January 1588


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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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'Appendix: January 1588', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1: 1586-1588 (1927), pp. 661-671. URL: Date accessed: 02 August 2014.


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January 1588

[Jan.]Stafford to Walsingham.
I wrote you "of the taking of the priest Gifford, for whom I have done what I could, to help [him] any way out," but he discovered this and refused it; thinking thereby to gain favour and save himself. I would have spared nothing, "because his examination (I am afraid) and his confession (for I see he will confess anything that is and more than is) may give subject to the enemies of her Majesty to procure a scandalous opinion to be conceived of her and of her Council, for they mean to turn a letter or two, but especially one of Phelippes to him, to prove that he was the setter on of the gentlemen that were executed for that enterprise of the Queen of Scots, and then to discover them, and that he was practised to this by you and Phelippes; and withal they would fain have it with her Majesty's knowledge. They have made the Queen-mother acquainted with this, and she hath commanded the lieutenant-criminal to make the King acquainted with it, and then she hath promised she will follow it; and the Bishop of Glasgow meaneth to enter into it, and Madame Montpensier will put fire to it, who is the devil of the world"; so that . . . I know not how to deal in it, for they lie in wait to take hold of what I do "to make me a party, and to have, as the Queen's minister, intelligence with him in those causes. . ." He hath showed himself the most notable double, treble villain that ever lived. . . . I have sent you the copy of his answers . . . whereby you may see how vilely he dealt with me. . . . . [Further details as to his proceedings.]
"It is an evil wind that blows nobody good; as by his knavish dealing some would have served their turns to my affront and the discredit of her Majesty, so others that loved me . . . have found means to come by his letters he writ to Phelippes, and which are the most villainous against me and mine that could be, and of which I am promised copies. In one of these there is the following:—"I cannot directly say the ambassador is a naughty man, but probably I can . . . for haunting with Charles Arundell, the greatest traitor on this side the sea, is a proof he speaketh evil, and all his men be naught. . . ."
Besides, to make them believe that he had done service in England, and to show that he went about to cozen her Majesty (for he brags he dealt directly with her by Phelippes' means, and that you had most things but by second hand), he had so discredited me and mine that we were taken for as bad as any traitors on this side the sea. For having, as he affirms, commandment from you and direction from Phelippes, to inquire of me and my actions, and finding that I was a sly child (as he termed me), and that under colour of fair speeches, I got to know all, and then advertised it, in order to undo them, and that I set Lylly "to counterfeit himself among them, only to draw out what he could out of them that I might advertise it into England," he had such good opportunity that no more credit was given to what came from me or mine than if it had come from the worst on this side.
"That I had dealt with Dr. Gifford and Gratley with so fair words that they took me to be a saint, and yet [I] had written all the naughtiness that could be into England against them; that he made Lilly, who was my right hand, worse accounted of than any traitor on this side the seas, . . . assuring them he was the deepest Catholic here, and so far gone that he meant to become a friar, and that he had private conference with Morgan, Paget and the Scottish ambassador: that Grimston was a man of evil life . . . that my coachman . . . was a common spy for the chiefest enemies the Queen had in this town: that Charles Arundel, that haunted me, was the rankest traitor that was on this side the seas; that he haunted me by the Spanish ambassador's appointment; that God knew what practice was between him and me, and that he had promised to discover it . . . so that he had made me in so bad a case as the worst man on this side the seas was not in a worse opinion there than I . . . and therefore they might see that it was but to do good and not to do harm that he kept intelligence with England. . . ."
