America and West Indies
September 1720, 20-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Cecil Headlam (editor)

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1933

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144-165

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'America and West Indies: September 1720, 20-30', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 32: 1720-1721 (1933), pp. 144-165. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74107 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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September 1720, 20-30

Sept. 20.
Whitehall.
233. Order of Lords Justices in Council. Approving Instructions (v. 11th Aug.), which are to be signed and transmitted to the several Governors etc. Signed, Edward Southwell. Endorsed, Recd. Read 11th Jan., 1720/21. ¾ p. [C.O. 323, 8. No. 18.]
Sept. 20.
Whitehall.
234. Order of Lords Justices in Council. A warrant for passing a Commission for trying pirates in South Carolina is to be prepared etc. Signed, Edward Southwell. Endorsed, Recd., Read 11th Jan., 17220/21. ¾ p. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 63, 64v.]
Sept. 20.
Whitehall.
235. Order of Lords Justices in Council. Approving drafts of Commissions and Instructions for the Governor of S. Carolina, with amendments proposed by Attorney and Solicitor General. Signed and endorsed as preceding. 1½ pp. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 65, 66v.]
Sept. 20.
Whitehall.
236. Order of Lords Justices in Council. New Seal for S. Carolina to be prepared. Set out, A.P.C. II. p. 779. Signed and endorsed as preceding. 1½ pp. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 67–68v.]
Sept. 23.
Whitehall.
237. Council of Trade and Plantations to the Lords Justices. In obedience to your Excells.' commands (15th instant), we have considered the several papers therein transmitted etc. Continue: In our opinion it is highly necessary no time should be lost in erecting the fort proposed, wch. according to the best information we can get wou'd be much better placed upon the Continent on the North Banks of the Alatamaha River, than in the Isld. of St. Simon, the sd. Isld. lying at too great a distance from the shore to command the entrance of the sd. River, tho' it may likewise be very necessary whenever H.M. shall think fit to send a larger force to Carolina to take possession of the sd. Island and erect a fort or forts in proper places there also. We do likewise agree, that it may be very convenient for H.M. service that a certain extent of ground adjoining to the place where the new Fort shall be erected, should be marked out, and set apart in equal lots not exceeding half an acre in each lot nor 100 acres in the whole to build a town upon in time to come in case this settlement should prosper, as 'tis hop'd it will. And further that a reservation should likewise be made of 600 acres circumjacent to the sd. projected town for common of pasturage for the inhabitants of the said town when built. And as nothing can so effectually conduce to the settlemt. of this frontier as the giving proper encouragemt. to such persons as shall be disposed to inhabit the new projected town, it will be further necessary, that a very large tract of land should be set apart to be granted in separate parcels not exceeding 200 acres to any one person, who shall be an inhabitant of the sd. town, the sd. lands to be held of H.M. by the tenure of Castle Guard, and the particular services to be perform'd to be specify'd in the respective grants. But we are of opinion, that it may be very difficult if not impossible to execute this important design without the assistance of a small frigate to remain in the River as a guard ship till ye new intended fort shall be in a sufficient posture of defence, and therefore we do earnestly recommend this particular to your Excellencies consideration. But if H.M. affairs will not admit of the sending a small man of war expressly on this service, we humbly propose that the Govr. be impower'd and have directions to hire a sloop or brigantine for this purpose upon his arrival in Carolina. Amongst the papers referred to us, there is one entituled An account of necessaries for 100 men now bound to S. Carolina, which we have perused; and altho' there may be some particulars therein that might possibly be spared, yet considering that this is calculated for the making of a new settlement and recommended by Col. Barnwell who seems to be a very intelligent person in these matters, so far as the sd. necessaries do related to the sd. new settlement only, exclusive of the Articles relating to Charles Town, which may be considered on another occasion; we conceive it may be for H.M. service that the same should be forthwith provided, and we would submit to your Excellencies, whether orders should not be given to the Board of Ordnance for that purpose. But we presume that such part of these stores as shall be deliver'd to the men for their own wearing apparel will be deducted as hath been usual out of their off reckonings. We have likewise considered the Instructions for the Commander of the garrison etc. But having discoursed with Col. Nicholson and finding that he designs to execute this important service himself in person, we believe the method of doing it may be left to his direction and so much the rather because as he is Govr. in chief of Carolina he will have full powers in any part of that Province to give such orders as he shall think may most conduce to H.M. service in this particular; and when the sd. Fort shall be erected he will leave such Instructions in writing with the Officer commanding in chief there in his absence as may be necessary; But we shall give Genl. Nicholson a copy of the sd. paper of Instructions which may be of use to him in the execution of this design. We presume the Board of Ordnance have already your Excells.' orders for providing great guns with carriages, stores and ammunition of all kinds necessary for the making of this Settlement. And we would likewise recommend to your Excellencies to give orders for sending an able Ingineer upon this Expedition as is proposed by Genl. Nicholson together with a proportionable number of gunners and matrosses. As the most material informations which we have had upon this subject have come from Col. Barnwell who has long been an inhabitant of Carolina where he has passed thro' all the publick Offices except that of Governor. And in as much as the sd. Col. Barnwell at the request of Genl. Nicholson is willing to accompany the sd. General upon this Expedition, we should humbly conceive it might be for H.M. service that General Nicholson should be directed after that new intended Fort shall be built to put the same together with ye garrison thereof under the care and government of the sd. Col. Barnwell whose knowledge of the country and experience in matters of this nature will highly conduce to the promoting a settlement on this frontier. In the mean while we do agree with Genl. Nicholson, that it may be very necessary to take the proper measures for promoting settling; and inlarging the Indian Trade, and that the Governors of Carolina and Virginia should be instructed to conferr upon this subject, and to settle matters upon such a foot, that neither of these Colonies should have reason to complain of the other. It will likewise be for H.M. service that the Govr. of the Bahama Islands for the time being should keep a constant correspondence with the Govr. of Carolina, that they may be aiding and assisting to each other as occasion may require. We are of opinion that it may be necessary upon this occasion to distribute some presents among the Indians to gain their friendship to this new settlement, and if your Excellencies shall think fit to give your directions to the Lords of the Treasury for that purpose General Nicholson and Col. Barnwell may attend their Lordships with a list of particulars presented to us to which we have no objection. [C.O. 5, 400. pp. 126–133.]
