Elizabeth
March 1589, 26-31

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Richard Bruce Wernham (editor)

Year published

1950

Pages

177-193

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: March 1589, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 23: January-July 1589 (1950), pp. 177-193. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75241 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

March 1589, 26–31

[About March 26?] (fn. 1) [Stafford] to [Walsingham?]
Received his letters “so torn and worn with sweat” that they are barely legible. Wrote to the King: hopes to bring a favourable answer from him. Expects to be at Rochell in three days and in England as soon afterwards as winds allow. If the French ambassador be not departed, prays that he may be detained, “for a reason I will tell you, but with courtesy as of the Queen's Majesty herself.” Ships going from France to Spain must be stayed: brings warrant enough, and “nothing the King can do can serve to procure a stay otherwise.”
Wishes his wife to be informed of where he is. Wishes that the ambassador and all others may know only that he comes for his own business, having long ago had permission from her Majesty.
Copy. Endd. "April, 1589, from Sir Edward Stafford." 1 p. [France XIX. f. 93.]
March 27./April 6. Abbreviate of musters at Berges-up-Zome.
15 horse and foot companies; mustered 1970; absent in England, “upon hazard,” and a few in Holland and Zeeland, 247; strangers, 217; sick, and visited in the garrison, 85. So there remain 1,421 able Englishmen. Defect of whole garrison, 145. Whole number of her Majesty's pays, including dead pays, should be, 2,115.
Add. to the Privy Council. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 197.]
March 28./April 7. [The Laird of Powry] to [Walsingham?]
At length there is “ane longitt to my charge to[ld?] of all be Dome Bernardino de Mendoza, in the qlk, ass being of graetest importance, befoir I schould tak aeny certaen resolutione I thocht good till mak zowr h. acqwentit therwt, that resauing your auais thaerintil I micht follou fuirth the samminge to the ueil of our yll, your credeit, and my auin auansment. I am pressitt ernestly be thir pipill, bot in special be the Spaenisch ambassadour, to tak iurnaei to Spaenen uhair I schoulde be sua sufficientlie recommendit be thaers and his letters that I schould laek no moyen to lief gallantlie, & if I wold condiscende to be imployit in the aermie I schoulde laek no sufficient offers that micht content aeny man of my callinge. Wyerways in remaening thaer I micht do the King graet seruice be sik intelligence as I coulde drau out of boith the contris & if I wold tak ane doing in his particular it schowld nott be but graett recompence. As I seimeitt nott to be altogithaer mwuitt be his perswations att ye first ranconter, so dide I answerr ass thocht I mislykit nott altogithaer of his frindlie & awantagews offers, but, offering alwayss till indewuir myself in qwhaitt micht redowde to his awansment or weill particwlaer, I did tak the hardies til inquoyr of the samminge in particular. He schew & declaeritt onto me that thaer wass ane contract past betuixt him and Alexander Scott, be ye moyen of sum mediatt persone qwhate moyen & creditt wass nott small touards tae ambassadeur, that of all ye Inlisch scipis, maen, and geir, he coulde discouer the hoil, half being the King's and the half of the rest being his. The last qwarter schowld be deuydit betuixt the persone moienaer and the said Alexander. Wpone the qlk occatione & motive he haed recommendit the said Alexander and auancesit him abuiff ye hunderit crouns. But sens, being surlie informitt that the said Scott onder the pretence of his r[ecom?] (fn. 2) mendations plays ye kneiff, hawine enteritt in collusione uith Hunter qwhom he haed promisitt expreslie til haif accusit, and so deuyding the gaen amangs thaem, dois gif ane plaen & frie forme of trafectixe to the Inglismaen, the King of Spaen his ennemies, to thaer graet auancement and scwiffs & dissaiffs ye ambassadeur of der general promisis and differring letters: & therfor wald glaedlie enter wt me in that condicione, if I uald find the moien to discuuer the saide schips and guids, in soe far yt, the King hauing the one half, the uther half sould be deuydit equallie betuixt the said ambassadeur ande me: besyds yt be his moyen I schowld haiff sufficient powar to uis them boith as I woilde. As for newiss, sik ass occurs for ye present I haiff wretine yem to zowr h. frinde qwha will impairte yem onto zowr h. at lenth. Qwhaitt ze [MS. torn] expedient to be done in yis maetaer, adwertis & itt sall be obeyitt wt aeny wyer thing lyis in my powar to doe zowr h. service….”—Paris, 7 April, 1589.
Holograph. Endd. “7 April, 1589, stil novo. From the L. of Pory,” and with key to cipher. Passages in italics in cipher. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 91.]
