Elizabeth
July 1588, 21-25

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Institute of Historical Research

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Richard Bruce Wernham (editor)

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1936

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64-84

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'Elizabeth: July 1588, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 22: July-December 1588 (1936), pp. 64-84. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74853 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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July 1588, 21-25

July 21.Stafford to Walsingham.
Since writing his other letter, learns that yesternight the Spanish ambassador had a courier out of Spain, whom this morning he sent away in haste to the Prince of Parma. Cannot learn what news he brought "for my friend that had wont to have very private conference with him, is now at the Court at Chartres."
"He [the ambassador] giveth out that he hath advertisement that the army is whole at the Groine, and hath lost never a ship but that they have been scattered with storm and that they are presently going forth again for England." (fn. 1) It is thought, however, that this is to cover the news come from Nantes and other places.
"Yesterday came Le Seur, the French ambassador's secretary, by the way of Calais. My wife sent to Madame Chateauneuf to know what news of the army by sea, because I would not, though I have been long without any news from you. She made it very dainty, and said my Lord Admiral was at sea but that they had no news of the Spanish army; that the Queen was well and at Richmont; that there was a packet to the King but they knew not what was in it. I hear he maketh a great complaint of some injuries hath been offered to him and to other of the French ambassador's men, that were set upon by the instigation of Frenchmen of the Religion in Sowthwark and hardly used, and that being put in prison for it, they were presently released. He speaketh not of it openly, but I know he hath given it out, and that at the Court, he will not make the matter less than it is. And saith that it was done on purpose, upon spite of the peacemaking here, and upon the burning of the two women. They be not men that do diminish anything and therefore I think we shall hear more of it ere long. I pray God they pick not some quarrel to me for it . . ."—Paris, 21 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1½ pp. [France XVIII. 133.]
July 21.H. Kyllygrew to Walsingham.
Perceives by both Walsingham's letters of the 11th inst. (received the 19th, being sent by Burnham from Flushing), that "my Lord General's doings for Sir Martin Skenck were not so well interpreted nor conceived there as here they were dutifully performed. For it lay not in the States nor my lord to place him in Getruidenbergh, where the gallants would hearken to nothing the States should command, nor any else, but so far forth as stood with their own pleasure, which partly may appear unto your honour by the enclosed from Mr. Gilpin unto me. I would Sir Thomas Morgan had been so well dealt withal as Sir Martin Skenck, for in mine opinion that which hath been done towards him may be very well answered . . . . Now we are in hand for the relief of Bergh, which is in some hard terms for want of victuals; and withal to see what may be done for Bon. But this revolt of Getruidenbergh, which in ready money doth cost them 20,000 pound sterling, hath brought the States to such an ebb as I fear they will both be lost unless the Princes of Germany put to their hands, whereof I see small hope. . . ." Sir William Russell sent a man to Getruidenbergh to persuade them from running to the enemy, but all his doings are interpreted to the worst. Cannot find by Mr. Viliers any means for the reconcilement of his lordship and Count Maurice, but by his advice has sent for Burnham.
Encloses a letter [not found] from Sir William Russell with articles "the like whereof Barnavelt showed yesterday in Council," which, with the continual bruits from Antwerp to the same effect, greatly trouble them here. Can make no other answer "than that they are firebrands cast abroad by the enemy to breed division." It would be well to mention these articles to Ortell, making some fitting answer thereon.
They hear out of Spain that the navy is ready again, as Count Maurice yesterday declared in Council. He told Killigrew that victuals were sent for the States' ships, and his Vice-Admiral gone with twelve more.
"For the levy of any extraordinary contributions I see no hope, considered [that] they have already consumed so much for the appeasing of their mutinies and furnishing their shipping, the charge whereof increaseth daily and riseth to a far greater sum than 40,000l. (which they were wont to employ for the raising of a camp), and their ordinary contributions of 20,000l. per mensem are not able to pay their ordinary garrisons and numbers in pay."
Is glad to learn that they are to have answer concerning the exceptions taken to the Instructions for the Council, since, unless their authority be better established, things will grow daily to greater confusion. As they have great need of a governor, and as those of Holland and Zeeland bend wholly towards Count Maurice, he wishes that the other provinces would also accept him. "But I fear, if Bon and Bergh be not relieved, those provinces will not continue long in the union with the rest, unless they may find some more comfort than Holland and Zeeland can afford them . . . . And if the Prince of Parma should bend his forces that way . . ., all were gone." For both us and them, the course which Walsingham has directed is the only remedy, though it does not prevail as is desirable.
The States meant to send to offer assistance to her Majesty, but Getruidenbergh stayed all. Now they speak of it again. Understands that Count Maurice has written to her Majesty and to the Council. The articles and bruits of the peace, however, "bring these men in stays when they run the best course. Sir Martin Skenck shall have answer shortly to his demands, and then your honour shall be fully satisfied of that hath been done in his behalf."
Will write again at the Lord General's return.—At the Haghe, 21 July, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents by L. Tomson. 2¾ pp., close writing. [Holland XXV. f. 126.]
Enclosing:—
G. Gilpin to H. Killigrew, July 18.
Arrived at the 'floate' before Geertruydenbergh yesterday morning. Found his lordship [Willoughby] in bed and asleep. The day before the soldiers' deputies had presented their demands, which were in effect the same as those at first agreed to. The substance was: "That they would continue still in their garrison without altering or diminishing their number; but, in case they went abroad about some service, the footmen and burghers should keep the town, and none other to be put in . . . To which end the soldiers and burghers shall make promise each to other."
They will be commanded only by Willughby, Sir John Winckfielde, or such as shall be here for her Majesty, and they will have nothing to do with Count Hohenlo.
"That they shall be paid monthly of the contributions in Brabant, and esteemed as being in her Majesty's service."
"That at any time when any will leave this service, passports shall be granted them at all times . . ."
"Whereunto apostiles were set down, and not being altogether agreeing to their demands, refused [by ?] them. Great words falling out between one of the deputies and the States that are in the 'floate,' such words were given them by him as did put them into those terms that they would have hanged the fellow; and so passed their sentence, which afterwards was altered and he as it were pardoned by the special favour and intercession of the Count [Maurice]; and so at length were returned to the town with the said apostiles somewhat nearer to the demand."