Sept. 24./Oct. 5.
Paris.
238. Mr. Pulteney to Mr. Popple. Acknowledges letter and enclosures of 12th. Continues:—I had allready Mr. Vaughan's and Mr. Capon's Memorial which makes the Islands of Canco to be a parcel of rocks joining almost to the Cape, but the French you will find, say a large branch of the sea runs between these Islands and the Cape; some other accounts of our people seem rather to agree with the French in this point, and as the Board have not given their opinion in this matter, I think it best for us to insist in general that these Islands are not in the mouth of St. Laurents nor in the Gulf of that name, and consequently do not belong to the French, without examining very nicely whether they are more or less distant from the Continent of Nova Scotia; because if we should go upon Mr. Capon's account, and the French should produce better or more plausible proofs for their assertion, than we can for ours, this would give them an advantage as to the main dispute, besides though our proofs were never so clear and strong they would not be convinced by them. I observe by the last Representation of the Board (15th Sept.) that they still mention only in general the fishery at Canco, without determining whether it be at the Cape, or at the Islands; this makes it necessary for us here to insist likewise in general against the fishery even at the Islands, though our arguments would be much stronger, even by what the French have acknowledged, if we were only to insist against the fishery at the Cape. P.S.—This letter comes out of date, but it waited to go by a messenger, and I have ye oppertunity of adding ye inclosed arret. Signed, D. Pulteney. Endorsed, Recd. 7th, Read 11th Oct., 1720. 1¾ pp. [C.O. 217, 3. No. 11; and 218, 1. pp. 482, 483.]
Sept. 24.
New York.
239. Governor Burnet to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Abstract. Has published his Commission in New York and New Jersey. The party which always opposed Governor Hunter, has got ahead during his absence and been preparing for a new Assembly quite different from that which granted him the revenue. It has therefore been thought advisable for the old Assembly to meet immediately, precedents for which will be sent in his next dispatches. This Assembly will be more tractable than ever in order to be continued. Provision will be made for deficiencies in the revenue, which will amount to £3000 this country money (which is at the rate of eighteenpence to one shilling sterling) when revenue expires in June, and for a revenue thereafter. Hopes that measures may be taken too for fortifying the frontier against the French "who are more industrious than ever in seducing our Indians and have built trading houses in their country lately, and engaged great numbers of them to live in the French country near Quebec. If the Assembly can be brought to some immediate provision for this service, there may be forts built next year, and other measures taken to stop these designs of the French: which they carry on with great application." A sudden remedy from home is needed as well as utmost diligence here. Asks for the Board's protection and the dispatch of the usual presents to the Indians, which the Lords Justices directed the Treasury to provide; also of the stores wanting for the garrisons, of which he gave an account to the Lords Justices and for which the Board of Ordnance prepared an estimate, but no order given by the Lords Justices etc. Has had no opportunity of informing himself as to the state of affairs in the Jerseys. Set out, N.Y. Col. Docs. V. 572. Signed, W. Burnet. Endorsed, Recd. 26th Nov., Read 1st Dec., 1720. Holograph. 4 pp. [C.O. 5, 1052. ff. 82–83v.; and (extract) f. 81; and 5, 1092. No. 114.]
Sept. 24.
New York.
240. Same to [? Mr. Delafaye]. Repeats substance of preceding and encloses letter to Mr. Secretary Craggs and copy of preceding etc. Concludes: Mr. Bamfeild will make propper application in my name for despatch in those things I have depending before the Lords Justices etc. Endorsed, R. 26 pr. Board of Trade. [C.O. 5,1092. No. 13.]
Sept. 27.
Annapolis Royal.