[Mar 28/April 7.] (fn. 3) Instructions for Dean Brisson, sent to the Pope by the Mayenne and the Council General of the Catholic Union.
To inform his Holiness that the main object of his mission is to describe to him the state of affairs here.
The towns and provinces are joined together to maintain the Catholic faith under the authority of the Holy See. They will not submit to the encourager of heresy who is responsible for the treacherous cruelties committed at Blois.
To justify Mayenne against the Bishop of Mans, a heretic whose brothers counselled the massacre. He who sent the Bishop, not content with murdering the two brothers, seeks likewise to kill the remaining Catholic princes. His hypocritical piety.
Gradual undermining of the Catholic Church and favour shown to heretics.
To illustrate from one province after another how this miserable prince works to make war upon Catholics. His truce with the heretics in Dauphine, so that he may use their forces in Burgundy. The garrisons of Sedan and Jametz joined with de Tinteville in Champagne. Montigny collects the heretics in Berry and has taken Sancerre. The King of Navarre's forces have entered Poitou and Touraine. The French King treats with the Queen of England and the Swiss heretics, and has used the Legate to quench Catholic zeal by a false treaty designed to ruin them.
Mayenne sends letters from the Legate, with his answers, to prove his honest intentions.
Ambassadors amply commissioned will shortly be sent to his Holiness from the three orders.
Underwritten:
Mayenne to the Pope.
The Legate recently wrote that the King would submit to his Holiness' judgment the Catholics' resort to arms. The King had scorned this means when he felt himself strong. The Council General of the Union considered the letters, and Mayenne now sends Brisson to beg his Holiness not to bid them submit to one who desires only their ruin and who, at the very time when he made these proposals to the Legate, hired assassins to attempt Mayenne's life, as two of them confessed. The third betrayed the plot. The Duke and Council pray his Holiness to declare himself chief of their armies.
Brisson will also describe their daily successes and the King's union with the heretics. Mayenne to-day leaves to join the army. If his Holiness pleases to use his authority herein, deputies of the clergy, nobility, Parlements, and third estate, will be sent to beg him to do so.
The Council General of the Catholic Union has elected Mayenne as Lieutenant of the armies while they await the States' general assembly. The Parlements and provinces of the Union have ratified his appointment. Will never accept authority save from his Holiness when it shall please him so to honour him.
Copy. Endd. French, with heading in Spanish. 2½ pp. [France XIX. f. 85.]
March 28. — to St. Aldegonde.
Has received his letters of the 11th. Shares his opinion about the suggestion of Dr. Mychael that he (St. Aldegonde) should be employed in Portugal. It would benefit neither the King nor him were he given a place of credit before the King was established in his realm, which seems unlikely to happen during the King of Spain's lifetime. Cannot advise him to come to England, as he spoke to Willoughby of doing. Her Majesty still feels just a little suspicion about his yielding Antwerp to Parma.—“De ma maison à Londres,” 28 March, 1589, stilo veteri.
Minute. Not signed. Endd. French. 1¾ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 199.]
[March 28.] Petition of Jehan Houfflin to the Queen.
In 1576 and during the negotiation of the Pacification of Ghent he was in the States General as councillor and pensionary of Tournay and Tournesis. After the arrival of the Archduke of Austria, in May, 1578, he was appointed secretary to the States General. Was later appointed secretary of state under the Duke of Anjou. Remained in the Netherlands and in his office after the alteration at Antwerp. Being the most experienced of the secretaries, he was continued as secretary of state, until, after the Treaty with her Majesty, a certain Englishman was, by her desire, given the office. Petitioner had lost his property, was now deprived of his office, and could not get paid his arrearages. He signed the United Provinces' abjuration of the King of Spain, the contract with Anjou, and the Apology of the late Prince of Orange. Has no hope of advancement or of recovering his goods. Is at present in Willughby's suite. Has come over to beg her Majesty to grant him some good annual income, that in his exile he may continue, in the quality of a gentleman of the long robe, to serve her. His services during the siege of Bergen, at Medenblick, Vere, and Armuyden.
Endd. with date. French. 1½ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 201.]
Annexed:
Letters patent of Peregrine, baron of Willughbie, Berk, and Eresby, etc., appointing Mr. Jehan Houfflin, licentiate of laws, formerly councillor of Tournay and Tournesis and afterwards secretary of the States General, etc., as his councillor for his affairs on this side et commis à la direction des negoces de notre secretarie es matieres d'estat; with such wages as shall be appointed. Mandate to all those of Willughbie's court, to be intendent to the said Houfflin.—Given under his sign-manual and seal of arms, 10 March, 1588, stilo novo. Countersigned, J. van den Houten.