"Yesterday in the morning came Parasis and Martruyt, who had been as hostages in the town, to the 'floate' with this answer: that they liked well of all, save only that point concerning the diminishing of the garrison and about the commandant; which being by them related unto the Count Maurice, he presently came to my lord his ship, and after some little conference between them, the Count went to his ship, and caused the States to come unto him, where his lordship also went, taking me along with him, and after some communication all was accorded, and a clause added . . . that the difference was wholly remitted unto his lordship, to be altered, diminished or enlarged at his lordship's discretion."
"And this done, it was resolved that his lordship should go to the town, and procure certain of the soldiers and magistrates to be sent as hostages, and then the commissaries and money should be sent: which his lordship presently did, and so came hither yesterday about twelve of the clock. And some of the magistrates and soldiers coming a-shipboard to welcome his lordship, it was presently propounded concerning the hostages, which they returning into the town did forthwith procure, and so were sent to the 'floate'; the commissaries and the greater part of the money arriving here yesternight, where we entered afore, and were honourably received and used."
"The soldiers have made their own rolls, and set down the due which every soldier pretendeth, so as I think we shall not be long busied in directing of payments, for let the States be in their formalities as they list, the soldiers will abide none of their contradictions, and whatsoever they set down must stand, having in the beginning of their articles set down the reasons of their mutiny, and impute all to the Count Hohenlo, against whom they inveigh; and to the end of these articles hath the Count and my lord signed, whose persuasions could not procure to alter any jot or letter. Of the which, and divers other particularities, I refer to enlarge till our meeting, when, as you will say, you never heard of a matter more cunningly and resolutely handled."
"Sir John Winckfielde shall command here under my lord and have the company of lances. Vireslott is thought shall be the lieutenant and Newse the cornet. The carabins shall be commanded by Francis Vere as is yet thought. Captain Himmings shall have an ancient of footmen, and the rest by some other shall be commanded, whereof is not yet disposed; neither yet of the Serjeant-Major, which place it is said Fleure shall have. [Margin "A notable Catelyn or Jughurta."] And thus you hear how matters pass."
"This morning the weather is too foul to pass the muster, but I think they will be doing with the reckonings. Count Maurice and the States lie in the 'float,' and have had a foul night of it."
"Captain Bucke is come out of England, and all things there as they were; his lordship having received sundry letters, but no great contentment, all things being interpreted at the worst — a cold reward for the good services. What news the SerjeantMajor received out of England you shall perceive by the enclosed note of particulars [not found] which, upon my motion, he was content I should send you, with his hearty commendations. I send you also news of the army [not found], with the advertisement of the Duke of Parma his forces in Flanders, whereof his lordship hath received more particularities by a gentleman who came from thence, and hath been oculatus testis."
"Capt. Buck maketh me believe my business is dispatched and passed her Majesty's hand, but I am incredulous till I see and feel. I pray you take occasion to let the Council understand that my coming was to good purpose, and as slenderly as the States either think of me or reward me, my travails have deserved better recompense." — Geertruydenbergh, 18 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal. 2½ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 114.]
July 18.Copy of the first part of the above letter from Gilpin, by Killigrew's clerk.
2 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 113.]
July 22.H. Kyllygrew to Burghley.
His former letter was delayed until now for want of a messenger. Those sent to Utrecht "to compound the controversy between themselves and between them and Holland," send word that they have been detained by some new matters, which they hope to compound before they return. There is no news of Count Hohenlo and the ambassador of Navarre since they embarked for Hamburg. A Scottish ship belonging to lord Roberts of Orkney has been brought into Enchusen "by their ships of war that did waft their herring men, and is condemned for piracy: the most part of seventy-two men to suffer death for that crime."
Willoughby is still at Gettrudenberg. Guylpin's letter (enclosed) shows how matters proceed there. "The money bestowed upon the recovery of that town and the setting forth of their ships to join with her Majesty's, doth pinch them so near as now, question being to succour Berge and Bon distressed, I see no hope as yet. And that doth greatly trouble Sir Martin Shenk, who, as I hear, doth complain of my lord Lieutenant, but surely without cause, as will more plainly appear 'or' [it] be long. . . . Mr. Stubbes is of late come over with my lady Wyllughbye. I would he might remain here awhile with my lord, for his own good." Mr. Wylford is very careful of her Majesty's service, and has been most useful to his honour in compounding "these brablings among the soldiers."
Her Majesty's troops are far below the number stipulated in the Contract. "When 2000 shall be drawn hence, there will appear a great want of our numbers and the cautionary towns must needs grant 'mo' than by the Contract is limited. They say here to the Council of State, who call upon them for the numbers of horse and foot they mean to keep in pay, that they cannot resolve thereof until they may know how they stand with her Majesty's treasurer for the sums he receiveth of theirs monthly at the Briell, which payeth her Majesty's garrisons there their weekly lendings: also till they may be assured of my lord Wyllughbye what numbers he can bring to the field of her Majesty's forces, besides the garrisons of Flusching and the Briell, where indeed there is double the numbers appointed them in the treaty, so as my lord is fain to say that Berghes, Ostend, and Utrecht do take up the rest." The horse-bands are not above 500 strong. Hears for certain that many, both horse and foot, "run to the enemy for lack of better pay and discipline, the most part of their captains being in England. . . . These things make our nation the less respected of this people, who be watchful enough of these particularities, and wax very jealous of late by certain articles spread abroad of the treaty at Brougboue, the copy whereof I send your honour enclosed (fn. 2) ; which were yesterday showed in Council by the Advocate of Holland, Barnevelt. I told him I knew of no such matter, but had rather cause to believe the contrary, for speeches used by my Lord Chancellor and your honour at the Star Chamber after the term. He confessed he was advertised also thereof. 'But,' said he, 'these articles and daily letters, coming from Andwarpt and other places, of the peace, doth great harm among our people and maketh them unwilling to contribute as they should for their better defence. And therefore I would you could procure out of England some assurance to the contrary, that we might satisfy the people.' I answered, these were the practice of the enemy and no articles of the treaty. And further I said I would send them into England, although they themselves might easily see by the three last of those articles that they were but mere malicious inventions of the enemy. Touching this point, I send your honour also a letter written by Mr. Guylpin's man from Gettrudenberg, whereby it appeareth my lord Lieutenant had some private intelligence out of England; and by suchlike bruits much misliking groweth, as at Flusching, where the Governor sent me a like copy of articles, desiring to be resolved by me of a truth, for he said they did much harm in that town. I send the articles to Mr. Secretary, and have answered the Governor as I did Barnevelt above-mentioned."
