June 1586, 16-20


Institute of Historical Research



Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: June 1586, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 2: June 1586-March 1587 (1927), pp. 18-44. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75285 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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June 1586, 16-20

Yours of the 9th I received at Utrecht the 13th by Mr. Gorge, and will deserve the continuance of your favour with my best service. For the office of the Isle [of Ely], and Mr. Goldwell's importunity, you show all the parts of a noble counsellor and I humbly thank your lordship for your good care over me. You know that Goldwell and I both submitted our cause to your order, yet for expedition of justice you suffered me "to place Baron Flowerdew, not barring Goldwell's right, either to be recovered by your lordship's judgment or by law." Now I pray you to let me place Judge Suite [Shute] for the time. If I live, I shall be at home by Hallowmass and then will abide your order ; if I die, all is in your hands. Meanwhile, let me receive no "blemish" by my absence. I presume of your lordship's wonted favour in my just cause, and have written to Judge Suite to execute the same, "who can and will distribute right to her Majesty's subjects, according to law." "I would not write to your lordship the loss of Grave, partly for that Sir Tho. Heneage was as well informed as the time would give him leave, but specially that the circumstances were not then certainly known. The Governor, Emert, is a gentleman of Guelder, of great kindred, living and acquaintance. There be many vehement presumptions to argue a treacherous practice with the enemy. The best that can be made of it was most vile cowardice, mixed with such negligence as is unspeakable. In the time of that siege, he spent his time in his house, fellowed with his harlot, and when he came abroad, could not be gotten by entreaty of captains, soldiers or burghers to do anything for the defence of the town, but straight entered into a 'contience' (sic) of the people, wishing rather to give up the town than suffer the blood of so many innocents to be spilt ; which purpose he did prosecute with speed, and sent a drum to the enemy for parley. In the meanwhile, he practised with the captains and burgers to assent thereto ; some of both sorts he compassed and some refused. It is confessed of most that the battery which was made was stronger by the reason of the ruin of [a] castle which fell with the battery than it was before it was battered, and more impossible to be assaulted. After the delivery of the town, he came with three captains to my lord's camp before Nimegen very boldly, where my lord caused him and his company to be under guard, his lordship minding to deliver him [to] justice according to the proportion of his fact, for which purpose, his lordship granted a commission to the Count Hollock, the Earl of Essex, with sundry of us and sundry of the Dutch, to hear and examine him and his cause. Of this commission we sat at the camp in Bommelsward, where we found such delays by Emert's friends, as we stayed to proceed ! My lord brought him with him from Bommel to Gorcum ; from thence to Utrecht, where he meaneth to follow the cause by the advice of the States and of their council, so as themselves shall witness the justice and censure his fact ;... His head and his body will be severed, as I suppose. "After the delivery of Grave, the Prince did raise his army, and went in person to Venlo, where he is now engaged. My lord hearing thereof and 'Skinks' being then with him, his lordship sent Skinks and Roger Williams with 600 horse, whereof 450 were Dutches, and 800 footmen, to see if they could possibly enter the town. They marched day and night, until they came to a town called 'Gelder,' not far from Venlo. There they left the footmen, and prayed the Dutch horsemen to march on with them, which they either refused to do, or else, going on with them a little way, lost them, and do now say they lost their way ; insomuch as Williams and Skinks took with them 120 English lancers and thirty of Skink's men. They came into the Prince's camp about midnight, killed a sentinal and all the Spaniards which kept the 'courte de garde,' in which slaughter Skinks was a great executioner ; they went hard to the Prince's tent and slew some of his guard (and as it is written by themselves) slew the Prince his secretary ; they passed the Burgonian camp, the Italians, and came hard to the turnpike of the town, where the Spaniards were marvellous strong, and they could by no means come near the gate. By this time the day was broken, and they discovered, by reason of the cries and 'larums which was in the night ; but whiles night lasted they were kings in the camp and did what they would. They both affirm that if the Dutches had been with them they had dangered the whole camp. "They retreated and were pursued with 2000 horse. They say the Prince was in person. Our men made many stands, supposing the enemy would have charged them, which they did not. Still they retreated as they might till they came to a town called 'Wachingdowen' [Wachtendonck], where they hoped to have been let in at the first, which they were not, and there the enemy did charge them. In that conflict they slew and took prisoners nigh fifty of our men. The bands that went was Sir William Russell's band, Sir John Norris' and Mr. Dormer's. Mr. Thwaites of Sir William Russell's band and two other gentlemen be prisoners. Of Mr. Norris' men few taken but killed ; Dormer's lieutenant, called Petite, is slain. The town at last took them in, which if they had done at the first, we had lost few or none ; a notable enterprise and most marvellous scape. I could tell your lordship that Skinks struck the Prince of Parma with his pistol which was shot off before ; that the Prince forsook his horse and saved himself afoot by passing a ditch ; but I cannot warrant it. Sure it is that they be not entered the town, and that there is not above 800 persons in the same. If God do not help. I fear the town, for my lord with all his forces is not able to meet the Prince ; notwithstanding, his lordship sendeth presently footmen and horsemen to do what may be done. If Venlo do go, he will have 'Nuse' next, and then as I believe, he will come to Holland to a town called Hosden [Huesden], where he hath many sure friends. If the cause be not better seconded than it is yet, I will look for no good end, although I will hazard my life in the action."—Utrecht, 16 June. Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 3 pp. Holland VIII. 93.] [The paragraph about Hemert is quoted by Motley, United Netherlands, ii., 19.]
June 16. A "GENERAL MEMORIAL" for the Low Countries.
The reforming of the contract. To move the States to furnish the two cautionary towns. To take order with the States for the payment of such sums of money as have been disbursed to the use of her Majesty's treasurer. To reduce the moneys to a certain rate. To reform the mints touching the coining of foreign coin, especially the coin of this realm, as also to see a true standard kept in their own coins. To advertise him [over them, erased] of the order taken for the 1000 men in Ireland. To take care that her Majesty's charges exceed not the sum of 126000l. That the charges of the principal officers contained in the first contract may be defrayed by the reducing the captains and their officers to be within the number of the bands. To advertise what forces the States do entertain, both horsemen and footmen, and how they are distributed. How the contributions, both ordinary and extraordinary, be answered. To deliver to Mr. Atye a note of the money disbursed for imprests of the voluntaries. To make a collection of such payments as have been made by the Treasurer or the under-treasurer without extraordinary abridgement, otherwise than is contained in the lord General's warrant. The answer touching Seburo [Zubiaur]. The freeing of the river of Ems. The success of W. Herle's employment towards the Earl of Emden. That it is found by reckonings here that for a full pay unto the 12th of June, there is to be sent over the sum of 31000l. The Earl to be advised not to hazard the battery but upon great advantage. To take good order for full checks, notwithstanding there is no full pay made. To acquaint the Earl with the ambassador of Denmark's cold manner of proceeding here. To give his lordship to understand the mislike generally had of the placard for the restraining of trade with Spain. To acquaint the States with the extraordinary charges sustained by her Majesty besides the treasure employed in her defence, in respect of her assistance given unto them. That the Merchants Adventurers, besides the 5000l. already paid there, have promised to furnish 10000 more by the 25th of this present. To acquaint his lordship with the motions for peace. To answer the Earl touching the pioneers. To certify of what number the States do consist. To know what proportion of the treasure now sent over the Earl will have stayed here for imprests of pioneers and soldiers. To advertise what forces by seas. To acquaint him with the proceedings with Emden. In Walsingham's handwriting. Endd. with date. 3 pp. [Holland VIII. 94.]
