembly at St. Kitts.
Parke had called a meeting of the General Assembly
at St. Kitts for Feb., 1710. Representatives from Nevis
and Antigua failed to appear. The Assembly was soon
involved in a quarrel with the Governor over the right
to appoint their own officers, and no business was done
(152, 161, 171, 204, 228, 520).
Threatened attack from Martinique.
The riot or rebellion in Antigua and the defenceless
condition of the Leeward Islands owing to lack of measures for defence and munitions of war, invited an attack
by the enemy. Preparations were indeed made for a
raid from Martinique and Guadeloupe. The steps which
were successfully taken to frustrate it are referred to
above, §1. (750, 868, 877, 877 ii.–iv., 891, 891 i., 897, 897
ii., 899, 901, 904).
Raids on Montserrat.
In January, 1710, Montserrat successfully repelled a
raid by a large squadron of privateers (105), as also a
minor attack in the following spring (782). An attack
by a large force was reported to be imminent in April.
The Lt. General with only one man of war at his disposal,
and no public funds, was in a quandary as to how to
relieve them, the Antiguans not being disposed to help
neighbours who neglected to adjust their accounts (p.
448). The enemy, headed off from their design upon
Antigua by the engagement with Newcastle, landed a
force of 1200 men upon Montserrat at midnight on June
14th. They were held up by a party of planters at the
entrance of a pass and retreated with loss. Their retirement was hastened by the dread of the activity of the
men of war (904).
Privateers and Guardships.
Privateers were, indeed, "as thick as bees" about the
Leeward Islands and Hamilton, like his predecessors,
pressed for an increase of guardships (782, 868).
Capt. Bermingham raids Barbuda.
One of the most sinister and active of the enemy privateers was Capt. John Bermingham. This renegade
Irishman, after serving as Commander of several flags
of truce from Antigua to Martinique, entered into the
service of the French, and besides inspiring them to
attack the Leeward Islands, himself raided the Codringtons' property on Barbuda (782, 824).
St. Kitts: Dispute over Money Bill.; Act repealed.
The Council and Assembly of St. Kitts came to
loggerheads over a Revenue Bill. To raise money for
repair of the fortifications and support of Government,
the Assembly laid a duty upon sugar. Claiming for
their House the sole right of granting money, "contrary
to the ancient usage of the Leeward Islands," they refused to admit any amendments by the Council to a
money bill. By insisting that the Treasurer should be
accountable either to the Governor, Council and Assembly, or either of them, they challenged the Queen's
express Instructions (690). The Governor was thereupon ordered to recommend to them the passing of a
Revenue Act not liable to the objections which had
caused the former bill to be dropped, or derogating "from
the just and undoubted rights of the Imperial Crown."
An Act of 1704, for the Treasurer's receiving and paying
the publick stock, was repealed for similar reasons (520,
520 ii., 690–692).
St. Kitts: Retention of French part urged.
In the course of the negotitations for Peace opened in
1709, it had been proposed that the status quo ante should
be restored in the West Indies. But the necessity of
retaining the French part of St. Kitts was now urged
(336, 810 i.).
The Virgin Islands.; Capt. Walton's proposal.
The Instructions of the Governor of the Leeward
Islands required him to assert the British sovereignty
over the Virgin Islands. It had been customary for
him to appoint a Lieutenant Governor there. In the
spring of 1711 Capt. Walton submitted a description of
the Islands in this group, emphasising their possibilities
and pointing out that the administration of them had
hitherto been very lax. He proposed that they should
now be formed into a separate Government. This step
would encourage their development, besides putting an
end both to clandestine trade and the pretensions of the
French, Dutch and Danes. He asked to be appointed
Governor or Proprietor thereof, in return for his services
and expenses as Lt. Governor. In support of his claim
he produced his Commission signed by Governor Parke
in 1707. Objections were raised, to which he replied.
