Elizabeth
January 1589, 21-25

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Institute of Historical Research

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Richard Bruce Wernham (editor)

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1950

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51-69

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'Elizabeth: January 1589, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 23: January-July 1589 (1950), pp. 51-69. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75232 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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January 1589, 21–25

Jan. 21/31. Rescript of the Emperor Rudolf to the Dean and Chapter of Bremen.
The agreement between Staden and the Company of the Merchant Adventurers is contrary to the constitutions of the Empire. The said merchants' dealing tends to disturbance and to the overthrow of all spiritual and temporal government. It especially threatens to ruin the Hanse Towns, whose trade is by this means entirely cut off and that of the Merchant Adventurers strengthened and maintained, under pretext whereof a.d. 1589. English warships appear off the coasts of the Empire and in the river Elbe.
Wills the Dean and Chapter, therefore, to command those of Staden to cease from their dealings and to end their contracts with the Merchant Adventurers. If they refuse, he will deal with both Bremen and Staden in other ways.—The castle at Prague, last of January, 1589.
Copy. Original signed Rudolf, countersigned Jacob Kurz von Dau and A. Eistenberger, and add. Endd. with full note of contents, and “… answered at large by the magistrates of Staden as appeareth by a several copy thereof” [not found]. German. 6 ¼ pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns III. f. 48.]
Jan. 21. Sir Thomas Baskervile to Walsingham.
Has taken advantage of the liberty allowed in the Privy Council's letter to desire exemption from going on the voyage with Sir John Norreys, not from any dislike of the voyage or of Norreys, but because he cannot well leave the country without paying his creditors. Has obtained his company's apparel from the merchants, rather than from the munition masters: they refused bills upon the Treasurer and insisted that they should be upon himself. Moreover, his lieutenant is in prison, and would be lost if he went off to other wars. Norreys never mentioned to Baskervile anything touching this voyage, though he offered divers others places of credit; so made no preparations. Although “it would grieve me to go a private captain where as mean as myself went colonels, yet… I would not refuse any voyage or chief whatsoever….”—The Hagge, 21 January.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 ¼ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 137.]
Jan. 21. R. Huddilston to Burghley.
Desires his lordship to have pity on him for his long attendance, and to show him yet again his favour. Has been hardly dealt with and narrowly searched. Unless his suit is dealt with more speedily, his affairs are in some danger of wreck.—21 January, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXX. f. 139.]
Jan. 22./Feb. 1. Count Maurice to the Queen.
In favour of Cornells Leynsen, master of the Roben of Flushing (120 tons), and his fellows, of Flushing; and of Adam and Edward Hulstart of Middelburg who had chartered eighty tons in the said ship. Left Flushing, November, 1586, with passport from the Lord High Admiral of England. Were accompanied by the ship of Peter Leynsen, also of Flushing. Reached Brazil, April, 1587. Peter Leynsen's ship was there seized by three English warships, and burned through the carelessness of the prize-crew. Peter Leynsen, his son, and his cousin, slain by the a.d. 1589. Brazilians, whom the English had attacked, using Leynsen's vessel. On Cornells Leynsen's return with 352 chests and six quarters of sugar, his ship was seized by the Merchant Royal (Capt. Robert Flicq) and taken into Plymouth. Despite the Privy Council's letters, Flicq discharged the cargo, obliterated the marks, and sent it to London. Leynsen there recovered all but 60 chests. The cause was brought before the Judge of the Admiralty, but a year has passed without judgment being given. Provisional restitution awarded to Adam Hulstart of such of his goods as are left, and the rest are to be paid for, but at about a third of the value. Flicq has broken the locks and stolen much of what was left, in order that he may pay this low price rather than restore the goods. The ship still under arrest at Plymouth. The petitioners have already spent above 600l. sterling in seeking redress.—The Hague, 1 February, 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents. French. 2 ¼ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 141.]
Jan. 22. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
In favour of his cousin Blund, “returning to recover his health and set order to his affairs, having received two great misfortunes this year by the loss of his honourable lord, and his very dangerous hurt.” During the last four years, he first led his excellency's troop and then “a band of ordonnance of her Majesty's.” This was equal to a colonel's rank, which is “even in a manner with knighthood.” Has accordingly knighted him, “though he be not peradventure as rich a knight as another….”—The Hagh, 22 January.
Holograph. Add. Endd. “In favour of Sir Chri. Blunt.” 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 143.]
[Jan. 22.] Memorial by Willoughby on the Portugal Voyage. (fn. 1)
1. To consider whether the States have offered, as her Majesty's letters require, to supply the place, in case of necessity, of the forces now withdrawn. [Margin: The States General and Council of State utterly deny any such offer.]
2. To examine the muster master's rolls for the horsebands, which are reported to be very weak. [Margin: The officer of musters says that this is true of some, but not of all.]