Is most bound to her Majesty for her good acceptance of his late little service, and beholden to his honour for his favours, and especially the furtherance of his brother [qy. his brother-in-law, John Wingfield] into these parts. Is more ready to acknowledge his friendship therein than able to requite it, having greater goodwill and desire to perform than means to accomplish either. Prays that the bearer, his servant, may have licence for bringing over such victuals and other necessaries as are needful to supply the wants of his garrison.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 17 June, 1586, stilo antiquo. Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland VIII. 95.]
June 17. Account, in tabulated form, endorsed by Burghley, "The charge of all officers for the field during Sir John Norrys's service, until the 11 of June. Mr. Hunt's book. "The monthly charges, 294l. A debt of 3715l. 10s." [sic]. In the table it is given at 3517l. 10s. In this document, Norrys is called "The late General, now Colonel general of the footmen." Two sheets. [Ibid. 96.]
June 17. Rough draft, entirely in Burghley's hand, of the letter of June 19, below. Endorsed by him with date, and statement that the writers were the Lord Treasurer, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, and Mr. Secretary. 9 pp. [Ibid. 97.]
"I have thought good apart to write unto you that you may impart it and confer with my cousin Cecil touching Harlingen in Friesland before I write anything to her Majesty or my lords. For in truth I take my cousin to be deceived of the place, being nothing well seated for his liking or purpose, as I think. The matter may be easily compassed, for the town desires English companies and the States will like of it also ; but it stands upon the southern sea [i.e. Zuyder Zee] which is a dead unwholesome water and the country about 'Hirlingham,' low, like to Holland, full of ditches and waters ; a very strong place it is, and the country very rich ; but it is not a place either for service, or to answer her Majesty's turn like the Brill, for it restrains not any place, as Amsterdam, Enchusen or any other of the trading towns of North Holland, except we had withal either Enchusen or Medenblyk. Having either of these, then may Hirlingham stand to some purpose, but without one of those, nothing at all, for the channel doth lie upon both the shores, the one toward Hirlingham, the other toward Enchusen, so that though you have Hirlingham, yet may all ships go in and out by Enchusen and Medenblick. Besides, going and coming into Holland he hath an ill passage upon any weather. I would have my cousin therefore examine the matter thoroughly well again, because the Brill in truth doth keep the passage for all South Holland, and all the chief traffic is out by the Brill as doth daily appear, beside the passage into Holland easier ; and for the summer the Island there, whereof he shall have the whole government also, is very commodious, but therein for his health's sake, I will refer to himself to make choice. Neither do I know, in all Holland or Zeeland a wholesome seat for health. The wholesomest grounds are in these countries, Utrycht, Overissel and Gelders, in which countries there be these towns that stand healthfully, and are frontier towns, Utrycht, Amorsfort, Arnham, Narden ; but as Narden stands well, so is it a poor town, yet strong, as all the rest are that stand in dry countries, more easy to be besieged than those of Holland. 'Berges up Some' is in a good place, but not like to the other. If any of these would content him to lie in, with such strong garrisons as he shall think meet, I will be most glad [of] it ; for it is like I shall for my time be most in these places, because it is nearer the enemy than Holland any way. And this may be without change [sic] of the Brill or troubling of her Majesty. And because I hear he means to come over very shortly, I wish he forbear any resolution till he inform himself perfectly of all places, whereof he shall have his choice, and I will take upon me the not answering the matter well enough. Thus much I thought good to write to your lordship, and to be excused that I write not as much to my cousin ; for in deed I this day also write to her Majesty, Mr. Secretary, and to Mr. Vice chamberlain by this bearer his servant Cox...and in much haste take my leave. 18th June [1586.] Though I must refuse my lord's offer and yours for the papist pioneers, fearing the hurt they may do here and little good I know we shall have by them, yet I pray your lordship further my former often requests for pioneers and that with all the speed possible, appointing some honest trusty man and of skill to conduct them, and his charges and all theirs shall be here borne upon their arrival, and what your lordship shall lay out, I will here see it repaid to the treasurer from the States, for I stand in some better terms than I did. I was not in case till now of late to deal roundly with them as I have done and have established the Chamber of finances against some of their wills, whereby I doubt not to procure great benefit to increase our ability for payments hereafter. The people I find still best devoted to her Majesty, though of late many lewd practices have been used to withdraw their good wills, but it will not be. They still pray God that her Majesty will be their sovereign. She should then see what a contribution they will all bring forth ; but to the States they will never return, which will breed some great mischief ; there is such mislike against the States universally. I would your lordship had seen the case I have lived in among them this four months, specially after her Majesty's mislike found ; you would then perchance marvel to see how I have waded as I have done through no small obstacles without help, counsel, or assistance but God only whom I praise and bless for it. I may never forget Sir William Pellam till I see him here, if you love this cause." Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 2 pp. [Holland VIII. 98.]
"I have received sundry letters from you almost at once within this four days. There be sundry points in them to give you answer to. "In the first your lordship doth write for the consideration of our diversity in moneys, which my lord, I have been long in hand withal, and was forced to take an order therein generally for all the coins of these countries, as may appear by a placard to be set out forthwith therefor, for I deferred it as long as was possible to hear from your lordship and Mr. Secretary touching the value of her Majesty's moneys ; for that I would not agree to any certain rate of them till you had there first considered of them, and so to receive your advices ; having written to you both sundry times therein, praying also to have Palmer to be sent over hither unto me for that purpose chiefly. And yet is it very needful that he do come, for I have not resolutely set down any but only the rose noble provisional, since I had your letter, which is rated at sixteen gilders, being thirty-two shillings sterling of our money. The angel I would not consent to rate, for that they would allow him but to be five gylders, which is ten shillings, as we account it here. The shilling they would have go at a less price than I can like of also, and therefore I required to have Palmer, and yet do ; assuring your lordship it is neither Atye nor the wisest unpractised man in England that Palmer can make able to answer all objections here, for here be very perfect and skilful men, and shall find enough to do it himself, and till either he or as sufficient a man come, I mean not to set down her Majesty's coin at any certain value. "Your lordship hath set a rate of the angel and the shilling which I think you did mistake ; for you say if the angel may be set at fifteen shillings and the shilling at twenty pence, it were a reasonable value. I know your lordship cannot mean it sterling, for they esteem our angel but ten shillings sterling, and the shilling at ten styvers' or rather under, which scantly maketh our twelve pence. Therefore I must needs understand you better by your further explanation. I do like your lordship's consideration very well, for the moneys carrying a great value must needs draw away your coin out of that realm. But I see in truth no piece of our coin that is brought hither, but that which her Majesty hath sent, for here is no gain in it ; only the great rose noble for the fairness of the piece is exalted and much desired, specially of merchants, but there doth pass into other places out of England ten times as much as hath been sent hither. But now the estimation here is gone of them, and much ado I had to make them hold sixteen gilders, and that is but till I hear from her Majesty and your lordship, as well for the continuance of them as for the rating of [the] rest. "Your lordship doth also in an other letter write touching certain silver coined at Amsterdam like her Majesty's shilling. I assure you I never heard of it, and yet it is like that there may be some ten or twelve shillings made of them there upon this occasion. Your lordship doth remember I wrote to you long ago what an offer was made me only to have coined here the rose noble, at the same weight, goodness and fineness that her Majesty's are. Their offer seemed to me a very good offer, being thirty thousand pounds to be paid before the end of her Majesty's year with the States should end, but I did not perceive it was liked. Your lordship wrote to me that her Majesty had a very good rate at her mint for that coin, and as I remember not meant to have much more of it made. This fellow I caused to make proof of his work, which indeed was in every part equal with her Majesty's, as did appear by the assay taken by the party sent hither by Palmer ; and as he took oath to make not above three pieces, so I think