Elizabeth
June 1587

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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1927

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310-328

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'Elizabeth: June 1587', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1: 1586-1588 (1927), pp. 310-328. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74788 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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June 1587

June 1/11.The French King to her Majesty.
Extract. "Je suis bien aise que la mensonge dont l'on a voulu imbuir voz aureilles aye esté recognu par vous. Je me promets que aussy me fera elle paroistre que celuy qui a accusé sera puni de tel demerite. Se sera tousjours vostre honneur, Madame, et me fairez cognoistre que vous me voulez tesmoigner ce que j'entends et desire de vous, Madame. Surquoy, je prie a Dieu vous conserver en santé requise a son honneur."
Endd. "1 June, 1587. Extracted out of a letter of the French King brought by Mr. Wm. Wade." ¼ p. [France XVII. 80.]
June 1/11.Brulart to Stafford.
I am sorry for the great complaints you make to me, to which I might reply individually, but I do not wish to argue and so will only say that having again spoken thereon to the King, I have explained to you by the writing I have put upon the memoire which you sent me, the resolution of his Majesty, viz.: to satisfy faithfully on his part the same things which shall be satisfied in England; to cause depredations to cease and restore liberty of trade, to the common welfare of the two realms; to which all his councillors and principal ministers will willingly give their care, as a matter which greatly concerns the public benefit.—11 June, 1587.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [France XVII. 81.]
Enclosing,
The above-mentioned copy of the Memoire sent to Brulart with his apostiles on the various articles.
Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 81a.]
June 2/12.De L'Aubespine Chasteauneuf to the Lord Treasurer, Lord Admiral, Lord Cobham and Mr. Secretary.
As soon as I had conferred with you at Croydon, I despatched des Trappes to the King. He started the very day he received his passport, May 14 by our account, (fn. 1) and arrived on the 18th, the day after Pentecost, the King being at Vincennes, whence he did not return until the 25th.
But during his absence, the Council seeing what I had concluded with you in regard to the traffic, resolved to reply without delay and on the 21st I had a dispatch sent me by Messrs. Villeroy and Brulart, informing me that having seen what I had agreed with you, and knowing the King's intention to be the same, they approved of the said agreement, and promised to have it put into execution as soon as they heard from me, that those here would carry out their promises. This dispatch was given to Mr. Stafford, who the same day sent a gentleman to the Queen, Mr. Brulart giving him a passport.
But it was not brought to me until yesterday evening by the said gentleman, who told me he had been kept ten days at Dieppe by the wind, and after his arrival, had been ill for two or three days. Thus you see that neither on my own part or that of the King and his Council has there been any default as to what I promised you. Wherefore I beg you to let me know how it will please you for us to set about the execution of the matter without further delay.—London, 12 June, 1587.
Postscript. Since writing this letter, Trenache, a merchant of Rouen, exiled here on account of Religion, has told me that he hears from Havre de Grace that all your ships have been released there. This must have been done upon my dispatch of the 30 of May.
Signed. Add. Endd. "2 June, 1587." Fr. 1 p. [France XVII. 82.]
June 9/19.A letter from Embden.
Glad indeed are we to hear that with you all matters are peaceably settled. God grant that the tidings of his Majesty's good health, of the safety of all your realm and of the defence and support of the true Catholic church may come to us for many a year. The news that comes by way of Germany is as follows: Hardly had the two legates sent by the Emperor reached the Princes and Electors whom they call Protestants when they solicited a public assembly of the Empire. One of them was a Bohemian baron, a man reported to be of a wrathful and bold temper. To this the Elector of Brandenburg replied that he could not comply with the Emperor in that matter until he had taken effective measures for the establishment of the Religious Peace [of Augsburg] throughout Germany, and for its observance not only in word but in deed; and furthermore, had ordained and effected the departure of every foreign soldier from the Netherlands ("Belgium") and the neighbouring places. At length they came to Louis, Prince of Hesse, then at Marburg; who, after they had explained their mission, courteously bade them to his table; but the Baron, after behaving with much insolence, as he had done in the presence of the Elector of Brandenburg, so offended and incensed the Prince, that he stabbed him at table; which is so resented by the Emperor that he threatens recourse to arms. What will fall out thereby the event will show. It is moreover reported that the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg and princes of Hesse and Thuringia have solemnly commanded their subjects to look to their arms and to be ready upon the signal.
On the 25th inst., an assembly of these and some neighbour princes, adherents of the reformed religion is to meet at Naumburg, a town of Meissen of Thuringia, whereat likewise the King of Denmark in person or his deputies will be present. According to some, there are being enrolled in Germany 7000 reiters, according to others 15000, and one or the other is deemed certain; to which will be attached two regiments of footmen. Some say that they are for the service of the King of Navarre, but others deem that they are being armed against Spain, under the auspices of your Queen.
In our river, the Hollanders and Frisians go on with their frightfulness worse than ever before. Perchance they forebode some compulsory alteration or amendment of their ways and mean to do their worst before they have to depart. (fn. 2)
Endd "1587. Copy of part of a letter from Embden, dated 19 June." Latin. 1 p. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 57.]
June 10/20."The Complaint of certain of New Haven in France of a spoil committed on them by Englishmen, June, 1587." Heard on the above date before Gregoire Le Govis,' lieutenant for the King in matters relating to the Admiralty, in presence of M. Nicolas Bellenger, greffier of the said Admiralty; the complainant being Mathew Reullard, mate of the Marguerite, Nicolas Vincent master, taken between Esmouville [Exmouth town?] and Cherbourg by a ship of the former port on Tuesday last, the crew sent off in their small boat, and the ship with its load of cod-fish carried into England.