Copy. French. ¾ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 202.]
[March 28.] A precedent for a particular account between the Treasurer at Wars and the captains, upon receipt of their warrants and acquittances. Copies, signed by the Treasurer, to be given to the captains and to the auditor who shall ex officio demand what defalcations have been paid. The account should accordingly be certified so that “it may appear at all times how much he hath in his hand of her Majesty's treasure,” to avoid any defrauding of her Majesty, the creditors, or the soldier. Other accounts are deceitful and the Treasurer may easily have 40,000l. out of 100,000l. undiscovered in his hands.
The precedent. 28 March, 1589. Due to Captain Sir William Knolles for 50 lances at 4l. 8s. 8d. daily, for 365 days, 12 October, 1586 to 11 October, 1587—1,618l. 3s. 4d.
Whereof—imprests, 200l.: defalcations to the States and for the hundredth penny, 36l. 13s. 5d.: various sums due by bill to Mr. Barker, Humphrey Parcher, James Wright, Thomas Loughton, Arthur Wright, William Turbervill, John Cicell, William Sheffild, Cornet Norries, and the following members of the company— Roger Hewes, Charles Worthington, Horneby, Jeffrey Fletcher, George Butler, William Stileman, John Hensham, in all [226l. 1s.]. Total, 737l. 9s. 1d. [recte 462l. 14s. 5d.].
Remains, 880l. 14s. 3d. [recte 1,145l. 8s. 11d.].
Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 204.]
March 29./April 8. John Tupper to Walsingham.
Was arrested by the Leaguers in Bretten and imprisoned at Raynes by the governor, M. la Charonàre, while he was on his way to his master, Stafford. His letters were taken from him and he had neither friends nor money. However, on Wednesday morning “the magistrates of the town cried vive le roy and all the town with one consent in arms, and hath taken the town for the King. And that day at night put M. de la Charonàre out of the town, and M. de Mombarrot, that was governor before, sent for,—that dwelt but ten miles from the town—by the magistrates and put in possession.” Mombarrot released Tupper and tried to get back his letters, which M. la Charonàre had given to a procureur to interpret. The procureur, being of the League, is now in hiding. Tupper waits only to recover his letters and to get money to discharge himself. Many League leaders imprisoned here, together with some of M. de Mercure's captains and soldiers. On the day when the town was taken for the King, M. de Mercure was only four miles away, coming to put forces into it for the League. He is now said to be retired to Nantes, which is here said to have declared for the King. Vitterey besieged by the League, but they will probably give it up. The Marquis de Pont and other nobles of Base Bretten said to be in the field for the King, for whom Angers has declared. The King is looked for here shortly.—Raynes in Brettaigne, 8 April, 1589, style of France.
Postscript. Had M. Mercure come here, four pieces of great ordnance would have been sent to batter Vitterey.
Holograph. Add. Endd. “last March, 1589.” Seal. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 92.]
March 30. Thomas Bodley to Burghley.
Rumours that the enemy from Malines, etc., marches towards Gertrudenbergh, because “there hath been secret intelligence between them and the enemy.” Doubts if they have really come to such a degree of disloyalty. It is probably “a bruit devised by the States to give their proceeding a more plausible course…. It is rather thought that the enemy will make his approach to the town with intent to take his advantage as the one side or other shall minister occasion. As yet there is no speech of any composition between the States and the town, neither is there any likelihood that the States will harken to any such motion” unless they find their enterprise doomed to failure. The gates of Brida shut for four or five days: this suggests that some enterprise is intended.—The Hage, 30 March, '88.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 206.]
March 30. Hessel Aysma to Walsingham.
Encloses his defence against the calumnies of his enemies. Wishes it to be kept secret until Bodley, Caron, and Buckhurst have accomplished their instructions, as he would not needlessly irritate his enemies. Walsingham may communicate it to any he thinks fit.—Leeuwarden, 30 March, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Endd. French. ¾ p. [Holland XXXI. f. 167.]
Enclosing:
Hessel Aysma's defence.
Has seen letters of February 15, (fn. 4) full of lies, from certain deputies [of Friesland]. They seek to deprive Aysma, etc., of her Majesty's protection, just as the wolf in the fable sought to lure the sheep away from their dog.
They have in these letters quietly dropped the calumnies which they previously made but could not prove, e.g. that he plotted with those of Utrecht a conspiracy like that of Leyden in Holland; that he sought to bring Leicester into Friesland to crush his enemies; that he offered a bribe of 6,000 florins to the Count of Nassau, present governor of Friesland (the Count himself denied this).
If they wish to reveal Aysma's actions, why have they ignored the requests of her Majesty, Willuchby, the Council of State, and the States of Friesland, that he should be put on trial?