he did not, for at my coming to Amsterdam it was informed me that such a man had set up a coining house for to coin English gold. I sent Atye thither, who brought away with him both those few pieces he had made and likewise all his stamps, which are yet in my custody. But I never heard he made any one piece of silver ; doubting it therefore, that your lordship is not rightly informed of the place that silver coin is made at, but I think it is money made at an other town called Gorkum, wherein I have dealt most earnestly, finding that there was coined both the whole rose noble and the half piece, to the great defacing of her Majesty's coin, and yet was it not made either with her Majesty's picture or arms, but they, under pretence of licence from the princess of 'Symay' (Chimay) gave her print and her arms. But indeed it was to abuse the common sort that would not look so narrowly upon the piece, resembling her Majesty's piece greatly. At that place I heard also of the shilling to be made, but was not true, for there is too gross abuse in it, not for the print but for the value ; yet nevertheless I will cause narrow inquisition to be made for it, and due punishment as far as any law will permit ; or rather borrow a little of it for such a foul fault. But there is so many royalties and liberties upon the skirts of these countries that give licence to coin, as it will not be holpen at their hands ; for I hear it is the shift and gain of divers poor princes, to take advantage for the first brunt of any fair coin made, of whomsoever. Therefore I was sorry that thirty or forty thousand pounds should be lost, that might have been so easily gotten here toward the help of soldiers if it pleased her Majesty, and saved so much of her own. "Your lordship writeth in another part that you have dealt with the Merchants Adventurers to pay here thirty thousand pounds, and they offer twenty thousand ; in deed my lord, I think her Majesty shall gain now by the exchange, for so it was told me at the taking up the last five thousand pounds, which if I had not done, our soldiers had been utterly discouraged, in such sort as I would as lief be dead as see. Our new men found them so hard bested, as of eleven hundred there ran away above three hundred in a night and a day. But we have taken the most again, and will execute some for example, and do most heartily desire your lordship and the rest of my lords that severe punishment be made of those which come without my own passport. For by reason of counterfeiting men's hands, and liberty captains took, I have made restraint that none doth give passport but myself, no, not to a pioneer ; therefore no passport to be allowed there but the Governors' of Bryle and Flushing, Ostend and Berges-up-Some. If your money come shortly, it cometh in exceeding good time, and I will tell you that you will think much of ; there hath been more ready money delivered to the soldiers' own hands of this five thousand pounds than they have received in money from their first coming till this day. And I pray you my lord, remember what I have written, for my part I will deal no more nor never sign warrant again if they have the disposing of the treasure that had it. I have willed Atye to let you know what hath moved me to sign warrants for the payment of our English men in the States pay ; for the truth is, the money was paid either without my warrant or asignment, and the States would never have paid it again but upon seeing my warrants, which caused me to sign them after the money paid, and though they lay much fault upon the States, I can say much to excuse them, for it is true neither treasurer nor muster master did ever deliver roll to them. I doubt if they have it yet or no. If they have it is but lately, nor I myself could have them set down or perfectly divided till April last. The cause of the treasurer's desire to pay those men I think he will confess himself was his own profit. I made him confess it to me before I signed the warrant. If the auditor deal honestly, he can tell you of too many abuses ; at least he told me here so ; and if your lordship do think that we are paid either horse or foot till the 12th of April, you are deceived. I marvel the auditor hath not at the first told you the cause of it, for he caused me to sign the warrant when I and he both knew the pay was made (certain towns excepted, Brill and Flushing) but only for one month, beside that he made great doubt to me that he thought the treasurer had not only great sums of money in his hands of the last account, but also of the former, howsoever matters be wrapped up since by them. But as I wrote to your lordship the best auditor in England is weak enough to deal in these accounts ; I see so far into them. But hereafter having a plain direct man to deal withal, you shall see, not only your accounts plain, but the payments to stretch in other sort than yet they have done. And for any money laid out for the States, though the treasurer did it of himself, yet will I see it answered sooner than he will some debts perchance he hath set upon some mens' heads. If your merchants make difficulty to pay money here, they are the more worthy of blame, for it is rather a pleasure to them than otherwise as the world goeth, and let them say what they will, they gain here greatly, at the least I know they may do. Your strangers there dally with you. They know that they shall offend the King of Spain, and their doings will be known, and therefore you shall find them double fellows. I am sorry our merchants can not like of Amsterdam or Delph. I assure you my lord they may utter their cloths at Amsterdam as well and far better than at Embden ; and so without the controlment of any, for all the Esterlings will come thither willingly to buy, and if we can hold the Rhine, as yet we have it, then will there be good passage that way. God send us some reasonable number of horsemen, and then I trust to keep it safe enough. Grave was most villainously given over, and this very morning hath Hemert lost his head for it, with two other captains, having had much ado to bring them to justice, so many friends had he, and so rare was the example here, for this is the first man that hath been executed this twenty years for loss of towns, and yet hath there been twenty towns naughtily given up, yet will they make a face of justice, and bring the matter to dilatory dealings by advocates, and so by friendship they have all escaped. But I could not suffer this man to pass so, though I had adventured more than I do now for this ; for it was a matter most earnestly desired of all good people to have justice, and a good example will it be. We proceeded by martial law, giving a commission to the Count Hollock, the Count Newenar and divers others, colonels and officers of the field, and was openly arraigned before these, and found guilty, and three other captains with him, whereof one, for very just cause, I have spared ; the other were executed together this morning, nine aclock, with the greatest satisfaction of all the people that hath been seen. They said there lacked but like justice upon three or four of the States themselves, that be, as they think, as arrant traitors as Hemert, and so I think there be some of them in deed. "For the passage of our merchants to Embden, I have dealt for it reasonably, I doubt not, and do look for the return of William Herle, whom I sent a month since thither and more upon her Majesty's pleasure signified ; but my lord, you must warn our merchants that they carry not provisions for the enemy under colour in sending to Embden freely, for so have they done. I say still Amsterdam would be the fittest place for them, though the Rhine were not yet free. The reasons your lordship sent me of theirs be very slight. I can make them confess their error before you, as I trust by your good help I shall, though I would not willingly leave these people at this time, when the enemy is on his fence against them. I do much fear Venlo, for that Colonel Shenks cannot get into it, and there be many mutinous people within, and the town not the best manned. But if they hold out twenty days longer, I trust to relieve it, one way or other. Without our English companies these countries had been lost, I mean Guelders and even to this town ..... They take great comfort of our people, and care nothing now for Grave, since they all know it was lost as it was ; for the manner of giving it up gave the enemy more honour, and discouraged more the whole countries than if it had been sold or betrayed. For all men would think that Grave being lost by force, no town is like to hold out the enemy, it being the chief strong town of all these provinces, but now being gone, we must seek to preserve the rest and get some other if we can." And so I take my leave, recommending to you this cause, "and your poor absent servants, who see little assistance, help or comfort,...and what pains, travail and care hath been taken to preserve all upright, perhaps as little known or less esteemed."—Utrecht, 18 June. Postscript. "I will send her Majesty the examinations and confessions of all the captains and soldiers against Hemert, which may show it was neither for need nor for fear that he should deliver it. To make the dealing for our merchants more plain to your lordship it was this : that they must bring your passport, and for some things my lord Admiral's ; the reason is for that under colour of our Merchants Adventurers there passed to Emden great store both of victuals and provisions for the enemy and did serve the enemy in deed, but there is no merchant will be stayed, if he bring your lordship's passport with him, and I hope you will find it reasonable, the time being as it is and that place such as it is, for their prejudice here." Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 5 pp. [Holland VIII. 99.]
