Elizabeth
November 1588, 21-25

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Institute of Historical Research

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Richard Bruce Wernham (editor)

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1936

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326-341

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'Elizabeth: November 1588, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 22: July-December 1588 (1936), pp. 326-341. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74870 Date accessed: 21 September 2014.


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November 1588, 21-25

[Nov. 21.]Articles agreed upon between Sir Thomas Sherley and T. L., H. P., W. B., and G. L., for the keeping in the realm of the treasure now issued for her Majesty's forces in the Low Countries.
Sherley shall deliver to them the 12,500l. sterling issued for weekly lendings for two months from Dec. 3, at 28 days the month.
[Margin, by Burghley: 1200l. thereof to the 10 horsebands each month, and 4179l. 12s. to the 43 footbands: add for the officers.]
They shall repay to Sherley at Middelburgh, on Dec. 3, in ready money, 9644l. 16s. [Margin, by Burghley: This money to be paid in England, Nov. 20]: and in victuals, to be delivered to the 43 foot companies at the rate of 8l. 6s. weekly, 2855l. 4s. [Margin, by Burghley: The two months to end Jan. 27.]
They shall agree with Sherley to do this every two months for one year. [Margin, by Burghley: The next payment, Jan. 20.]
In consideration whereof Sherley shall within six months provide for the payment to them of all money due to them for credit given to the 10 companies of lances, provided this does not exceed the sum of six months' pay for the said companies. And so to satisfy them every six months. [Margin, by Burghley: This portion to be answered not only as regards money and victuals, but also horse-wares etc. Thus the horsebands will be fully paid every six months.]
The apparelling of the footbands, at the rate of 20,000l. a year, to be continued after last year's pattern and rate; the money to be paid to them at the time when they are appointed to provide the apparel; which this year must be according to the time and necessity, but thenceforth 12,000l. at Bartholomew-tide and 8000l. on April 1, the apparel to be delivered on Nov. 1 and June 1.
They may transport as much small beer [Margin, by Burghley: Nota: how small beer shall be known] and grain [Margin, by Burghley: How much grain] as will furnish the 8l. 6s. a week which is to be delivered to each band, paying such custom as Coxe did: provided the price of wheat is not above 24s. a quarter.
Sherley shall presently pay them 3600l. for a magazine of victuals at Flushinge, Bergen-op-Zome, or Ostend.
Also, imprest for victuals for the 10 companies of lances, 3000l.
Neither Sherley nor any other shall accept or pay any merchants' bills for the provisions aforesaid except those of the parties aforesaid.
Each party bound for the performance hereof in the sum of 20,000l.
Endd. with date. 2 pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 134.]
Nov. 22./Dec. 2.Propositions of the States of Holland and West Friesland to Sir John Norris.
Their pleasure at her Majesty's letters of Oct. 7, and the proposals made by Norris on Nov. 29 for resisting the enemy by a common union, intelligence, and enterprise. Norris' experience and knowledge of these countries will enable him the better to inform her Majesty of their present state, of which they feel sure that hitherto she has either been kept in ignorance or else misinformed. Desire him to consider the following points, wherein are set down the beginnings of the principal differences in these countries and the remedies necessary for their redress.
By their lawful renouncing of the King of Spain the general government came into the hands of the nobility, gentry, and governors and administrators of the towns, as representing the States of the said country. Likewise the government of the generality of the United Provinces has come into the hands of the deputies sent by the provincial States to the States General.
The States General offered the sovereignty first to the Duke of Anjou, then to the King of France, and lastly to the Queen of England. Then the Treaty with her Majesty was made in 1585, which provided for the Provinces' conservation in the reformed religion, their rights and privileges, good union and public authority, which consists chiefly in the authority of the States General and particular.
Contrary to the Treaty and to the intention of her Majesty and the States, a course was taken, through the introduction of confusions and disunion, to suppress the countries' rights and privileges and the authority of the States. Attempts were made by Reyngout and his adherents, being of the Spanish faction and mostly strangers, to make alterations and usurp upon the States' authority. In May, 1586, they forced a resolution upon the regents of the town of Utrecht which was directly contrary to the union. Then, finding themselves unhindered, they sought further in all ways to discredit the States General and particular States with the soldiers and common people. They sought to expel from Utrecht the chief people of the town and of the country and to seize their authority for themselves. Failing to achieve their designs elsewhere, they began a campaign of slanderous libels and stirred up disorder at Leyden and elsewhere, though without success.