From France they hear only of the agreement between the King and the League. Yesterday in Council Count Maurice and Barnevelt reported news that "the army of Spain held on their voyage . . . and from Rone it was written that some of the Spanish 'flote' were come as far as the isles of Gernsey and Gersey, which I believe not to be true . . ."
"The winds here have been ill for England ever since my man went over, great tempests and much rain, which will here make a bad harvest. But great store of corn is come from Brest to Amsterdam, which is a good magazine for Holland and her neighbours. Now all mutinies be appeased, I wish they would settle their government and the authority for maintaining the offices, wherein they be slow, and the want thereof I fear will mar all, unless it be remedied . . ."—The Haghe, 22 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 6 pp. [Holland XXV. f. 129.]
Enclosing:
[Gilpin's clerk] to [Killigrew].
"If the 2000 men be called hence, as if the Spanish army by sea have good success they must, then will remain here no more than to furnish the cautionary towns and forts. For I do not esteem the number of our foot to be in all 5000, nor the horse above 500, and Flushing, with the Briell, will ask a far greater number than by the treaty are limited for the defence of them: at Flushing so much the rather for the evil opinion wrongfully conceived by the Count Maurice and the States of Zeeland against Sir William Russell for the mutinies of Camphere and Arnin and Getruidenbergh," whereunto they believe that he stirred them.
"The pay cometh over so scarce and so slow, as I understand both at Ostendt and otherwhere our men begin to run away to the enemy . . ."
Since closing up his letter to the Lord Steward, understands from Mustart, Colonel Senoy's agent here, that order has been taken for redress of the stay made by the burghers of Medenblick of the Colonel's goods and wife. One of the provincial court and Colonel Dorpe are sent thither for this purpose. Mustart is content therewith. Pray inform the Lord Steward, as he desires to understand thereof.
Mr. Stubbes has come over with lady Willughby. It were good for the service and his lordship were he to remain awhile.
Copy in the hand of Killigrew's clerk. Endd. "For Mr. Secretary, July 22, 1588." ¾ p. [Holland XXV. f. 132.]
July 22.The Ministers of Utrecht, deputed to her Majesty, to Walsingham.
Think it well to speak before their departure of the dissensions at Utrecht, which he mentioned at their leave-taking on Saturday. Certain persons were expelled, no doubt on good grounds both of the public interest and religion, two years or so ago, and since then the appointments to certain offices made by the Earl of Leicester have been challenged as contrary to the laws and privileges of the country. This causes great scandal and unrest. Some professors of the true religion have since been called to ordinary public offices for the greater safety of the state. The division within the Reformed religion has been removed. There is now an attempt made to revise what has been done, viz.:— to expel some worthy men or at least deprive them of office in favour of other men of different humour. There have been many practices used of late to achieve this by some of that country, and those chief ones. Danger to the state, and especially to God's church, from this, these men being always opposed to the true reformation of religion. The ministers have ever urged moderation and unity, but the present magistrates cannot be blamed for being on their guard. — Richmond, 22 July, 1588.
Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XXV. f. 133.]
July 23.Lord Cobham to Walsingham.
"It seemeth very strange unto these Commissioners that there hath been no conferences since the fourth of this, and we marvel that we hear not from her Majesty for further proceeding in the treaty, but rather for our revocation."
"In the meantime we here remain as persons forlorn. Were it not for your private letters to me, by the which I am relieved and think myself greatly friended by you, I assure you I should fall into a deep melancholy (as partly I am already); whereof I prayed Sprytwell to inform you, of the state of my body, and that we had been here these six months in this public service (a case seldom seen) without relief or respect had to our great charges, and that every one of us have wife and children to care for and a poor family to uphold."
"I do therefore heartily pray you, that in respect of the evil disposition of my body and that no honourable peace will be had hence, you would move her Majesty for my return . . ."— Burborow, 23 July, '88.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Flanders IV. f. 275.]
July 23.Sir James Croft to Burghley. (fn. 3)
Omitted to write by the last messenger. Both sides await some speedy resolution out of England, which, if it tend to the prosecution of this treaty, he doubts not his lordship will be a means to remove the impediments that may grow from the causes mentioned in the enclosed paper.
Is slow to believe that the King is insincere, for, "besides the reverent opinion to be had of Princes' oaths and the general commodity which will come by the contrary, God hath so balanced Princes' powers in this age as they rather desire to assure themselves at home than with danger to invade their neighbours no way their inferiors in force or warlike policy."
Encloses copy of his last letters to Mr. Secretary.—Bourboroughe, 23 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Flanders IV. f. 277.]
Enclosing (?):
"Points wherein the difficulty of the treaty will consist in all likelihood."
Her Majesty requires toleration in religion, which the King himself yielded to them in the treaty of Gaunt; the divines of Lovaine and Dowaie universities agreed that he might lawfully grant this.
Her Majesty requires the removal all Spanish, Italian, and other strange forces, and that no more men of war be kept there than were kept after the wars between the Emperor Charles and the French King were ended, and these to be "of that country birth."
If the King will not yield to a toleration, her Majesty finds that the Protestants will be forced to forsake the country, which is the reason they will not join in this negotiation, doubting the King's sincere meaning. The country being then wholly possessed by Papists, will be more dangerous to her than it now is.
If these two points are agreed to, those of the country will doubtless accept the King's offers.
"Deduction of the proceedings of our Commissioners since the time of their first repair over."
26 Feb. Arrived at Ostend. Sent Mr. Richard Spencer to inform the Duke, who let fall speeches "of his mislike of the place to treat at": the Duke sent back Grenier to them.
6 March. Dr. Dale sent to the Duke.
Directions given to her Majesty's Commissioners from hence. 6 March. Dr. Dale sent to the Duke to desire him to send his Commissioners to Ostend, as her Majesty had sent hers into the King's dominions and the choice of place had been given to her. To view and get a copy of the commission.
Answers made unto them by the Duke of Parma and the Commissioners on the other side. 10 April. The Duke thought Ostend unfit but agreed to one meeting there or near there. It was not usual to view the commissions before the meeting. Doubtful speeches of the Duke and Richardot of some attempt upon England if the treaty not speedily set forward.
Directions, etc. 18 March. Dr. Rogers sent, by her Majesty's command, to charge the Duke with these speeches: to insist upon Ostend as the place, at least for the first meeting: to view the commission.