June 18/28. Resolution of the States General—upon representations by Heer Bardesius of his Excellency's request, in regard of the misfortunes of Friesland—that in the farming of the revenues of that province for the next three months, the impost upon horned beasts shall be lightened. Copy, certified by Aerrsens. Dutch. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. 100.]
Upon news of the death of the Serjeant of the Bakehouse, he wrote to Sir Walter Rawley in behalf of one Jewkes, yeoman garnitor ; but now understands that Mr. Nicholas Gorges is a suitor for the place, whom, had he known it earlier, he would have been loth to do anything to hinder, he being an old servant of her Majesty and well worthy of preferment. Wherefore, (though the other be one to whom he would gladly do any good he could) he must needs prefer Mr. Gorge, and heartily requests that he may be furthered in his suit.—Utrecht, 19 June, 1586. Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Ibid. 101.]
June 19. [BURGHLEY, HATTON AND WALSINGHAM] to LEICESTER. (fn. 1) "It may please your good lordship to understand that we three subscribing this letter have received a very large letter written with your lordship's own hand directed to us three only, and written as it seemeth about one day before Sir Thomas Heneage last coming to your lordship. And though every of us may write to your good lordship several letters, and such as might answer the principal parts of this your letter to us in common ; yet, because your lordship shall certainly understand that we all have read and considered the same, we have thought it convenient jointly by this our letter to answer some such parts of yours as we find convenient and meet for us to answer unto. "In the first part of your lordship's letter we consider your lordship's complaint of the hard success you have had in lacking comfort and allowance of her Majesty for your lordship's service from the beginning, notwithstanding you otherwise have had very good successes there by many victories, and winning of places from the enemy by such as have served underneath you. "Secondly your lordship also to increase the causes of your grief addeth that you have not (being five months in a strange country) received any letter either of encouragement or of advice from us ; but altogether discomfortable in such a time as your lordship writeth to have received no comfort, either from prince or Council. And upon that point your lordship concludeth with a very reasonable request, that we would bear with your lordship, having served her Majesty not in least account about her, and that we should indifferently weigh your lordship's case, and make it one of our own. "Thirdly your lordship earnestly requireth us as your good friends, that we will be means to her Majesty, that your service being not more agreable unto her, your lordship may have her favour to return. And for means thereunto, your lordship remembereth unto us, that it might be devised that you might be sent for ; and that to appear to the States and people there to be but for a time, which way your lordship wisheth had been first taken. And so your lordship concludeth that in the mean time, you will do her Majesty the best service you can, God willing, and so leaving the report of that state until Sir Thomas Heneage should return. All these things in order, being the principal contents of your lordship's letter, we have thought meet to repeat before our answer, though your grief of mind be indeed in many other words more largely expressed, which as we are very sorry to conceive, so are we loth to repeat, as being ourselves touched in our own hearts with remembrance thereof. And yet by our short repetition, your lordship we hope shall be better satisfied with our answer, when you shall see that we have not negligently considered of your lordship's writing, as being careful to give your lordship such satisfaction as we are able, and as our hearts towards your lordship in all good offices of kindness to your person, and respect to your estate and place of service doth testify with us. "For the first, we do confess that your lordship hath had no small cause of complaint for the lack of comfort from her Majesty and of allowance of you for your service ; and in that part we assure your lordship, and that in the presence of Almighty God, we have ourselves been greatly grieved in mind, and by our often dealing with her Majesty to stay that course, we have also in very earnest sort received from her Majesty such resolute answers of her determination concerning her offence against the accepting of that government without her knowledge, as we could not procure any stay or toleration of that which her Majesty intended by sending of Sir Thomas Heneage thither. And though we did allege the dangers many ways that we thought might ensue thereof, yet her Majesty was otherwise induced and persuaded in her own opinion, but by what means of any other persuasions given to her we truly did not know ; in so much as she commanded us expressly even at the first before the certainty was known whether your lordship had accepted the same, to write to you as we did with some others of the Council, to declare that her pleasure was, that either you should not accept it, or if you had, her meaning was that you should not continue it. And after your lordship's answer and the circumstances thereof well considered, we did both jointly many times, and severally declare our opinions, with as earnest speeches as we might to regard the necessity of the causes that moved you to accept the place, and the great commodities that might ensue to the advancement of the common cause if her Majesty would allow of your doings ; and contrariwise of the discommodities to the cause, not only in those countries, but here also at home, if her Majesty should still continue and notify her open misliking of your action. And truly, our very good lord, if we should by writing repeat our sundry and large arguments, we might fill many sheets of paper ; and yet herein we must not omit to testify to your lordship that we found not this her Majesty's resolution to have grown, as particularly 'percase' hath been here suggested and to your lordship signified, of any special indignation or offence to yourself as to your person ; but her reasons to us were always that she should be touched in honour to assent hereunto, considering she had published her mind to be otherwise, as she would needs affirm, but for the dangers by us often times remembered with earnest affections, she seemed not to be of our mind, but in her speeches rather warranting the contrary ; but how or by whom, or for what secret respects her Majesty was so in her own opinion settled we know not. And yet we now perceive that upon further consideration in later time her Majesty is pleased to change her former course, and is as ready to commend and allow of your services there as we can move her. And as to any mislike of yourself, besides our own knowledge of the contrary, we did evidently see, at sundry times, by her own letters, how she sought to recomfort you, and to allow of your faithfulness and painfulness in all your services. Although nevertheless we perceive, by your writing, that such comfort did not continue so long as you desired, which surely did not proceed of lack of love towards you, or of determination of her good opinion of your worthiness. "Thus much for the first, wherein we have also incidently made such mention of our own actions as the same might suffice to satisfy your lordship for the second part. But yet we will also remember somewhat more, though the same shall be the more shortly. "Truly your lordship hath cause to be grieved, and to complain to us, but not to be grieved with us or complain of us, for therein is the true difference betwixt your lordship in complaining and us in answering, in that you received no letter from us in the space of five months of encouragement or advice, but altogether discomfortable. Our answer is, that if your lordship mean that we did write anything with intent to discourage you in your service, or to discomfort you by misliking of your service, your lordship surely doth greatly mistake us ; for certainly, we never had any mind or cause so to think of your lordship. But we did always conceive well, comfortably and honourably of your services, and did always and do still allow, yea, heartily desire that the common cause might be defended and upholden by your service ; not knowing in very truth how without your lordship's perseverance it would stand for any short time. But in that we did not, either privately or jointly by our letters or messages give your lordship such comfort as that her Majesty would allow of the acceptation of the Government, and so to encourage you therein, we had just cause to forbear from that course ; for finding