3. “For the 2000 foot, and abandoning of Ostend, compare it with Carleil's instructions, other letters of her Majesty, the States' denial, etc.” Four companies are to be added to the nine from Ostend, but “no living creature can imagine whence they should be drawn.”
“No direct command or discharge given for all ill events, for satisfaction of her Majesty's honour to the States and the country, and for preservation of the places, etc. A letter only, by way of advertisement; which is not sufficient to acquit me of the danger of going against my commission, or the answering for any town her Majesty's people are in if any such should be lost.”
Sir Edward Norreys is a private man whose word is not competent to discharge a general of her Majesty's commission.
No arrangements about money: all left to Sir Edward Norreys. May breed discontent.
“4. No such direction from her Privy Council as is mentioned in her Majesty's letters at the day and time therein named.”
Touching the horse companies for this voyage. In the beginning her Majesty gave the late Earl of Leicester 10,000l., Sir John Norreys 4000l., and large sums to others, for the raising of these troops. These, though no defalkations were made in their accounts, handed the troops over very weak to their present leaders, who had to reinforce them at their own charges, e.g. the Lord General received but 25 horse (and of those the horses and arms were the soldiers' own) from Leicester and 16 from Sir John Norreys. The present captains, beggared by reinforcing their companies out of bare weekly lendings, can do no more.
No rendezvous or place of embarkation yet appointed, “neither can they be suffered to march through the country or pass through any town.” Are now employed in some service by the States' command.
There will be discontent among the footbands if, after their recent success, they are not at length accounted with and enabled to pay their debts and provide themselves before setting out on this voyage.
Assures her Majesty that a baron of Wyllughby will spend himself and his goods in her service as well as any other can do, though “not, with insinuating, to make good, with her Majesty's purse, new adventures, like old lotteries…; neither with windy words … glorying with Artaxerxes over a few ships, and not advising with Socrates upon a sound counsel….”
Desires recall rather than to be left here “without means, without soldiers of my training, without fruit of my labours.” If her Majesty would give him “absolute leave” to try his fortune—without charge or recompence from her—would in the end “do as much of my own for her Majesty's service as some give out they will do with great sums of treasure gotten of herself, besides gotten of her subjects, whereby they shall be less able when her Majesty shall need to call them for the safety of her person and country.”
“To conclude, I beseech her Majesty to discharge me of Berghen and Ostend under her hand and seal, as I am in like sort charged with them: to excuse me if I keep neither field nor town when all my soldiers are taken from me, and particularly such as I made myself. For I hoped my lord Wyllughby, being Lord General for her Majesty in a certain war near England, had had as good reason to hold those he had advanced as others, in a removed war of hope, not only to create new but to choose whatsoever they listed.” Some may say that these objections should have been raised at the first, but he thought that those who managed the cause would leave nothing unthought of that would serve her Majesty, relieve the men now to be withdrawn, and maintain Wyllughby's own credit here. “And yet, all these difficulties considered, there shall want no forwardness in me to advance the voyage what I may.”
Endd. by Burghley with date. 3 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 145.]
Another copy of the above.
Endd. by Burghley, “January, 1588.” 3¼ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 147.]
Jan. 22. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
Sends this by Mr. Killigrewe. Presses for his own early recall. Cannot assure the safety of this town when the three bands are withdrawn. A governor more ‘plausible’ to the States could defend it with fewer forces.—Vlisshing, 22 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 149.]
Jan. 23./Feb. 2. M. de Châteauneuf to Walsingham.
Her Majesty on Sunday last granted him his congé, as he sent word to his honour by the Sieur de Stalbin. Asks for his passport, and that he may know when her Majesty's letters to the King his master will be ready, so that he may come to take his leave.—2 February, 1589.
Signed. Add. Endd. “2 February, stilo novo, but 24 [sic] January, stilo veteri, 1588….” French. ½ p. [France XIX. f. 25.]
Jan. [23?] Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council. (fn. 2)
Hears that Captain Thomas Maria Wingfield, who has contemned his authority, has gone without passport into England, hoping “to gloss his cause before it might come to hearing.” Desires them, after their accustomed manner, not to decide until both parties have been heard. Wingfield's example is dangerous. Bears no personal malice against him, and has sought to win him by honourable means, as all the captains here will testify. Suggests that Mr. Bodley and the Council of State, or the Marshal and council of war, should hear the case. Would, however, prefer that their lordships might hear it, if he and the captains might come over for a time; but as this is unlikely to be allowed, desires that the hearing here may be in public, as the offence was, and by a council of war, as the wrong was done in a kind of council.
Sir Thomas Wilford (if he is not already on his way back) can advertise the evil beginning of the matter, but the sequel, proved in writing and viva voce, will appear even worse.
Wyllughby is sure that he can demonstrate the rectitude of his own conduct. His authority would be shaken were Wingfield's “bad defects” condoned: thereupon her Majesty's service, his one cause for moving herein, would suffer.—The Hagh, — January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 ½ pp. [Holland XXX. f. 151.]