Answers, etc. 26 and 27 March. The Duke replied that they gave her Majesty the choice of place, thinking it would be on neutral ground: he could not send commissioners to a town withheld from his master by her. Disavowed his speeches and denied any intention to attack England. Commissions never viewed before the first meeting. Promised to send Richardot to Ostend.
Directions, etc. 26 March. Her Majesty commanded the Lords to protest that the Duke knew of her choice of Ostend but did not object until they had landed. If he refused to allow the beginning to be made there, they should depart to Vlissing. In a private letter, they were told that it would be sufficient to hold the first meeting there.
Answers, etc. 1 April. Richardot arrived at Ostend with Dr. Maes, another Commissioner: agreed to regard this as the first meeting; the Duke to ratify this, and then her Majesty's Commissioners would name another place for the other two meetings. Richardot wrote on 8th, signifying the Duke's assent.
Directions, etc. 8 April. Her Majesty approved the arrangement: to require a cessation, covering the four towns in her hands. 11 April. To agree to cessation for the four towns only, if a general cessation cannot be had: if the Commissioners had commission only from the Duke, the treaty might proceed if the Duke had sufficient authority from the King. To recite grounds of breach: in the treaty recital to be made of wrongs done on either side, so that fault would be seen to have been in the King and his ministers here.
Answers, etc. 11 April. Meeting in tents between Ostend and Newport, within cannon shot of Ostend: the Spaniards showed their commission from the Duke, 4 March, but not his from the King, saying it was contained in a letter in which were other matters of state not to be shown. They refused a cessation, as the campaigning season was at hand and as it would not include the States.
Answers, etc. 13 April. Grenier came from the Duke: proposed as of himself a cessation tacité for the four towns: he thought the Duke would agree to include the States in a general cessation if they desired it. The lords desired her Majesty's instructions, touching the commission and cessation.
Directions, etc. 16 April. To inform the Duke that unless he had commission her Majesty could not proceed. But the lords' letters of 22nd directed them to proceed if the Duke promised to procure commission. They might meet at Bridges. To agree to cessation for the four towns only; to continue during the treaty and for 20 days after.
Answers, etc. April. Morris, Mr. Comptroller's man, sent to the Spanish Commissioners, who replied that they ought to be content with the Duke's promise to procure sufficient commission. Bridges too full of captains etc. resorting to the treasurers to be the meeting place: Burburg too small: they preferred Gant or Andwerp. Sent a project of a 10 days' cessation, to be prolonged from time to time.
Directions, etc. 30 April. Mr. Comptroller went to the Duke and propounded divers articles. Meanwhile a commission came from Spain. Mr. Comptroller sent over John Croftes with the terms to which the Duke had agreed.
Answers, etc. May, by Mr. John Croftes. Had received commission under broad seal of Spain, dated 17 April. Agreed to cessation as her Majesty required. Treaty to be held at Bridges: certain offers to repay money expended by her Majesty in these wars when Vlissing and Briel were restored. The answers given in writing by Richardot were "clean contrary" to these, and were not shown by Mr. Comptroller until Dr. Dale's return.
Directions, etc. 30 April. Her Majesty, misliking the answers made to Morrice, sent Dr. Dale to the Duke to express her discontentment, to require a sight of his commission and a copy thereof: if the commission were adequate, the treaty might proceed at Bridges: to deal as before about the cessation.
Answers, etc. 9 May. As Mr. Comptroller had seen the commission, he only required to see it, but was refused a copy: found it large and sufficient. The Duke misliked Bridges. They delivered him a form of cessation, without any time-limit, to continue for 6 days after it had been denounced.
Directions, etc. 10 May. Her Majesty rebuked Mr. Comptroller for acting without direction. Dr. Dale sent to the Duke to require cessation covering England, Scotland, and Spain, or at least that the Duke's forces attempt nothing against her Majesty's dominions.
Answers, etc. 18 May. Motion for a general cessation referred to meeting of the Commissioners to be held 6 days after.
Directions, etc. 13 May. Her Majesty, having received Dale's letters of the 9th, was content that the treaty go forward at Bourborough: she required a general cessation, or if this impossible, a cessation as in the letters of the 10th: she misliked Richardot's project and insisted upon a cessation for the time of the treaty and for 20 days after, so penned as to prevent the King's army in Spain passing quietly by her realm to join with his forces in the Low Countries.
Answers, etc. 26 May. Commissioners met at Bourborough. The Spanish Commissioners could grant no cessation for Spain without consulting the King. They offered a form of cessation for the four towns, to last during the treaty and for 6 days after: saw no reason to include Scotland.
Directions, etc. 2 June. Her Majesty, being now fully prepared for her defence, commanded them not to insist upon a cessation for Spain. If nothing better can be had, they might accept the former offer provided the 6 days be extended to 20.
Answers, etc. 7 June. Upon receipt of this letter, they brought Morrice as a witness at the next meeting on 5 June that Richardot had promised, before they landed, to agree to a cessation. Richardot at once denied this. The demand for the cessation to extend for 20 days after intimation, was referred to the Duke. Richardot went to the Duke who, on the 17th, would grant only a cessation for four towns on each side and for 12 days after intimation.
Directions, etc. 14 June. Her Majesty directed that, unless the Duke will bind himself to undertake nothing against her dominions and Scotland, her Commissioners should no longer stand upon the cessation but proceed to the treaty. Her Majesty's demands for the inhabitants of the Low Countries; withdrawal of foreign troops; and toleration in religion for two years, when an assembly of the States should decide.
29 June. Letters intercepted showed that the preparations in Spain and the Low Countries were intended against her Majesty: the Duke of Parma to be Captain-General, and had already appointed a lieutenant for the Low Countries during his absence: thousands of bulls and other infamous libels printed in Anwerp, discharging her Majesty's subjects of their obedience. Her Majesty commanded her Commissioners to charge the Duke therewith and to require a plain answer. If the charge were admitted, they should return directly home: if denied, they were to require the punishment of the printers and the burning of the books, and to obtain some public statement of the Duke's disapproval thereof.
Answers, etc. 25 and 27 June. They looked for more honourable and indifferent conditions from her Majesty: they agreed "to leave the cessation at large": the maintenance of the ancient privileges of the country did not concern any foreign prince: when peace was made and the wars ended, the troops would be dismissed: answered nothing about religion, though in their letters of the 27th they offered them two years to become reconciled to the Roman Church or to leave the country. They desired the restitution of the towns now in her Majesty's hands. The King could in no wise be responsible for her Majesty's expenses in those countries.
