THE QUEEN to LEICESTER.
"Where Sir Thomas Cecil, Governor for us of the town of
Brill in Holland, came over hither for recovery of his health,
which being recovered, he purposing to return to those parts
for our service hath declared unto us and to certain of our
Council some probable reasons why that town of Brill should
seem not so sure a place to be kept by us as a caution, for which
it was delivered, but that some other town in those parts might,
in his opinion, be chosen to serve better to be kept by him for
our more surety, and thereupon he required that the reasons
by him propounded might be referred to your consideration
and your opinion had and means to obtain the change, if it so
should seem to you convenient :—whereupon we were minded
to have him to have stayed here until your answer were come,
which not being sent, (fn. 1) he requireth of us earnestly, that in respect
of our service, whereunto he sheweth himself most earnestly bent,
he may be licensed to return to his former charge, minding to
repair to you, to inform you if need shall be, more particularly
hereof, and so to be directed by you either to continue in his
former charge if the imperfections for the surety of that town for
us may be remedied, without which he dare not undertake the
custody thereof, or else to accept some other town more meet for
our surety. And to these ends we require you to hear him, and
thereupon use your best consideration to satisfy us, and to content
him in such reasonable sort as he may with more confidence for
our surety continue his willing service than now he doth."
We also require that until it shall be determined whether
any other better town of surety may be obtained, such
allowance shall be made monthly for the reparations and
fortifications of Brill as was allowed before the town was delivered
to us, to be paid out of its revenues and taxes, as before accustomed,
and employed by direction of the governor "only to the
strengthening of that town." And in case he continue there, he
requires that for his better surety to keep that town, he may by
your means have the government of the small island called Vorn,
whereon Brill stands, and of the island joining thereto, called
also Vorn or Plaet, which being under his rule may serve for the
surety both of the town and islands, otherwise in danger to be
surprised by the enemy.
And for these and any other like causes, "we remit him to
your consideration, as he himself seemeth desirous therein to
follow your advice."
Draft by Burghley. Endd. "22 of June, 1586....sent by
Sir Thos. Cecil at his return to Brill." 2¼ pp. [Ibid.
THE QUEEN to the town of BRILL.
Although, during Sir Thomas Cecil's government of their
town, she has from time to time been advertised of their good
carriage both to him and to the garrison under his charge, she
has now by his report more fully understood their good will, or
rather their devoted affection, proved by many things, but
especially in this : that when contrary winds and other accidents
delayed the money for the soldiers, they themselves found
means to supply the default ; a thing which has given her such
satisfaction that she desires to testify it to them by her own
letters ; praying them to persist in their affection, and so give her
more and more opportunities of increasing her care for their
own good, and that of all those interested in the same cause.
Copy. Endd. "22 June, 1586......Sent by Sir Thos.
Cecil at his return thither." Fr. ¾ p. [Holland VIII. 113.]
"A note of such sums of money as Mr. Treasurer [of the Low
Countries] hath disbursed to divers persons more than is set
down and contained in the estimate of the lords of the Council" ;
for which the Earl of Leicester is to be moved. Total, 3532l. 3s. 6d.
Endd. with date. 3¼ pp. [Ibid. 114.]
June 23./July 3.
THE PRINCE OF PARMA to BURGHLEY.
Andrea de Loo having reported what he had orders to do from
your Lordship ; shown me the Instruction given him by you and
Mr. Controller, and put before me what more he thought needful
for me to understand of the continuation of the good inclination
which you show towards peace, I cannot but accept kindly your
said good will, and exhort and pray you not to grow cold therein,
but rather to embrace this holy and Christian cause, being assured
that on my part I will be answerable thereto with such sincerity
as shall be known by its results whenever occasion shall be given
me and the way open to do it ; as you will understand from the
said de Loo more particularly. And as I can enlarge upon this
no further until I have a reply to what Graffigna and Bodenam
took over. I will end this by praying God to preserve you.—
Camp at Venloo, 3 July, 1586.
Signed Allesso. Farnese. Add. Endd. by Burghley. "1586,
3 Julii vel 21 Junii [sic], from the Prince of Parma......sent by
And. de Loo." Italian ½ p. [Flanders I. 88.]
June 23./July 3.
Copy of a letter from Brussels to Paris.