Under colour, however, of being more devoted to her Majesty than the States were, they won over many soldiers, though they had failed with the common people. Hence arose the mutinies at Medenblicq, Naerden, Ter Veer, Armuden, and Geertruydenberch, which were most dangerous and costly to the countries. Geertruydenberch remains in great danger of being lost and soldiers elsewhere are inspired by that garrison's bad example.
Fortunately the troubles at Utrecht have been reformed and a better union of the Provinces is now more possible. But it is to be feared that the disordered soldiery will not so easily be brought back to obedience unless the union between her Majesty and the States is clearly demonstrated and the following points provided for:—
(1.) That public notice be given on her Majesty's part to the soldiers and common people that she does not intend any, under colour of her service, to set forward any seditious alteration or mutiny, or to withdraw themselves from their obedience to the States, the Council of State, and the other superintendents of the countries, towns, and places, or to pretend that they are in any way bound to her Majesty or to any other (excepting in the case of the garrisons and inhabitants of the cautionary towns, and the officers and men of her Majesty's succours, according to the Treaty).
(2.) That the cautionary towns be kept at her Majesty's charge, and in all points governed according to the Treaty, without unauthorised increasing of the garrisons, to the States' charge.
(3.) That the said garrisons be given regular pay or imprests, so that the country be not further charged than according to the Treaty.
(4.) That the money etc., disbursed for the Briell garrison be repaid.
(5.) And more particularly that payment be made in cash for the money advanced to the Briell garrison since April 13 last, as was promised by the Privy Council: the States have appointed the money for payment of their own troops, which cannot be delayed.
(6.) That the officers of her Majesty's forces personally renew their oath to the States, according to the Treaty.
(7.) That the promised support of 1000 horse and 5000 foot, besides the garrisons of the cautionary towns, be kept at full strength, so that they may be usefully employed in camp or on the frontier.
(8.) That her Majesty would command her officers here to hold good correspondency with the States and the Council of State, not giving ear to such as have not any government committed to them. During the 16 years of war great pains have been taken to appoint only the resolute and reliable, and her Majesty cannot be better served than by them.
(9.) That her Majesty on her part take order to settle Geertruydenberch in quietness under the government of Holland.
(10.) That the disobedience to the Council of State's commissions concerning the commanding in the town and fortresses of Berghen-up-Zome, be reformed: and that the commissions of the States General and Council of State be observed by all, excepting in the cautionary towns.
(11.) That her Majesty will show no favour to such as are or shall be lawfully condemned for any enterprise or opposition against the good estate of these countries.
(12.) That her Majesty do not allow any extraordinary proceeding in matters of reprisals against these countries, as was lately done in William Colston's case. These reprisals alienate many from her Majesty.
(13.) Despite the things beforementioned, the said States will most faithfully observe the Treaty and most earnestly seek to advance her Majesty's service in all things.—At the Hage, 2 December, 1588.
Endd. by Burghley as "translated out of French into English." 7½ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 146.]
Nov. 22./Dec. 2.Villiers to Walsingham.
The King of Spain has withdrawn to Spain eight regiments (one of Spaniards) and many captains without companies. He writes to the Prince of Parma that the power of Spain can soon repair the loss of the fleet, and he has demanded 5,000,000 ducats of Sicily and Naples, which can hardly bear such a burden. A merchant of quality to-day informed Villiers that the King of Spain and the Prince of Parma want to buy 50 or more great ships at Dantzick and Hamburg and in Denmark. A ship in which the merchant had a sixth share has been sold at Dantzick for 10,500 florins. Has warned Count Maurice. Her Majesty and the King of Scots could intercept them on their way to Spain, which would be better than doing so on their return. Encloses copy of news from Spain. The Duke of Medina has gone to Validoli, but the King has not seen him and has confined him to his house. The King means to have his fleet ready for next summer, but there seems to be no meaning to equip armed ships at Sluis or Dunkirk. The intention is to make the main enterprise from Spain. May attack Kent or the West Country, for his ambition will hardly content itself with Ireland. Hardly believes it possible that the fleet can be ready this next year, but must be watchful, for many were deceived who believed this last year's enterprise impossible. The King has always succeeded eventually in all his enterprises, and will not cease from his designs against England, whether by direct attack, by plots against her Majesty's person, or indirectly through these countries. Richardot recently said that the King would never permit them their religion, and that the Prince had now no hope of it though formerly he had given some encouragement to them to hope for it. The King cannot depend on new troops, and has but few in Italy and Sicily, so will be able to do little until those from these countries reach him, which will not be before Pentecost and even then they will have the long march from Barcelona to Lisbon or Coruña before them. But money can do much, and the King does not lack it. The remedies appear to be a good accord with the King of Scotland, and with these countries; and to remind, by friendship or fear, the King of France of his duty, which can be done by strengthening the King of Navarre. Need of continual intelligence out of Spain, especially from Lisbon and Coruña, without sparing expense. Norreis' enterprise seems the surest human means, if well directed, to avoid any danger from Spain. —Middelborgh, 2 December, styl. nov.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. 3 pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 138.]