Jan. 23. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
To the same effect as the above.—The Hagh, 23 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 153.]
Jan. 24. George, Earl of Huntley to the Duke of Parma. (fn. 3)
Received his letters of October 13 by John Chesholme. Thanks him for the 10,000 crowns sent by the sieur de [Bruce]: it will be used only in urgent emergencies, as his Highness has commanded. Has been so hard pressed by the King here since Colonel Simple left that he has had to subscribe to their confession of faith. It was the only alternative to exile or to a hopeless struggle with the royal forces and their English allies. Had no hope of Spanish aid after the return of their army to Spain. Means to amend his fault by some notable service to God's cause. Has gained such credit with his Majesty since returning to Court that his former body guards have been replaced by his (Huntley's) men. Will thus have control of King's person, and will be able upon the arrival of Spanish aid to deprive the heretics of the royal authority. Desires his Highness to be assured of his constancy despite contrary appearances: Bruce will write more fully hereof.—Edinburgh, 24 January, 1589.
On the same sheet:
Francis, Earl of Arrol, to the Duke of Parma.
Has been rescued by the light of the Catholic faith from the darkness of error and ignorance in which he was brought up. Feels bound to show his gratitude by assisting the purposes of his Catholic Majesty and his Highness, which are closely connected with affairs here. Has always been his servant, but the powerful influence of religion now makes him even more devoted. Desires him to assure his Catholic Majesty hereof. The bearer can give him more ample assurance.—Edinburgh, 24 January, 1589.
Copies. Endd. French. 1 ⅓ pp. [Flanders V. f. 2.]
[Jan. 24.] A. du Faur de Pujoles to Walsingham.
Regrets that the severe weather, his age, and an attack of gout, prevent him from visiting his honour. Fears also to interrupt his honour's weightier occupations. If the remnants of the League persist in their war, it will only be because of their hope of the King of Spain's support resulting from the actions of M. de Savoy, his son-in-law. The French King should then seek her Majesty's friendship. He will probably send her an express soon. Desires his honour to dispose her Majesty to urge the King to pacify his state, be reconciled with the King of Navarre, and re-establish his exiled subjects. Expects to hear from the King of Navarre about this and about his own return. Apologises for not visiting Walsingham more frequently.
Signed. Add. Endd. with date. French. 1 ½ pp. [France XIX. f. 26.]
Jan. 24. George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg, to the Queen.
Cannot now satisfy her request for the restitution of an English ship and goods seized at Königsberg for cheating the customs, because the records of the seizure are in Prussia. Will reply to her satisfaction as soon as he has seen the records.—Ansbach, 24 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents by Lawrence Tomson. Latin. 1 ½ pp. [Germany, States, V. f. 203.]
Jan. 24. Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council.
According to their direction, the Governor of Berghen sent away those of his companies which were chosen for the Portingale voyage. Thereupon the States sent Wyllughby the enclosed act. Clearly they grow weary of him, for they take exception at his obeying her Majesty's commandments. Desires, therefore, that someone more pleasing to the States be sent over to replace him. Fears great inconveniences may ensue. Desires direction how to behave himself, “the words of their act being, as I conceive them, very peremptory from them to such a monarch as her Majesty….”—The Hagh, 24 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents. ½ p. [Holland XXX. f. 155.]
Enclosing:
Resolution of the States General that the baron of Willughby shall again be summoned upon his oath to do nothing contrary to the agreement with Sir John Norits. He shall leave always in Bergen-op-Zoom thirteen foot companies (including Champer-non's) and two cornets of horse, in all 2000 foot and 200 horse; and in Ostend seven foot companies, in all 1000 men; this notwithstanding any other commandments he has or shall have. The States protest that, should he disobey this order, they will hold him responsible for any inconveniences that may result.—1 February, 1589, sti. no.
Extract, translated, from the register of resolutions of the States General, exhibited to Willughby by William Ramet, solicitor of the States General, 2 February, 1589, stilo novo. Signed, C. Aerssens.
Copy. Endd. with note of contents. French. ¾ p. [Holland XXX. f. 157.]
Another copy of the above, enclosed in the letter to Burghley. French, ¾ p. [Holland XXX. f. 158.]
Jan. 24. Lord Wyllughby to Burghley. (fn. 4)
Sends a copy of an act which will show “the great difficulties that arise here, both for us to keep the towns, obey the Queen, and content the States.” Has been careful to obey her Majesty's and their lordships' directions, but the ‘hard events’, which he predicted in his letters of December 15 and January 14, now begin. Fears the loss of Berghen and Ostend. Danger that the States, encouraged by the news from France, may do nothing to aid her Majesty's few discouraged troops, “being rather content to lose a town for despite, to have our men's throats cut, and distaste the world of our nation, than to hold correspondency with her Majesty and do themselves good.” Mr. Killigrew has doubtless informed him hereof.