Phelippes I never saw. I had once a letter from him but never did him good or harm. As I would be forgiven of God, so, with all my heart I forgive him; but, sure, I think the stones will cry to God for vengeance on him; "not for seeking to make his own credit to undo me . . . but for my poor men, whose reputation is their living, to seek upon such a varlet's report to disgrace and undo them. . . . If the hard information you had of me once has come from such knaves, you will keep the promise you made me in your letters . . . to believe nothing of me but when you have first by making me acquainted with it tried the truth, and to remain my friend . . . I beseech you of one thing, though I will not press it presently, because I will please nobody here upon this, which is now common in everybody's mouth, to have them think that a fury or a discontentment hath moved me to ask leave to return—but when I do, which shall be ere long, that you will put your helping hand to it . . . . for surely, Sir, I must confess that I can never serve with a goodwill in a place that I have seen such a mistrust of me in, nor where as I shall be so disgraced as, these speeches being abroad and these letters coming to the sight of the King, the Queen Mother and the whole Council—as they will do—it shall be seen to my disgrace what a mistrust is made of me at home . . . when such persons as Phelippes is, are countenanced to set such varlets as this is, to look into my actions. I promise you Sir, I am so much grieved withal, and so ashamed of my hard fortune, as with all my heart I rather wish to be dead than alive. I do what I can to cover it . . . in respect of my own credit, but especially in respect of that which may touch her Majesty . . . for though I will do what I can to get the originals into my hands, . . . I still affirm they be things counterfeit that they avow to be Philippes', and the others to be written by consent and practice of knaves here . . . to give occasions to think amiss both of her Majesty and all her ministers," which is the best course I can take, for I cannot get the knave out who has betrayed me, thinking to help himself; "but indeed he hath betrayed himself, . . . for they have sent all copies of things to the Cardinal, and press him to make the Pope write to the King of it, to use all extremity; and my lord Paget and his brother and others that he hath touched in his letters, follow it to the uttermost for their own credits . . . If Charles Arundel had lived, I had had all . . . No man of this side served my turn as he did for her Majesty's service, and never Spanish ambassador nor his master were better handled. . . . I have had a great loss of him, for the certainest and quickest advertisements out of Spain I had of him; for the Spanish ambassador had that credit [i.e. belief] in him as he hid nothing that was reasonable from him. He had continually letters from Sir Francis Inglefield and Pridieux, whose letters I ever saw afore he deciphered them; and to tell you that I found him not dally with me was that the advertisements that he gave me first were ever confirmed . . . by those letters that came to the Venice ambassador, and the advertisements that Pinard (fn. 1) sent me as they came from their agent . . . . To confirm the opinion that this knave [Gifford] had contrary to that which he writ to Philippes, I have sent you a copy of a letter which he writ since he was in prison to Throgmorton, (fn. 2) whereby you shall see what a villain he is. I have not the original, for he that brought it me durst not be aknown he had showed it me, but . . . it is word by word by the original, which he let me have Grimston copy out while he was talking with me . . . But he hath given me a letter which he [Gifford] writ to his brother that went about to steal the English ship to Dunkirk and was killed; whereby you may perceive that he was acquainted with the enterprise and a persuader to it." I send you a copy of it. He sent a letter to Grimston to be sent to Wysden, under cover to Offley, but I have sent it to you. I know it is to Phelippes, for in his cipher they told me it was Phelippes' name; you can send it to either. As Hacchet is named in one of Phelippes' letters for a director, I have given him warning "to take good heed to himself, and to have his answer ready, for he is a good honest man. Delabero, I have sent to him to know what he is and where he is, that I might warn him. Also to Bartholomew Martin, "as he writeth he hath promised to do it, but I do not believe him, for he is a very knave, and one of the chief that hath betrayed these things. . . ."
They have a letter of his written to Phelippes of 11 June twelve months. This is all I can now send, but if I can get originals or copies I will send them. As I have written to you I have written to no other creature, nor will not. You may show it to whom it pleaseth you. I would have Phelippes know, though I know him not, how evil he hath dealt with me.
They expect letters from Phelippes to him daily, which they mean to take, but by whose means I know not, unless it be Bartholomew Martins.
Postscript. I have just had the enclosed copies of two of Phelippes' letters to Gifford [wanting], the passages underlined being as they say in cipher, all written with the juice of something. If I can get the originals I will. "Mr. Phelippes shall pardon me, being such a statesman as he would fain be, [that] to hazard to write to such a knave as this is, things that may be scanned as these be, is not the greatest discretion in the world.
"I will not believe, though Mr. Phelippes' pleasure be to write it to Gifford, that you bid him make those inquisitions of me; for, as for the one point, you know that I writ to you that if my lord of Westmoreland had desired a passport of me, to go into England, I would have given it him, and every one here; for being in England, you know what to do with them. I addressed Walton to you; and so did I never give any passport but I sent them to you withal. As for Arundel, you know that in the beginning I writ to you of it and you advised it; and in the end I think Phelippes himself is not so honest a man as I made Arundel, nor did not the Queen so good service.