Nov. 22,/Dec. 2, last date.Examination of Adrian Menninok.
30 November, 1588. Being asked whether he knows a certain Don Juan de Rogero, says that he does not, and has never seen him.
Knows Artus van Oldenzeel and associated with him at Rhees when the Prince of Parma's army was before Grave: does not know what became of him afterwards.
Does not know that Oldenzeel was ever a servant of the Prince of Parma. He showed Menninck a passport from the captain of the garrison of Doornich.
Was sent by the Prince of Parma, on Dr. Roerda's recommendation, to Verdugo in Vriesland to serve on the council of war there, at the time of the siege of Antwerpen. Oldenzeel, on the Treasurer Starch's recommendation, accompanied him as far as Oldenzeel and afterwards to Groeninghen. Oldenzeel did not say why he had been sent to Oldenzeel, but while he was there he had communications with certain councillors of Uuytrecht (names unknown). Verdugo refused to accept his services or use him in the council of war.
Met a Colonel Morcan in Walcheren at the time of the Pacification of Ghendt. Had no correspondence with him while among the enemy, but met him at Coelen at the time of the siege of Antwerpen. Parma, on Tirasse's recommendation, pardoned Morcan. Does not know Morcan's pay in Parma's army. Has not seen him since he returned from Antwerpen to Coelen. Did not know him intimately.
1 December, 1588. With reference to yesterday's questioning about Don Juan de Rogero, states that he knew one Don Juan Loesa, said to be Captain Antonio Flores' ensign bearer, whom he met first at Cleeff. Had no acquaintance with Loesa except that he (Loesa) sent him 20 men to lead to the Prince of Parma's camp near Burich.
Denies any acquaintance with Jacob van Asch, apothecary, of Uuytrecht.
Being asked whether he knows Cornelis van Lon, says that he lodged with a Captain Lon at Sutphen, some six months before Parma besieged Graeff.
Van Loon told him that Morcan had been taken prisoner at Uuytrecht, and examined with torture: that he confessed going to Coelen and being pardoned by the Prince of Parma, but asserted that it was done with the knowledge of his excellency of Nassau.
Prisoner asked van Loon, on leaving Sutphen for Emmerich, to find out for him about Morgan's imprisonment.
When sent back by Verdugo from Vrieslandt, travelled with Taxis to Sutphen, at the end of the summer before Parma besieged Grave.
Waited some six weeks at Sutphen, meaning to return to Parma's court with Taxis. Accompanied Taxis to Ysseloort, the Ee, and Scherpenzeel.
Taxis at Uuytrecht demanding money and threatening to fire the houses. Prisoner accompanied him to claim a debt of 4000l. upon an order from Parma. Oldenzeel and Loon with him.
Met Mathys Cotton through Tirasse at Uuytrecht some six years ago, when he went to the enemy. Has not seen him since.
When he was sent to Verdugo, Parma granted him 40 crowns a month: received three or four payments. Also received 500 carolus gulden for his journey and 100 crowns in specie.
Had no special duties, but Parma and van Billy, former governor of Vrieslant, hoped to use him in some exploit for the recovery of Vrieslant for the King of Spain.
He told them that Vrieslant must be won by agreement, not by force. Told van Billy that his plan to reduce the province by cutting off Harlingen and Staueren with 20 or 30,000 men, was impracticable.
Admits giving Parma advice upon the plan (of which he speaks) to recover Holland and Zeeland and, at Sutphen and Nyeumegen's request, to take Amersfoort and the Vaert fort and to bridge the Leche there and the Merwe at Werchendam; but says that one William van Ghent, whom he met at Sutphen, told him of the plan and that he did not know that it was proposed by any except those of Sutphen and Nyeumeghen and the engineer Propertio, or that Parma supported it. He told Parma that he could only recover Zeeland were he very strong and master of the sea. Has had no correspondence with any in Holland, Zeeland, or Uuytrecht, since he went over to the enemy. Denies that he was ever head of the spies, or offered that position.