241. Governor Philipps to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Refers to former letters. Continues:—What hath hapned since at Cansoe and the dammage done there to the fishery, by way of reprisall (as the savages gives out) for what was taken from the French by Capt. Smart, is an unhappy confirmation that I have not been mistaken. For nothing is so evident, as that our French inhabitants, and the neighbouring French Governments are equally secrett enemys to the Brittish interest in this Province and consult together how they may disturb and obstruct its being setled, especially at this juncture they are more buisy than ornary (seeing their hopes of this countreys falling into their hands again is like to be at an end) and that the savages are the tooles in their hands, with which they work the mischeifs which themselves dare not appeare in. Refers to enclosures. The fishermen being drove off, from their stages, into their boates, by the savages, who surprised them in the dead of the night, and their fish and merchandize left to the pillage of the French, who lay ready for that end, they had a consultation the next morning, and concluded to send a sloop to Cape Breton, to seek for redress; but not finding to their satisfaction: they sent to me, by one Mr. Henchaw for relief: whom I dispatch'd with arms, amunition, and provisions, and would have given him an officer, with a detachment of the garrison, but he thought there would be no occasion. This person brought me five French prisoners, taken in severall shallops loaden with the English fish, and merchandize. Refers to enclosures. By which your Lordshipps will see how farr the Counsells of Cape Breton, may have been concerned, in contriveing and abetting this mischeif. I also sent my Major on board him to Cape Breton with copys of those examinations to demand restitution of the fish and goods. And satisfaction for the loss of H.M. subjects: three haveing been kill'd on that occasion. Refers to enclosures. As to the Indians I have the honour to assure your Lordships, and everybody here will bear me witness, that I have taken particular care, to treat them in the civillest manner, that ever any Governor yet has done; there has scarce past a week, since I am here but some of them have been with me whom I never failed to assure of H.M. good will and protection and required them to acquaint all their Nation therewith, and that I expected considerable presents for them from the King, in token of his affection. At the same time I never dismist them without presents (which they alwayes expected) for which I am out of pocket above £150. But I am convinc'd that a hundred thousand will not buy them, from the French interest while the priests are among them who haveing gott in with them, by the way of Religion, and brought them to regular confessions twice a year: they assemble punctually at those times and receive their absolution conditionally that they be alwayes enemys to the English. I had the honour to acquaint you that I had by the advice of Council sent express for the Chiefs of those who are called the St. John River Indians, and are represented to be the most considerable. They came according to the invitation I sent them. Refers to enclosure. In my humble opinion the man of warr upon the station of New England, should have attended the fishery at Cansoe in the season according to the orders that were sent upon my application when at London, but why she has layn all this summer in Boston harbour, I can't guess unless she has waited for the reliefe that is said to be comeing. It is certain that had she been at Cansoe, that loss had not hapned to H.M. subjects. Some of the Indian robbers, who return'd from Cansoe to Minas, to the number of eleven finding a New England tradeing sloop there belonging to Mr. John Alden, and being flushed with there former success, and aplauded by the priests, they plunder'd her also at the very door of the inhabitants who look'd on, without restraining those wretches, under the sham pretence of being afraid of provokeing them. I have wrote to them to demand a better reason of such their behaviour, which is all I can do in my present circumstances, but hope it will not be long thus. This being the last oppertunity (probably) this season that I may have the honour of writeing to your Lordshipps, do therefore think it my duty (with submission) to tell you plainely that I find this countrey in no likelyhood of being setled under the King's obedience upon the footing it is, and therefore it is necessary that the Government at home exert itself a little and be at some extraordinary expence, for this has been hitherto no more than a mock Government. Its authority haveing never yet extended beyond cannon reach of this Fort. I was in hopes (and signifyed as much in the last letters I had the honour to write to your Lordshipps) the addition of 100 men more, with what I could draw from the Garrison of Placentia might suffice for this work, but am now convinc'd it will require a greater number. And because I might not be thought to impose my own opinion in a matter of such consequence. I have called a Council of the Cheife Officers (some of which are of the Kings Council) to consider of and propose the most reasonable and least expensive scheme for establishing the Kings authority in such manner and in such parts of this Province as may render it communicative over the whole. Refers to enclosure. I heartily wish that this expence was not absolutely necessary; but as the case stands it would be more for the honour of the Crowne and proffit also, to give back the country to the French, than be contented with the name only of Goverment, and the charge that attends it, whilst they beare the rule and make it subservient to the support of their settlement at Cape Breton, which could ill subsist without the graine and the cattle they fetch from Manis. The inhabitants seem determined not to sware allegiance, and at the same time I observe them to be goeing on with their tillage and building as if they had no thoughts of leaveing their habitations. It is likely they flatter themselves that the Kings affaires here will alwayes continue in the same feeble state. I am certain nothing but a demonstration will convince them to the contrary. The number of those people and how scituated, with a description of their particular settlements and countrey in general is herewith presented to your Lordshipps, being the most exact and perfect account that has yet been given of this Province. Refers to enclosed reply from the Governor of Canada, and Minutes of Council. I am certain there is not a paper of any consequence transacted by me, which I have not done myself the honour of laying before your Lordshipps. If anything be found amiss, I must own it is from want of judgment; for I do my best for H.M. service, and therefore am not without hopes of pardon. The method by which the French have made all their settlements in America, has been the undertakings of particular Societys or Companys, whereby the Crowne has been at little more expense then fortifications and a few troops to garrison them, with the charge of Governors, Intendants and other necessary Officers. The Isle of St. Johns scituated in the river of St. Lawrence and opposite to our french settlements of Chignecto and within three leagues of the Continent is now setling in the same manner; by which the English Colonies will be environed from Misisippi to Cape Breton. If therefore such undertakeings were sett on foot at home, I am certain the Adventurers would soon find their accots. to answer abundantly beyond any of the French projections; the one being a demonstrable prospect of very great advantage, the other but chimeracal etc. I shall waite H.M. commands, for my further conduct etc. P.S. Sept. 27th. Before I could dispatch my letter the answer from the inhabitants of Manis is come to my hands etc. v. enclosure. Your Lordshipps may please to observe