Signed by Reullard, Le Govis and Bellanger.
Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [France XVII. 83.]
June 10/20.Estat en bref of the ships and goods taken at sea by the English and Flemings, reported in the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of Dieppe, from Jan. 1 to June 20, 1587.
Endd. Fr. 6 pp. [France XVII. 84.]
June 13.Stafford to Walsingham.
I wrote not long since, at request of M. Mandat, M. Pinard's clerk, touching a ship called the Marie, of St. Jehan de Luz, laden with woad, belonging to two brothers, Claude and Charles Le Lievre, his near kinsmen, and other merchants of this town and Toulouse, which ship was taken at sea by an English man of war, carried into Hampton, and the goods seized, as belonging to Spaniards. They have protested the contrary before notaries in my presence, praying me to recommend the equity of their cause to your honour, for the restoration of their merchandize. "Although it were needless (having right and equity, as they say) to plead for them, yet would I not leave to satisfy them, considering the general good would grow thereby."— Paris, 13 June, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [France XVII. 85.]
June 17/27.Copy of a letter from the Sieur de Rouille, commandant of the King's ships for the guard of the coast, to M. de la Meilleraye.
[Chiefly an account of a fight between French and English ships, when the former rescued a French vessel which had been taken by the latter.]
Endd. Fr. 2¼ pp. [France XVII. 86.]
June 17/27.[Paper on medical matters; giving advice for preservation of good health etc. Amongst the directions are the following.]
Take food juicy and easy to digest. Avoid what is highly flavoured, in sauces or otherwise, for they irritate the blood; as do onions and leeks.
Wine to be delicate, not strong; beer to be suspected, by reason of the hops. Above all, never take wine without soup or meat; that is never drink without eating. And finish the meal by three or four draughts of pure water, a little biscuit or some digestive powder.
Dine well; sup little; always give the stomach time for digestion. Avoid anger and all mental excitements, which inflame the blood. Do not sleep after dinner.
[After the above follow prescriptions in Latin for medicines . . ., for the different seasons of the year, headache etc.]
Ends. These are the means by which, with God's help, we hope to give help and relief to the sufferings which for long have troubled our lord, but submitting the whole to the good judgment of the physician of his household, being an eye witness, who may add or abate according to need. Knowing well that such sufferings from such causes and in such a body as that of my lord, may with age grow less or even disappear altogether. God grant it may be so.—Paris, 29 June, 1587.
Fr. 4 pp. [France XVII. 87.]
[The Latin prescriptions are in a different hand from the rest.]
June 19.Richard Saltonstall, governor and Dr. Giles Fletcher, to the deputy and assistants of the Merchants Adventurers Company in London.
We arrived here on the 3rd instant, and had audience of the "upperst" burgomaster, Herr Harman Watkins, on Wednesday following [the 7th].
One of the lords of the town escorted us to the Town house, where we found the whole Senate assembled and delivered her Majesty's letters.
The Burgomaster asked us to put our demanas briefly in writing which we did that afternoon. Five commissioners were appointed to treat with us, to wit Heer William Milner, a doctor of the Civil Law and Recorder of the town; Dr. Newbo, Heer John Schult, John Brand and Dirck van Holt, with whom we have had four meetings.
First they asked what toll we would pay, inward and outward, for discharge of our six ships and liberty to buy and sell with foreigners as well as townsmen, "wherein hath been much said on both sides, for they stood stiffly upon the tolls lately set up, and said their own burghers did pay it, and the strangers pay double, and no reason why we should be freer than their own citizens; to the which was answered as much as was needful, and in fine it was concluded under protestation to pay 6d. upon a cloth for these six ships; but the next day they fell from that agreement, having the advantage upon us every way. First, our ships coming before any agreement made was very hurtful. Second, the Alderman of this Stilliard hath written the worst he can against us, saying that this opening and relenting to the Hanse towns was not upon any good will borne to them, but upon a complaint made in England by the gentlemen and clothiers for lack of vent of their cloths; and for fear of a rebellion the Queen was forced to do it. They of Lubeck . . . write most slanderous words against us, willing them of this town not to deal with us. Also our own countrymen which be here as interlopers and staplers have declared to the Senate . . . that her Majesty hath set all men at liberty in England to ship cloths whither they will, and that if the Senate will hold off from any agreement with us, that they and others her Majesty's subjects . . . will bring them cloths enow.
The Prince of Parma hath sent an ambassador hither . . . to will them of this town not to grant us any privileges, but to join with the rest of the Hanse towns and to sue to the Emperor to get our cloth banished the Empire, until the Queen of England had granted to them their old privileges; for now was it time so to do, and the King of Spain would join with them, which privileges the Queen should be forced to grant them, or the people would rebel. Also the lords of this town laid before us that the Queen had dissolved our company, and brought forth the proclamation lately set out in England; lastly that the Hanses were not permitted to buy in Blackwell Hall but at the sign of the George in Westminster, with a number of other matters too long to write. All which, so far as we can learn, were written over by the Alderman of the Stilliard; for a friend of this town sent us word that if the Queen's Majesty knew what the Alderman had written, she would banish him out of England.