Holograph. Undated. Dec. [sic]. Add. Endd. 6 closely written pages. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 55.]
Enclosing the following copies of letters:
1. [Gifford] to [Grimston.] Thanks him for his gentle offers. After his departure, sent instructions to the gentleman who had sent him hither, with instructions which he hopes he [Grimston] has received. In the meantime, his case is not great, and the lieutenant [of the prison] said it was a mockery to make so great a show thereof. His only want is money to follow his case, wherein if Grimston can help him, he will give a bill in his own hand. [Headed by Stafford.] "The answer to the first scrawl that I made Grimston write to him in an unknown hand." ½ p. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 55 I.]
2. "Your friend till death whose hand you know" to [Grimston.] Is greatly beholden to the friend who sent him, whom they make believe that he has abused. Of the letters taken in his chamber, there were but one or two from England, and those will not hurt him. Does not know how many of his they have intercepted. Asks that the gentleman will send him ten or fifteen crowns. Delabero has come to him several times as a merchant selling stockings. The gentleman may cause some Catholic to speak for him to those who may do him good, but it must not be known that he has any help from him [Grimston]. Has sent his letter where it will never be seen [margin, by Stafford "a lie sent me to the demand of my first billet that I made Grimston write, which he delivered me, and which was shown me."] His Catholic friends in England should solicit Chasteauneuf to write for him. Desires to know where to send his letters. ½ p. [Ibid. 55 II.]
3. Gif[ford to Stafford.] Gratefully accepts his friendship. Thinks he cannot be delivered in the way suggested, but sees nothing that may keep him in prison if he had means to follow his cause, for all the letters taken consist only of acknowledgment of his duty to his Prince, and all that he has done has been by commandment, and that which every subject ought to do. Prays him to send Grimston or some other of his household, to speak for a procurer, for without some one to promise or pay them, they will do nothing. Grimston may come without danger, on the same pretext as before. ¾ p. [Ibid. 55 III.]
4. "Whom you know" to —. Prays him to cover and direct this to Hugh Offley. The Promoteur du roy not being there this day, nothing could be done. Desires him to see whether Martin has anything for him by the name of Fras. Hartley. ½ p. [Ibid. 55 IV.]
5. G. Gifford to [Stafford.] Beseeches him to persevere with his help, by which he doubts not in a few days to be delivered. The case still stands that no man pursueth against him, but to follow, as ordered, the accustomed ceremonies is very chargeable, and God knows how long he may be kept there. What has hitherto been laid to his charge is of no moment, as it is offered him that upon sufficient Catholic sureties, he shall be enlarged. If then he may tell his case before his countrymen, he doubts not that they will take up the matter, or at least that he will so follow it as to weary any one who undertakes the suit. He can find a French gentleman "who shall be reported" to have got him the cautions. Thus his case stands in his honour's hands to deliver him, which he will always acknowledge to owe to him. 2/3 p. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. 55 v.]
6. G. G[ifford] to Mr. Humfrey. The four men sent for from Brussels and Italy came yesterday, and are to go, one to Calais, one to Newhaven [Havre de Grace] and two to Brittany . . . . The chiefest places they are charged with are Plymouth, the Isle of Wight, Dover and Rye, but Falmouth castles and Tower wharf are mentioned. When they go he cannot yet learn. Urges him to make what speed he may, as his long stay has bred jealousy.—Paris, 20 October, 1587. ½ p. [Ibid. 55 VI.]
7. Fras. Hartley [Gifford] to M. Wilsdon [Phelippes]. I could never hear of the packet which you [said] was of importance. Let me know by whom you sent. Cordaillot will be a good helper sometimes, though Bartolomeo Martin is most commonly to be employed. The matter of sending to the English ambassador at Paris about a letter opened, came to Charles Arundel's knowledge, who said he saw the contents. Gilbert Gifford told Lilly of it, and said he had a letter written to him from a friend which he suspected to be in the Ambassador's hand. He therefore wrote and desired Lilly to ask if it was from (?) him . . ., which indeed he did honestly, and gave me his letter to that effect, which I showed to Lord Paget and Thos. Throgmorton, and there was an end of the matter, which had like to have bred suspicion.