by this deportmt. of the Deputies excuseing their appearance, a confirmation of the little regard they pay to any orders of the Goverment, and how the Indians (whom they have sett on worke) are made the skreene for all their actions. The Jesuitical frame of the letter plainly discovers it to be of the priests composure; there not being one inhabitant in the country capable of such a performance. What is therein mentioned of Mr. Broadstreet is literally thus. This gentleman was sent with a deputation from the Collector (and with my approbation) to reside at Manis, as a preventing officer, to observe the trade, and correspondance those people carry on with Cape Breton, and to give an accompt thereof, from time to time. This office not suiting with their interest, they told him that he could not be protected there, and therefore it was necessary for his safety to return, upon which he desired them to furnish him with a guide to direct him the safest way back thro' the woods, which not being able to obtaine, he ventur'd alone, but first wrote the enclosed letter to the Deputy he had apply'd to for the guide. This is their method of excuseing their behavior by turning it into a grievance on their side. Your Lordspps. will please to observe likewise that they pass over that part of my letter, wherein I reminded them of the testimony of my good will towards them in presumeing contrary to my Orders, to prolong the time for their evacuation, which they do not think fitt to acknowledge; since they have prevailed with the Indians to sett up their native right and title to the countrey, as you will see by their answers or rather the priest for them. These are the effects the Proclamation has produced, and their grounds for laying the blame, and makeing me the cause of this trouble, because the honour of publishing those H.M. Orders has fallen to my lot, for they will not be perswaded but that I have done it of my own head. 'Tis what they should have been told eight yeares sooner. But it is not yett too late. And I hope this will serve as a lucky occasion to hasten the secureing the countrey under the King's Dominion, which is a worke that must be done first or last, and the longer it is delay'd the more difficult it will be. Signed, R. Philipps. Copy sent by way of Boston. Signed, Ar. Savage, Secy. Endorsed, Recd. 2nd, Read 14th Feb., 1720/21. 18 pp. Enclosed,
241. i. Memorial of John Henshaw, William Taylor and Richard Pieke of Cansoe, in behalf of the rest of the inhabitants, to Governor Philipps. On 8th Aug. 1720 we were surprised in the night by the French and Indians, who stript and robb'd us of all to the value of £18,000. They fired several small arms upon us and killed two of us, as we were getting of in our boats and drove several of us into the sea so that one of us were drown'd in hast of getting off. At two a clock in the afternoon Mr. John Henshaw, Wm. Taylor, Jethro Furber and Nathl. Shannon sailed in a small vessell to Louisbourg and presented our grievances to the Governor. He made light of it and answer'd if any french men were taken in the fact they should make satisfaction, but as for the Indians he had nothing to do with them. Thomas Richards, master of a ship rideing in the harbour of Cansoe, fitted out two small vessells in pursuit of those robbers, and took six challops with part of the plunder on board, vizt. European goods and fish, which they brought into sd. harbour; with 15 frenchmen on board, wch. sd. frenchmen had taken off from sd. place in their boates. At our arrival at sd. harbour with the shallops aforesaid, some of our men had taken two of the Indians robbers, prisioners, which sd. Indians confessed they were incouraged and had orders to robb us from the Governor of Cape Britton. Pray H.E. to supply them with men, arms and ammunition to enable them to defend the rights of the Crowne of England etc. Signed, John Henshaw, William Taylor, Richard Pieke. Read in Council, 29th Aug. 1720. Copy. 2½ pp.
241. ii. English merchants and residents at Port Canso to Governor St. Ovide de Bruillan. Louisbourg, Aug. 10, 1720. Complain of attack by sundry French and Indians, inhabitants of Cape Britton. Continue: On 8th Aug., about one or two in the morning, we were attackt by a body of Indians joyned with some french about 50 or 60, who did take us out of our beds and carry us prisoners from house to house, until they had made themselves masters of the place, then confineing us in sundry houses, pillaged our goods, weareing apparell, bedding and things of value they took out of our pockets, and carryed away the same in canoes, shallops etc., makeing the Island of Capt. Richards there place of randevous at their withdrawing where they began there onsett and had about 16 of his men prisoners. By this time our fishing vessells haveing assembled themselves together, they manned one of them, to save Capt. Richards' ship which we feared they would burn and likewise to drive them from the said Island. At the approach of the said vessel, they began to discharge their firelocks upon the English, whereupon we return'd the same specie, but when we found nothing could be done by fireing we ceased, and the vessel came to sail in order to leave them, but they continued their fire, killed one of our men; some time after they put up a flagg of truce, when we had a parly etc. We notifye your Excellency as soon as possible, they having professed themselves (to us) to be subjects of France. The names of the greater part we shall furnish your Excellency withall: some are, Renold Le Boue a frenchman, Estienne an Indian partly french, his son and son-in-law etc. Pray for H.E.'s speedy answer and punishment of the guilty etc. Signed, John Furber, John Henshaw, William Taylor, Nathl. Shannon, in behalf of the rest. Copy. 3¾ pp.
241. iii., iv. Depositions of French prisoners captured at Canso, taken before the Governor and Council of Nova Scotia, Annapolis Royal, 29th Aug., 1720. In robbing the English at Canso, they did as their captains commanded them. The captains of their ships, Philisbert d'Habilene and Massy, supplied the savages with guns and ammunition to attack the English, and received from them in return fish taken from the English etc. Copy. French. 6½ pp.
241. v. Deposition of François Pitrelle, French prisoner captured at Canso. Taken as preceding. Deponent was engaged in the cod fishery about Canso and Isle Madame etc. For 3 months past there had been a rumour that the savages were to attack the English of Canso and avenge the wrong the French had suffered from Capt. Smart. Those who had lost through that seizure, counted on reimbursing themselves by the attack of the savages. M. Renaud made a voyage to Artigonesh in order to incite the savages to this act, and to take them powder and ball for that end, as deponent heard Renaud say himself etc. Confirms preceding. Deponent's master, Jean Harenbourgh and Capt. Massy said several times that there was nothing to fear for carrying off and plundering the English fish, and spoke in such a way as to make it appear that they had authority for what they did. French. Copy. 2½ pp.
241. vi Deposition of Prudent Robicheau, French inhabitant of Annapolis Royal. 24th Aug. 1720. Confirms first part of preceding. The Indians who had robbed the English made presents out of their plunder to Father Vincent, Priest of Chignecto, on board a shallop from St. Peters, who publickly approved of what they had done to the English. The Indians said in a short time they intended to make a visit to Annapolis Royall, etc. Signed, Prudent Robicheau, his mark. Copy. 3 pp.
241. vii. Deposition of Michael Richards, French inhabitant of Annapolis Royal, 24th Aug. 1720. Confirms preceding. At St. Peter's deponent saw Lassonde a frenchman there who was pilot on board a sloop from New England loaden with cattle and sheep, bound from thence to Louisbourg for sale etc. Signed, Michael Richards, his mark. Endorsed, Recd. 2nd, Read 14th Feb. 1720/21. Copy. 3 pp.