"But, truly, we are very sorry that the proclamation was set forth, for that showeth our weakness at home and giveth a great advantage to the enemy. All which matters considered, we are in doubt to obtain our old privileges, for although we have alleged . . . so much as in reason ought to suffice them and have made divers friends yet can we little prevail." The Burgomasters' reason given for not performing what was agreed upon is that certain burghers would not confirm it, and they mean to call all the burghers together and propound the matter to them again, whose answer we expect daily.—Hamburg, 19 June, 1587.
Copy. Endd. 1¾ pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 58.]
June 20.Nicholas Warner to L. Warner, Merchant Adventurer.
Our commissioners having, after many meetings, concluded with the five lords and doctors of the town appointed to confer with them that we should discharge the six ships here "and make sale of our cloths, paying 3s. lypse [margin sterling] (fn. 3) upon a cloth," (fn. 3) we expected our ships would be discharged, but sithence (the Senate having called the burghers together), they will not consent to what was concluded, but will have a greater toll than ever we mean to yield unto. Many foul speeches have been given out, to the discredit of her Majesty and utter despising of our Company, and we can come to no end. The commissioners appointed me and Richard Sheparde to go to Stoade to confer with them, and we find them very willing to receive us upon good and reasonable conditions, either for these six ships or the next that shall come out. We have this evening returned and have informed our commissioners, "so that now their meaning is with so much speed as may be, to urge them unto their former agreement or else to suffer us to depart with our ships, meaning [not] to stay any longer their delays. The toll that we should pay at Stoade is twopence upon a cloth, and all other things we shall have in as good and reasonable order as we can require. And for my own part, I had rather [pay] twopence there, having the good will of the people, than a penny here, being in their hatred and contempt."—Hamburg, June 20.
Underwritten,
Memo: That from other letters of the 24th of June to Mr. Howland from his servant at Hamburg it appears that Warner and Sheparde were sent back clearly to conclude with those of Stoade, but nothing further is yet known, as the ship in which the commissioners' letters were has been taken into Dunkirk, with three others all laden with corn.
Copy, Endd. 1 p. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 59.]
June 22.Stafford to Walsingham.
I made at Mr. Wade's departure a complaint of a book which he brought you over with him, found out them that had it printed, the printer and the place where the rest of the books were. Some fled, some were put in guard, and the books, which were very few in respect of the great number printed, were torn and burnt, and such commandment given that those in the town are kept very secret.
"There is such a spite taken of that little punishment and show that was made of the King's mislike of that book, as the King was not so soon out of the town but that a great picture in table was done and set up in the cloister of St. Severin, of the execution and the manner of it in England of traitors, Jesuits and priests, which they call Catholics and martyrs, and such resort of people to it and with that fury as since I came into France, I never saw a thing done with that fury nor with that danger of a great emotion as that hath brought; for I think not so few as five thousand people a day come to see it, and some English knave priests that be there, they point with a rod and show every thing; affirm it to be true and aggravate it. Others aposted purposely for the matter, show them how likely Catholics are to grow to that point in France if they have a King an heretic, and that they are at the next door to it, which indeed is the chief intent that the thing is set there, to animate and mutiny the people; and withal there is a book set out to the same effect, intitled the Advertissement des advertissements, wherein is contained as much as is in the table set up, with the Queen of Scots' death, whom they will have a martyr, added in the end, and their conclusion to their purpose to mutiny the people, both against Huguenots, the succession of Huguenots, and the Catholics associate that hold their part.
"Upon this table I have first complained as a thing falsely touching her Majesty, and withal given notice of the book to the Lieutenant civil, whom, in the King's absence, I was to address myself unto for those causes. He sent for the curate, to know of him which way it came, commanded him to take it away. He answered him, if he had known wherefore he sent for him, he would not have come; that he was not to answer unto him, being a layman; that it should not be taken away; that whosoever should take it away, he would excommunicate him. Presently there was secret watch and guard in the houses thereabouts in the night, to keep it from being taken away, and in the daytime, such a number of people still coming to look upon it, and in that furious threatenings if it be taken away, that I never saw a time of that fear ever since I knew France. The Lieutenant Civil told the court of Parliament. They sent a councillor of their company to see how it came there and with commandment to the curate to have it taken away. He cometh again with such a fear as he dare no more return. Upon that, the Lieutenant Civil sendeth me word that it is not in his power; that he counselleth me to send to the King, that by his authority and commandment the court of parliament may do it.
"Whereupon, I send and write (I must say that had great expedition in return, and great show of the King's mislike and will to have it punished). The letter from Pinard I send you, that you may see the answer he makes me, and withal, that besides, if that served not, he would send to La Guiche, the Master of the Ordnance, and the Chevalier du Guet to take it away. Upon this, I go the next day to the premier President, who taketh knowledge of the receipt of the King's letters to him and the Bishop of Paris, promiseth to do according to the contents, and that the next day the Bishop of Paris and he would meet about the effecting it.
"I was not so soon gone but he had threatenings sent underhand to take 'it' [qy. heed] what he did, for if it were taken away, whosoever took it away, the fault should be upon him, and he should have his throat cut for it; and upon this the people more mutinied than ever, and counsels given them and oaths made to come to my house and use violence. But for my part, I fear nothing, though I think there was never more cause." The President begs me to send again to the King, which I am doing, and write to Pinard that whereof I send you a copy. I fear nothing will be done till the King come, probably on Monday or Tuesday. I pray God he be not afraid to do it; but if so, they shall have little rest from me.