Thinks “there can never no good be hoped of until there be a confirmation of a Contract. The first is broken and torn in pieces, as they complain against us and we have just cause to accuse them of.” At present there is nothing but dislike and uncertainty, which may lead to a complete divorce between these countries and England. Useless to look for the first overtures from the States. “There is nothing prevaileth with these but fear. Her Majesty hath often essayed good turns. Either we must be so strong here as of our strength they may fear us; or else so called home as that, their fear of the enemy increasing (which they as suddenly apprehend as they do their carelessness, being soon lifted up and soon thrown down), they may through the same fear be humbled to recall us upon better and more advantageous conditions. But as things are, they can no way stand.”
The first news his lordship will hear will be of the loss of Berghen; then that of Ostend; and afterwards that the States have retaken the cautionary towns, which may easily be done now the garrisons are weakened. Finally they will refuse to reimburse her Majesty's expenses. “If they be threatened with wars, they stick not already to say that her Majesty, having her men and treasure throughly embarked in this Portingale voyage, is further engaged in the Spanish war than they,” and that they are on as good, or better, terms with France and Scotland as her Majesty is. They hope that the trade to Denmark will remain open for them when it is closed to the English.
At all events a new Contract is the only remedy, and that can only be obtained through fear, either fear of the English forces, or of their own weakness revealed when the English abandon them. “The only danger of abandoning is lest they seek help elsewhere to our disadvantage, the conditions of the war and state of their neighbours being greatly changed of that it hath been.” The present situation cannot continue in these countries.—The Hagh, 24 January, 1588.
Holograph postscript. “My faintness and sickness was such as having scribbled this with mine own hand, unfit to send to you, I was fain to use a so bad secretary, which I humbly beseech pardon for.”
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXX. f. 159.]
Jan. 24. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
His letters to their lordships and the copy of an act will inform his honour how the States proceed touching her Majesty's and their lordships' directions to him. Requires further direction how he is to behave himself herein.—The Hagh, 24 January, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal, ⅓ p. [Holland XXX. f. 161.]
Jan. 24. Sir John Burgh to Walsingham.
His horse company is appointed to go on the Portugal voyage. Gave Lord North large consideration for this company, yet received from him only seven horse (not one of them her Majesty's), instead of the 100 for which he had received pay and lendings without defalkation. Burgh reinforced the company up to 70 lances, but received no allowance for this, only the ordinary weekly lendings. Has kept them always serviceable, though in a hard garrison upon the frontiers. Desires an imprest of 500l. Otherwise cannot transport a third part of the company, their horses being pledged for hay and straw, for “five shillings a week cannot find a man and his horse.” It is considered hard that “companies of horse serving two years in a place with only bare lendings, should be transported over the sea and called to other service with only bread and cheese, for so we are warned we must look for no other relief.” Writes thus, not out of unwillingness to go on this journey, but because of his great debts here.—The Hage, 24 January.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with brief note of contents. 2 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 163.]
Jan. 24. James Digges to Burghley.
Referred previously to his lordship his opinion upon the controversy likely to arise with the States about this last year's accounts, etc. A month ago the Lord General sent him hither to confer with the Council of State about the affairs of musters. They at length named two or three to deal with him and appointed a day for the conference. In the Lord General's absence, however, they put off the conference and secretly instructed their officers of musters to act in a way prejudicial to her Majesty. Their ‘cunning drifts’ tend only to defraud her Majesty, as their proceedings will reveal if they are urged to join in making up these present accounts. Encloses copy of his “late second demands,” to which they have promised apostilles. No warrants can be signed nor accounts perfected for the year ending 11 October last, without great damage to her Majesty unless these doubts are resolved or the Lord General authorised to proceed without the States, as Leicester did, whereat they take great exception, seeking to draw her Majesty into further charges or at least to gather “all advantages they may, reserving the same to serve their turns upon the final accounts.” It would be well to send experienced commissioners over to assist the Lord General in ‘deciphering’ the States' cunning courses, clearing up difficulties, and settling some good order for better government. Their hard usage of her Majesty's officers and soldiers. Reserves his “observations and collections prepared for her Majesty's special service (for so much as concerneth my office) until a conference, or that it shall please your lordship to command the same.” Desires to know, his enclosed remembrances being perused, what course he is to take for perfecting the accounts. The captains blame him for the delay. Desires letters from the Council to obtain for him the right of access to the States General or the Council of State to discuss matters touching his office, and to get his requests apostilled by them. They complain of her Majesty's bands being weak, yet they have not mustered most of them these twelve months and will not appoint committees to confer with him, whereby they might learn the truth. Encloses copy of the list (fn. 5) of her Majesty's forces, with their captains, garrisons, and alterations, which he lately presented to them. Their cunning appears in their agreement with Sir John Norries that he might take 2000 foot and 600 horse, provided there were left thirteen companies in Bergen-up-Zome and seven in Oastend, whereby they hoped to weaken the garrisons of the cautionary towns, against which their former practices have been prevented by the good foresight and espial of the Lord General and the Governors. They have now countermanded the withdrawal of the six companies from Berghen, appointed for the journey by the Privy Council, and offer to protest against the Lord General if he ignores their order and obeys that of her Majesty and her Council. They threaten to hold his lordship responsible if Berghen or Ostend be lost, threatening also to proclaim this publicly. If nine companies are left in Berghen and seven in Ostend, only two ‘surplusage’ remain in Ostend: there is also one at Utricht: so clearly they meant Sir John Norries to draw most of the twenty companies from the cautionary towns. The list of captains sent over by the Privy Council frustrated this intention. The departure of the companies from Berghen and Ostend has driven them into a passion, and they abuse the Lord General most violently, forgetting his good service in pacifying divers mutinies and saving Berghen. Her Majesty can expect no better treatment touching her disbursed treasure: against her also “they would vomit their poison if they were once masters again of the towns of assurance….”—The Haghe, 24 January, 1588, stylo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. with brief note of contents, and “Mr. James Digges from Utricht” [sic]. 22/3 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 165.]