241. viii. Governor Philipps' Instructions for Major Lawrence Armstrong, first of the Council. You are to goe directly to Cansoe, to informe yourself of the posture of affaires there etc., and give such direction therein as you shall judg most for H.M. service and security of his subjects there. You are afterwards to proceed to Cape Breton, deliver my papers to the Governor and represent to him the abuses they have received from the French etc., to demand full restitution, and that the Governor do arrest the persons with their ships and effects who are mentioned in the depositions to have been principal actors in the robbery, untill the pleasure of both Crownes be knowne as to what satisfaction shall be made for the loss of the King's subjects who have been kill'd on this occasion, etc. Annapolis Royal, Aug. 29th, 1720. Signed, R. Philipps. Copy. 2½ pp.
241. ix. Governor Philipps to the Governor of Cape Breton. Annapolis Royal, 29th Aug., 1720. I have received your letter etc. Refers to his reply to Capt. Henshaw, No. 1 supra. Encloses depositions of french prisoners, supra, showing that the French were the promoters of the attack upon Cansoe. All the savages who took part in it, save four, came from Cape Breton, where the affair had been spoken of for 3 months. I cannot believe the evidence of two savage prisoners, that it was M. de St. Ovide who caused them to act etc. Demands full satisfaction etc. as preceding. I am not altogether ignorant of the extraordinary movements of the priests this summer between this Government and yours, particularly Fathers Vincent and Justinien, which is of no little weight as confirmation that this evil design was then afoot. Same endorsement. French. Copy. 3 pp.
241. x. Conference of Governor Philipps with the Indians of St. John's River. Speech of the Indians:— We obey your summons and are delighted to see you. Since the English have been masters of this country, the Governors and merchants thereof have failed in their written obligation to supply us with all we needed in return for our money. We have therefore been obliged to trade with others or starve. Can only answer for the Indians of this River etc. Pray. H.E. to treat all the other inhabitants as if they were their brothers etc. Signed, Francis Sales, his mark, and six others. Read in Council, 26th July, 1720. French. Copy. 1¾ pp.
241. xi. Governor Philipps' Reply to the Indians of St. John's River. Declares H.M. good will, and his desire to live in peace and amity with them. There is a firm friendship and alliance established between England and France. Regrets that they have been disappointed as preceding. This was caused by the impossibility of furnishing the necessaries they required. Care will be taken to supply them in future at a reasonable price. Wishes all the Indians to enjoy the benefit of this agreement etc. Continues: I will treat you as a father his children, and as to the French inhabitants, so long as they behave faithfully towards King George and become his subjects, they will enjoy their own religion and possessions and the same privileges as H.M. natural subjects etc. But if they refuse their allegiance to the King and continue by their false and odious representations of the English, to alienate the affections and duty of good savages from the Crown of Great Britain, the King will no longer allow them to remain etc. If you hear of any evil practices or conspiracies against H.M. subjects, I expect you to warn me, and I shall do the same by you etc. Inform your neighbours of Passamaquaddy that I shall be very glad to receive two or three of their Chiefs here and give them the same assurances etc. I am sorry to have no better presents for you, but expect the King's presents by the next ship. The boat is ready for your return and I have ordered provisions, wine and brandy to be put on board. Annapolis Royal. 27th July, 1720. Signed, R. Philipps. Same endorsement. French. Copy. 3¾ pp.
241. xii. Deposition of John Alden, Master of the sloop Two Brothers. Annapolis Royal. 14th Sept., 1720. At Menis, on 22nd Aug., 11 Indians with Peter Nunquadden their Chief, demand 50 livers of him for liberty to trade, saying this countrey was theires, and every English trader should pay tribute, to which payment Deponent agreed being under necessity. A few days after the Chief told him that if any person came there with any orders from General Philipps he would make him prissonner and distroy what he had, neither should any orders of that Government be observed there. On 27th the same Indians and two more from Cobequet came on board in a hostile manner and drove him and his crew on shoare, and plundered his sloop's cargo to the value of £260, without any provocation. Signed, Jno. Alden. Same endorsement. Copy. 1½ pp.
241. xiii. Governor Philipps to the four Deputies of Les Mines. Annapolis Royal, 9th Sept., 1720. Recounts his acts of favour and goodwill to the French inhabitants and expresses surprise at the robbing of Alden's sloop preceding, of which they were spectators and which they could easily have prevented etc. Invites them to give a better reason for it than the ridiculous pretence of fear of a handful of savages. Orders them to assemble the savages that are amongst them, to demand in his name reasons for so acting and to bring their reply to him in person etc. Signed, R. Philipps. Same endorsement. French. Copy. 2 pp.
241. xiv. Indians of Les Mines to Governor Philipps. Les Mines, 2nd Oct. (N.S.] 1720. Reply to preceding. We have assembled to tell you that this land which God has given us and to which we belong cannot be claimed by anyone else. We observe your threats to reduce us to your servitude, which you must not expect, We are masters, independent of everyone, and desire to have our country free etc. If we wished to go and dwell in England, what would you do but order us to retire; and for the same reason we do not wish the English to inhabit our country, which we hold only from God, and which we will dispute with any men who wish to inhabit it without our consent. The reason why we have taken those of your nation is, that you have taken Canso etc. Before you came to our country, all was at peace there, but as soon as you came there, all is at war by your threats to deprive us of the heritage our fathers have left us. We do not know that any of your nation have ever had any part with us to suffer them to be free in our country, as you desire. Signed, Antoine Coaurèt, (mark), Piere Couaret (mark). Same endorsement. French. Copy. 2 pp.