Last Sunday (fn. 2) Venlo (Vennelo), a frontier town of Cleves, upon
the Meuse, esteemed one of the strongest of the country, which
seemed resolved to sustain the siege of the Prince of Parma,
even sending him a very sharp reply when he summoned it, and
urging the execution of the governor of Grave for his cowardly
surrender....themselves surrendered to the Prince, without
sustaining any assault or even battery except the first volley of
the cannon ; all the inhabitants banding themselves against the
garrison and forcing them to go to parley for a composition,
which was worse than that of Grave, in that the few soldiers
there departed without arms or baggage. The wife of Schenk
alone was treated more gently, being allowed to carry away all
her goods ; which was said to have been a ruse on the part of the
Prince to induce her husband to submit to the Catholic party,
and to bring with him a good part of his men, whom the Prince
offers to pay highly, in order to more easily compass the rest ;
the said Schenk being one of the greatest rascals in the party of
the States. The camp of these latter is believed to be twelve
thousand men at least, yet does not dare to attack that of the
Prince, which is not more than eight thousand at most. They
often approached each other during the siege of Venlo, which did
not last fifteen days, although the place was tenable for more than
fifteen months. One thing wanting to those on the States' side
is that they are badly paid as well as badly led ; my lord Leicester
ordering things very badly on his part, as do the chiefs of the
States on theirs, having always been very close fisted (de fort
difficile desserré) as has been well experienced up to now, and
especially in the time of the late Monsieur.
As for those of the Prince, they are on quite another footing,
being as well paid as they are well led, never having to fear the
loss of a maille (fn. 3) of their pay, which is never lacking, either to
themselves or their heirs. This keeps them to their good behaviour,
their obedience resulting in good order and exact observation
of military discipline. I only wish this were an example
to our men. The Prince, by his good government carrying out
all his enterprises, is now going to Neuss (Nuz), another town held
by the States on the Rhine ; his intention being by this means
to free all the country up to Cologne, that traffic may be restored.
The garrison has been re-inforced by more than a thousand
men, but the Prince expects to weaken them by hunger ; having
information that the merchants there, on the prospect of a good
harvest, have dispersed their corn amongst the neighbouring
villages in order to make their profit by the straits of the peasants
during the famine there is there ; Schenk being said to have
caused the death of many, surprised by him while carrying the
corn towards these quarters, and that not content with this, he
has, burnt more than a dozen of their villages, to teach them [not]
to aid the Spaniards with victuals. One does not see that the
States' army advances in any way since the revictualling of this
garrison and Nuz ; the Queen of England cares little about them,
the intrigeurs (faiseurs de manigances) in these parts having disappeared
from thence as if in smoke and returned to England,
without much being known of what they did in those parts. The
report was that it was only to free the passage of certain goods
from Antwerp into England ; some however fear that it may be
to treat of a secret alliance with the Prince of Parma. Other
fresh mediators have arrived in the camp from those of Gueldres,
meaning apparently to treat with the said Prince, who seems to
succeed in all things according to his desire ; by this means
making a great opening for peace, so that it is thought he may
rather come towards those parts than towards Nuz ; there being
already a bruit spread abroad of a general reconciliation with
Holland and Zeeland before long.—[Noted in another hand]
Brussels, 3 July.
Endd. by Burghley. "3 July, 1586. Copy of a letter from
Brussels to Paris, in favour of the Prince of Parma, upon the
rendering of Venlo." Fr. 2 pp. [Flanders I. 89.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to BURGHLEY.
I have not yet heard how your lordship is satisfied with my
accounts, though my bad friends "daily give it out to my disgrace."
So jealous am I to have my reputation touched that
I desire leave to come over for a month to satisfy you how the
case stands, which by letters I cannot so well do ; yet, considering
the doubtful state of these countries, I would not absent myself
before craving your advice. "I may the better be spared at this
time, for that my lord of Leicester hath broken his camp and put
all his troops into garrison ; as also that in all the deliberations
here I am not often heard, and seldomer believed." Of all
these things I will further inform you at my coming.—Utrecht,
24 June, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland VIII. 115.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to WALSINGHAM.