The directions and answers arranged in columns. Endd. "Deduction of the proceedings . . . from the 26 Feb., 1587, to the 12 July, 1588." 5¼ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 250.]
Another copy of the above, differently set out.
Endd. 6¼ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 256.]
July 23./Aug. 2.The Duke of Medina Sidonia to Don Hugo de Moncada. (fn. 4)
The important thing is to proceed on the voyage. The enemy seeks to delay them, but avoids fighting. The Armada to sail in two squadrons, the rearward being in two divisions under Martinez and Leyva, with the best ships. Moncada with his flagship and two other galleasses to join Martinez, while the "Patrona" joins Sidonia in the vanguard.—Royal galleon, 2 August, 1588.
Copy. Endd. Spanish. ½ p. [Spain III. 11.]
July 24.Daniel Rogers to Walsingham.
Wrote on the 5th reporting his arrival on that day at Elsinoer. The Queen, the young King, and her other children, came that day from Copenhagen to the castle of Croenburgh. As soon as the Queen (to whom the chief authority here is given) understood of his arrival, she sent Henry Rammell, Gerte Ranzow, and others, to excuse the poorness of his lodging and to tell him that the Queen would receive him at the castle (though they are not accustomed to lodge ambassadors there) when it was ready, as was afterwards done. The castle is unequalled in Europe for situation, magnificence, force, and revenues: it was built by the late King. Had audience on the 7th (Sunday), together with Adam Gans, lord of Podelitz, sent from Duke Casimir. The King, with his second brother Ulric, attended by many guards and gentlemen, after the salutations desired him to accompany him to the chapel, it being then 9 o'clock. The King gave him always the right hand, saying that his father had always done so. The sermon and prayers lasted an hour and a half. Afterwards had public audience with the Queen his mother in the presence chamber, the King, the four Governors, and Rammell attending her. Addressed himself first to the Queen perceiving her to be thus given the chief honour. Spoke in 'Dutch,' conveying her Majesty's condolences upon the death of the late King: then addressed the young King in Latin and delivered her Majesty's letters. Rammell, being directed to make answer, replied in 'Dutch,' thanking her Majesty for her message; he said that their Majesties valued her goodwill most highly and could not doubt of her help in time of need, after the example they had observed in her relations with the French, the Netherlands, and the Scots.
Rogers then said that he desired at another time to treat of matters concerning the quiet and welfare of both kingdoms; they professed themselves ready to 'complease' her Majesty, and as it was then dinner time, he took his leave. Was entertained to dinner in the castle by the four Governors, who asked him and the Baron Podelitz to repair with them to Copenhagen where the remaining business could be settled.
In summa. All these four Governors are men of great honour and circumspection, if honour may be judged rather by inward qualities than outward titles. They regard the mutual amity of their country and England as essential to the preservation of both. At Elsenoer he heard that Hennyson was also there, against whom her Majesty had written letters to the late King for spoil committed against a ship near the English coast. Understanding that Hennyson had commission from the King of Spain to serve against England with 6 ships, he desired the Chancellor to take order that Hennyson should be forthcoming after he (Rogers) had delivered her Majesty's message to the four Governors. Came to Copenhagen on 10th; met Ticho Brahe on the way at the island of Abena. All the way, and during the 14 days he was at Copenhagen, he was entertained at the Queen's charges, and every day Henry Rammell repaired unto him. Rammell is a man of great credit and wisdom, of whom all speak most favourably, whilst the French ambassador, "a man of great virtue," considers him "the sufficientest gentleman in all Denmark." Adds this because a great counsellor of her Majesty, and his own very good patron, deemed not the best of him. He is envied because he is a foreigner, but the last King made him swear to stay in the realm to assist his wife and the young King; also he gave him a lordship in Schonen for which he has refused twenty thousand pounds sterling. On the 13th, the four Governors, with Rammell. came to him and he dealt thoroughly with them of all matters contained in his instructions or privately given to him in charge by her Majesty; touched also upon other matters whereof he had no commandment, as appears from the copy enclosed, which he desires may be communicated to the Lord Treasurer. Willingly put his communication, as they desired, into writing, so as to receive their answer in writing, which has not yet been delivered to him. They are very busy establishing the realm; there are certain piques and dissensions.
Has obtained restitution of the 6000l. sterling in goods belonging to Englishmen, which was partly confiscated by sentence already given, partly ready to be pronounced. The ships bound for Elbinge would not have passed without arrest had he not been here.
Advertisement came to-day from Scotland that ambassadors are to be sent to condole, and to treat of the matter "which hath been long a-working," and which, if they come, will take effect. The Governors and other senators have invited him to dinner at the castle to-morrow. As they are so busy, their written answer may be delayed, therefore he sends these particulars; the bearer once served his colleague Mr. Asheley, and was recommended to him by the Earl of Leicester. Hopes he may pass safely, for the seas are very full of pirates and few or none from hence adventure by the long seas to England. The four Governors at his instance have taken great care that none go out of the realm to serve against her Majesty, though the Duke of Parma has done his best by bribery and promises to get ships, mariners, and captains from these places where they are in abundance and willing to be employed owing to the peace and quietness of their own country. —Copenhagen, 24 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Laurence Tomson with note of contents. 6⅓ pp. [Denmark I. f. 256.]
July 24.Daniel Rogers to Walsingham.