Enclosing:
Petition of her Majesty's commissary-general of musters to the Council of State. What course shall be taken touching those captains who were given passports by the late Earl of Leicester before December, 1587, for two, three, or four months, with 8, 10, or 12 soldiers apiece, and who overstayed their leave?
Touching special privileges to certain personages, as 20 dead pays to the governor of Ostend, in his own band?
The same to Capt. Herington, keeper of Ramekins castle, over and above the usual 15?
The one pay in each Flushing company allowed to the sergeant-major there, he having, besides his wage for that office, a footband in her Majesty's pay?
The like pay for the minister there?
What compensation to cavalry who have lost horses?
For how many months prisoners with the enemy shall be passed in the musters, and what the captains shall be allowed for their ransom?
What number in a company shall be allowed absent in England, etc., by passport, and for how long?
If any governors, besides those of the cautionary towns, may grant passports into England?
What number of strangers shall be allowed in a company?
Whether the guards, etc., of governors, etc., should not be mustered?
What allowance shall be made to captains for deserters? Leicester allowed from the date of desertion.
Whether captains may have soldiers away from their companies? e.g. Capt. Maria Wingfildt has 10 to guard his house in Gelderland, their garrison being Flushing.
That they appoint resident commissaries in all garrisons. Her Majesty's commissaries have been there for three years.
That care be had in regulation of musters, and that commissaries be duly instructed.
That any complaints concerning musters or her Majesty's commissaries may be properly investigated.
That the companies going to Portugal be mustered before they embark.
That he himself may have a suitable lodging in this town.
Signed, James Digges. Endd. January, 1588. French. Same watermark as the letter, but different from that of the letters and enclosures of January 2 and 12. 3 pp. [Holland XXX. f. 167.]
Jan. 24./Feb. 3. News from Venice.
An unfounded report came by way of Milan from Lyons on Saturday of the Most Christian King's death. Later dispatches from the Florentine ambassador denied it. The Duke of Mayenne was at Troyes in Champagne with 7000 men, ready to enter Paris. Uproar in Rouen. The Duke of Savoy still sends troops over the mountains: 4000 already gone.
The Governor of Milan is at Mantua with the Golden Fleece for that Duke.
Constantinople letters of November 30, received Saturday, say that Assan Aga is there preparing 100 galleys to go for Africa in the spring. Famine in Constantinople. Ferat, the Turkish general, refused to listen to Persian peace overtures unless the Persian King's son were first sent to Constantinople, as they had promised.
The 3 commissioners of Antichrist from Monte Verde seem likely to cause a revolution in favour of the new religion in Egypt.
On Wednesday morning Grimani, returned from bis charge of podestá of Padua, and accompanied by 257 senators in purple, 11 procurators, 10 knights, and 40 gentlemen of Padua, thanked the Prince and Signoria for appointing him procurator. His great banquet to those who accompanied him.
Rumours of vague news from Turin of massacres in France, of the States' dismissal, and of Nevers' forces going against Orléans, where the citadel had been battered by the townsmen. Mayenne in Champagne with 20,000 men, meaning to go to Paris.
Ferrara news that an agent of Mayenne is there. Mayenne at Troyes with 16,000 footmen, 4000 horse, and 700 gentlemen. Orleans citadel surrendered to the townsmen. Mme. de Mont-pensier enlisted 4 German regiments dismissed by the Duke of Parma, who sent 100,000 crowns to Mayenne.
The Countess of la Mirandola is said to have replaced her French garrison by Ferrarese.