2 December, 1588. Prisoner closely examined and placed on the rack. Confesses that he understood from Tirasse that Oldenzeel, Captain Rhynevelt and Colonel Taxis, had planned an attack on Uuytrecht but they did not themselves reveal it to him.
After further torture, says that the Treasurer Starch charged him to get Oldenzeel to discuss some matter, what it was he was not told, with Rhynevelt. Tirasse said that the attack was to be made in concert with the councillors of Uuytrecht. Taxis told prisoner that their forces were insufficient and he wanted more definite instructions from Parma. Prisoner advised him not to trust Oldenzeel too far.
William van Ghendt told him that Vianen might easily be taken, but for the difficulties of bridge-building, the enemy having no ships, unless they could take the Vaert where plenty could be had. Refused to discuss this with Propertio, being on bad terms with him. The plan was later discussed by van Ghendt, Propertio, and a Captain Piati, and then submitted to the Count of Mansfelt. It should have been executed last summer, had the Prince of Parma's English plans succeeded. Says that doubtless it will be executed next summer by the enemy in full force.
Headed. Information taken at the Court of Holland by the deputies of the States, Jacob Pauli, councillor and pensionary of Dordrecht; Thomas Thomasson, burgomaster of Haarlem; Dr. Elias van Oldenbarnevelt, councillor and pensionary of Rotterdam; in the presence of the advocate, fiscal, and attorney-general of the Court, and Nicolas Doublet, secretary; from Adrian Menninck, born at Utrecht, aged 50 years.
Endd. Dutch. 10½ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 140.]
Nov. 23.Stafford to Burghley.
The Bishop of Cahors yesterday sent this packet from Mr. Bacon, with a letter from Bacon to Stafford which was only a copy of one or two he has already sent into England. Sees his hard case: the sending of Mr. Selwin made him fear it, for he was "the unfittest man that ever I saw to take such a journey in hand at this time." The Bishop, to whom Bacon has probably written of his needs, offers to deliver to him at Montauban, without interest or loss, any money Stafford sends to him while he is here, which will be so long as the States last. Knows of no surer means; if her ladyship decide upon it, she should do so at once, for God knows when the States will end or break up without ending. Occasio est calva: if lost, knows not when any such will be recovered. Had her ladyship made use of Madame Lavardin, as he wrote when Lawson went over, her son's turn had been served and Selwin would not have been where Stafford fears they will never hear of him more. Would have taken good assurance from Madame Lavardin's officers for the delivery of the money. —St. Die, 23 November, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. "Mr. Anthony Bacon's letters." 1 p. [France XVIII. 168.]
[Nov. 23.] (fn. 1) Memorial for Thomas Bodley.
Last February Mr. Ortel, on behalf of the States General of the United Provinces, presented certain requests, which were answered by the Privy Council, but not to the States' satisfaction. The States have been informed, according to her Majesty's instructions, by Sir John Norris, that they should receive further answer by Bodley, who is therefore to be thoroughly instructed how to answer the same.
First, they desire payment of the service money, as for turf, candles, etc., furnished to the extraordinary bands in the two cautionary towns, and that they be not thus charged in future; the extraordinary charges being heavier than the whole pay was, as they say, when the towns were in their hands. They also require repayment of the money disbursed to these garrisons and other of her Majesty's troops.
He shall say that if the extraordinary bands had not been in the cautionary towns, they must have been in other towns, which should therefore contribute to their maintenance. They will probably reply that had the bands been usefully employed on the frontiers they would have borne the charges. He may answer that as the Duke of Parma has been in Flanders for a year and a half, threatening both the islands, and Ostend and Berghen, the troops could not have been placed more aptly than at Flussinge. A further cause of their being kept there was the Count Hollock's bringing down forces into Walkeren, with intent, it was understood, to seize the towns and to surprise Flussinge; the Count's hostility to the Earl of Leicester lent colour to the suspicion. But now that her Majesty is assured of their devotion and constancy, order shall shortly be given to reduce the garrisons of those towns to the numbers limited in the Contract. Any other money due for imprests or victuals shall be repaid when an account shall be passed between her Majesty and the States. Her Majesty cannot repay sums disbursed to troops in the States' pay.