By your honour's letter received by Charles it appears that you
did not rightly conceive of my letters touching the levy of my
horse, "for it was not meant that her Majesty should be put to
any new charge, but my lord of Leicester's pleasure was, that
having put my company into her Majesty's pay, as one of the 800
that should be levied in England, I should likewise receive such
allowance for them as was appointed there ; viz. 2000l., to be
paid out of such money as was gathered in England to that purpose,"
which he promised to write to you. And as I was fain
to employ some money towards the making of my company, I
have set the same over to her Majesty's treasurer ; hoping that
you will not think my allowance too large, seeing that my company
was 260 horse, "and yet his lordship hath not agreed that I shall
receive pay for more than one hundred ; so that if his lordship
does not deal better with me... I shall have little profit thereby,
besides that of late Captain Williams brought my company to
such a bargain as I lost thirty-five horse, and had twenty-five
soldiers taken prisoners." How reasonable it is that I should
not be denied that allowance, I trust shortly to satisfy you by
word. Your honour's postscript made me not a little marvel,
that it seemed my lord "misliked my usings of myself towards
him" and that you thought it was nourished from thence. I
assure you "that in anything touching her Majesty's service
or his own honour, I have given the best and soundest advice
and yielded the readiest obedience that was possible . . . neither
have my opinions been dilatory, or such as might breed jealousy
that I would have trained these affairs to a length, attending
a change, but such as myself should have felt the worst of them
if they had not succeeded well. . . Contrariwise I must now
needs say that I have endured those disgraces in many kinds, and
those injurious speeches in great assemblies, that no man that
had the liberty of [a] gentleman but would have sought redress
for them. But I, hoping that time would have remedied the one,
and that the other did only proceed of impatient choler, have
been utterly silent," never writing or causing to be written a word
of it to any in England, but concealed it even from my parents,
and so have the more wrong that it is called in question so far
that your honour thinks it irreparable. The justice of my
cause must defend me, and I doubt not but to satisfy you that
I am faultless.—Utrecht, 24 June, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland VIII. 116.]
DR. THOMAS DOYLEY to BURGHLEY.
Since mine of June 1, sent by Mr. George Morton, his Excellency
hearing of the loss of Grave went to his camp before Niemegen,
leaving Captains Breton, Turville and Ley in Arnhem. "The
3rd, M. Hemert, governor of Grave came to Count Hohenlo's tent
with four other captains, and being examined by Lord North,
the lord governor of Flushing, Col. Digby &c., were first committed
to several captains, and after to the provost marshal. The 4th
his Excellency went to Tiel, the 5th to Bommel, and lodged his
camp in Bommelswaert.
The 9th M. Hemert and Captains Kobouko, du Ban, (fn. 4) Dennis
and Herthoge were arraigned before Count Hohenlo, Count
Philip, Count Salme [Solms], Lord North the Governor of Flushing,
Sir John Norreys, Cols. Bauford [Balfour], Morgan, Digby,
Michel and divers others, Dutch colonels and captains ; and
demanding respite to answer, had it granted for 24 hours.
The same day his Excellency went to Gorkum and the 12th
to Dort, with only the Prince Elector [Truchsess] and the Prince
of Portugal, sending his train straight to Utrecht, and the next
day came thither himself, where Mr. Nicholas Gorge met him
with letters from her Majesty.
On the 17th M. Hemert and the other captains were arraigned
and the next day he, Captain Kobouko and Captain du Ban were
beheaded "for negligently keeping and cowardly yielding the
town without the consent of the soldiers which presented themselves
to defend the breach. They were acquitted of treason
and condemned to die without confiscation of goods or attaint
of honour or blood to their posterity. Hemert died very
confidently and resolutely. The Count Morice lost by that town
yearly in rents above 8000 guldens. He was never here with his
Excellency since his coming into these quarters."
[Account of Schenk's attack on Parma's camp]. "We lost
an hundred horse and not passing nine of our men slain, but many
taken prisoners, whereof Mr. Ed. Pettie, lieutenant to Capt.
Dormer's cornet [i.e. troop], the two Dockeries, young Weanman
and Mr. Twayts are the best of name. And the Prince maketh
fair wars with us, releasing them for their month's pay ; but
Schenk's men pay their heads for their ransoms.
"The 19th there came Ransoue, a Dane to the court, whose
father is governor of Holsatia [Holstein] and was marshal of the
reiters in these wars. He offereth his service with 500 horse.
"The 20th Capt. Williams brought word of the loss of Venlo,
which endured no assault, but yielded by composition, the
burghers being stronger than the soldiers. Schenk hath lost
there all his wealth ; above 40000 crowns in money besides
200 horse, for no fair words' wars will be made with him ; and
his wife and children are within the town."
The enemy is before Wacktendonck, and has blocked the castle
of Blienbeck. I fear he will not be long without them. The
Baron of Hohensaxen (Hauesaxen), governor of Gueldre and
Wachtendonck is here at the court, and I fear "we shall lose the
next towns, which hang all in the same train, as Gueldres, Nuys
[Neuss] and Berck." Capt. Ed. Norreys is at Berck, with part
of our English infantry.