Some say that Mayenne's agent is to ask for the Duke of Ferrara's help, and that of the Pope and other Italian princes. Épernon has gone to the King with 2000 harquebusiers. Loyal provincial governors cannot join the King because of Guisard activity in their governments. Amiens, where M. de la Châtre is, Poitiers, Orléans, Tours [Torsi], have received Leaguer garrisons, the Dauphiné towns are ready to obey the League, and the Huguenots fortify and provision their houses. Paris prepares 15,000 men for Mayenne. The Swiss will not aid the King. Guise's lieutenant failed to raise Rouen. The King of Navarre detests the King's action. Orléans citadel rased.
Prague letters of the 17th report the arrival on the 12th of the Austrian deputies at Bittonia and the Polish at Bellino, only 2 leagues apart. It is hoped that the Grand Chancellor will attend these negotiations. It is said that both sides will remit the matter to the legate Aldobrandino. The Chancellor told the legate that the House of Austria must renounce the Polish crown in perpetuo. The tribute will shortly be sent to Constantinople. Ferat to be governor of Hungary. The Persian peace doubtful.
Letters from England to German merchants say that the Queen has given Drake a commission which he is not to open until he is at sea. Probably goes to Spain or Portugal.
Letters of the 22nd by the Lyons post say that the King goes to Rouen. 1500 more men, besides 600 already gone, sent from Paris to Orléans. The Parisians are taxed at so much a month, according to their means. They hope thus to pay 20,000 men. Mayenne was expected there on the 19th or 20th. The States have presented their cahiers to the King. The speeches deferred. The King will probably justify his actions to them, and the Archbishop of Lyons and others may be examined. The Huguenots, and Corso with them, expelled from Lyons.
Amiens and all Picardy have risen. Rambouillet imprisoned by Mayenne's people on his return from Savoy.
The Duke of Ferrara levies troops.
News from Turin that the chiefs of the Lausanne plot escaped into Savoy.
The Grand Duke's levies at Pisa were, it is said, for the ceremony of his receiving the Grand Cross. Lucca suspected and prepared against an attack.
Augsburg reports that the King of Poland is not dead. He is at Grovno. The Lithuanians took the oath to him. Muscovite raid in Lithuania.
News from Spain that the Indies fleet was to sail on January 1. Parma to have his mother's rights in the Kingdom of Naples and the isle of Ponza. The Ragusan ship to be begun. The Emilian galleon recalled to Naples to carry corn.
A special post from Blois on Wednesday confirmed the news of the Queen Mother's death. She left a palace to the Grand Duke. Épernon recalled to court: he brings 2000 harquebusiers and many cavalry. The Guises sent troops to seize the Queen of Navarre, the French King's sister. The French King sent horsemen to prevent this. The King has appointed Rion Terra, 13 leagues from Blois, for the foreign ambassadors' residence. Disposal of the Cardinal of Guise's offices by the King: Lenon-court given the Archbishopric of Reims, Vendôme the abbey of St. Denys at Paris, and other abbeys to Montalto and Morosini. The Parisians have occupied two places on the Seine.
Italian. 5¼ pp. [Newsletters XCV. f. 116.]
Jan. 25/Feb. 4. Lord Wyllughby to the States General.
They themselves and their registers can witness the sincerity and openness of his dealings. His actions regarding the troops appointed for Portugal were in accordance with the letters of her Majesty which he exhibited to them and which are his sufficient warrant. He reserved his obedience to her Majesty, as his sovereign, when he took the oath to the States, as the last article of the Treaty lays down; accordingly, considers himself fully discharged of all possibility of blame. As their protestations touch her Majesty, he being her Lieutenant and General, he will send them into England to learn her pleasure upon them. Will continue to serve the States to the utmost, reserving his allegiance to her Majesty. Will do his best to induce the Governors of the cautionary towns to send their supernumerary companies to Bergen and Ostend, though he doubts if they will agree. Urges the States to assure the places otherwise. Protests that he will not be responsible for any ill that may befall them.—The Hague, 4 February, stilo novo.
Copy. Endd. with note of contents. French. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 169.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 1 p. [Holland XXX. f. 170.]
Jan. 25. G. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Will write now and then, but will refer the chief matters to Mr. Bodly, as he did before to Mr. Killigrewe. Could assist Mr. Bodly better were he “appointed in place by provision to aid and second him for her Majesty's service.” Refers Bodley's dealings with the States and Council of State to his own letters, and the matter of the Portingall voyage to those of Sir Edward Norrys.
“My Lord General is taken to have passed his oath by obeying her Majesty's commandments to send the companies under your honour's hand required; and [it] is not only protested against him by the States, but also that if any damage or loss follow by drawing the companies out of Bergues and Oostend, the fault and amends will be laid on his lordship….”
Count Moeurs is believed to have victualled Berck. The enemy has only a few weak and needy companies in those parts and is said to have discharged eight regiments of ‘Dutches.’ Count Mansfielde has gone with some troops to his government of Luxemborgh, either fearing an attack there or else to assist the Duke of Lorraine who has lately been repulsed at Jamets and Sedan.