As they desire that her Majesty's companies be kept full, he shall say that the commissaries of musters report that they have no cause to complain of defects in the footbands. For the horsebands, her Highness, being unable to spare so many, offered to replace certain of them by twice as many foot, and nothing can be done until the States' reply is received, which has been long delayed.
Their complaint that they are not made privy, as according to the Contract they ought to be, to the musters and payments made by the Treasurer, is unjustified, as they have several times been asked to send commissaries to join with those of her Majesty in mustering the troops. If they will appoint such commissaries, they shall be duly informed of and invited to attend the musters.
They desire that the governors of the cautionary towns be forbidden to meddle with civil government and their admiral's jurisdiction. Bodley, at his being at Flussinge and the Bryll on his way to the Haghe, shall inform the governors there that her Majesty's pleasure is that they should no longer deal in such matters otherwise than is agreed upon in the Contract, except in causes between soldiers of the garrison and townsmen, when the governor, sergeant-major, or some other sufficient person should be present at the hearing thereof.
They desire that soldiers in her Majesty's pay shall pay excises, etc., as do those in their pay. Bodley shall point out the hardness of such a course: those in their pay have their livings in those countries or have other helps thence, whereas her Majesty's troops, being mere strangers, can have no relief but what they purchase with ready money, and that at very high prices owing to the licences granted for carrying victuals to the enemy. Therefore some toleration should be allowed.
Copy. Not dated or endd. 32/3 pp. [Holland XXVII. f. 224.]
Draft of the above memorial.
Corrected by Burghley. Endd. "November, 1588. Memorial for Mr. Tho. Bodley [and by Burghley] at his going into Holland whilst Sir John Norryes was there." 9pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 88.]
Nov. 9 and 23.Edward Barton to [Walsingham ?].
Wrote on Oct. 24. The French ambassador's surmises about Vento's departure for France are now supported by news that a M. de la Gras de Lion comes to replace the ambassador: this will partly satisfy the Vicerey, though Vento is not appointed as he wished.
Fighting between the Crimes Tartars and Nobaies. Cossacks thereupon ravaged the Grand Signor's dominions even to the castle of Osee, where they were repulsed. Escape of Christians who manned the Bey of Osee's galley. The Beglerbey kept this news from the Grand Signor, lest he himself be sent thither with his army and during his absence his enemies alienate his master from him. At present "nothing is well done but what passeth through his hands," neither the Vicerey, Ebrahim Bassa, the Grand Signor's son-in-law, nor any other Bassa, daring to open their mouths against him. He gave a banquet to the Grand Signor and presented to him 70,000 ducats of gold, 70 newly circumcised Christian boys, 70 young damsels, virgins, 70 horses, and many rich garments.
The skirmish mentioned in his last between Hungarians and Turks, developed into a great battle. The Hungarians caught the Turks returning with their booty in a narrow pass, slew 3000 and recovered the booty.
The master of Venetian ambassador's house, a friar, enticed away certain Christian slaves of the Vicerey and hid them in his chamber. A renegade reported this to the Vicerey and Beglerbey who sent chaouses to search the house and recovered the slaves, but did not find the friar, whom they suspected the Venetian Bailo of having conveyed away. They took away his janissaries and also those of all other ambassadors, and they were not sent back till he had spent 3000 ducats in appeasing their choler. Barton complained of his janissaries being removed but, though the captain would have sent them back, the Vicerey said he could not make an exception in his case.
Encloses a translation of the barbarous, threatening, letters of the Grand Signor's beys on the Hungarian frontier to the Emperor's subjects.—9 November, 1588.
Nov. 23. The battle between the Crimes and the Nobaies. The Muscovites on the border of Tanys prevent any fish, caviare, etc., being sent hither from that river.
The Hungars from Transilvania to Vienna all in arms: they might greatly annoy the Turks just now, but are more likely to go against the King of Poland, whom the Prince of Transilvania has forbidden his subjects to assist, since they behaved most valiantly at the battle against Maximilian but all the booty was given to the Poles.
Great victory of the Turks over the Persians in Gengien and again near Ardevill. Topsacke Sultan nearly captured in the first battle.
Revolt of the Moors in Barbary, from Tunis to Tripoli. Said to be 150,000 strong. Great slaughter of Turks and Jews. The Jews have sent 'Lams' and rabbis to ask the Grand Signor to allow them, when these troubles which make them bow to the Moors are over, to return to their lawful allegiance to him. Tripoli, Biserat, etc., in great danger.