241. xv. French inhabitants of Les Mines to Governor Philipps. Les Mines, 3rd Oct. (N.S.), 1720. Reply to No. xii in the absence of the deputies. We have no other explanation to give than that we sent by Mr. Alden. We have taken an oath that we had no share in the Indians' attack etc. We are very poor and cannot afford the expense of the deputies' journeys. Besides, the savages threaten to kill our cattle, and will not allow us to go to Port Royal. Mr. Bradestrick (= Broadstreet), when he came here, threatened to burn down our houses, without knowing how matters stood. Eleven savages would have been no great matter, if there had not been others to fear, but they come daily, and we do not know when the end will be reached. We are the trembling spectators of an assembly which may become deadly to us by eating our beasts etc. To ask us to oppose them, would be to expose us to their fury and loss of our property and lives. We cannot remain on our lands if we are to be held responsible for the outrages of the savages. Enclose preceding reply by the savages, dictated by themselves. They absolutely forbid, under great menaces, our letter or theirs to be presented to you by any one of us, but have ordered the bearer of them to deliver them to one of the deputies of Port Royal and to return immediately etc. Signed, Les Bourg and 27 others. French. Copy. 4 pp.
241. xvi. Governor the Marquis de Vaudreuil to Governor Philipps. Montreal, July 9th (N.S.), 1720. I have just received your letter of 3rd June, etc. I am charmed that you open a correspondence from which I foresee that I can only derive much pleasure etc. I have no orders to appoint boundary Commissioners at present, doubtless they will come by the King's ship which will only arrive at Quebec at the end of August, etc. Nothing will be done in the mean time on my part to disturb the union of our royal Masters. I hope that, until the boundaries are fixed, you will not allow any innovation in the places which the English did not occupy at the time the Peace was made, etc. Signed, Vaudreuil. Same endorsement. French. Copy. 2 pp.
241. xvii. Representation of the Governor and Council of Nova Scotia. Annapolis Royal, 27th Sept. 1720. Repeat following with slight variations. Add: From Chignecto the trade is clandestinely carried to Cape Breton by meanes of the small trajet from the Bay of Fundy into the Gulph of St. Lawrence. The French have sent this summer four shipps, two of which are actually arrived at Island St. John's, not above 6 leagues from Chignecto, where they intend to have a very considerable fort and settlement, and by means of it will be able to command the trade as well as the French inhabitants in these parts etc. Besides a ship of warr which ought to countenance these several projects two sloops of about 50 tonns each are necessary which may be mann'd out of the garrisons, and serve as guard vessels as well as packetts and transports to the places, which do not admit of the man of warr. Signed, R. Philipps, John Doucett, P. Mascarenc, Ar. Savage, J. Adams, Hibbert Newton, William Skene, Wm. Shirreff. Same endorsement. 5 pp.
241. xviii. Representation of the Governor and Officers of the Garrison of Annapolis Royal. (i) The French inhabitants unanimously refuse to sweare allegiance to the Crowne of Great Britain, and do look upon themselves to be the indispensable subjects of France, by an obligation under their hands from which the priests tell them they cannot be absolved. (ii) Notwithstanding this, they do not seem to entertain much thoughts of quitting their habitations which (we have reason to beleive) proceeds from a contempt of this garrison, and confidence in their owne numbers, together with the assistance of the Indians, with whom they are link'd by commerce, long acquaintance, consanguinity, and religion, and are as one people. (iii) Both the inhabitants and Indians are so influenced by the Government of Cape Breton and the priests resideing among them that whatsoever tends to favour and advance the British intrest in this countrey, does alwayes meet with obstructions either private or publick, for which last the Indians are ever ready to be imploy'd, witness the late mischief at Cansoe and Menis etc (No. xii). (iv) Wee are very sensible by dayly experience that these people disclaime all reguard and obedience to the Kings authority and that the orders of Government are rejected and loose their force, at the distance of gun shot from this fort. This being the state of affaires, we are humbly of opinion that a sufficient force is absolutely necessary to be sent from Great Brittain to curb the insolence of the present inhabitants, in case they be permitted to remaine, or to oblige them to retire in the manner prescribed them, and at the same time to protect such of H.M. subjects, as shall come to settle in this countrey, against the insults of the Indians, otherwise we see no likelyhood of its being setled, and consequently will be of no benefit or advantage to Great Britain. The number of troops necessary ought to be 600 men, besides the six companys of H.E.'s Regiment now in garrison here; (i) 200 to be landed at Cansoe, there to erect a fort to guard that fishery, the garrison of which when built to consist of 100 men; (ii) 400 to be order'd directly for this place, to take pilots, with an Enginier, to proceed to Menis, there also to build another fort, in a proper scituation to command the place, and particularly the ground, called the Grand Pré, which produces great cropps of wheat, and other graine, and is the treasure of that settlement, which when put in a posture of defence should be garrison'd with no less then 150 men. (iii) The remainder to proceed to Chignecto, where a fort is necessary to stop the clandestine trade carry'd on with Cape Britton, and to face the Isle of St. John's where the French have this year begun and intend to make a very considerable settlement. This fort to be garrison'd with 150 men. (iv) The remaineing 100 men with the 100 to be drawn from Cansoe (when that fort shall be built) to be disposed off on some part of the Eastern coast (in case it shall be thought fitt to remove the seat of Government thither) for which, Port Rosway, Lahave or Morligashe are recommended as proper places. It is also our humble opinion that these projections be putt in execution early in the Spring; and that the troops arrive here in Aprill or May at the farthest with provision for 12 months, and stores of ordanance, and tooles to raise redoubts etc to secure the garrisons against winter 'till such time, as they can be perfected, by reason that the shortness of our summers afford little time for work of that kind. Some small peices of cannon will be likewise necessary for these forts. Signed, R. Philipps, John Doucett, L. Govr., P. Mascarenc, Chris. Aldridge, Jos. Bennett. Same endorsement. 4 pp.
241. xix. Copy of Minutes of Council of Nova Scotia, 25th April,—5th Sept. 1720. Same endorsement. Copy. 24 pp.