The deputies of the Council of State who were with Count Moeurs have returned and reported. Thereupon order is taken to send men and provision to those parts, and the Count is commanded “to return with the forces without any further attempt.” This will displease Schenck, “for that he ever would be doing.”
Deventer and Zutphen lack provision, so that they would not hold out long were the garrisons of Doesborgh, Deutecum, and Lochum well kept and entertained. Utrecht is very unstable.
“The General States still meet, but keep the fruits of their dealings upon the articles for their meeting till the time of their breaking up, intermeddling the whilst with any matter, general or particular, as chief commanders and disposers therein.”
“They of Holland should have met on Wednesday last; but they of North Holland and Amsterdam not appearing, is deferred till Monday next.”
“The stay of their shipping which is reported to be made by her Majesty's ships at sea and her ports doth much trouble them; and are come from divers parts to complain and require remedy. It is the only way to make them know her Majesty's force and means to do them good and harm. Let not any suit or other course easily remove it. There is no doubt of their hearkening to the enemy; they will never do it.”
The enemy daily takes passengers on the river between Holland and Zeeland. The Admiralty is to blame.
There are complaints about the muster at Flussinge. The Council of State commands the governors there and at the Briele to send their supernumerary forces to Bergues and Oostende, being highly offended at the withdrawal of forces for Portingall from the latter places. “Which I think they chiefly grieve at because they would have the garrisons of Flussinge and Briele brought to their desired number….”
The continued complaints about Geertrudebergh are the chief cause of their heart-burning against the Lord General. The garrison is unruly and out of all order, but the commander should either establish discipline or else not hazard his honour and credit there.
The Amptman of Thiel made some exception to the articles sent to him. His deputy here has now concluded everything, and commission has been sent. Schenck's cause is to be handled when this present service is ended. “Count Maurice is amended and cometh again abroad. In Friesland and Overijsel all in one terms. Of the enemy nothing almost heard, but this frost may chance to be stirring….”
“De Voocht being returned hither, whereas he should and ought 5—(12)66 to have made his report to the Council, was heard before the General States, so as we are ignorant thereof, as also how it was liked and what resolution taken. Latet anguis in herbâ….”— The Haghe, 25 January, 1588, stil. Angl.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXX. f. 171.]
About Jan. 25. Consultation upon the Utrecht prisoners.
The Utrecht burgher captains 17 weeks ago arrested M., a councillor of his excellency and one of his privy council. The question is whether the legality or illegality of the arrest ought not to be decided before the charges against M. are exhibited.
These reasons suggest that this should be done. Firstly, the captains are merely agents of the magistracy, without power to make arrests of their own authority.
Secondly, one of M.'s quality is subject only to the jurisdiction of his excellency and the lords of his privy council, of which he is a member.
Thirdly, by ancient usage none can be imprisoned without a charge has been formally made and a warrant issued for their arrest. In this case there was neither charge nor warrant. The custom of the country is that a charge should be made within 24 hours, or at most within three days.
So M. should be immediately and unconditionally released.
Undated. Endd. “Consultatio.” Latin. 1⅓ pp. [Holland XXII. f. 163.]
Jan. 25./Feb. 4. A Letter from Madrid.
Spanish grief for M. de Guise's death. The King is said to be more displeased by it than he was by the loss of his army and of the twenty thousand men who perished with it. The English off Cape St. Vincent take every ship, French or Spanish, that seeks to pass: they are said to number a hundred sail. The fleet prepared to sail to the Indies dare not stir out. The Spaniards make a show of preparing another army like that of last year, but they cannot do it. Report that Drake prepares a strong army to attack Portugal and that the King of Fez makes warlike preparations in Barbary. Hopes all this will bring trouble for Spain, who is the cause of the troubles of France.—Madrid, 4 February, 1589.
Copy. Described at head as copy of a letter to [what follows is crossed out] one of the clerks of M. de Revol. Endd. French. 1 p. [Spain III. f. 37.]
Jan. 25. Bodley's reply to the States General's answer.
Aerssens delivered their answer [of January 15/25] on January 18, o.s. Awaits further direction from her Majesty.
1. Hopes that they will indeed satisfy her Majesty, who has always sought their good. Had they respected her wishes, they would have dealt with those of Leyden, Utrecht, etc., by way of oblivion and restitution, not by way either of justice or of grace. It could be expressly declared that it did not in any way prejudice their liberties. Desires them to reconsider their answer hereupon.
2. Suggested the increase of the Council of State's authority when the States are not sitting, as this is needful.
3. Even the Councillors of State find faults in their instructions. Has communicated her Majesty's proposals and will show how the instructions violate the true meaning of the Treaty. The Council's authority should be maintained without addition or alteration, unless her Majesty's consent be first obtained. If her Majesty find that such changes are duly made and are beneficial to the countries' service (as these clearly are not), she will doubtless agree readily to them.