Turks say that the King of Spain seeks to get the kingdom of France for his son-in-law, the Duke of Savoy.
A Frenchman, calling himself Baron de la Fay, came here recently and turns Turk. He greatly praises her Majesty and the favour shown him at her court, and secretly told Barton that his sole aim was to save his country from Spain by provoking the Grand Signor against the Spanish King. Does not credit him, for all speak ill of him, and he has neither language, credit, money, friends, or countenance to set him forth. He affirmed that he discovered to her Majesty certain dangerous practices of the King of Spain against her, being sent from the Spaniard with letters to the late Earl of Leicester which he said he delivered to his honour.—Rapamet, 23 November, 1588.
Signed. Endd. 5¾ pp. [Turkey I. 56.]
Enclosing:
[Translation of letters from the Bey of Sechian to the Hungars borderers upon him, subjects of the Emperor.]
(a) Requiring the judges and governors of the land, since they have been given to him by Caesar, forthwith to bring to him Caesar's tribute and timber for building a castle. If they disobey, they will be treated as the plunderers were lately treated: sons shall be torn from their fathers, etc. If they come willingly none shall be detained or harmed.—Sechian, 22 August, 1588.
["This Bye is said to be slain in the battle mentioned in my present letters."]
(b) George Strin to the Emperor. Two Turkish attacks on Sigliget castle. Turks retired after killing many Christians, leaving behind their ladders, on the arrival of the Besperiensian infantry. The castle still in danger.—Kanisa, 2 August, 1588.
(c) Osman Bey of Hattuan to his Hungarian neighbours. They have ignored the demand for tribute and service to Caesar. But for lack of orders from Caesar, would have ravaged all that land. The order has now arrived, but gives them another chance to pay promptly. They will receive no further warning.—Hattuan, 20 August, 1588.
(d) The Bey of Filek to his Hungarian neighbours. Has frequently admonished them, of the land of Murua, for disobedience. Will make an example of them. They will see how little the soldiers of Vienna can help them. Will not write to them again.—Filek, 16 August, 1588.
["This Bye is brother to Ebrahim Bassa, and in this province, Murua, it is said the Emperor hath rich mines of gold and silver."]
Copy. Latin, except the passages in square brackets, which are in English. 2 pp. [Germany, Empire, I. 65.]
[Nov. 24.]Sir John Norrys' requests.
Answer.Request.
Warrant is granted from the lords to the Treasurer to make two months' pay.(1.) That the pay for the 10 last companies for two months may be made by Norrys' warrant.
"The States' assent is to be gotten therein."(2.) "That over and above the said ten last companies, there may be taken ten of the old companies to go in the voyage appointed."
Letters to this effect shall be written to Lord Willoughbie.(3.) That if any of the new companies are in garrisons from which they cannot be spared, an equal number of old companies may be taken instead.
Endd. with date. ½ p. [Holland XXVIII. f. 154.]
Nov. 24./Dec. 4.The Magistrates and Burgesses of Bergen-op-Zoom to Burghley.
As his prudence and his care for the payment of the soldiery here have saved them from the late attack of the enemy, they cannot but write to him. For many years they have borne the brunt of the wars. Their countryside is deserted, their herds destroyed, their farmers fled, their woods cut down, and the town itself partly ruined. The siege has dealt them a further very severe blow: need that their neighbours should assist them. They are ill-provided against the enemy and need a loan of brass cannon, gunpowder, and cannon balls, which they will return or pay for at the end of the wars. Also they desire the like liberty and privilege of trade into England that Flushing and the Briel enjoy.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 4 December, 1588, stilo novo.
Signed, Perre. Add. Endd. Latin. 1¼ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 152.]
Nov. 24./Dec. 4.The Magistrates and Burgesses of Bergen-op-Zoom to Walsingham.
To the same effect as their letter to Burghley, above; adding that a good garrison of three horse and twelve footbands is to be continued in the town: commend Thomas Lovell and would be glad of his services in the town.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 4 December, 1588, stilo novo.
Signed, Perre. Add. Endd. with note of contents. Latin. 1½pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 151.]
Nov. 25.Chateauneuf to Walsingham.