". . . Now I think it my part to advertise your honour somewhat concerning the state of these kingdoms; where is great liberty, and where the gentlemen have great credit and authority, according as the antiquity of their families may commend them. Two hundred years past they had lords, earls, and dukes, whereof some encroaching upon gentlemen, gave an occasion to the gentlemen to oppose themselves against them, and so overcame the higher nobility: who afterward dealt with the King in such manner that order was taken there should be no greater nobility than gentlemen, against whom the King can little effectuate without the advice and consent of the Councillors of the realm, which were wont to be 24 in number. At this present there are but 20. They ought all to be born in the kingdom of Denmark and Norway, and now, being but 20 two of them are Germans, one born within the dukedom of Meckleburgh and the other in Holsatia. As for the dukedoms of Sleswycke and Holste, the King hath other Councillors, to the number of eleven at this present; the names of whom I send unto your honour in a schedule herein enclosed. The deceased King's brother, Duke John, hath showed himself to be miscontented for that . . . . the States have neglected him, not making him an overseer of his nephew the elected King, neither left him any part of government, as he thought they would have done and as in Germany amongst the Electors and Princes is accustomed. But the nobility of the realm of Denmark, to the intent they might maintain their liberty, allege that the state of the Princes of Germany dependeth upon succession by inheritance and not by election by which the kingdom of Denmark consisteth. There are likewise some other gentlemen, which for enormous faults had been taxed with great fines by the late King, who in this nonage of the young King stomach at the matter and travail . . . . to obtain restitution of the said fines. There be likewise many gentlemen which pretend that the last King did greatly prejudice their liberties in hunting, which at this present do urge to recover and re-establish their ancient privileges. In appeasing these and the like dissensions, the authority and carefulness of the Chancellor is highly commended, who is even the pearl of all Denmark, and hath been of late very extremely sick . . . . . The four Governors are appointed by the rest of the senators of the realm, and but for one year, at the end whereof four others are to be chosen during the King's nonage. Howbeit, it is thought that the Chancellor and Treasurer must always continue, for they are not minded to crown the young King before he come to just years and to such judgment as he may know unto what conditions he shall swear. The Estates of the country have delivered up to the four Governors certain articles which they would have to be observed and followed, which do govern very warily, not forgetting their own kinsfolks which they do greatly advance, and do travail to heap great treasures for the King's use; wherefore they do discharge many that served the last King who was wont to have dukes and earls in his Court which he maintained . . . with very good stipends, which they think this King by reason of his nonage may well lack. Monsieur Dansey, the French King's ambassador, doth think that this King of Denmark is one of the richest Kings in Europe, because he is nothing indebted and hath great treasure laid up for his use, which yet at this time is all ruled by the disposition of the 4 Governors. Besides the revenues of the custom and toll of Elsenoer, I have learned that the King hath yearly to the value of two hundred thousand dollars for the custom of Hamburgh and Rostocke beer, wherewith the whole realm is served; with such other toll as he receiveth for oxen and horses which yearly are carried out of these countries; besides the revenues of 7 bishoprics in Denmark and Norway which are altogether confiscated to the crown. The Bishops of which jurisdictions were wont to be great princes, and as it were the Electors of Denmark, which were all suppressed and their bishoprics annexed to the crown by the late King and his father. The Queen of Denmark hath her dowry allotted unto her in the islands of Falster and Loland, most fertile countries which are right over against the Duke of Meckleburgh her father's countries: which Queen is a right virtuous and godly princess, which very severely and with great wisdom ruleth her children; unto whom all ambassadors do address themselves in the presence of the four Governors which indeed rule all. Henry Rammell, although he is none of the four Governors, yet is he the chiefest about the Queen and King, neither without him do the 4 Governors anything at all; a man indeed with great gifts and who hath seen much, and is very eloquent, and knoweth more of the government of the whole world than all the rest of the Councillors; between whom and the Chancellor is great friendship. Amongst other gentlemen of great name, none was in greater favour with the late King, nor at this time better liked of in the whole realm, than Gert Ranzow, son to the King's lieutenant in Holsatia, and constable of the castle and jurisdiction of Croenburghe as also captain of the King's guards; who being but of the age of 31 years hath seen the most part of Europe, having besides been at Constantinople and in Egypt, and speaketh many tongues; who after his return from Spain, being sent thither by the late King, came to the Court of England and there spake with your honour. He is a man that hath great designs and offereth his service unto her Majesty, promising to bring unto her Majesty when she shall require 3000 footmen and 1000 horsemen, which offer in my judgment is not to be contemned, for by his father's means he can do much, and in despite of the Empire, having havens of his own near unto the sea, may send over into England forces when he shall perceive that her Highness will desire it; whereas at this present the princes of Germany have so strictly bound their subjects that if her Majesty would have any forces from thence she must write unto many princes to have that favour showed her. Besides that if her Majesty use this gentleman, she may spare great expenses because that princes will have greater allowances than he would demand. He told me that he had eftsoons desired leave of the late King to serve abroad in war, and was with Duke Casimir in all his expeditions, but neither would the King permit him to serve any besides himself except the Queen of England, and his religion hindered him to serve against them of the religion. In summa I am persuaded he is one of the discreetest, most sufficient and courtliest gentlemen not only of this kingdom but also of all Duchland. Amongst others which have condoled and congratulated the young King, the Emperor of late sent a fair coach with six great horses unto the King, desiring him to employ his credit for the delivery and enlarging of his brother the Archduke Maximilian, as his father had done the best for the recommending of him, and his brother Archduke Matthias, for the advancement of one of them to the crown of Poland, about which matter all the princes of Austria with their kindred are at this present especially busy. The Pope hath sent the Cardinal Aldobrandinus into Poland, where he hath been royally received. The King of Spain hath likewise used his credit, and at the Emperor's request the greatest part of the princes of Germany have sent their ambassadors. Their intent is either by fair or foul means to have the Archduke Maximilian to be delivered, who of late did his best to escape away, which is the occasion that he is now the more straitly looked unto. There are 2000 men which keep watch about him, which they constrain the Archduke to maintain. The Chancellor told me yesterday that . . . . he is advertised that the Chancellor of Poland doth offer these conditions for his delivery. First, that the Emperor his brother do restore certain castles in Hungary unto the Polonians. Secondly, that he take to his wife their young King's sister, with the best part of Livonia for her dowry. Thirdly, if God do take away their King, and he do survive, that they will choose him for their King; or if he shall have any male child by the said wife, that they will bind themselves to elect him. The King of Sweden, his father, at this present holdeth a parliament, to the intent he may conclude what is to be done with the Muscovites, for that the 4 years' truce about the beginning of the next year will be expired. The Lituanians at the time of the election of their young King made peace with the Muscovites for 14 years, which was confirmed by their young King, so that the father feareth that his son shall not be able to induce the Polonians and Lituanians to assist him against the Muscovites. This King of Sweden is counted very ticklish and unconstant in matters of religion, for he causeth many superstitions and popish ceremonies to be reared into the church, which breedeth offence towards many. He is not esteemed the wisest, but to be vain and lofty; unto whom I purpose to send Monsieur Varrhael, one whom the Earl of Leicester commended unto me, who being a licenciate of law may follow the cause of Mr. Allen, which her Highness also commended unto me. The plague doth marvellously reign in Sweden . . . . I made mention in my former letter of the Baron of Podelitz, sent by Duke Casimir, who hath dealt with the chiefest princes of Germany to appoint some place and time where they might consult together how by a league they might in time 'occurre' against the dangerous practices of the Papists; for which cause the Governors of Denmark have given him a favourable answer, promising that they will be glad to further the Duke's requests and will send their ambassadors at the end of August to join with Duke Ulric of Meckleburghe's ambassadors, which jointly shall be sent unto the Elector of Saxony to accelerate the meeting which Duke Casimir desireth; which Elector of Saxony gave unto the Baron Podelitz likewise a favourable answer. The late King of Denmark a little before his death wrote a pithy letter unto the said Elector, his nephew, to induce him the sooner to embrace this matter, and withal gave him counsel to take heed of two counsellors about him, Scoenberke and Ponnitz, to which the French King of late, notwithstanding his own wants, had sent 10,000 French crowns." —Coppenhaven, 24 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Laurence Tomson with note of contents: brief marginal notes of contents in the same hand. 4½ pp. [Denmark I. f. 260.]