Thereupon, the Ambassador by Lilly exhorted him greatly to serve the Queen of England, with great promises.
Gifford answered that he would never offend her; but any further he durst not venture; yet he hath sent to speak divers times with Gifford, which he always excused, and to speak to you as my friend, I dare not meddle with him considering his place, yet G. Gifford saith the Duke of Buckingham has bewitched him. (fn. 3) Lillye seemeth altogether a new man, and doth daily penance in his heart for the past. All men greatly marvel that the 23 of October, when others came from Rome, there was no resolution of Cardinal Allen's departure.
My brother is in Flanders and hath obtained something, or is like to. He wrote to Gifford (?) that 100 ships, in six weeks will be ready at Dunkirk. G. Gifford shall hear daily from him. Dr. Gifford is in great disgrace with Cardinal Allen; which in time may work some good of him. If Cordaillot come again, he may make good gain of cloth against Christmas . . . .— Paris, 26 October, 1587.
Endd. "A Monsieur Wilsdon." 1 p. [Ibid. 55, 1–7.]
[The words in italics are in cipher, only partly deciphered. The cipher for the most part consists of figures which run on without a break, and are thus capable of various solutions, according as they are taken as single or double numbers; and this sometimes prevents the deciphering of one passage by the aid of another.]
Jan. 7.Stafford to Walsingham.
Has done all he could to help Gifford out of prison and persuade him to take heed to himself, as his honour will see by the copies of their letters sent herewith; but fears he will play the knave and let himself be won to serve their turns. Hears that he has promised it, and has discovered all his [Stafford's] dealings with him, as will be shown by the letters. When he sent for 30 crowns, he declared that he would be delivered within four hours after, but it is above eight days since; and was but a cozening part to get money out of him.
Besides, his discovering of the advertisements given him of points he should be examined upon, has made them so suspicious that the papers cannot be come by, as was hoped and promised.
He has also made believe "that some that would have been his best friends are fain to be hotter against him than any to save their own credits here." Hears that he has accused Cordaillot for the convoy by the French ambassador, and brought Arnold in suspicion for dealing with his honour, "and for being the great arm that is spoken of in Phelippes' letter," whereof he sent his honour a copy. Also hears that Nau "means to be a party against him, to clear himself of that which Phelippes writeth of him. Fears it will prove a great broil, "and that the knave will be instrument of whatsoever they will have him; and yet, when they have all out of him that they desire, they will hang him if they can . . . for they mean to take him upon this point (having letters of his to Phelippes which will go hard against him) that he became a priest to deceive the world . . . and said mass after."
Has done for him what he can "in respect of the harm he may be made author of," but sees that all is but deceit with him, and so will meddle no more unless his honour sends him direction what to do and how.
Expects his honour's answer about what remains in his hands.
"To serve their turns, it will be but as a little stick to prop up a great house that is ready to fall" but to himself, it would do a great deal of good.—Paris, 7 January, 1587.
Postscript. For the matter of this Abbot, will obey his honour's will. Thanks him for not believing Buzenval's report. Protests that though he were ashamed to show it to his honour, "he had that letter and showed it."
Holograph. 2 pp. Endorsed by Phelippes. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 69.]
Enclosing copies of the following letters: (fn. 4)
1. "Whom you know" [Gilbert Gifford] to Grimston. . . . There is a report that his lordship travails for him. If so, it cannot hinder or hurt him. All that they lay to his charge will not do so. They report that a pamphlet written by him has been taken. Has told them that he only made the copy and knew not the author, but there is no heresy therein, if the worst befall. No man in this town can witness anything dangerous against him. He has no party but the Promotor with whom he can deal; therefore prays him to well consider his cause. [Copyp.]
2. The Same to the Same. Doubts "the young man" is not found, and although dealt with to betray him, believes he has not yielded. His matter is all determined, and the only stay is the lack of the sum, which being found, he shall have liberty "if it be not discovered," as he trusts it will not. Therefore now is the time; and his life and liberty shall be vowed always to him [Grimston.]—
[Copy. Scrap attached to the others.]
3. Gifford to Stafford. Trusts that what speeches soever his adversaries have given forth of his behaviour towards his lordship, they will not cause him to break with him.