Their letter does not answer her Majesty's requests. Will now answer the charges made against himself in it. The act of continuation was as ample as the ancient commission. Aysma never meddled with affairs of the country except when the States asked him or when he had some request to make from the Provincial Council. Did not get Franchois de Baudemont, greffier to the said Council, to seek a larger commission for him. In that very year, 1581, Baudemont was accusing him to the late Prince of Orange of seeking to transfe authority from the Council to the college of these deputies. Did not seek to set town against country or obtain the Presidency of the Provincial Council by such means. Was appointed President in his absence at Antwerp, attending the States General (1578). Similarly with his embassies to France and her Majesty. Denies his insufficiency for such a post.
There is no criminal jurisdiction in Friesland apart from the Provincial Council. The States are composed of four members— Ostergoo, Westergoo, Seven Wolden, and the towns, both fortified and open.
The States formerly resolved to fortify the frontiers, but instead the forts have been built in the middle of the province, and a large area practically abandoned to the enemy. The parts nearest to the enemy secretly paid contributions to them. The practice winked at, for expediency's sake, and then publicly permitted. Thereupon the enemy molested the neighbouring districts and they paid also. They were brought before the Council, regretted that they had to pay in this manner and added that they had in addition promised to aid the enemy: they said that they were forced to do so, because the States would do nothing for them. Most of the countryside was reduced to a similar position after the quarrel with the English. So to-day the enemy disposes of three ‘members’ of the States, and of part of the fourth. The Religion suppressed. None can go out safely from the fortified towns, and the passages are all dangerous. Only the eight fortified towns remain out of the enemy's control, and some of their inhabitants pay monthly contributions to trade outside in safety.
These eight towns might easily be subjected to the enemy if the Governor and Provincial Council, who nominate the town magistrates every year, were filled with their creatures. Such a design probably explains the attacks upon the Provincial Council and Aysma and his imprisonment in his house in 1587. They accused the Council of partiality; would not allow it to proceed against deputies; restored confiscated goods to known partisans of the enemy condemned by the States General and the late Prince of Orange; readily gave passports to go to and come from the enemy; and were hostile to the English. These matters concerned criminal jurisdiction, so Aysma dealt about them. Never attacked the deputies except upon strong grounds. Yet they, after the pique against the English began, were esteemed better patriots than such men as Aysma, who had served the late Prince of Orange since 1566 and had no disagreements with the lieutenant-governor, the seigneur of Meroda and Runen, except upon express charge from the Prince of Orange as chief governor or from the Estates or deputies.
Denies that he had any disagreements with the present governor, Count William Lewis of Nassau, except touching this hostility to the English. Did much to secure his choice as governor. Denies any plots against him.
As regards the assembly of the States of Friesland at Franecker, will tell what he can. Was summoned to visit the Earl of Leicester. Went to him, with no gainsaying from the governor or States. The Earl was going into Friesland to attend the governor's wedding, but upon reaching Medemblik changed his mind. Aysma and the first two members of the States of Friesland (Ostergoo and Westergoo), as well as the chief towns, pressed the Earl to come and appease their differences, but there was no suggestion of a massacre of their opponents. The threats which the deputies now say they used, of resisting the Earl's entry by all means in their power, show that if there was talk of massacre, it was by that party.
The accusations are hardly worth answering. Men who do not hesitate to blacken her Majesty's most distinguished servants, and with difficulty spare her Majesty herself, can have no shame in calumniating Aysma. They seek to deprive him of her protection by continually informing her of charges against him, each one obviously false. They will not let his cause be settled by the ordinary course of justice, despite so many intercessions by her Majesty, etc. Summary of the points of his defence, as already made in this letter. They should feel especially friendly towards England, for their chronicles say that the Christian religion was first brought to them by Englishmen. John Wyclif, an Englishman, was the first to purge that religion of papal superstitions. They have an old saying that in their time of greatest misery, the English will appear to deliver them, as they do now.—Leeuwarden, 29 March, 1589.
Signed. Endd. “To be presented to her Majesty.” French. 10¾ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 159.]
March 31. Sir John Conway to Walsingham.
The enemy forces of which he wrote on March 27 [letter not found] have retired towards Bridges, Gawnt, etc., after spending two days within an English mile and a half of this town. They left some of their number and some of their provisions behind them.
Wrote to the States of Zeeland for supplies. Their answer came to-day. They send a little match, bullet, palisades, and necessaries for the repair of the fortifications. So the enemy's attempt profited this place in all ways. The works they have already done have made the town stronger by 500 men. By the time the works now in hand are finished, which should be in some sixteen days, they will be secure against surprise and able to resist a whole camp until relief can reach them.