as we did, her Majesty's earnestness to the contrary, and our 'unhabilities' by any arguments to dissuade the same, we should have abused your lordship, and have misused ourselves in writing that whereof we had no warrant, nor indeed many times no hope, but yet we never changed our minds, nor ceased as occasion served to procure from her Majesty such other resolutions as might have given us cause to have written for your comfort. And for advice to change your course we thought never fit or safe to advise you thereunto, but still persisted in our opinions for countenance of your government in respect of the common cause, and therefore we could not give your lordship any advice to the contrary. Besides this our true and just answer for ourselves, we hope that your lordship, by your other particular friends, and by your ministers and servants have been, and may daily more and more be satisfied with our sincerity, both towards yourself for your own person, estimation and credit, and also to the action which your lordship hath to prosecute by the means of your office, if you may have the execution thereof by good dealing of the States there with you, as you deserve, for in that opinion we firmly do remain, that without earnest perseverance by your lordship's means in that action, that you may have sufficiency of men, both for defence of your towns, and to be also strong in the field, the cause will fall, the enemy will rise, and we here must stagger if we do not worse. And surely, whatsoever speeches be blown abroad of parleys of peace, all will be but smoke for any good thereof to follow. "And therefore for advice to your lordship we can in substance give you none better but that next your depending upon God's goodness by service of him, both by the people under you as near as may be, and by yourself, whereof we doubt not but that your lordship hath a most earnest daily regard, your lordship must so deal earnestly with the States now upon her Majesty's gracious answer to them, as you must be furnished indeed with sufficient money to pay monthly or quarterly your Army, and how great that is to be, we can rather conjecture than express. But yet we wish that your lordship should not have less for your army for the field, besides the towns defended, than ten or eleven thousand footmen, a thousand pioneers, and two thousand lances, and as many other horsemen. "For the third matter, being a request that we would move her Majesty that (your service not being agreeable) your lordship might with her favour return ; hereunto, as the time now is, we must answer otherwise than before the change that we now find in her Majesty's most honourable opinion ; for truly we would readily have moved her Majesty that your lordship might have returned in as good sort as we could have devised, if her Majesty had continued in mind to have had you left [sic] the title of the Government ; for thereby we were persuaded that your lordship's service should smally avail the cause. But now that her Majesty is not only minded, but as we perceive resolutely determined, yea, persuaded fully that it is necessary for your lordship, not only to continue in that Government, but to have it more amply established and perfected to all purposes for your credit and strength, and specially with money and men for maintenance of those countries against the enemy ; we should greatly err if we would at this time (specially whilst the summer lasteth) move her Majesty and assent to revoke your lordship. "And for her Majesty's resolution to allow of your government, we know your lordship shall by her letter to that Council see a full satisfaction for your self ; and so we will end this our common letter, committing all other things meet for your lordship's knowledge to Mr. Aty. "We have showed to Mr. Aty a printed thing at Antwerp entitled a discourse of the taking of Grave, full of untruths as we are assured. And we think it necessary that some counter buff be given thereto, with expression of the truth, and condemnation of the untruth in the same book ; with also some publication of the process against the traitors, the Governor and his Captains, which being circumspectly compiled, we desire it may be also published in English. [This last clause added in Burghley's handwriting.] Draft or Copy. Corrected here and there and endorsed with date by Burghley. 7 pp. [Holland VIII. 102.]
"Till the melancholy news of Grave were throughly digested, I could find no joy to write unto your lordship ; but now that justice is done upon those cowardly offenders, honest men are discharged of blame." Hemert and two captains were executed on the 18th, protesting that they had no dealings with the enemy, nor were guilty of any treason, but only that they delivered up the town while it was yet defensible. The Prince of Parma lies before Venlo, and keeps Skynk from coming in. He gave a good attempt about 10 days ago [short account of Skink's raid]. It is reported that he has surprised a town called 'Kesars wearte,' above Venlo, from whence the enemy had much victual, but the Prince continues his siege, and began to batter three days ago. The grief is that we should see our towns thus besieged, and are not able to relieve them. Our camp is now passing over into Brabant, about "Sertingame buss," [Hertogenbosch] where it is said the Prince has laid ten cornets of horse and three or four thousand foot to encounter them. Their purpose is to spoil his harvest, but we cannot do much until the forces are stronger ; "this is but to win time, and in seeming to do somewhat, to make our friends less weary of us." I am taking advantage of this "vacation" to dispatch some business in England, and unless your lordship otherwise appoints me, shall come over about the end of this month.—Utrecht, 19 June. Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 2 pp. [Holland VIII. 103.]
"Leaving to write" of the death of Hemert and his two captains or the reported taking of "Keyserswert" by Schenk and Roger Williams, I will only note two things not yet of any understood. The first and principal is "that where all the time of the Prince of Orange's government, the Council of States kept in their own hands the whole dealings with the revenues and finances of all these lands" (which before was always done by officers commissioned thereunto) now my lord has re-erected the court of finances, as in the days of Charles V and also King Philip, making the Count of 'Meurs' president and next to him Mr. "Kylygrave," then Brackell, and Ryngaut for treasurer ("by whose means the whole estate of that office and the great frauds used by lack thereof, came principally to my lord's knowledge") then after him, certain of the Council of Estates, who must chose in which commission they will serve, as they must not do so in both. "The Prince of Orange being not ignorant of their frauds, did often level at this matter, but was never able to hit it, because they knew he was poor and had no way else to live but upon their alms-basket." This thing was finished but yesterday, and the Count of Meurs and others are this afternoon to receive their authority and take their oaths. By this means my lord will shortly be able to certify her Majesty of the true ability of these countries, so that nothing can be hid that concerns the same. Having written thus far, I was sent for by my lord, and so was present when the Count, Mr. Kylygrave, Mr. Ryngaut and Mr. Burgrave (fn. 2) received their oaths. Tomorrow my lord will sit with them and the rest of that court in the foresaid office ; a matter, in truth, of great moment, for so have these States handled the matter, that amongst other things, there is an "imposition" granted to some parties by favour for one hundred pounds by the year, which is worth eight thousand. "With these tricks have they enriched themselves." The whole people is here so addicted to her Majesty and my lord, "in whom they find such incessant travail and care for her service and their general good," that they would willingly hang all those called States. "The second [point] is concerning our Council, which during my lord's absence, .. the chief burghers and captains in these parts have solemnly agreed upon, which is this :—that they are resolutely determined and agreed to offer to my lord on her Majesty's behalf their entire obedience as their only sovereign ; being content to remit whatsoever of their own liberties may appear to hinder any way that her supreme place, affirming constantly that if this should not be accepted at their hands, they will, as they may, stand upon their own guard, for as touching the States, they will never more subject themselves unto them, nor have to do with them. This have they delivered unto my lord, and await the sequel......."—Utrecht, 19 June, 1586. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1 p. [Holland VIII. 104.]