Enclosing:
Senators and Councillors of Denmark and Norway:
Nicholas Kaas, lord of Tarup, the King's Chancellor (Cancellarius Regis); Peter Guldenstern of Tym. the Marshall; Peter Munck of Estuatgaard, Admiral; George Rosenkrantz of Rosenholm, Master of the Palace (magister Palatii); Christopher Valckendorf of Glorop, Treasurer; Steno Brahe of Knudsturp; George Skram of Thielle; 'Mandropius' Passeberg of Hagisholm; Eric Hardenberg of Matterup; Hakon Ulstandt of Huckeberg; Andrew Bing of Midsturp; Henry Bellow of Spitterup. Viceroy of Jutland and captain of Kolbing castle; Axel Guldenstern of Lyngbui, Viceroy of Norway; 'Corvitius' Wiffert of Ness; Absolom Goie of Nielsturp; James Schefeld of Wissborn; Breida Rantzow of Rantzouisholm; Christian Skele of Fusingor; Albert Frys of Harritzkier; Arvid Huitfeld of Odersberg. Chancellor of the kingdom (Regni Cancellarius).
Councillors of Schleswig and Holstein:
Henry Rantzow, lord of Breidenborg, prefect of Segeberg; Peter Rantzow of Troiburg, prefect of Flensburg; John Blome of Schedorff, prefect of Hadersleby; John Rantzow of Haselberg, prefect of Rendesburg; Benedict de Alefeld of Lernkulen; George Schested of Nortesehe; Detleve Brocktorff of Schrevenborn; Daniel Rantzouw of Sehegaard; Henry Alefeld of Saturpholm; Nicholas de Alefeld of Geltinge; Christopher Rantzow of Quernbeck.
The names of other principal officers:
Stein Maltizen, marshal of the Hall; Gerard Rantzow, constable of Kronneburg, and captain of the King's guard (praetorianorum Regis); Eustace van Tunen, prefect of the King's stables; Henry Ramell, prefect and governor of the King, and a Councillor; Jonathan Gutzlaudius, doctor of laws, Chancellor of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein; Absolom Jul, Danish secretary; John Buckholt, prefect of Iceland.
Endd. "1588." Latin. 1¼ pp. [Denmark I. f. 271.]
July 24.The Queen to the Commissioners.
As the arrival upon the English coast of the Spanish navy, and their present course, show their meaning to join the Duke of Parma's forces in an invasion of her realm, the treaty being also a mere device to abuse her, the Commissioners shall require the Duke's Commissioners to inform him that her Majesty cannot honourably continue them there any longer and to desire him to give order for their safe return by way of Calais.
Minute. Endd., with date. ½p. [Flanders IV. f. 279.]
Draft for the above.
Endd., with date. 1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 281.]
July 24.The Office of the Ordnance: note of cannon, etc., delivered to the town of Ostend.
4 June, 1587:—8 demi-culverins, 4 "port-pieces of forged iron with 8 chambers mounted," 8 ladles and sponges, 32 'coynes' for the said demi-culverins. 800 iron round shot for them, 80 stone shot for port-pieces, 4 lasts of corn-powder, 100 muskets, 150 calivers, 500 long pikes, 300 short pikes, 300 black bills, 15 hundredweight of lead, 12 chests for muskets and calivers, 8 pairs of spare heads and rammers for demi-culverin, 8 spare ladle staves, 700 shovels and spades, 200 pickaxes helved, 500 hand-baskets, 40 hand-spikes, 3 pairs of spare wheels, 8 tons of spare planks.
"Stuff for fireworks," same date:—50lb. saltpetre, 50lb. sulphur mealed, 50lb. rosin, 1lb. 'camphere,' 1 gallon linseed oil, 50lb. turpentine, 1 gallon train-oil, 1 quarter-weight 'marline,' 10lb. twine, 12 ells canvas, 60lb. pitch, quarter weight tallow, 62 lime pots, 4lb. verdigris. 2 dozen trunks staved, 1 dozen small lines.
24 July, 1588:—6 port-pieces of forged iron, 12 chambers of forged iron, 6 stocks for port-pieces, 120 stone shot for them, 24 scallops and forelocks, 12 pair of trucks, 12 pair linch-pins, 2 tons lead, 400 tampions, 6 'commanders,' 6 'extres.'
Endd. 1½pp. [Holland XXV. f. 135.]
July 24.Another list of the articles sent to Ostend on 24 July [as above, omitting the 6 'extres']: "for the delivery of all which parcels, we humbly crave warrant under 6 of the Council's hand."
Endd. ½p. [Holland XXV. f. 137.]
July 25.Sir William Russell to the Privy Council.
Has received their lordships' letters, and has so dealt with them of this town that 30 sail shall this night set forth to join with lord Henry Seymour on the Narrow Seas. Has also written and sent one to deal with the States presently to hasten away more strength, which they have promised to do. They "make show to have great care to assist and further her Majesty's service, as well thereby also to serve for their own defence."—Vlisshing, 25 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½p. [Holland XXV. f. 139.]
July 25.The Same to Walsingham.
To the same effect as the preceding.
Has sent the packet to the Lord General. Thanks his honour for the copy of the Lord Admiral's letter.—Vlisshing, 25 July, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2/3 p. [Holland XXV. f. 140.]