When my man was there last, "a great complaint was come of a new depredation, whereupon the Governor of Newhaven . . . had made a new stay; but the King hearing of it without my knowledge . . . sent for the governor, was in a great choler with him, commanded the delivery of the ships presently to be made; that complaint should be sent to me and to the ambassador in England; that he was sure restitution should be made; which he desireth earnestly, and so I humbly beseech you it may, seeing the King of himself dealt so well of his own motion . . ."— Paris, 22 June, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France XVII. 88.]
June 25.The Duke of Petite Pierre to M. de Segur, ambassador of the King of Navarre.
My son, George Gustave Palatine, arrived from Heidelberg the day before yesterday, and has related to me what Duke Casimir has said to him; viz.: that it was to me his father, that he must alone impute his not having been made chief of this army, because he could not get security from me.
I send you the copy of what M. de Buy has informed me on behalf of Duke Casimir, and to the end that my cousin may not make these excuses to the King of Navarre and the churches, I have told M. de Guitry my resolution, which is that it was unreasonable to demand that I should quit my actions of heritage; but that I was willing to give such assurance as you yourselves, Guitry and others shall find reasonable, to attempt nothing during this war, and for this to offer what security might fairly be demanded.
And as to our process and action heretiere, I offer myself in all reasonable ways to the arbitration of the princes, counts and gentlemen of the churches and of the King of Navarre himself and the Imperial Universities; and although Duke Casimir is not bound, pursuant to the engagement and ordinance of our ancestors, to put the articles according to the constitutions of our house, of which the processes would not be ended within less than half a year, I am willing that they should make a process which shall be void within three years, of [qy. or] an arbitration in the Imperial Chamber, as may be found best, so that my cousin may not profess to the King of Navarre and the churches that the fault is mine. For since the King of Navarre has written to me—in case Duke Casimir do not march in person—to allow my son to go; the Queen of England desires it likewise, and Duke Casimir has himself proposed it to my son, as also M. de Clervant, on the part of the King of Navarre, I shall never refuse to allow it, in case he will agree to a reasonable security and will declare himself within fourteen days at latest, that my son may put his affairs in order.—Lutzelstein, 25 June, 1587.
Copy. Endd. French. 1½ pp. [Germany, States V. 53.]
June 27./July 7.Breviate of reports of the masters etc. of French ships concerning their seizure or plundering by the English, on various dates, from March 2 to June 26, new style, 1587. Certified as a true copy on July 7.
The names of the complaintants are as follows:—
Robert Giard, mariner of the Lepurier, M. Jehan Hebert Master.
Richard Goville, Mr. of the St. Jehan.
Pierre Barrey, Mr. of a lighter; taken by Captain "Bir."
Jehan Brethon, Mr. of the Mignon.
Guillaume Jacques of Fecamp, Mr. of the Courant.
Cristophile Destraicts, Mr. of the Esperance.
Jehan Homont, Mr. of the Pelican.
Francois Cabot of Dieppe, Mr. of the Soleil.
Etienne Regnier, Mr. of the Roche, belonging to Nicolas, chef d' hotel at Vateville.
Jehan de la Brecque, pilot of the Bon Vouloir, Jehan Merel, Mr.
Guillaume Hebert of Honfleur, Mr. of the Petite Normande.
Jehan le Febure, Mr. of the Sansue [? Sangsue].
Michel Desert, Mr. of the Esperance.
Mathieu Recullard, mate of the Marguerite, Nic. Vincent, Mr.
Richard Regnard of Barneville sur Seine, Mr. of the Chappon.
Robert Boinin [or Boivin] of Estretat, Mr. of the Nicolas.
Endd. "Extraict envoyé par les officiers du Havre." Fr. 8½ pp. [France XVII. 89.]
June 27.Walsingham to Stafford.
Her Majesty has restrained me from writing until she resolved what course to take with the French ambassador, wherein she has hitherto been doubtful. Also, her heavy charges for the Low Country wars make her cut off some of her expences for packets, so that I am forbidden to write save on necessary occasions. Yet sometimes I shall dispense with this restraint, knowing how uncomfortable it would be to you to hear but seldom.
"Her Majesty did take some exception to your negotiation with the King touching the usage of his ambassador, until Mr. Waade, whom she charged with the matter, had by my direction used some reasons and persuasions to satisfy her better in that behalf.
"She doth find herself much grieved that notwithstanding the assurance given that her subjects' ships should be released in France, there was nothing heard of the execution thereof in Calais or Newhaven in six or seven days after Mr. Waade's return, and but two or three discharged since that time only at Newhaven; although upon your advertisement of the order meant to be taken . . . certain of their ships laden with corn had been presently discharged.
"And now of late there is another accident happened that is of no small importance; for the 16th of this present, two men of war and a pinnace of Dieppe and Newhaven distressed two of our merchants' ships of the West country, bound for Rochelle with divers commodities, and another of this city that came alongst the coast laden with oade [woad] out of the west parts; took this latter and one of the other; spoiled the third with their ordnance, and used great cruelty towards the men, slaying divers of them à sang froid, and leaving some of them most barbarously upon certain rocks, to the end they might perish . . . for want of succour."
As her Majesty cannot endure such treatment, she hopes it is not the King's meaning to leave it unpunished; with whom you are to deal earnestly in her name for justice and speedy satisfaction; letting him understand that "as the said men of war were not common pirates, but . . . set forth by himself for his service," she the more expects that he shall give her due redress.
Touching the offer for some service to be done upon the frontiers of the Low Countries, she mislikes of the Article "wherein the enterprisers desire themselves to have the keeping of such towns as they shall take"; therefore you are to dismiss the matter in such sort as may be to their best contentment.