Finds from those he daily sends forth, and from prisoners, that the enemy forces have divided and do not mean to return. They mean rather to attack Bargen again. Has accordingly sent to countermand his request to the governor there for some supply of men.
An Irishman of Stanley's company captured: offered, if allowed to escape, to bring over at least a hundred of the regiment. Released him, but his plan was crossed by accident, as Capt. Sherley is to inform him. He brought over eight only (fn. 5) , but gave Conway two days' foreknowledge of the enemy's approach. These Irishmen are very eager to return to Ireland. They are good soldiers: might well be sent to serve her Majesty somewhere else, “but not here,” rather than allowed to return to Ireland. “I think they have seen more courses of war than is fit for savage men to be acquainted with if they should become untrue there.”
Desires that he may now have leave to return and that another be given the charge. Has beggared himself during his three years here, and had great losses at home, besides a good wife.
Excuses himself for writing in haste and so rudely, and refers all else to Mr. Errington and Capt. Anthony Sherley.—Ostend, Monday in Easter Week, 1589.
Holograph. Add. Ervdd. with note of contents. 2¾ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 208.]
March 31. Sir Roger Williams to the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, and Walsingham.
Takes his last leave of them before going on this journey. “Since I followed the wars, I never saw so willing minds nor such celerity used about all dispatches.” Denies the reports that there are divisions amongst them. Confusion might result were they delayed by winds and if victuals ran short for these 18,000 willing minds. Failure would ruin many of them, and would cast the baser sort on the country, so that “the countries will be full of thieves and disorders.” No means like this journey to bridle the Spanish King: gave reasons in his late discourses. Could not raise such an army again in five months for 300,000l. Dissolve it, and in eight months greater forces will have to be armed, and they may “perhaps hurl the dice once again for the state as we did the last year.” Exceptionally good order and discipline of these troops. Compared with former Kings' expeditions, they will “find this army the best cheap that ever was levied.” Edward IV spent over 600,000l. on his expedition to France, and Henry VIII spent twice as much at Bullen. No sovereign “since England was England” had more need to make wars than the present Queen. Apologises for his boldness, “a fault and hindrance unto me.”—Plymouth, last of March.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms (two). 1¾ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 210.]
March 31./April 10. Contract between Parma and the garrison of Geertrudenbergh. (fn. 6)
He grants them a general pardon for all acts done in these 17 provinces during the civil wars.
He will request the lords of other lands spoiled, etc, by them, e.g. the land of Luke and the dukedom of Cleave, to grant their pardon likewise.
He takes them into his Majesty's service, restoring all their goods, etc.
Any who prefer to go elsewhere, may freely do so, enjoying their goods: 6 months' grace allowed.
They may receive any assignations and contributions heretofore granted to them by the so-called States of Brabant, Holland, and Zeeland.
Promises them the ten months' pay due to them, and also five months' pay “for a courtesy.” To be paid before they leave.
Pardons such as have left their companies and joined companies “on the other side.”
Prisoners to be ransomed. Spiritual persons and soldiers to be freely released.
Sir John Wingfeld and Charles Huninges, with their families, goods, etc., may go away whithersoever they wish.
These things Parma promises, provided the garrison hand over the town to him.—Given at Breda, 10 April, 1589.
Copy. Original signed, Alexander; countersigned, L. le Vasseur. Endd. 12/3 pp. [Treaty Papers (Flanders) V. f. 114b.]
March 31./April 10. Articles agreed upon between the Duke of Parma and the burghers of Geertrudenberg.
A general pardon granted to all the burghers and inhabitants.
They shall, from this day, re-enter into possession of their goods, etc., in all places in his Majesty's dominions.
The magistrates and other officials not to be called to account for any past acts, bonds, and resolutions for laying out money for these wars.
All may remain in the town for four years without any inquiry, provided they live quietly. Any who wish to depart may arrange to be carried by ships from Holland and Zeeland. Security for goods or sale. Burghers now absent may enjoy the present promises, if they return within 6 months and are not found upon examination “to be contrary to the authority of his Majesty or the profit of the commonwealth.”
Any who wish to settle their affairs in the unreconciled provinces may do so within the next 6 months. After then, they must return to his Majesty's obedient provinces or to neuter places.
His Highness grants them two years in which to pay debts contracted during the troubles.
He promises these things in the King's name.—Breda, 10 April, 1589.
Translation. Original signed, Alexander, and countersigned, L. le Vasseur. Endd.pp. [Treaty Papers (Flanders) V. f. 113.]