His cause is brought to that pass that for 30 crowns he will have his liberty; but not knowing where to find thirty sous is forced to fly to his lordship for succour. Sends herewith a letter and bill to his father in London, who will repay it presently, were it 300l. [Copy, 2/3 p.]
4. [Grimston] to Gilbert Gifford. The gentleman you wot of will send you the sum you sent for, if you write in a counterfeit hand and are sure of getting out. You are to desire him to give it to the bearer, who shall write a receipt for it; for he will have nothing to do with your father or any else; you are to thank him for his courtesy, and take knowledge of this that I have written to you. He bids you take heed what answer you make, for in one of the letters taken in your chamber, "they find mention made of a convoy between him that writeth to you and you by the way of the French Ambassador's house in England." Also, "they have a letter of your own wherein you write that that book was the work of your vacation time."
He also bid me write "that you deal not well with him to confess any dealing of his with you; that you have confessed all; namely the money you had of him, and in what especes. By any means send back this bill by the bearer, for else he will be angry and perchance send you nothing; for he saith all is seen and known. He bid me tell you he hath not dealt for you, nor will not meddle in your matter any way; but whatsoever you persuade yourself . . . get out with expedition, for if you tarry 24 hours you will be shut up quite. Therefore slip no time . . . and to that purpose he will help you, so that, being out, you get you packing, either into your country or out of their hands. [Copy, ½ p.]
[Noted by Stafford as "copy of a letter to Mr. Gifford that I made Grimston write in a counterfeit hand."]
5. Gifford to Grimston. Cannot now write at large to the gentleman, but will do so this afternoon. His wit will not deceive him if he has the sum, as shall be seen within a few hours. Sends him back his letter, as desired. [Copy. 6 lines.]
6. Gifford to Stafford. "Whatever my behaviour hath been (grounded upon opinion that Arundel was cause of my discovery, wherefore I sought to requite him in breaking his credit with your honour), hereafter my tongue shall never utter nor my pen write anything contrary to your deserts in this time of my distress, which I will never forget; . . . I was so urged, and the matter was made so plain of the receipt of your honour's first benevolence that I could not but confess it; and before God it is strange how it came out, for my keeper denied it before the judge. . . . For the conveyance out of the Ambassador's house in England, it is true I had a letter sent me, . . which letter fell into evil hands and perhaps caused this mischief, but before God I never received any . . . neither know I how it was delivered, but it was easy for them to have 'chopped' the letter into some of the ambassador's folks' hands to send me [and] so I think it was, for I was expressly commanded not to meddle in that matter, nor with the French ambassador, [and] though 'Cordaliot' wrote once to me of late, as yet I was never asked of this matter.
"My Lord Paget and my good cousins Fitzherbert and Throgmorton were here with me in the Official's seat. In his presence, I asked them whether they were come to judge me, or to confront me, or as my friends. They said as friends. I answered their manner of coming was strange, yet if they had anything to say, to speak then. Then my lord began to accuse me of writing into England. I answered that it was by his own friends consent, and that I was not alone; but presently Fitzherbert and I fell to some words, so that the official rose up and came between us, and my cousins departed, and my lord persuaded me to yield, and I should have all favour. I answered I had already confessed the truth of all, so after long talk we parted, and since, I heard no more; but I perceive the matter will be long, therefore I have taken another course, by means of your Honour's relief you have promised me, as your Honour shall perceive. . . . [4–]14 January, 1588. [Copy. ¾ p.]
7. Gifford to Grimston. I have written as much as I can to the gentleman and hope you will not fail me, but will let your boy bring the money (whom I can speak with apart) or else let someone see the bearer of it come into this place for more surety. Whomever you send, I shall speak with him what I will and so long as I will, but see that he says not from whom he comes. This bearer is called Humbert Chenu. ⅓ p.
8. Written upon the back side of the above. Receipt by Chenu for 30 crowns from Mr. Grimston, for the use of the Sieur Gifford, English prisoner in the prisons of the Bishop of Paris.—Jan. 14, 1588. 6 lines.
[S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 69 (1–8). All the above copies are in Lyllye's hand except the last. Endorsed by Phelippes.]
Jan. 22.Stafford to Walsingham.