4. Desires them, nevertheless, to write earnestly to Utrecht and Overyssel to send their deputies to the Council of State.
5. Admits that her Majesty's General and Councillors have been cognizant of the Council of State's resolutions (though the proceedings are generally in Flemish), but desires to point out that many matters are not referred to the Council. This is contrary to the Treaty. For example, since Bodley has been here, Vooght made no report to the Council, by whom he was commissioned. Many resolutions are taken by the States, General and particular, without the Council's knowledge. The conclusion of the fourth article of their own reply shows that such proceedings are contrary to the Treaty.
6. Everyone knows that they have no gold or silver mines. Her Majesty cannot allow them to supply the Spaniard with the weapons without which he could make no attack upon her by sea. Her request for a temporary suspension of this traffic is only reasonable and will advance the common cause, which is now endangered by a few men's lust of gain. They should not put a sword into their enemy's hand. Her Majesty has already declared that no nation will be allowed to engage in this traffic. In earlier years the States forbad such traffic and even seized her Majesty's subjects as good prize. Yet their resources were then much smaller.—The Hague, 25 January, 1588, o.s.
French. 5 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 27.]
Jan. 25. Bodley's reply to the States General's answer.
Received by Aerssens, on January 18, o.s., their reply [not found] to his memorial upon the articles exhibited by the agent Ortel.
1. The threat of an enemy invasion of her Majesty's realm has delayed the performance of many of the promises made in the apostilles. They will be performed.
2. Has already informed them that her Majesty has commanded the Governors of the cautionary towns not to meddle in Admiralty or political matters. Has also offered to obtain redress if they do so meddle.
3. They ought not to accuse her Majesty of wronging the country. Sufficient answer already made about the service money, etc., of the supernumerary troops in the cautionary towns. The Treaty does not forbid the introduction of some of the ordinary succours into the cautionary towns. Nor does it hold her Majesty responsible for their extraordinary charges. The country should help the towns with these charges. Strong garrisons necessary in the cautionary towns because of the resort thither of numbers of people of all sorts, as well as of warships and sailors, especially as evil disposed persons can more easily stir up trouble when the citizens and the garrison belong to different nations. However, her Majesty, confident of the burghers' loyalty will reduce the garrisons to the number mentioned in the Treaty. The disorders of which they complain are not confined to her Majesty's troops, and doubtless will be remedied so far as is possible. The States cannot do better than observe the Treaty, which is entirely to their advantage and from which her Majesty expects no benefit except the safety of the Reformed Churches and the maintenance of the good people in their liberty.
4. The payments to the Briele garrison, etc., will be reimbursed when a general account is made. There is no point in saying that the country is over burdened by this, or to blame it as the cause of the mutinies, unless they wish to quarrel with their benefactress. Hopes that they will not make her responsible for the payment of those men who, as they say, were brought over without their assent, although those same men were led by their Governor-General, mustered by their officers, and in many cases laid down their lives in their service.
5. The reason for the frequent refusal of the English companies to come to a muster has been the States' failure to inform the Lieutenant-General. If they can prove that any captain or commissary has made corrupt musters, due order will be taken.
6. Admittedly they have the right to accept or reject her Majesty's offer to have a horse band converted into two foot bands. But in view of the greater value of footmen in their defensive war and the difficulties in raising horsemen, they should at least have either accepted or rejected the offer.
7. Her Majesty would not need to credit only her commissaries' reports of the companies' strength, if the States had sent their deputies to aid them at the musters. The commissaries are prepared to prove their rolls correct. The States wrong the General and others sent by her Majesty, who are under oath of loyalty and risk their lives and spend their goods in this service, if they think that they do not their duty. This weakens the General's authority. For example, one of the States' chief commissaries recently gave the Governor and captains of Bergen certain articles about musters. These were given in the name of his Excellency and the Council of State, and the General had not even been informed of them. It is impertinent to hint that the General is interested in false musters, as their remark (that those who have no interest in true musters should not be informed beforehand) seems to do.
8. If they will not consider any moderation of the excises and imposts upon her Majesty's people, he must leave the remedy to her.
Felt it his duty thus to remonstrate roundly and sincerely. Offers his good offices in all matters.—The Hague, 25 January, 1588, o.s.
Marginal notes of contents, in different hand and in English. Endd. French. 5 pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIV. f. 32.]
Another copy of the above.
French. 52/3 pp. [Holland XX. f.121.]

Footnotes

1 Extracts printed in Bertie, pp. 240–3.
2 Abstract in Bertie, pp. 243–5.
3 Another copy calendared in Scottish Cal., IX. 692–3.
4 Extracts in Bertie, pp. 246–7.
5 See Calendar, XXII. 264.