As to the advertisement you received, (fn. 4) the Duke of Parma did not think Sluys would have been so speedily furnished to resist him, for upon the sudden entry of four or five hundred Englishmen into it, it is thought he will be forced to leave the siege with shame; "for the better hastening whereof my lord of Leicester, who embarked at the land's end [qy. North Foreland] the 25th of this present in the afternoon, was dispatched away the sooner."
The state of things in Scotland stands but in doubtful terms, by reason of our ill-handling of the same.
The French King has shown his bad disposition towards her Majesty "by his secret persuading and encouraging the King of Scots (as we are credibly advertised) not to accept any satisfaction for the late execution of his mother."
Fifteen or sixteen more ships are preparing to go to Sir Frances Drake, to enable him to match any forces sent from Spain.
I pray you to hold me excused that I do not write a particular letter with my own hand, as I am yet constrained to keep my bed by reason of a fever.
Draft, Endd. with date. 3 pp. [France XVII. 90.]
June 29.Richard Saltonstall and G. Fletcher to the Company of Merchants Adventurers.
[Briefly recapitulating their letter of the 19th, and their mission to Stoade.]
But those of Stoade would not capitulate with us until we were wholly broken off from Hambrough, wherefore we sent to the Senate for audience (which was granted next day), laid before them the freedom and privileges her Majesty had granted them in England and the agreement with their commissioners; "which if they would not perform, we desired to depart freely with our ships and goods and to seek some other place for the vent of our commodities; and that forasmuch as they had received at her Majesty's hands all that which was granted to their ambassadors the 3rd of October 1585, upon condition that we should be restored to our old privileges, which we were sent to demand; the which, if they refused and denied us, we protested that we had fulfilled our commission and must make report to her Majesty of their denial; wherein her Majesty should have just cause to complain, first to themselves, after to the Emperor, the King of Denmark as also to all other princes her neighbours and confederates." Whereupon they asked us to go apart, and after consulting, they sent their Recorder, Heer John Schult and Heer Direck van Holt, who tried to bring us to a higher toll, but perceiving that we would in no wise consent to it, we concluded once again under protestation for 6d. a cloth for these six ships and for as many as should come during this treaty. We asked for it under their hands in writing, but on this being put before the Senate, they replied that they must first call the burghers together and get their consent thereto, which done, they would send it to us. That day at noon, "they sent us twenty pots of wine and the musicians of the town to rejoice us withal."
Since then the commons have met and concluded "that they and we shall pay presently 3s. luips for the toll of the town, and 4s. luips for the buoy and beacon money, and 4s. luips of every hundred marks of wares outwards, with condition that the same shall be without prejudice of the treaty now in hand."
"Upon this report . . . we have called some of the ancients of the Company together, who like not to pay this great toll, but would rather go to Stoade, if we may have there reasonable con ditions. Whereupon we have sent three merchants of our Company to treat with them, and mind (sio) if we cannot get some further mitigation of the beacon and buoy ("bacon and boy") money. to discharge our ships at Stoade, where we hope to find good sales," desiring you to move the lords of the Council to stay "the common subject" from sending any woollen cloth for this town until we have concluded with the magistrates, as it would hinder our proceeding very much.
Since writing the above, one of the three merchants sent to Stoade is returned. The lords of that town are willing to receive us and our goods, but will not answer our letters until we have wholly broken with Hamburg and "come down thither" with our ships. Considering the uncertainty of proceeding upon bare words only, we do not think it good to depart from hence with these ships, "but if we cannot get any rebatement of the 7s. luips which the lords and burghers have agreed upon, then to pay it under protestation that the same shall be no prejudice to us nor to the treaty"; for the masters of our six ships complain very much of long lying, and demand allowance, and we fear our cloths will have taken harm thereby, so that we shall be forced to discharge our goods here for this time; hoping that you will procure her Majesty's letters to this town, "for the help of this toll, and that they will grant us the rest of our old privileges; wherein we stand in some doubt, for that they have the advantage of us now divers ways, by the proceedings in England." We pray for your opinions how the state of our Company stands since we came from home; and if there be any hope "to restrain the common subject," it would be a good help to our proceedings here, for we might then be the bolder to stand with them in other points.
"Mr. Rawley's licence hath been a great 'let' to bring down the toll here," for they say it is contrary to the decree made at Nonsuch on Oct. 3, 1585; wherefore, unless it be recalled, we doubt the toll here will hardly be brought down.
The Company should continue some trade at Embden, which would not only content the Earl and townsmen there but make these people willinger to yield.
Dated in headline. True copy. Endd. 2 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 60.]
June ?Stafford to Brulart.
It pleased his Majesty the other day when we had audience to desire us to give you in writing a summary of what we requested, and you would give us answer thereto. Wherefore we have sent you both the requests we made to his Majesty and the articles agreed upon by his ambassador and the deputies of the Queen, commissioned under the Great Seal of England, a copy of which was given to the said ambassador, with a promise from him that as much should be done for us here. They have long been negotiating with him, and although the Court is six or seven "grands lieux" from London, the Queen has not failed to send the chief of her Council to him. A week ago yesterday they went again. For five months we have been here, pursuing this same business, and are put off from one day to another. I have spared no pains in coming often to you, M. Bellievre, M. Villeroy and M. Pinart to put matters on a good footing. The Queen had begun to release those on her side, upon the promise of the Ambassador that at once the same should be done here, and long since you heard this from your ambassador, yet we have been put off and nothing done; no main-levée has been given; no one is deputed to treat with us on other matters; no orders have been given except to Rouen, where, for lack of well understanding the matter (as M. de Bellievre saw in England) they used such rigour towards her Majesty's subjects that these cannot come thither without fear of arrest of what they shall bring in future, until the deputies that shall be appointed here shall have settled, nor even in that case, because of the ill deeds of M. de Mercure in Brittany, in spite of two sentences given against him in favour of the English merchants, who for fear he shall still stay them by his absolute power, with which he threatens them, have not, for more than six months dared to trade thither.