Domestic affairs require his presence in France by Christmas, which is very near by their account. Desires to know if he may take leave of her Majesty to-morrow morning. Also desires passport for three of his people to go by Dover. Asks his honour to hasten his departure that he may the sooner return.—Monday evening.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Nov. 25. French. 1 p. [France XVIII. 169.]
[Nov. 25.]Articles exhibited by Mr. Ortell, with the answers.
Answers [made Dec. 30].Articles.
The troops lately sent over were to go, when Bergen was relieved, with Drake and Norris. Her Majesty's assistance needs no reinforcement, for the commissary of musters finds the bands full. If the States are not satisfied, let them appoint a commissary to join with her Majesty's in taking the musters.(1.) That if Norritz has not yet been instructed for the reinforcement of her Majesty's assistance, orders may at once be sent to reinforce them from the troops lately sent over.
Already provided for by the order to withdraw certain companies to serve under Norrys, with their agreement.(2.) That the cautionary towns be not burdened above the limit fixed in the Contract.
Shyrley will satisfy them herein in his reply.(3.) That repayment be made for the consumption of magazines and for the imprests to her Majesty's garrisons in Briel and Flushing. That henceforth the Treasurer, Shyrley, be ordered to make these imprests, without taking into consideration Shyrley's own pretences under a commission from the Earl of Leicester, made without the knowledge of the countries or of the Council of State.
Lord Willoughby has just been given express charge to remedy this.(4.) That her Majesty take order for the reduction of Geertrudenberghe to its former obedience, so to avoid the disorders and financial loss which they now cause under colour of her Majesty's service. The States and Willoughby satisfied their demands and paid their arrears of pay in cash, which they claimed were more than 40,000l. sterling. These and other like expenses forced the States to send 30 or 40 ships less than they wished to assist her Majesty against the Spanish navy. Were the disorder ended, they would have greater means to assist her Majesty.
Bodleigh was to inform himself of Schenck's complaints. Her Majesty thinks Schenck should be given satisfaction on account of his past services and those he may render in the future, and also lest he go over to the enemy.(5.) Colonel Schenck and others are attempting some new alteration in those countries. Ortell has no charge from the States to deal herein, but fears her Majesty may be misinformed, so assures her that no cause of discontent has been given to Schenck or the others, but he has been treated with honour, and given what assistance the States could afford.
It is their own fault that their ill-wishers have been able to take advantage of the small respect which they have seemed to bear to a Princess who has dealt so earnestly on their behalf and deeply regrets this misinterpretation of the benefits she has conferred upon them. Her Majesty hopes for a full and apparent harmony henceforward.(6.) Desires her Majesty not to listen to evil-wishers of the countries who seek to misinform her of all things and so serve the Spaniard in secret: but to believe in the loyalty and zeal of the States in the service of her Majesty, the reformed religion, and their country, against the common enemy.
Endd. "Articles exhibited by Mr. Ortell, 25 November, 1588: answered 30 December following." French. 3½ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 159.]
Copy of the first, second, third, and sixth of the above articles, without the replies.
Endd. "A memorial delivered by Mr. Valke [sic] and Mr. Ortel." Undated. French. 1¾ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 162.]
Draft of the answers to the above articles, in English.
Endd. "2 December, 1588. Réponse . . . du Conseil . . . aux requêtes . . . presentees par le sieur de Vooch," and "Postilles to the States' requests exhibited by Mr. Ortell." 2 pp. [Holland XXIX. f. 3.]
Another draft, corrected, of the answers to the above articles, in English.
Endd. "December, 1588. Postilles to the articles exhibited by M. du Voch and Ortell." 12/3 pp. [Holland XXIX. f. 145.]
Nov. 25./Dec. 5.Answer of the Council of State to Sir John Noreis.
Their pleasure in her Majesty's choice of him. His experience and knowledge of these countries will enable him to appease the misunderstandings and to inform her Majesty truly of the States' sincerity.
Thank her Majesty for her good acceptance of their service against the Duke of Parma, to prevent his designs against her. They had this long in mind and for a long time had ships watching the Flemish coast. Also thank her Majesty for her offer to aid them if they need it.
They praise God for her Majesty's resolution to attack the Spaniard at home: they will second this to their utmost and have already begun to recommend the matter to the States General and particular.
They hope that the men lately brought over by Norris will be used to reinforce her Majesty's ordinary succours which, as they have often complained, are far below strength.
As regards the muster-rolls, it is to be considered that there are great frauds in the musters which should be conferred of and reformed. Desire Norris to attend thereto, and also to take some course concerning the number and alteration of the horsemen.