[March 31] (fn. 7) . Warrant to Willoughby authorising him to make his warrant to suitable captains to levy 500 voluntary men to go, with the 1000 men already ordered to be levied in the city of London, under Sir Thomas Willford to the relief of Ostend, now besieged “or shortly like to be.” Given under the Signet.
Minute. Endd. with note of contents. Undated. 2/3 p. [Holland XXXII. f. 8.]
[Early in March?] The Laird of Porye to [Burghley?]
Takes the opportunity of this bearer to salute his lordship. The King of Navarre came post to Tours (fn. 8) to the King of France, with only four horse. They conferred at length. Thereupon the Spanish ambassador left the court and came to Paris on the tenth of March, “where he is presently in an evil estate having lost his sight altogether. The ambassador of Savoy hath also left the King. It is supposed that the King's troops joins with the King of Navarre's forces shortly and that they shall march forwards towards Chartres.” The King is thought to be strong in footmen but weak in horse. Casimir and some strangers are expected. M. du Meine took his oath in the ‘chambre d'orre’ in Paris and accepted the office of Lieutenant General of the League [February 12/22] The army is at Estampes, seven leagues from Paris. M. d'Aumâle is in Picardy: “and hath relieved of his land worth 28,000 francs of rent engaged of before, whereat this people are somewhat commoved for it was given him for another cause.” He is thought to have “some men alost, and is come forward.” 2,000 reiters and 8,000 Swisses are already marching for the League, and a further 4,000 reiters and 10,000 Swisses are expected shortly.
Endd. “A copy of the L. of Porye's letter.” 1 p. [France XIX. f. 89.]
[Early in March?] — to William Homberston, at St. Omer.
La Mote has not been here. Count Mansfeld has gone with two Italian and three Wallon regiments and six horse bands towards Luxemborg. The Marquis of Waremborne goes into Gelderland as governor, with 6000 soldiers.
The D[uke] is greatly troubled by the Cardinal Farnese's death [on Feb. 20/March2], for he now has none to countenance him at Ro[me]. The Pope hates him for refusing to marry his son to the Pope's niece, despite an offer of 600,000 crowns and six cardinals' hats. So the D[uke] will be less affectionated than ever to the Spaniards.
Don Antonio sent one (fn. 9) to the D[uke], who has sent him with the writer's friend into France. The 350,000 crowns which was stayed is now sent into France. Paris has sent to ask the Duke's favour, “assuring to him Cambray within six months. Ballyny hath done the League [sic.].”
The Prince of Liege has been here. He is to send forces to the League “and desireth to have those towns taken in which in his country favour the Religion. At ray friend's return you shall know what hath been negotiated.”
Most of the Spaniards have mutinied. “It is thought that the D[uke] shall be called from [hence], but doubtful whether he will obey.”
Sir William Stanley goes with money to his regiment, and will then return hither. “Read and burn this.”
Add. Unsigned. Undated. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 137.]
[Late in March?] — to William Homberston, at St. Omer.
The governor of Cambray's lieutenant arrived here 4 days ago. Next day the Spanish infantry and 2,000 others marched without baggage “towards your coast there.” His friend is still in France, so he cannot learn their purpose. Great [noise?] of Gitternebergen. Six companies of horse sent thither. Captain Mongomery, a Scot, who lately came from thence with intelligence, is hurried back thither by way of Holland. The King of Spain has ordered the D[uke] to aid the League to the utmost and at once to besiege some towns here so as to prevent the Queen from sending such large forces into Spain. The D[uke] probably goes to Torney or Bruidges, and Ostende may soon be beleaguered. Great store of money being raised for France, also six horse bands of the country. The King's excommunication here held very doubtful. “Let me want no money, which is the spring of my services.” The Emperor and the Prince of Lige authorise the D[uke] to occupy any of their towns where those of the Religion are.
“The treaty for certain towns in Holland is broken. I look to Ostend and Axel, with Gitternebergen. Cambray is held certainly for the Sp[anish] K[ing]…. Read and burn this.”
Add. Unsigned. Undated. 1 p. [France XIX. f. 136.]
March. Points to be resolved touching Germany.
To set down the names of the principal potentates, noblemen, and free towns there, Catholic and Protestant, with their forces. “How the said princes are linked in alliance and friendship”: what are their revenues.
In Wokingham's hand. Endd. with date. 2/3 p. [Germany, States, V. f. 214.]
[End of March.] Request of Christopher Perseval to the Queen.
He, Christopher Peersevall, her subject, dwelling in Freeslande, was sent to her by those well affectioned to her there, some three months ago, to thank her for writing in their behalf and urging the States of the province to agreement.
The States' disregard of her desire is fully demonstrated in the letters, etc., which he delivered to Walsingham on January 1.