In all these matters, nothing is done, nor any answer sent us except that yesterday you said to one of my men, whom I sent to you, that the ambassador has charge of these matters in England, and when you know what he has done, we shall have our answer.
The ambassador has charge of all affairs there for the French, but I have it here for the English. He has been treated with there of what is his concern. They have begun there (while by all right and reason they ought to have begun here, the cause being come from here). I am here ready; for six months I have sought you at your house, at the end of this time his Majesty gives me audience, orders me to give you an abstract, assures me you will give us satisfaction. Mr. Waad is departing, whom her Majesty sent specially on these matters, but can take no answer back with him, and for myself I can tell them nothing, for you give me nothing but delays.
I pray you to give us such credit as to the affairs of our mistress as you would give yourselves in what concerns the King; that for the common good of the two realms, and the so necessary friendship between these two princes, we have employed ourselves and shall still do so, with all our might; but having done all we can, we are the faithful servants of our mistress, must have regard for her honour and reputation and the welfare of her subjects, and can only tell her what we see, of which in this matter, so far, there is nothing which may satisfy her, if we receive nothing more from you than we have done.
Wherefore I pray you to speak to his Majesty that for the general, we may have main-levée and that for particular matters all arrests may cease until the deputies come to a decision and inform us thereof; and that we may have a copy of their com mission to send over. I assure you that all will be done there in like manner as it is done here, without default or delay. I beg that I may know from yourself what to write on these points, as my man may misunderstand what you say to him. Mr. Waad will carry with him your reply, and this will be our discharge, which I will write and he will present faithfully, and am assured that whatever steps you take, we shall do likewise.
Copy by Stafford. Endd. June, 1587. Fr. 2 pp. [France XVII. 91.]
June.Queen Elizabeth to the King of Denmark.
From your letter of May 4, we are delighted to learn that your Majesty is constant in your brotherly solicitude for our State and affairs, and that your thoughts are seriously directed to the peaceful arrangement of the disputes between us and the King of Spain, by the intervention of your authority. How acceptable this will be to us, we can hardly find words to say, gratefully acknowledging ourselves very much your debtor; and not wo alone, but all this part of Europe must be thankful for so great a benefit, and shall duly do honour to you; if by your royal and truly Christian authority and industry the calamities with which Lower Germany and the neighbouring regions are now afflicted may be assuaged.
Certainly we yearn for peace with all our heart, so that it be a true and not a counterfeit peace, which without prejudice to our honour we can honestly conclude. In which matter we see prospect of better success in that your Highness, a Prince most of all friendly to us, zealously intervenes.
As to the place of meeting, we think it might well be the city of Emden, seeing that it belongs to neither side, but it is to be feared that by reason of its distance both from us and from the Duke of Parma, it might not be possible to transmit our answers on knotty points to our delegates speedily enough, and so the negotiation might be too long protracted. As the Duke of Parma has been pleased to allow us to choose both time and place, we shall take care that it shall be where your envoys may abide in safety and be received with the honour proper to their dignity. For we were not a little distressed to learn of late that one of your delegates, sent to the Duke of Parma, had in the Provinces of the Estates, been treated with barbarous inhumanity, as to which we have written to the said Estates, bidding them censure the doers of that deed as severely as though they had outraged our own ambassador, and the more so, that your minister was sent to the Duke of Parma for their public benefit and advantage.
As regards the further course of the negotiation, as soon as we have learned the Duke's mind we will send a minister to your Highness to apprise you of the time and place, when we doubt not that, by some of your wise ministers, you will so manage everything on both sides that this business of the pacification, initiated in a pious and Christian spirit, shall attain the desired results. Meanwhile, we pray God long to preserve your Highness in safety and prosperity.—Greenwich, June, 1587.
Copy. Endd. Latin. 2 pp. [Denmark I. 95.]
June.Advertisements from Germany.
1. "The Princes Protestant of Germany, perceiving daily more and more the practices of the Papists, begin to fear the consequency of the League which the Emperor, the French King and King of Spain, with their adherents have made against them of the Religion.
2. For besides advertisement of the Emperor's general intention they learn that the Duke of "Bavire" has sent one of his Council to the Pope "touching his meaning to further the Catholic league," upon which the Pope has granted him the tithes of the ecclesiastical livings in his dominions for 26 years, by which he will win 200,000 crowns.
3. They perceive how the King of Spain, by connivance of the Emperor has practised with the Helvetians to win them by pensions, "unto whom he sent his ambassador, Don Pompeio Creutz, well furnished with money, who hath agreed with the seven popish cantons, Lucerne, Ury, Sweitz, Underwald, 'Surch' [Zurich], Solothuern and Friburg in manner following":—
In case of need, they are to send him 4000 of their best soldiers for defence of his duchy of Milan; and on the other side, if these cantons should be molested by their enemies, he is to send them, upon his own charges, 2000 harquebuziers, and 300 horsemen, with skilful governors. Or if they choose money rather than foreign soldiers, he will furnish them with 13000 crowns. These articles were read to the great Council at Lucerne, and also to the smaller council of the town, to which he has promised to pay 200 crowns a year; 400 to the Great Council, and 3000 to the commonalty, and to give them yearly 6000 crowns to be distributed at their discretion to the seven cantons. Further, he will maintain two of Lucerne at their studies, either at Milan or Pavye [Pavia], giving them each 72 crowns a year.