Sir John Norreys incessantly urges "to draw out our men
into the field and to make head against the enemy, to relieve and
assist the towns, to meet with him at advantages, to cross the
rivers and to entrench our troops fast by him, to hinder his
passages and convoys, to intercept his victuals, to spoil his
country ; for the Prince, finding no resistance, and the towns
animated with no assistance, gaineth all at his ease and rangeth
where he listeth. But whatsoever he [Norreys] persuadeth is
presently crossed with contrary advice by those which know no
wars, for now we are breaking our camp, and quartering our
men in 'garnisons.'"
I send you a note of our infantry at this present.
Megen and Battembourg are lost, and the sconces before Nimegen
and Berkshoft which we won and razed are refortified by
the enemy, whose camp is re-inforced by four thousand fresh men.
A Council of Finances is established, the superintendents
being Count Meurs, Mr. Killigrewe and M. Brackel. The treasurer
is "Ringhoult" ; the commis, Paul "Buz," Loose and
Telinge, and the greffiers Suyllen and Seroulx. (fn. 5)
It was given out that Schenk had surprised Kayserswerd, but
"there was nothing enterprised against it." Also "that in the
alarm which he gave to the Prince's camp, he had slain 500
Spaniards and Cosmo, the Prince's secretary and divers of his
guard by his pavilion, and that the Prince himself was in his
hands with his pistol at the breast, but that it was not charged.
And all this was nothing so. By this your honour may see how
we coin news to our own appetites and humors."
The 23, his Excellency dined with Count Culembourg at his
town, and on his return was met by the Lord Willoughby. Count
Meurs is gone into Germany to levy reiters, as is thought, and
(I suppose to the same effect) the Baron of Hauesaxen" and
Dr. Hottoman are upon their dispatch. What composition Venlo
has made, I cannot yet tell.—Utrecht, 24 June, 1586.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland VIII. 117.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
In favour of Dorothy Hobson, the bearer, a burgher's daughter
of Arnhem. A certain grant having been "passed by her Majesty
for alms to be gathered for her relief" (seeing that she cannot
enjoy her living by reason of the troubles), he prays his honour to
further her suit.—Utrecht, 25 June, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. 118.]
SIR WALTER MILDMAY to the OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOM HOUSE,
Port of London.
Having received a letter of the 12th inst. from the Lords and
other of her Majesty's Privy Council, requiring me to consider
of an attachment made by some of you of certain wrought silks
brought into this realm by Phillippe Byshoppe a subject of the
United Provinces and to examine whether such wares may be lawfully
brought in, and therein to take information of Mr. Dr.
Aubrey, a man acquainted with those treatises ; I have conferred
with the said Dr. Aubrey, and am informed sufficiently. [Here
follows a summary of Dr. Aubrey's statements concerning the
Queen's treaty with the Duchess of Parma, in Nov. 1564. [See
p. 34 above.]
And as it appears by the 9th article of a treaty made at
Bristowe, 21 Aug. 1574, by her Majesty's commissioners and
others authorized from the King of Spain "that the Intercourse
and treaties should continue in the same state that they were
in before the general "arrests" made in the year 1568," I am of
opinion, as is Mr. Aubrey also, that the subjects and inhabitants
of the United Provinces ought not to be troubled for bringing
in any goods prohibited since the 1st. of Jan. in the first year of
her Majesty's reign ; but should be suffered, without penalty or
interruption, to bring in all such goods as they were allowed to
do before that date. And therefore require you, by virtue of
their Lordships' said letter, to release all goods appertaining to
Phillippe Byshoppe, and hereafter to suffer all inhabitants and
subjects of the said United Provinces to bring in all such goods
[as aforesaid], "and namely those that are called manufactures,
specially agreed upon in the said colloquey at Bruges, until
further order.—London, 25 June, 1586.
Copy. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 119.]
(a) Copy of Articles of the treaty of Nov. 30, 1564, between her
Majesty and the Duchess of Parma.
(b) Extract from the records of the Conference of Bruges ;
viz. : the article propounded by the Spanish commissioners, and
the answer of her Majesty's orator thereto.
(c) Extract from the treaty of Bristol, Aug. 21, .
Endd. "Response, advis et articles du Docteur Aubrey,
Anglois, escript au Sr. Walter Mildmay a la requeste de la
lettre de Messieurs du Conseil privé de sa Majeste, pour le fait
de l' Intercourse." Latin. 2¾ pp. [Holland VIII. 119,
a., b., c.]