Walsingham soon afterwards told him that her Majesty was resolved to send Caron and Bodly to deal therein as soon as Willobie returned to England. Informed his principals of this.
His principals have meanwhile humbly petitioned the States for an agreement by which every man should have his right. Were given a most unchristian answer, full of unfounded and slanderous charges.
The Spaniards' correspondency and intelligences in the province threaten its loss. Lewarden and Bolswert lately were almost lost by treason. A few were quartered, but many remain unapprehended, and these not of the meanest sort.
Requests that she would not forsake those who are well affected towards her. Many thousands hope for the good success of those who have sent him. They have sent over one of good quality with letters, which he presents herewith.
Undated. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXXI. f. 212.]
[March.] Petition of the captains of Flushing to the Privy Council.
Have been almost two years without a full pay and have received small imprests beyond ordinary weekly lendings. Are much impoverished. Their credit is so cracked that they cannot obtain money or arms on any terms. Their creditors are weary, and scornful of her Majesty's pay. Their bills are sold at heavy loss. They are charged far more than the goods are worth for everything they buy. Have kept their companies full and well furnished, despite their losses (chiefly from fugitives for whom they are allowed nothing): have rewarded officers and gentlemen with 5s. to 10s. a week and old soldiers with 2s. to 4s., in all 30s. to 3l. a week above what her Majesty allows. In this way they were able to retain experienced men. Have been hitherto frequently relieved by the governor, but if payment by poll be enforced and no special allowances made for gentlemen, corporals, and old soldiers (10 of whom are worth 100 recruits “straight from the plough”), these will seek their discharge. The captains would be unable to furnish their companies,—even by keeping them weak,—especially if the dead pays are allowed only half imprests, as are the serviceable heads. Would have nothing except their entertainment from which to supply arms, apparel, fire, and candle, or to care for sick, hurt, or imprisoned. Raw recruits alone would remain, who would wear out their arms, etc., more quickly than veterans. Some monthly imprest should be allowed out of the large checks which her Majesty will now receive.
On a third sheet:
Would have deferred their complaint even now, but for the last intolerable inconvenience, viz. the payment of weekly imprests by the poll, with no distinction of persons. Captains would be unable to relieve their companies' wants. The governor hitherto continued upon his own authority the old course of payments. Prices are high, and they are burdened with “taxes, tolls, imposts, excises, and what not.” Desire either that some more tolerable order of payment be taken, or else that they may be enabled to satisfy their creditors and then receive their discharge from this service.
Rough draft, much corrected. Endd. “Martij, (fn. 10) 1589. Found among the muster rolls of James Digges. Petition drawn by the captains in Flushingh against the orders for payment by the poll: conceived and set down by James Digges; written with his own hand.” 5¼ pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 214.]
[March.] Memorial of matters to be treated of with the States General.
“Causes and reasons to move her Majesty to resolve speedily on some course to reform the present confusions and disorders grown in the state of the Low Countries and to remove the present jealousies risen between her Majesty and the States General…”
Her Majesty should maintain the authority granted by Contract to her General and the Council of State.
The chief confusions are due to the multiplicity and equality of commandment: and are to be remedied only by confirming the said authority. Absence or vacancy of the person and office of General weakens the authority.
Her Majesty complained of its weakening, but is herself in part the cause thereof by not urging the performance of the Contract and by not having a General in place there. The weakening began after Leicester's first departure: when her Majesty's ministers complained, they were told that the General must be in place personally to execute his authority.
The States General always urged the observation of the Contract and recognised the aforesaid authority in the instructions to the Council of State.
The present government must be reformed: this can be done only if her Majesty sends a person of countenance to treat thereof.
Those with whom it must be treated are offended with former Generals and so with English government: only a person of countenance, and who is popular with them, could reconcile them.
The Contract needs reviving: only such a person could do it. The Countries will be ruined by disorders if reformation be not speedily sought, as appears by Bodley's letters. Many imperfections have become apparent in the Contract, and must be reformed.
It does not allow for dead pays in the companies. These amount to a great sum, but are not allowed by the States. No ruling about extraordinary disbursements, e.g. at Sluce, Ostend, Berghen, and extraordinary issues in Leicester's time. No provision for yearly clearing of accounts between her Majesty and them.
Nor for the pay of the principal officers of the English camp.
Nor for an increase of the cautionary towns' garrisons when necessary.
Nor for fortifications, mounting of guns, or supply of powder, etc., for the guard of the cautionary towns.
Important to clear past accounts and settle future charges.
The ordinary pay of each of her Majesty's companies exceeds what the States allow (the amount named in the Contract) by 3l. 5s. a month.