But the Council of Trade, in view of those objections,
which concerned the Leeward Islands, and because any
such settlement would necessitate the establishment of
a naval and military force, suggested that the respective
Councils of the Leeward Islands should be consulted as
to the desirability of it. In the meanwhile, they proposed that the new Governor of the Leeward Islands
should be directed to take care to observe his Instructions for asserting the King's sovereignty and preventing
the subjects of any foreign Prince from settling in any
of those Islands except St. Thomas. They also proposed
that he should report upon the soil, products and conveniences for trade there, and upon the number and
condition of the present settlers (601, 705, 731, 740, 801,
Newfoundland: Capture of St. Johns.; Major Lloyd.
From Newfoundland came several accounts of the
recent capture of St. Johns. They constitute a sorry tale
of treachery, negligence and cowardice (180, 190 i., 528
iii., vi.). Complaints were also lodged against Major
Lloyd for trading, embezzling H.M. stores, and hiring
out soldiers of the garrison (620, 628). Lloyd was now
dead. But orders were given for stopping any pay that
might be due to him (689).
The importance of the Newfoundland Trade and
Fishery was pressed upon Ministers by the merchants of
Bristol and Bideford, and by the Council of Trade. In
view of peace negotiations, they urged the desirability
of annexing the whole country and the adjacent islands
and banks (227, 244, 250, 250 i., 252).
Recovery in the Fishery.
Upon enquiry from the Admiralty as to the force of
convoy needed for 1710, opinions were invited from the
various out-ports concerned. Their answers, and the
returns by the Commodore show a considerable revival
in the Fishery after the recent disaster (56, 63, 74–80,
109, 511 i., ii., 558 iv.).
Convoys and Defence.; Proposal to fortify Ferryland instead of St. Johns.; Board of Trade Reports.
James Campbell, however, insisted that defence at
land, by a regular force, summer and winter, was needed
as well as a strong convoy. He emphasized the advantage to be derived from a settlement both by the Fishery
and British manufacturers (85). He, in common with
others, also proposed that the fortification of St. Johns
should be abandoned and that Ferryland, as a more suitable position, should be fortified in its stead. The pros.
and cons. of this suggestion were carefully weighed (85,
87, 88, 524, 528 i., 529 i., 549, 553). The Council of Trade
finally reported in favour of it, in a representation upon
the whole state of affairs at Newfoundland, a report
which was repeated in greater detail at Lord Dartmouth's
request towards the end of the year 1710 (139, 528, 558 i.).
The matter was then referred to the Board of Ordnance
Critical condition of the Inhabitants.
In the mean time the inhabitants of St. Johns had
held the place for one anxious winter, and had been persuaded to attempt to do so for another by their Governor,
Collins. But they gave a plain warning that, unless
forces were sent to their aid from home, they would be
obliged to quit the country (511 iii.). Their circumstances were indeed critical (85).
Commodore's Instructions.; Powers of Punishment.
When the time came for despatching the convoy of
the Fishing Fleet in 1711. it was not known what the
condition of affairs might be at Newfoundland. But it
was decided to give the usual Heads of Enquiry to the
Commodore (720). It had been found that the Act
to encourage the trade to Newfoundland remained in
some respects a dead letter, owing to there being no
penalty provided in it for infringement of its provisions.
The Commodore was therefore now empowered, by an
additional Instruction, to punish offences against the Act
at Newfoundland according to the custom of the place,
and, in cases which could not be redressed there, to
forward the names and offences of delinquents for trial
at home (558 i., 815).
Representations by the Council of Trade.
The most important of the Representations of the
Council of Trade in these pages are, on the African Trade
632 i.; on Naval Stores, 127 i., 745; on Newfoundland,
139, 558 i.; duties on prize goods, 239; duties on iron and
steel, 621 i.; on the dispute in Barbados, 377; on the
Bahama Islands, 405; on New York, 640 i., 654 i.; on
Pennsylvania, 649 i.; on the Leeward Islands, 690, 750,
A peculiar form of the expression "to knock under"
(=knuckle under), occurs on p. 157, "knock under the
January 25, 1924.