Sends two letters from Gifford to Grimstone. His informant says they gave him [Gifford] leave to write of purpose to procure Phillips to write or send him something, as they would be glad to have something to show from him since Gifford's imprisonment. And whosoever bringeth him anything shall be stayed and made to confess whence it cometh. Villeroy (fn. 5) made the French King (fn. 5) acquainted with it, and would have moved him to have taken knowledge [of it], but the King was marvellously offended with him for persuading him to it. The Pope's nuncio is now the chiefest dealer in it . . . All the papers and letters are taken away from them that had them, so that they that promised [copies] cannot keep their promise. "He is shut up close, that nobody cometh at him."
Charles Paget follows him underhand, for he called him in question in one of his letters to Phelippes "but openly he doth it not, that it may [not] come to Gifford's knowledge, though Gifford be told enough of it to set him against him. He hath promised them to do anything and say anything, but what he hath of late said I know not."
M. de la Noue has had letters from the princes of Orange "of the delivery of Don John de Castilia for Villiers; which your honour had bought for him, and that he hoped to keep for the restitution of his son. I am afraid the poor gentleman will take it heavily."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 74.]
Enclosures wanting.
[For Stafford's letter (enclosing that of Gilbert Gifford to Throgmorton, printed below) which is placed in S.P. Dom. Addenda volume under date December, 1587; see p. 661, above.]
Jan. 22.
[qy. n.s.]
Gilbert Gifford to Throgmorton, out of prison.
You say that I have never confessed the truth to you or the Baron. I reply that I wanted all to be declared in public before my accusers, and I would answer all. I wrote to the Cardinal to name some one in this town to whom I might declare the origin of these reports, for to tell it to a private person would have been prejudicial to me, because of the envy between me and some, especially Charles Arundel, whom I had accused of being a spy of Don Bernardino, but I am willing to be hanged if I cannot prove it.
My intelligence with those in England began last Easter twelve months with consent of the Cardinal, Charles Paget, Morgan and others. I stayed there only fifteen days, being much frightened and obliged to disguise myself as a servant of a gentleman of M. de Chasteauneuf, named M. Beaujardin. I returned to France, and soon after my arrival the last conspiracy being discovered in England, they wrote that they were sure I was fled away and asked why. I answered that my father was much grieved by my return to England and fearing lest I should not get leave to return to France if I asked it, I ventured to go without warning.
Soon after, Savage accused me before the Council of having treated with him to assassinate the Queen. I had retired to Pont à Mousson, "partly for fear of my person . . . knowing that Walsingham had threatened and said in anger: God's death, never man has been so near cheating me as Gifford believing that under pretext of making a composition between the Catholics and those of the Religion, I had plotted the death of the Queen. I sent a letter of excuse and had a reply that I was condemned of lése Majesté, but if I would return into the country, I should be received to mercy. I answered them that I was at my studies but they would not accept the excuse, and said at least I ought to persuade Gratley to return to England.
I sent the letter to Gratley, and replied to them that he had gone into Germany. Some months afterwards they accused me of having delivered a letter to my Cousin, George Gifford, to persuade him to kill the Queen. I replied that I had only spoken to him once, and said nothing then but that his brother wished him to hasten his journey to Constantinople.
I swear that I never wrote them anything that I was not certain had come to their ears before; touched no private affairs save in my own defence, and have done nothing for which I had not the consent of the best Catholics. In temporizing with them I act as does Chas. Arundel in haunting the house of their ambassador; as Suigo has done by consent of Don Bernardino, and Fitzherbert to Walsingham. I have never meddled with affairs of religion, nor of the state of that kingdom, nor written what is not notorious to everybody.
They accuse me of promising that woman marriage. I never thought nor spoke of such a thing. I am very ill, and have no means unless you aid me or at least speak to Mr. Tempest to come and see me.
Copy by Stafford. French. 2¾ pp. Endd. by Phelippes. [S.P. Dom. Addenda, Eliz. XXX., 78.]


1 Cipher symbol.
2 See p. 670, infra.
3 Perhaps means that the spirit of his great grandfather, Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, had bewitched him.
4 All in Lylly's hand; last date Jan. 4–14.
5 Cipher symbols, undeciphered.