June 19. [DR. AUBREY to SIR WALTER MILDMAY.] (fn. 3)
Having perused a letter of the 12th of this month written to your honour from the Lords and other of her Majesty's Privy Council, and having considered thereof, I return for answer "that I find it accorded the last day of November in the year 1564 between her Majesty and the King of Spain by the Duchess of Parma, that the execution of all laws on both sides made since the first of January in the first year of her Majesty's reign any way restraining the freedom of the intercourse should be suspended until the end of a Diet then agreed upon to be had at Bridges, where accordingly it was kept in two several years by the space of many months, and at length the most part of the differences were compounded and agreed upon. And because their civil dissensions grew very great there......that colloquy was prorogued and continued until either of the princes by their letters should certify the other that this prorogation and adjournment should cease." In which case, letters were to be published in the dominions of both princes that the subjects on both sides might depart quietly with their goods within forty days after such publication ; and until such signification should be given, which is not yet done, it is provided that the intercourse shall be continued according to the said treaty between her Majesty and the Duchess of Parma, as appears by a solemn instrument, dated 21 June, 1566. In that conference I find it agreed that it should be lawful for the subjects of the Low Countries to bring in all those wares called manufactures forbidden by the Statutes of our realm. But as in law a treaty such as this consisting of many capitulations is of no force unless all be agreed upon and the commissioners of both Princes shall ratify the same under their hands and seals, it may be said that the particular agreement of the commissioners in few points cannot prejudice the subjects of the princes. Therefore, your honour must remember that there was a treaty made at Bristol, 21 Aug, 1574, wherein it was covenanted that the use of the Intercourse shall continue until the end of the next colloquey to be had at Bruges as it was before the general arrests in 1568. And as there has been no such colloquey, nor any signification from either of the Princes, it follows "that the use of the Intercourse was and ought to be as it was in the month of January in the first year of her Majesty's reign, since which year all the laws prejudicial to the subjects of the Low Countries and offensive to the Intercourse have been made. It helpeth the matter in equity......that one of the chiefest articles of the now complainants' griefs was agreed upon expressly by the commissioners of both Princes in that colloquey." The copy whereof, with other notes out of the treatises, I have sent to your honour to warrant this my opinion.—19 June, 1586. Copy, without signature, address or endorsement. 2½ pp. [Holland VIII. 105.]
June [19]. Document endorsed "Matters to be related to her Majesty touching the miscontentments and doubts found in certain of the principal noblemen of the United Provinces. June, 1586."
Venlo, after a week's battery, taken by composition, 19 June. Victuals and men enough to hold it longer. No English garrison in the town, nor had my lord sufficient forces in field to remove the siege ; if which two points shall not be supplied, we are to expect no better fortune. Edzart (Egert), Grave of Embden, wholly devoted to Spain and has lately received order of Golden Fleece. Mr. Herle sent of late by his Lordship in her Majesty's name. His entertainment cold and contemptible, "delivering in effect unto him that he was indifferent to take either peace or war." His lordship thinks him unworthy to have the benefit of the traffic of our merchants any longer. Count Hollock has resigned his office of Lieut. General. Is affianced or married to the sister of Count Maurice. Is content to serve privately but not otherwise. This sudden withdrawal gives cause for his lordship to suspect that he is either inclined to the Spanish faction or so alienated (by some particular discontent) that he can repose no trust in him. Count Maurice, absent for three months from his Lordship. "Utterly discontented and much advised by 'St.' Aldegonde, who is assuredly the King of Spain's, and practiseth .... to animate the Count by all means possible to thwart my lord." The Count repines secretly that her Majesty has anything to do in the government of the country. Fear that he will do much mischief to the common cause. The people murmur on the loss of Grave and Venlo, since her Majesty embraced their cause, alleging that the burden of their excises (which they hoped would be lessened) is greater than it was ; their strongest towns lost ; her Majesty's favour diminished, "as unwilling to address a royal army for their defence, which would remedy all these miseries." At my lord's first coming, the King of Denmark offered him 2000 horsemen, promising to send his own son with them as a pawn, in token of his devotion to the cause. This offer never since spoken of. It is feared that he is alienated, and would be glad to have the protection, or rather the sovereignty of these countries himself.
Paul Buys supports such a practice, "breaking and participating the same with Count Morris" ; alleging plainly to his lordship that it is commonly spoken that her Majesty will abandon the cause at Michaelmas, so these must think of some other prince to protect them, and that he was of opinion the King of Denmark would gladly entertain the action, who was strong in shipping, and best able to defend Holland and Zeeland. He protested his desire that she should continue their gracious lady, but his lordship is certainly informed that he tries to bring this matter to pass, and desires to go into Denmark to solicit for the promised horses, disguising his purpose under this colour. (fn. 4) His lordship prays for her Majesty's resolution what he shall do in the matter. Something must be done, unless it pleases her for the King of Denmark to have these countries ; "which, in regard of his neighbourhood and potency by sea" would bring great peril to England.
Montigny is disgraced with the Prince of Parma. It were fit he should be cherished, considering his worth and ability, and, is thought, would easily make some towns in Brabant to revolt.
'Ranzi' (fn. 5) (the son of a great personage in Denmark) lately came privately to my lord, and promised to serve him with three hundred horsemen, which he will bring into the field very shortly.
The Prince Elector (being faithfully devoted to her Majesty and the advancement of the cause in the Low Countries) told his lordship lately that he suspected Count Hollock was alienated. His lordship means to send Lord Willoughby or Mr. Robert Sydney to Denmark for the horsemen.
Palavicino does no good in Germany. Some other should be sent. "Show his letter to my Lord C."
Finances. He has erected a chamber of Finances, appointed officers and receivers, and hopes so to assure her Majesty what the country may be able to yield for the charge of the war. The States and people, perceiving her Majesty's coldness in their defence, need to be encouraged by her gracious letters, sent by some person of quality who might declare her intention to continue her goodness towards them, and require them to further the good success of the cause by such contributions as they are bound to perform by the contract, which they do not observe with fitting care, in respect of their present calamities. "Andrea de Loo and Augustine Grafigna (Griffini) practisers for peace (as it is said from her Majesty and some about her, do much hurt to the cause by that means, putting the people in despair of her Majesty's further goodness, which was partly a cause of the late loss of Grave and Venlo, and will peril other such important towns in like manner."
Ortell "is thought to be but a bad instrument in England, and apt to do more evil offices, in favour of the States in particular, than good in furtherance of the public cause and service of her Majesty ; for which respect his lordship thinketh it fit he be discharged and sent from hence." Considering the loss of Grave and Venlo, whereby the river "Maze" is taken from the inhabitants, and the benefit of their traffic destroyed, his lordship is of opinion that unless her Majesty will go beyond her contract in sending men and money it will be hard to keep the people from making their peace with Spain ; for they conceive that their losses nothing move her, as she does no more to help him than when their misery was not so great as now. Cox being at Middelburg, with one of the pensioners of the town, heard him say that next day he and some other deputies were going to entreat his lordship to give them again free vent of trade with the enemy. 5 pp. [Holland VIII. 106.] [Probably instructions given to Cox. See Leicester's letter, below.]
June 20. LEICESTER to the QUEEN.