The States allow no musters but those taken with the privity of their commissaries, according to the Contract.
They complain that pay is not made in the presence of their commissaries, according to the Contract.
They disallow the pays of sundry Dutch captains, the entertainment of the cautionary towns' water-bailiffs, and the large entertainment of her Majesty's councillors there, as not provided for in the Contract.
They disallow all absences of captains or soldiers in England, by passport or otherwise. This is their course towards strangers in their own pay.
Need to agree on some course to allow these people and the Easterlings to repair into Spain.
The trade to Spain maintains the shipping and traffic of Holland and Spain and brings to them good quantities of bullion and coin, which, with their customs and imposts, maintain their warships. Hostility is bred by impeaching Easterlings' trade to Spain. Both might be allowed to trade to Spain in goods not harmful to her Majesty, paying a custom for licence to pass the Narrow Seas, which might rise to over 200,000l. sterling for the benefit of her Majesty and the Low Countries.
The States offer to agree upon some good course herein. Some special person should be sent hither to treat of this and of the other matters, as their authority is limited by the need to consult their superiors.
Endd. “Martij, 1589.” 32/3 pp. [Holland XXXI. f. 217.]
[Last week of March?] (fn. 11) Memorial for provision for Ostende.
To take order for shipping for 1,500 men, and for victuals and arms, and for provisions for the town.
For imprest money for captains to make coats for voluntary soldiers, for ensigns, armours, drums, etc.
Warrant to the Lord General to appoint the Treasurer to pay the weekly half pay (20l.) in money, beside 4l. in victuals: beginning last of March, 1589.
Officers to be appointed to take charge of victuals and ammunition until delivered at Ostend.
Undated. Endd.p. [Holland XXXI. f. 222.]
[March.] Note of munitions demanded by the Governor of Ostend: 12 cannon of various kinds, with powder, shot, wheels, lead, vinegar; 200 muskets, 200 wheelbarrows.

Endd. Mense Marcij, 1588. 2/3 p. [Holland XXI. f. 227.]
[After March 8.] Answer made to the King of Morocco's servant. (fn. 12)
Her Majesty thanks the King for sending this gentleman to her and for showing favour to King Don Anthonio at her request. Will be ready to do what services she can in return. Assures herself that her fleet “now set out for Spain, shall have all needful relief of victuals and other necessaries out of his ports and havens, in case they shall have need to use the same, as also her subjects resorting into his countries be courteously and favourably used …”
Minute. Endd. Undated. 2/3 p. [Royal Letters II. (Morocco), No. 82.]
[March.] (fn. 13) Peace terms agreed upon between the King of Poland and the Archduke Maximilian at Beudein, 1589.
1. The Archduke will not use the title of King. 2. Lubowlia to be restored by July 12. 3. The old treaties to be renewed. 4. The King of Poland will send an ambassador to the Emperor before April 20. 5. The Imperial ambassador to come to the King by May 16. The King and nobles to swear before him to observe the treaty. 6. The King of Poland shall send, by June 15, ambassadors to the Emperor and other Princes of the House of Austria, who shall swear to observe the treaties. 7. The Archduke to leave Heroldo, Bythonium or Bidsinum by July 16 and meet the King at Lublin. 8. The Archduke to swear to the terms on July 28. 9. He shall not aid the Muscovites against Poland. 10. Mutual reparation for losses.
Undated. Endd. “Cancellarius Polonicus ad Papas legatum.” Latin. 2/3 p. [Treaty Papers (Poland) LV. No. 5.]

Footnotes

1 Stafford reached La Rochelle on March 29 and embarked on the 31st. —Spanish Cal., 1587–1603, p. 529. 12—(12)
2 MS. torn.
3 See de Thou, XCV.
4 P. 106, above.
5 Probably the eight whose names are given in H.M.C., Hatfield MSS., XIII. 398.
6 Dutch text of this and the following document in Bor, XXVI. f. 9.
7 See Signet Office Docquets, I. f. 187.
8 Navarre was within six leagues of the King at Tours, though he did not visit him, March 4 to 8 N.s.—See Lettres Missives de Henri IV, II. 459, 460.
9 Antonio da Vega, who reached Paris just before March 12/22—see Spanish Calendar, IV. 520.
10 Internal evidence would suggest that this paper belonged rather to about September, 1588, e.g. they had then been nearly two years without a full pay. See also Russell's letter of 13 September, 1588—Calendar, XXII. 199.
11 This levy had already been ordered on March 28—Acts of the Privy Council, XVII. 118.
12 Printed in extenso in Castries, I. 522–3.
13 See de Thou, lib. XCVI