"And to the intent the divine service in religion may be advanced amongst them, he hath accorded to give them yearly 6000 crowns for the maintenance of certain Jesuits," to reside amongst them; and by these means most of the Popish cantons have left the alliance with the French, and stick to the Spaniards.
4. They are offended that the Emperor hinders the course of justice in the Chamber of the Empire; whereby the professors of the 'Auspurches' [Augsburg] confession can obtain no right at Spires.
5. They call to mind how the Emperor, colluding with the Pope, deprived the Elector 'Truccess,' Archbishop of 'Collein' and advanced the Bishop of 'Luyck' [Liege]. "Besides that the Counts of Witgenstein, Solines and Mansfeld, with other noble canons of Collein and Strasborowe complain daily and justly" against him for executing the Pope's sentence against them, whereby the Religions Friede ('religion freed') is broken, "for that the Pope is not acknowledged judge of the Auspurches confession."
6. They see also how he breaks all covenants with his subjects in Austria, as for the liberty of the reformed Religion, which they had bought from his father Maximilian with great sums of money; and as of late, after the decease of the Lord of Rappolstein, he forbade all exercise of religion in his dominion and hardly used one of his preachers.
7. Ho establishes Jesuits in many places, and exhorts other Popish bishops to follow his example, "which divers do . . . as the Bishop of Wirtemberge, who is Duke of Franconia, and the craftiest defender of the Pope in the Empire; besides the Elector of Treves and the Bishop of 'Strasborow,' which all have founded colleges for the maintenance of this new sect of the Jesuits," and are all of the League.
8 They see that the Duke of Lorraine treats with the Bishop of Strasborow to sell his bishopric to the Duke's eldest son, who would thus become a Landgrave of the Empire, of whom there are but four; Hesse, Thuringia, Lichteimberche and Alsatia, who is the Bishop of Strasborowe.
9. They see how the Emperor and the King of Spain strive to make either Archduke Matthias or Maximilian King of Poland; the Emperor having levied forces in Bohemia, Silesia and Lusatia to strengthen their faction among the Polonians, and the King of Spain sending an ambassador into Poland, who left Prague in June last, furnished with letters of exchange for 200000 crowns "for the better corrupting of the suffrages of such as are to choose a King." With him the Emperor sends the Lantgrave of Lichteimberg, and means also to send the Bishop of Olmutz, a prelate of Bohemia [margin, by Pallavicino: "This bishop is a Polonian born, called Pawlowsky"] to persuade the Estates of Poland to embrace one of his brothers, by which means they could better oppress all those of the reformed religion.
10. The best part of the Princes Protestants who assembled last year at 'Luneburch' think best (as then was concluded) to meet again to effectuate what was then proposed for making a league among themselves, "as well for the provision of religion as the maintenance of the liberty of the Empire."
11. About the beginning of June, the Emperor sent ambassadors to the Electors of Saxony and Brandenberch, to gain their consent for a general Diet, but they made light account of his request, saying "that they were minded to call some other princes their allies together . . . to lay down in writing their complaints, which are many and grievous, as well touching the violation of the 'religion-freed' as also concerning the ancient policy of the Empire, which for the most part is neglected and suppressed; and having so done, were minded to send the said complaints unto the Emperor . . ."
12. On the 1st of May the Electress of Saxony was delivered of a daughter, when the King of Denmark, the Elector of Branden berch and the Lantgrave of Hesse thought it good to meet at Dresden, to renew the old domestic league amongst those three families.
13. At the end of May, the King of Denmark came into his duchy of Holsatia with 600 horsemen, and going towards the Markgrave's country the Elector met him with 1000 horse, "very princely receiving and defraying the king in all his dominions" where he passed.
14. The two Electors, with consent of that king, appointed a diet and meeting at Naumberg, belonging to the said Elector of Saxony, where they met, on June 24, twenty-two princes, all of the Confession of 'Auspurg,' and are dealing touching a league as aforesaid, meaning to include divers free cities.
15. "Before the Duke of Saxony departed for Naumberg, he sent four commissioners or visitors (as they were termed); his Chancellor of the Court and another Chancellor of Misnia, with two gentlemen of his Council, towards Leipsick, to consider what inconveniences have followed in the ecclesiastical government in his dominions by reason of the innovations brought in by Doctor 'Androes' solicitation, in the time his father, Elector Augustus lived; to the intent all controversies since risen might be taken away, and the government reduced to a peaceable manner; so that the papists might have no occasion given unto them to advance their designs by such controveries as of late have been seen amongst them which embrace the 'Auspurgish' Confession.
16. "They write constantly that the Princes of Germany, to bridle the Emperor withal, are bent to choose a King of the Romans and make especially mention of the King of Denmark his young son, who two years past was elected King of Denmark, and acknowledged in the far solemn places of Denmark by all the Estates to succeed his father after his decease.
17. "And because the Papists of the Holy League have secret practices in the Empire for the levying of Reystres, the Princes Evangelical have taken order for 12000 Reystres to be always in readiness to be employed as occasion shall be ministered.