"My most gracious lady, of my great comfort received by your most favourable lines written with your own sacred hand, I did most humbly acknowledge, by my former letters sent unto your most excellent Majesty, albeit I can no way make testimony oft enough of the great joy I took thereby. And seeing my wounded heart is by this means almost made whole, I do pray unto God that either I may never feel the like again from you, or not to suffer me to live, rather than I should fall into those torments of your displeasure. Most gracious Queen, therefore I beseech you, make perfect that you have begun. Let not the common danger nor any ill incident to the place I serve you now in, be accompanied with greater troubles and fear indeed, than all the horrors of death can bring me. My strong hope doth begin now so to assure me, as I have almost won the battle against despair, and do arm myself with as many of those wonted comfortable conceits as may confirm my new revived spirits, reposing myself ever more under the shadow of those blessed beams that must yield the only nourishment to this disease. "Touching the state of matters here I am loth to cumber your Majesty as I did in my other letter. I have presumed to instruct this bearer Cox, Mr. Vice Chamberlain's Secretary, with many things, knowing him to be a very honest wise man. Among others, there is one matter very meet for your Majesty to have some inkling of, and to consider of it what your opinion shall direct therein. I do know that here is one of this country and heretofore greatly affected to your Majesty, but since my being placed here, though he [was] then the chief furtherer and dealer to establish all authority in your Majesty, [words omitted?] it is Paul Buys, a very dangerous man, yet a man altogether hated and misliked both of the people and states, his only credit being the countenance he had and yet hath under your Majesty's favour. This man, that can never be content except he may rule all, is always upon mislike, seeking changes and alterations, and hath been so 'nowsuled' (fn. 6) in it, as he is a perfect scholar. He perceiving of like that your Majesty meaneth not to proceed so far in these countries as he looked for, or rather not finding himself the absolute director and governor as he would be, for that there be divers honester and better qualified men than himself joined with him, he is secretly working to make a king in deed over these two countries, Holland and Zealand, and one he doth insinuate into men's minds already all that ever he can, which is the king of Denmark, a matter not unlike to come to pass if your Majesty shall not assure these people of the continuance of your favour, which if they should be, all the princes of the world cannot win them from you. But this lewd 'somner' loseth no time where he can be heard to inform men how tickle a trust there is to be had of your Majesty's favour or promise, repenting withal greatly that ever he procured me over, being in deed as he said is since fallen out in no better grace with you, he assureth them of all wants at your hands and no help. This dealing of his is so discovered, as he fears it will come to mine ears ; and I trust it shall in such sort as will be his confusion, for he dealeth naughtily with your Majesty and most dangerously with this state, he caring for nothing but only to bear the sway and to grow rich, being a most covetous bribing fellow as I have learned thoroughly what he is ; one that dealt even in the same sort with the Prince of Orange that he doth with your Majesty ; and because he would colour his doings he is first about to make the Count Morris and the Count Hollock discontented, and to drive this state some ways into some danger or necessity, that then he might the better deal with men to look to themselves, and to take a new course, and that there is no trust to any prince's voluntary assistance or protection, but to have a lord and sovereign able to defend them, and will be glad of them, with many more arguments than I will trouble your Majesty withal, but have told this bearer whom I know will be secret, and it may please you to command him so, and to make very few acquainted withal but such as shall please you to consider how you will have it used ; for you are to think, if he (fn. 7) should have these two provinces absolutely as King, and may possess them, as without doubt next yourself he is most like of any prince in Europe, you must assure yourself he will be lord and commander over the narrow seas and all your traffics east and northward wholly under his restraint, for he will be the only mighty prince by sea. "Yesterday at Amsterdam arrived one of Raunces sons, the King of Denmark's chief subject, (fn. 8) without letter or any word to me, and yet this day came hither to me. His son goes not abroad to see these countries as he saith he doth, for he hath been here before now. But there is some special matter in it, and assuredly procured by P.B. [Paul Buys] hither to treat withal, for that I refused him to go to the King as an ambassador, being marvellous earnest therein, and that now he may break the matter with this young Raunce his father, being the only man with the King. But I trust to come to further knowledge of this matter and for a time to prevent Mr. Buys well enough. "This is yet the sum of my knowledge of the matter save that B. hath flatly said to me of late that the King of Denmark were the fittest lord for them in Christendom next your Majesty. Of B's. doings I have opened some further matter to this bearer to declare to your Majesty, as also of the proceedings with Hemert, late Governor of Grave, who with others, are condemned and executed, to the great 'contentation' of all the people and better sort. Much ado there was about it. The late coming over of your people hath greatly encouraged all men here. I pray God some of yours at home be not cause of some of our losses here. The States here now find what it is to detract time. I could never awake them with no persuasions to make them strong, specially with horsemen. Upon my further search into P. B.'s doings and some others I shall be able 'or' long to give your Majesty notice of such matter as shall be cause of your better direction for your course this way. For I will no way see your Majesty abused, by the grace of God, nor without the true knowledge of this estate and their whole intentions, wishing it may please your Majesty to send a wise substantial man hither with speed, with whom I may participate freely, and who shall see the matters plain himself. And thus, having been longer than I meant I do humbly take my leave, kissing your feet, and with my daily prayers call upon God for your long and happy preservation."—Utrecht, 20 June, 1586. Holograph. Add. Seal. 2¾ pp. [Holland VIII. 107.]
Renewing his former request that Captain Rayns, his servant may have a commission to bring over 200 voluntaries, and begging that he may be dispatched as soon as possible, as the time daily draws on when the men will be needed and Captain Rayns is one whom for his long experience and service in these parts he would gladly have there. The money for their transportation shall be answered to the Treasurer there forthwith, out of the States' money.—Utrecht, 20 June, 1586. Postcript. Asks that a note may be made of money delivered in England to captains and soldiers for this service, that he may know what each man has had there, as well as from himself. Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. 108.]
June 20. A memorial for SIR THOMAS CECIL, knight, governor of Brill. Her Majesty having chosen him to go to the Council of State, he is to communicate to them in her name these things following :—
1. She desires to know what forces they now entertain by sea and by land ; their monthly charges ; how they are distributed and employed and the monthly pay of the garrisons.
2. How many are entertained to keep the field, and the entertainment of their officers.
3. How many war ships are maintained ; their burden, numbers of men, monthly charges and in what parts directed to serve. All which things she desires to be imparted to the Earl of Leicester, the Governor General, and by him to her, that she may see what hope of good success she may have in this action. In respect of there being no certain rate for the coins current in those countries, both their own and foreign—whereby traffic is hindered and confusion caused in the soldiers' pay—it is necessary for them to take some present order in the matter and to publish it : with this "consideration" that the Earl of Leicester may first advertise her Majesty and have her liking for the rates of English moneys. "It is greatly misliked both by her Majesty and other absolute princes, that in the mints of those countries as well hers as the coins of the said princes are not only by them ordinarily joined in the said mints......but also embased," both in weight and fineness ; therefore it were very necessary that some present order be taken therein, which might best be done by abridging the number of the mints, appointing men of skill and integrity over them, and establishing a certain standard for the proper coins of those countries. And whereas Count Edzard of East Friesland complains that the trade to Embden is hindered by the ships of Holland, whereby also the subjects of her Majesty and the Empire find themselves grieved ; they are to be advised to take speedy order for his contentment, lest he should be forced into confederacy with Spain ; as also to draw the Emperor and princes of the Empire to join with the said King against them, as lately was attempted at a diet of the Empire. They are also to be shown the general mislike by divers princes of their late placard for a general restraining of the traffic into Spain, as against the law of nations ; though it might have been tolerated if it had reached no further than restraint of victuals and munition into Spain. And whereas when her Majesty appointed certain of her Council to confer with the States' commissioners here about the entertainment of the General and chief officers of the field, a note was delivered by the said councillors of the entertainment allowed by her Majesty and her late sister, which was allowed of by the commissioners, as also that the said charges should be borne by the States ; yet they have not hitherto made the said allowance, but the charges have been paid out of her treasure :— they are to be earnestly dealt with to repay what has been disbursed, and to take order that for the time to come, the officers may be paid by them, according to their promise. And if they are unwilling to do this they are to be put in mind that her Majesty has entered into this action only from a care of their defence, not seeking to possess those countries, and that besides the employment of her treasure and the life of her subjects (which she holds most precious) she is forced to enter into a war with one of the greatest potentates in Europe and to stand on her guard towards some other princes, to the great hindrance of the trade of her subjects and her great disprofit in matters of customs. Also she is put to great charges by maintaining ships of war, increase of garrisons in Ireland, the assuring of Scotland, furnishing her castles and forts along the coast with men and munition and divers other charges ; in consideration of which they should not stand on such precise terms as they do as regards every point of the contract, when the profit thereof redounds only to them instead of being to the mutual benefit of both contractors. As an example whereof, is to be put before them their refusal to repay (as promised) what was disbursed for the levying of pioneers on their request, pretending that they only promised a mark sterling apiece, whereas, owing to delay of transport by contrary winds, the charges amounted to 2090 guilders more ; "a manner of proceeding (though the money be but small) unfit to be offered to a prince, especially to one to whom they are so many ways obliged," and which her Majesty takes unkindly. They are therefore to be moved effectually to make repayment of this and divers other sums contained in a schedule to be given to Cecil for them, wherein any sums paid by them in towns where her Majesty's people were indebted may be defalked. Endd. 7 pp. [Holland VIII. 109.]