241. xx. Description of Nova Scotia by Major Paul Mascarenc. Describes climate, soil and resources. "There are four considerable settlements on the South side of the Bay of Fundy, Annapolis Royal, Manis, Chignecto, and Cobequid. Several families are scattered along the Eastern coast. The inhabitants of these are still French and Indians." Discusses status of former. There are only two reasons for keeping them, the use that may be made of them for erecting fortifications, and keeping the stock of cattle and lands tilled for English settlements, and the addition of their strength might render the French too powerful neighbours. They would destroy their saw-mills on going. The free exercise of their religion, as promised to them, implies their having Romish missionaries amongst them etc. Urges that they should not be tolerated in their non-allegiance any longer; a force of 600 men is needed to compel them to comply with the terms prescribed to them etc. Situation of Annapolis Royal described. Two leagues above Goat Island is the Fort; seated on a riseing sandy ground on the south side of the river on a point form'd by the Brittish river and another small one called Jenny river. The lower town lyes along the first and is commanded by the Fort. The upper towne stretches in scattering houses a mile and a half; S.E. from the Fort on the riseing ground betwixt the two rivers. From this riseing ground to the banks of each river, and on the other side of the less one, lyes large plots of meadow which formerly were damned in, and produced good grain and sweet grass; but the dikes being broake down, are overflow'd at every spring tide. From Goat Island five leagues above the Fort, on both sides of the Brittish river, are a great many fine farms inhabited by about 200 familyes. The river is not navigable above two leagues above the fort, by other than small boates. The banks of this river is very pleasant and fruitful etc. The chief imployment of the French inhabitants now is farming, and the time they have to spare they employ in hunting, and ketching of sable martins. Their young men who have not much work at farming begett themselves to fishing in the summer. The Fort is almost a regular square has four bastions, and on the side fronting the point, which is formed by the junction of the two rivers, it has a ravelin and a battery of large gunns, on the counter-scarpe of the ravelin; which last with the battery have been entirely neglected, since the English had possession, and are entirely ruined. The works are raised with a sandy earth, and were faced with sodds, which being cut out of a sandy soil (the whole neck betwixt the two rivers being nothing else) soon moulder'd away. The French repaired part of the courtin with timber. The English revested the fort all round with pieces of round timber, of 6 or 7 inches diameter, to the height of the cordon, and raised a parapet of sod work; but whither by neglect of the workmen, or some other reasons, they put the Government to a prodigious deal of charge, and gave an entire disgust for any manner of repaires. Proposal for repairing it next summer so as to be capable of resistance until materials for a stone redoubt can be sent etc. Manis (called by the French Les Mines) has its name from the copper mines which are said to be about it especially at one of the Capes, which divides the Bay of Fundy, and is called Cap des Mines or Cape Doré. This towne lyes 30 leagues by sea and about 22 by land, E.N.E. from Annapolis Royal. The harbour is very wild and unsecure etc. This place might be made the granarie not only of this Province, but also of the neighbouring Goverments. There is a platt of meadow, which stretches along for near four leagues; part of which is damn'd in from ye tide, and produces very good wheat and pease etc. The houses which compose a kind of scattering town, lyes on a riseing ground along two crieks, which runns betwixt it, and the meadow, and makes of this last a kind of peninsula this place has great store of cattle, and other conveniencys of life, and in the road they catch white porpasses, a kind of fish, the plubber of which turnd into oyl, yeilds a good proffit. The inhabitants of this place and round about it are more numerous than those of the Brittish river, besides the Indians which often resort here. And as they never had any force near them to bridle them, are less tractable. All the orders sent to them if not suiting their humours, are scoff'd, and laught at, and they put themselves upon the footing of obeying no Government. It will not be an easy matter to oblige these inhabitants to submitt to any terms which do not entirely square to their humours, unless a good force be landed there, and a fort or redoubt of earth be thrown up, well ditch'd, freez'd and pallissaded, till a more durable may be built, this redoubt must have four peices of cannon (sakers) and command the meadow, which is their treasure. The force sent must be 3 or 400 men etc. Cobequid lyes about 12 leagues N.W. of Manis, at the upper end of the eastermost branch of the Bay of Fundy. There are about 50 French familys settled in this place. The soil produces good grain, and abounds in cattle etc. By a river the inhabitants have communication with Chibucto a harbour on the Eastern coast and by a road across the woods at the distance of about 20 leagues they fall into the Bay of Vert, by which they drive a trade to Cape Breton. The Indians resort much to this place. Chignecto is seated upon the westernmost branch of the Bay of Fundy almost at the upper end of it. The inhabitants are numerous, haveing much encreas'd of late yeares, and are about 70 or 80 familys. This place is about 12 leagues distant from Manis haveing a communication by a river, which discharges itself into Manis Road. It produces good store of grain and abounds in cattle more than any other. Within 7 leagues of Cape Chignecto are very good coal mines. Near the town is a small island which has a good quarry of soft stone etc. The inhabitants are more given to hunting and tradeing than those of the other settlements. etc. By the Gulph of St. Lawrence they have a continual intercourse with Cape Breton carrying most of their furrs that way, and supplying it with provisions of grain, cattle etc., and bringing for returns, linnens, and other goods, to the prejudice of the Brittish trade and manufactories. To put a stop to this, and to bring the inhabitants under obedience, who are the least subject to the English Government of any other here. It will be necessary, that a small fort be built in some convenient place on this Neck; capable of containing 150 men etc. ut supra No. xviii. Cansoe is an island with several other less ones adjoyning, lyeing at a small distance from the main etc. Describes attack by Indians and robbery by French. Whilst the Indians, incited by the French to surprise the English, were plundering the dry goods, the French were robbing the fish etc. Had it not been for this iruption 20,000 quintalls of dry codd fish this season would have been exported out of this place etc. This shews the need of a ship to countenance British subjects there in the summer, and a fort and garrison in the winter. This if incouraged is very likely to be the chief place for trade, tho not so conveniently scituated for the chief seat of Goverment, as Port Rosway, La Have, Marligash, Chiboucto, or any other harbour scituate on the Eastern coast of this Goverment, but these have not yet been narrowly surveyed, etc. Signed, P. Mascarenc, Engeneer. Carefully examined and found to be exact. Signed, R. Philipps. Same endorsement. 20 pp.