18. "The Estates of the low 'Circuit' of Westphalia have been together to consult of aid to be sent unto the Duke of Cleve, as well for his Duchy of Cleve as Gulich and Bergh [Rheinberg] as also for the defence of Westphalia and the diocese of Munster, into which country the Spaniards make strong raids, spoiling the inhabitants after none other manner than if they were enemies; for hindering of which raids, the said Circle hath ordained to be levied 4000 harquebusiers, 3000 reyters.
"Item for the assurance of 'Wezell' (which otherwise by right is an Imperial town) is ordained by them garrison of 300 harquebusiers and a cornet of horsemen.
19. "The young Duke of Cleves is so earnestly admonished of the Estates of the country of [the] Marcke and other his father's subjects, to leave the Duke of Parma's side, and not to travail against the liberty of Religion, which the most part of them do embrace, that he beginneth to show himself enemy unto the Spanish companies which lie about Gulich, Cleve and Bergh; besides that there is some divorce to be made betwixt his wife and the said young Duke, for that she is altogether Jesuitish, and hath been the greatest occasion of troubles amongst his subjects, without any great hope of issue."
20. The Ecclesiastical counts, driven from 'Collein' by the Pope's sentence against Truccess and them, and fled into Strasborowe, where they enjoy certain prebends, being chosen new canons; the sons of the King of Denmark and the Administrator of Magdeburg (nephew to the Elector of Brandenberch) and others; of which canons Hermanus Adolfus, Count of Solme [over Newenar erased] and another were sent of late to the King of Denmark and other princes of the Empire, of the reformed religion, to obtain succour at their hands, "which liberally have heard and entertained those noble canons, and sent them back with gifts, promising to provide that they may be restored.
21. "As for Duke Casimir's expedition . . . they write that a great army is to pass into France about the 10th of this present month of July; but as for the general of this army, they do not agree. Some write that Duke Casimir, meaning to stay at home, hath made choice of Otho, Duke of Luneburgh and Brunswick, her Majesty's pensioner, to be the General."
Others say he has appointed Philip of Brunswick of Grubenhagen, and others again, that the King of Navarre will be general, in whose name the army has been levied, and that the Duke of Bouillon will be his lieutenant, whose brother, Count of Marck has been secretly at Heidelberg. But some think that these bruits are only spread by Duke Casimir to avoid a commandment from the Emperor and that when the army is ready, he will declare himself the general. The chief officers are said to be as follows:—
1. Otto, Duke of Luneburch and Brunswick of Harburch [Harbourg], General of the Field, with cornet of 500 ruyters.
2. Count Albert of Barby, his lieutenant.
3. The Burgrave Fabian of Dhon[a], who came with Duke Casimir into England, Marshal of the Field, "who carrieth the principal cornet which they call the Rennefahn" (fn. 5) 500
4. The Duke of Bouillon and Count of Marck, his brother2000
5. Grave William of Bernsdorfe1200
6. Hans Buche, an ancient colonel of Duke Casimir2200
7. Frederic van Wehren and his brother, both of Westphalia2000
8. John Ploet, "a most expert and valiant Colonel"1200
9. Damartin600
10. Kretler, a gentleman of the county of Marke600
11. Eitel Henricke, "maintained as a colonel, but only with one hundred horse"100
Sum of the Reuters "that are horsemen"10,900
Footmen.
M. Clervant, to lead 35 ensigns of Suizers, about16000
Helmstetter, "who with George Schregel was sent in Duke Casimir's name into France with the rest of the ambassadors of Germany which last treated with the King touching peace." Lans knechts6000
Sum of strangers' foot22000
The Sum of all32,900
22. "The freshest news are that the Popish cantons travailed to hinder the voyage of M. Clervant with his companies of Switzers about 'Mulhusun,' where was like to fall out a hot bickering, but by reason of the reformed cantons, which stuck unto M. Clervant, he brought forth his companies quietly."
23. News from the Emperor's court says that the King of Spain's son is fallen sick again and dangerously.
24. Item, that an English Baron has laid down in writing to the King of Spain that after the King of Scots, he is the right heir of England.
25. The Duke of Savoy, who began preparations against Geneva, is now quiet. And they of Geneva provide, in this time of dearth as much corn as they can buy for money.
26. The election for Poland is referred to the last of June. "The Turk dealeth [for] the 'Vaywhode' of Transilvania, the last King's nephew, but the Muscovite hath the greatest faction, for two causes. First, for that the Polonians desire surcease from war with the Muscovite, who can do them the greatest harm of any enemies they may have. Secondly because he offereth to incorporate all his dominions (if they choose him) to the crown of Poland." The Lituamans incline so much on the Muscovite's side that they have written to the rest of the Estates of Poland that if he is not chosen they will sever themselves from the Polonians and join themselves to him, whereby the greatest part of Livonia would be reduced under him.
27. "The Perse is departed," leaving a son given to war, who means to make war upon the Turk.
Headed: "Certain occurrences concerning the affairs of Germany, drawn out of letters sent out of the Empire, in the month of June, delivered at London about the beginning of July, 1587."
8 pp. closely written. [News-letters, XXVII., Germany, 22.]

Footnotes

1 Cf. p. 294 above.
2 This last sentence is not clear in the original, and it would seem that the copyist has been puzzled, as migrandum has been inserted in different ink in a space left vacant.
3 — Evidently a mistake for "the toll of the Town". See p. 320 infra.
4 The letter from Stafford here alluded to, is not among the State Papers.
5 i.e. the pennon or cornet of a troop of horse.