June 20. "A MEMORIAL for MR. ATEY," of matters to signify to the Earl of Leicester.
1. That her Majesty "doth not only look" that he shall not exceed the charges of 126,190l. per annum, but hopes (now that she has agreed "to a toleration of the authority conferred upon him by the States General,") that by care and diligence he may abate it. That finding the work of muster master too great for one man (although well persuaded of the faithful dealing of the gentleman who supplies that place) she would have him appoint well-chosen substitutes in every province, allowing them fees "after two or three in the hundred" of what is defalked by them to her Majesty's use, without further increase of her charge. That the furnishing of the towns of Brill and Flushing with munition &c. according to the contract, shall be solicited by his lordship upon reasonable request of the governors. That if the States General cannot be induced to allow such entertainment to the Lord General and officers of the field as is contained in the schedule "accorded" by their commissioners, but urge the payment to be as contained in the first contract when Mr. Norris had the charge ; he should reduce the captains and under officers "to be comprehended within the number of the said bands as parcel of the said number, deducting so many polls out of every band as is in use among themselves," by which course will be saved the pay of 300 foot and fifty horse, which will suffice to defray the charges of the principal officers. Also his lordship is to be told that her Majesty desires to be more particularly informed than hitherto how the contributions are levied ; in what sort they are taxed ; whether they are as great as was promised him ; what hope he has that the sums promised will be continued or increased, and how long they will be continued "with the good-liking of the people and without grudge towards himself." Of which points, when he is thoroughly informed, he is to send over a special person to inform her Majesty therein. He is to have a care that money disbursed "here" for imprests for the levies of the voluntary men, both in Ireland and England," be repaid towards the pay of her Majesty's people. To acquaint him what moneys are due to her forces there until the 12th of this month, and what remains behind payable till the 12th of November, when a full year from the beginning of the last contract expires, "and in any wise, his lordship may not look from her Majesty [for] any further sum for that time." Also to acquaint him with her Majesty's answer to his request for Seburo [Zubiaur], the cold proceedings of the Danish ambassador and the motions made for peace. That he shall give order that the two bands of 200 apiece of the governors of Brill and Flushing shall be part of the 5000 foot comprised in the contract with the States, and to the governors to furnish the Lord General with the said number in case of need. And whereas, one Rowles, captain of an imprest band, was at first placed in Flushing and afterwards removed to Bergen-op-Zoom, and Captain Huntly, with 150 voluntaries put in his place, to the increase of her charges, order is to be given for her relief therein. And under some feigned name, he shall cause "somewhat to be published (in answer of a pamphlet lately set out touching the taking of Grave (as though it had been won by assault) containing a true report of the treasonable dealing in the delivery of the said town." Endd. 5¼ pp. [Holland VIII. 110.]
His Excellency having taken me into his service as Master of Requests until he orders my reception into the Council as Secretary of State, I have accompanied him everywhere, and have seen and known all that has happened. Both chiefs and people have continued in their willingness to obey his Excellency ; but some whom you know have gone on in their usual way, bringing much trouble upon him, so that it has been wonderful to see him conduct matters so resolutely among all our confusions. The coming of the ambassador Heneage (Henniton) into these countries, and its reason, have caused no small difficulties, for although all was treated as secretly as could be, there were those who did not cease to imagine all the dangers which they thought must ensue ; as that her Majesty would seek to draw back and leave us to ourselves and other like suggestions ; this view being supported by the report spread everywhere by our enemies, that they were looking for a peace by means of her Majesty and her Council. Others, more clever, turning these sayings to their profit, tried to dispute his Excellency's authority, believing that her Majesty would not maintain him in his charge. Nevertheless, among all these difficulties, the people have continued their readiness to obey him, who on his part goes on remedying what he can, having found how difficult it is to set up again a state fallen so low as ours. The said difficulties are not confined to civil government and war, but touch also matters of religion, his Excellency having met with some who are offended because he has wished to provide for this in fitting manner, and would rather not hear the word of God at all than not have it according to their own will and theory. And besides these evils, it has happened that the town of Grave, though provided by his Excellency with every means of defence, on being battered by the enemy surrendered in twenty-four hours. The said enemy is now besieging Venlo. Yet the well-affectioned, seeing the prudence and confidence with which his Excellency controls these difficulties, remain firm in their obedience. I think those who see his courage believe that her Majesty will go beyond her contract, to second him in so evident a need, and considering that so many good opportunities arise for setting up an army. Be assured that this would be the only way to redress the above faults, for that being once realized, obedience will be more prompt than hitherto. Those in the disunited provinces are miserable, famished, without trade, and would repent them of their follies, if they saw any chance of being supported by sufficient forces. For besides the honest inhabitants remaining in all towns held by the enemy, the populace, who cares little for the cause of God, but only for their bellies follows what they see most plainly, and holds with the strongest party. His Excellency, with a little extraordinary aid for making a sufficient army, will safeguard the State whereas in default thereof the people seeing towns lost for want of succour and dispairing of further help will lose courage and weary of the war, seeing that it is leading to their ruin ; for which, after God, the only remedy is in the hands of her Majesty, who, by maintaining his Excellency's authority, and yielding him the means for procuring these extraordinary forces, may hold and defend the country by any title she pleases. I know all this is so well known to your honour that I lose time and weary you by repeating it, and will only pray you to continue your care of this state, which received its first taste of redress partly by your means.—Utrecht, 30 June, 1586. Fr. 4 pp. [Holland VIII. 111.]


1 See p. 22, above.
2 Daniel de Burgrave, secretary and audiencer of the Council.
3 See Acts of the Privy Council, 1586, 1587, pp. 148, 149.
4 Passage concerning Buys and Denmark quoted by Motley, United Netherlands ; ii., 77.
5 See p. 38 below.
6 Nurtured or trained ; a form of "nuzzle."
7 i.e. the King of Denmark.
8 Henryck Rantzow or Rantzaw, stadtholder of Holstein and governor of Segeborg. See p. 36, supra. The son's name was Gerard.