They thank her Majesty for agreeing to reduce the garrisons of the cautionary towns to the numbers limited by the Treaty, and desire that it may speedily be accomplished.
The matter of Geertruydenberge concerns rather the States General and the States of Holland than the Council, and they must be consulted before any decision is reached. The Council, however, desires to enter into preparatory discussions with Norris.
They are glad that her Majesty sends a gentleman with her resolution upon the articles which Ortel presented. Desire Norris to assist in procuring effective dispatch hereof, especially for the expenses at Briele.
The point of reprisals may be treated of orally.
The Council, at Killegrey's instance and according to her Majesty's letters, have interceded with the States of Holland and will do so with the States of Utrecht, on behalf of those banished from Leyden and imprisoned at Utrecht. Doubtless only very sufficient reasons could prevent the States from pleasing her Majesty herein. Nothing will be done contrary to justice.
Will discuss more at leisure Norris' requests for ships with mariners, and victuals, and for permission to levy captains of infantry and to assemble them in some convenient place.
Likewise for the provision of powder, arms, victuals, etc.—The Hague, 5 December, 1588.
Signed, S. Meynerts. Countersigned, Chr. Huygens. Endd. French. 5½ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 164.]
English translation, not entirely accurate, of the above.
Endd. 32/3 pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 170.]
Nov. 25.Sir John Conway to the Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, and Walsingham.
Great danger of this town from the violence of the sea since he last wrote. The sea-breaches have been so neglected by the States that their repair will be an infinite charge, hardly likely to be undertaken by the States or her Majesty. It is but waste of effort to seek to repair them unless there is a cessation of arms between her Majesty, the Duke of Parma, and the States. The present state of the place will suffer no delay: all necessaries are lacking, and wind and weather are unfavourable at this season.
"From the sea-bank on Bridges side all the old fortifications . . . are quite taken away along the whole side at the foundation. The dyke is almost filled up with sand. The rampart, parapet, and palisado sunk throughout. Four breaches are in that side, from the top to the foundation; in some a hundred men may enter a-front, either mounted or afoot, in other some forty. The coynes and buttresses of Bridges port are underwrought and in danger with the sea. The whole side of the old town is in more despair. The sea hath there taken away a great 'mount' which flanked both ways the approach of the enemy and which was the chiefest defence against the violence of the sea for that side. The 'mount' joined to the north port, which port yet standeth and some part of the 'mount.' On the other side the port, the sea hath won so greatly, joining to the port, as in one spring tide more the sea will have course, in all men's judgment, quite through into the head of our haven in the old town; and then will the haven be presently choked." Danger imminent all along that side and down Bridges' side to the haven. The half-moon which defended the rampart from the sea is gone from foundation to top. Their extremity if the sea should 'possess' the haven. Meanwhile, they will do their utmost to keep the rampart defensible against the enemy.
The soldiers are of good courage and ready to work, but not one in twenty of the burghers will work, and they ask their burgomaster what harm can follow if the sea drives out the soldiers.
It is now confessed that the burgomaster who was employed as messenger for the mutineers, was the sole man who persuaded them to fling the victualler's man and his victuals into the haven. He may thank God he is attending their lordships, or the garrison would have given him his deserts when justice was done. "All those which live here have their friends, kin, and allies in Flanders, and their lands, leases, and properties in the country about the town, so as they desire nothing more than the King to recover the town by any degree, their lives being saved, where the most have their safeguards."
If her Majesty decides to spend more on this place, she must send skilled men, as well as money, for if her money were employed by their workmanship, they would retain three parts of it and effect no real improvement. If one or two were executed for their dealings, the rest would run away, which would be no great loss as they live on the spoil of the soldiers whom they do nothing to relieve and assist. All their relief, except fish, is brought by 'foreigners.' They have four fishermen, who sell only at their own price.
"I would think it very requisite that there were sent hither some man of good judgment and skill to satisfy her Majesty and your lordships in the ruining of the place, and then might follow upon his judgment what order should be thought requisite for the stay or remove of the garrison. If the haven should be taken away and we driven to the field, our case would be hard; for victuals, we have no store nor the town any provision; we shall purchase none of the country but when it is well-inhabited near us . . . ."—Ostend, 25 November, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. 2½ pp. [Holland XXVIII. f. 157.]

Footnotes

1 See Cotton MSS., Galba, D. iii. f, 280.