241. xxi. Duplicate of No. i.
241. xxii. Duplicate of No. ii. [C.O. 217, 3. Nos. 18, i.–xxii; and (without enclosures) 218, 1. pp. 500–512; and (abstract of letter) 217, 30. pp. 11–13.]
Sept. 27.242. Govr. Nicholson to Mr. Delafaye. Refers to interview with Board of Trade. Continues: I believe this day their Lordps. report will be layd before their Excellcys. Encloses proposalls for presents to the Indians. Continues:—I find by the Boston News Papers that there are severall piratts on those coasts that have done a great deal of mischief etc. Recommends that handgranades be supplied to the Company as being very useful in case of a close fight and also at the Fort etc. A dozen of brass cohorn mortars etc. may be of great use on board our transports etc. Recommends provision of harquebusses and blunderbusses etc. Concludes:—The Commissioners of Transports have agreed wth. ye 2 ships and they are to be ready (God willing) to sail from hence for Portsmouth and Plymouth by ye 7th of the next month, and ye 3 months provisions wch. is humbly proposed to be sent may be putt on board them, because there is an accot. from Carolina of a great drought and scarcity of provisions etc. Signed, Fr. Nicholson. Addressed. 1¼ pp. [C.O. 5, 387. No. 10.]
Sept. 27.
Placentia.
243. Lt. Governor Gledhill to the Council of Trade and Plantations. By some experiments I've made, hemp may be bro't to a considerable perfection in this part of Newfoundland etc. P.S.—We have multitudes of French ships that frequently fish upon our Banks. One is stranded in the next harbour etc. She has aboard 36 hgd. wine, 400 hgd. salt, 6000 of bread. Asks for directions in such cases. Signed, S. Gledhill. Endorsed, Recd., Read 15th Nov., 1720. 1½ pp. [C.O. 194, 6. No. 84.]
[Sept. 27.]244. H.M. Commission to Francis Nicholson to be Captain General and Governor in Chief of Carolina. Preamble: Whereas by great miscarriages and neglects in the Government of our Province, and Territory of Carolina in America, the same is fallen into such disorder, and confusion, that the publick peace, and administration of Justice (whereby the properties of our subjects should be preserved there) is broken, and violated, and the said Province is become wholly void of defence against any foreign enemy, or even against the incursions of the barbarous Indians; Whereby the southern frontier to our Plantations on the Continent of America, and one of the most fruitfull of our Colonys is in great danger of being depopulated, and the trade, and advantages thereof forever lost from the Crown of Great Britain. And whereas our said Province of Carolina, and our good subjects the inhabitants thereof, cannot be defended, and secured by any other means than our taking provisionally the Government into our own hands and immediate care, We therefore appoint you etc. [C.O. 5, 189. pp. 614–629.]
Sept. 27.
Whitehall.
245. H.M. Instructions (by the Lords Justices) to Same. You are to choose and appoint 12 Councillors until H.M. further pleasure be known and transmit their names and qualifications etc. Countersigned, Ch. Delafaye. [C.O. 5, 189. pp. 630–661.]
Sept. 27.
Whitehall.
246. H.M. Instructions to Same relating to the Acts of Trade and Navigation. [C.O. 5, 189. pp. 662–674.]
Sept. 27.
Whitehall.
247. Minute of Lords Justices in Council. Governor Nicholson this day took the oath etc. Signed, Edward Southwell. Endorsed, Recd., Read Jan. 11th, 1720/1. ¾ p. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 69, 70v.]
Sept. 27.
Whitehall.
248. Order of Lords Justices in Council. The Attorney General is to bring a scire facias for resuming the Charter of Carolina, etc. v. A.P.C. II. p. 780. Signed and endorsed as preceding. 2 pp. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 71, 71v., 72v.]
Sept. 29.
Charles Town, Carolina.
249. [?Council of] Carolina, to Mr. Secretary Craggs. By the last account we are given to understand that after our repeated applications to H.M., the old Proprietors have assigned over their Charter to new Proprs., which in our humble opinion is done to elude that Justice we might reasonably hope from H.M. etc. Refer to their last Petition. Continue:—The new steps taken by the Proprs. have not altered our former sentiments, and we are very unwilling to enter upon any measures with the new Proprs. till our affairs shall be taken into H.M. consideration etc. If H.M. shall think fit to confirme their purchase or grant them a new Charter (neither of which do we hope for), then we are desirous that for the peace and wellfare of this Colony a consideration may be had of these Articles sent home to our Agent in a letter of the same date herewith. Repeat complaint against Spanish privateers and the refusal of the Governor of St. Augustine to restore vessels taken by them since the cessation etc. Conclude: The sixth of this instant they took a ship and a sloop off of the Capes of Virginia, as will appear by affidavits sent to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Signed, Richard Allein, Benja. Schensking, Richd. Beresford, Sam. Eveleigh, Jos. Morton, Tho. Smith, Sam. Prolean (sic). Mem. Mr. Boone aquainted the Board, Dec. 22, that the Articles and Affidavits abovementioned are not come to his hands. Endorsed, Recd. from Mr. Boone, Read 22nd Dec., 1720. Copy. 2 pp. [C.O. 5, 358. ff. 59, 59v., 60v.]
Sept. 29.250. Office accounts of the Board of Trade, June 24–Sept. 29, 1720. v. Journal of Council. [C.O. 388, 77. Nos. 94, 96, 98.]