July 25.Edward Burnham to Walsingham. (fn. 5)
Has, according to his command, informed himself of the prices of all kinds of armour here in Middellborow, where they are slightly higher than in Holland. "The musket, with banderole and rest, 22s. sterling. The calliver and furniture, 12 and 13s. sterling. The corslet, complete, for a footman, 25 and 26s. sterling. The horseman's armour, complete with cuissaulx, the breast petronel proof, and the back pistol proof, 3l. and 3l. 6s. 8d. sterling." One Finshe bought thirty for Sir Thomas Hennedge at 3l. sterling apiece, but the price has since risen. Powder is 4l. 10s. sterling the quintal, "which is a hundreth weight; our hundreth in England is eight pounds more than this." No great quantity to be had here: the greatest store is at Amsterdam. Understands there is plenty, and cheaper, at Hamborow and Stoades. Has not heard from Adrian, but believes he has gone to Wes[el ?] to provide Walsingham's armours.
The great galley which the enemy made at Sluce, was driven into the Tessel by the last tempest. There are 100 Italian soldiers and 200 'forsatz' aboard. Last night the enemy sent a drum about certain prisoners here. He said that the galley had been long missing and they knew not where she was.
Those of Enchuysen have taken a Scots pirate, with 94 men and 25 pieces of ordnance. Most of the men will probably be executed.
M. de St. Alldegonde says he can do nothing with Count Maurice, who is wholly led by Vellers the marshal, M. de Famasse, and Vellyers the preacher. Burnham, owing to sickness, could not go into Holland, but sent his despatch to Mr. Killegrew, who writes that the Count desires him to come. St. Alldegonde is in very bare estate, and would have gone into France with the princess to present his services to the King of Navarre, but her going is stayed. He desired Walsingham's advice as to going alone. There are many objections to such a course, such as "the lightness and unconstancy of that nation, want of means to provide himself for such a journey, and the small means that the King hath now... to do for him."
This last tempest drove into port all the ships of war of this country that lay before Dunkerke and Newport, but they are expected to put out again to-day. "The like [tempest] hath not been seen by any at this time of the year." Danger that the heavy rains will spoil the corn of this island.
The mutiny at Gettenbergen pacified and the States have paid their money, upon no assurance except the mutineers' honesty. They railed greatly against the States, especially against Bernvelt, whom they call Barrabas, and Brasser of Delft. They urged Count Maurice, who lay before the town, to beware of them all, or they would betray him as they had done his father. They have accepted Sir John Wingfeld as their governor.
Encloses a packet received last night from Mr. Killegrew.— Flussinge, 25 July, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland XXV. f. 142.]
July 25./Aug. 4.Christopher Roels to Walsingham.
Since her Majesty began to take steps to appease these popular and military tumults, they have begun to think again of the common defence, so that they will keep busy the Hispanophiles [Espagnolisez], especially when there is a good accord with England. The observance of the terms of the treaty by her Majesty will greatly help this: any change should be duly agreed upon with those of credit. Things should not be futilely turned upside down by new creatures of small substance and no knowledge. This, besides the loss of time and the danger of division and loss of places, has cost more than two years of war. They have, however, miraculously preserved all their towns and places, for Geertruydenbergen has been brought back to obedience, or at least appeased by the form of an English garrison. Thinks her Majesty could attain any of her desires, but must attune the flutes to the speeches. His excellency of Leycester, with whom he has sometimes spoken, is a great-hearted prince, devoted to her Majesty's service, but amid these innovations he could only taste of their estate, not settle his judgment. Now, viewing them from afar off, he can judge them better, being no longer confused by a multitude of contradictory opinions. The question is whether her Majesty desires these countries to be a bulwark for her, or against her. While the King lives it is folly to believe that the enemy will keep their promises to heretics, and rebels as well. These countries will be abused by no treaties, but will risk all rather than suffer an irreparable accident. If her Majesty proceeds open-eyed with this treaty, let care be taken not to be abused. The secret sentiment of the Duke of Parma's cabinet and of the Hispanophiles is that if they can by any means abuse one or the other and have any advantage beyond what they now have, they will keep no promise with heretics or rebels, but will soon master them by making another war upon them unexpectedly. They say there can be no peace with those that have no God. As they cannot prevail by force, they think that after making a peace they will find out countless opportunities to break it and swallow both up, as the Duke of Parma has been promised by the King and the Pope. Upon this is founded the Cardinal of England's pamphlet, sent over by Mr. Killegrey, which was discovered by Roels' diligence. As they intend to spread it abroad in England with some papal bulls, sends such particulars as he has, so that measures may be taken against the traitors and others thereby discovered. In Flanders the Prince of Parma pretends ignorance of it and denies that he and his master belong to this league; elsewhere they pose as its leaders and authors. Her Majesty should be warned by the King of France, who, under colour of this league, has been reduced to terms from which he cannot escape and where he may succumb. Incidentally the poor man who had to help to print this pamphlet and from whom the copy was obtained, brought the church of the faithful in Antwerp in danger of discovery. Had therefore to promise him the restitution of his goods, left in Antwerp, to the value of 15l. sterling. He, with his wife and children is on Roels' hands, who does not see why he should, for her Majesty's service, bear this loss. Mr. Killegrey, for whom he took the trouble, should recompense him, but Roels petitions where he can get remedy.
Notices again that when the Duke of Parma's hopes of the armada of Spain are disappointed, the treaty is revived, wherein the Spaniard boasts that he can lead the English as he will. They do as they wish, regardless of this poor state, which they use merely as a bait to play with the Spaniard and these countries, seeking only the advantage of the trade of England. It is said here openly that merchants' greed rules at this court, regardless of those who wait only for an opportunity to throw all into confusion and whose designs are revealed in these mutinies and plots. Asks pardon for writing so freely, but if they wish to keep this country in quiet and amity, they should proceed with more moderation and respect, for the clear-sighted can bear no love to a course which saves them from one abyss only to lead them into another more dangerous. Feels confident that Walsingham will consult hereupon with her Majesty and the earl of Leicester (to whom he has also written), and will advise her, like a generous prince to forget the past, for the honour of God and of herself. Need of unity between her Majesty and these countries emphasised by events in France. There is a league between the Spaniards, the Guisards, and the Parmese to destroy both by force or by cunning.—Middelbourgh, 4 August, 1588.
Signed Add. Endd. Seal. French. 3½pp. [Holland XXV. f. 144.]

Footnotes

1 Cf. Spanish Cal., iv. 346.
2 Possibly the copy calendared at p. 29 above.
3 Cited in Motloy, United Netherlands, ii. 386.
4 Printed in Spanish Cal., IV. 359.
5 Printed, not entirely accurately, by J. K. Laughton, Armada Papers (Navy Record Soc.), i. 312–4.