SIR T. CECIL to BURGHLEY.
"If our resolutions from hence ripen no faster than they have
done in the answering the Instructions I delivered unto his Excellency
and the Estates at my first coming, I fear we shall not conclude
many things in one summer," and lest there might be thought
slackness in me, I beseech you to let her Majesty know that
besides the overture of them by word of mouth, they have had
them in writing these three weeks, but they now promise answer
within three days. A letter from divers of her Majesty's Council
(with your hand to it) and one from yourself, both dated the
24th of last month, were given me by his Excellency on the 17th
of this. They contained nothing more than her Majesty's commands
that I should use some comfortable speeches to certain
of the burgomasters and persons of best quality in the chief
towns, a thing that will avail little .... At my first coming, by his
Excellency's advice, I used the like to the States themselves ;
but neither her Majesty's fair words nor mild reprehensions will
cure the cause ; it must be strokes that will end it. "The people
grow weary of their long burdens.... ; of the enemy they are
solicited with as fair words and promises as her Majesty giveth
them, and.... unless God give us this summer some great
victory, I fear by Michaelmas the whole cause will grow desperate.
His Excellency now intendeth to go again into the field. I would
we had not come out of the field, and then I think we had lost
fewer towns than we have by two and won more credit both at our
enemy's hands and of our friends." The rendezvous is appointed
at "Ameron," ten English miles from Utrecht.
"This day came the news of the loss of Neuss (Nuic), won
by assault with great slaughter of the enemy, to the number as
it is said, of three thousand ; all within put to the sword. Bravely
defended by the governor, one M. Cloet (Cloute) but evil relieved
by us. Our affairs here be such as that which we conclude over
night is broken in the morning ;.... we are divided in many
factions, so as if the enemy were as strong as we are factious and
unresolute, I think we should make shipwreck of the cause this
I have agreed that his Excellency shall draw 350 brave men out
of the Brill. He saw them, to his great liking, at his being there
with me on the 16th when he tarried a night and viewed the
defects of the town ; but I hope for little remedying of them. He
means to write to her Majesty for ordnance from England, but
how soon that will be, your lordship best knows. As for the
changing of my government for Harlingen, I am resolved to keep
the Brill, "as one that would keep rather a shrew he knoweth
than a shrew he knoweth not," for Harlingen has the self same
defects in respect of the haven, and as his Excellency means to
draw this service nearer Flanders, Harlingen would be to no
service for it. Lord North is now governor of it. I am promised
by his Excellency the government of the two Islands her Majesty
wrote for. I am preparing to go into the field both with my horse
and foot-band. His Excellency is supplying the place of those
he has taken out of the Brill by some of those who came last, or
I could not have weakened my charge, especially at this time.—
The Hague, 21 July.
Postscript. "This gentleman [added by Burghley, Mr. Saunders]
hath made me much beholding unto him. I beseech you
let him understand that I have written so much."
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 2 pp. [Holland IX. 43.]
The Earl of Leicester's demands for her Majesty's service in
Holland," "postilled" in the margin.
1. That money may presently be sent [Margin. The treasure
now sent is thought will suffice for full pay until Aug. 12, if the
States make payment of what is due from them.]
2. Also some skilful man should be sent with the money.—
Sir Valentine Brown or some such to perfect accounts and give
directions. [Margin. Her Majesty does not think it needful
to send any body to examine the accounts as they have been
looked into here ; and for Huddilston's payments hereafter,
seeing he will make none but by the privity of Sir T. Shirley
and by warrant of the Earl, there will be no need for an Auditor.]
3. Expences for which no provision is made by her Majesty's
money. [Margin. She looked that all the principal officers of
the field should have been paid by the States, as was agreed to by
the Commissioners (the President of [Flanders], Mr. Walck,
Paul Buis and Ortell) at the conference at the Lord Treasurer's
house. As to other charges, she would have the Lord General
consider how they may be borne without any further charge to
her, for she is determined not to go beyond the 126,000l. It is
thought they may be helped "by reason of the monthly checks."]
4. How the Auditor shall be paid. [Margin. Order shall be
taken for his contentment.]
5. How Herle's expences into East Friesland shall be defrayed.
[Margin. Her Majesty cannot be induced to bear his charges,
which should be paid by the States, he being employed in their
service. And as it seems by the Earl of Embden's answer, "the
complaints against him are not justifiable."]
6. That Lord Gray and Sir William Pelham may be sent
thither. [Margin. Her Majesty has already sent Sir Wm.
Pelham and will shortly send the Lord Gray.]
7. Further allowance needed for the levying of horses. [Margin.
Her Majesty is not yet fully paid the 8000l. disbursed for
levy of his horsemen, the taxations upon the clergy and recusants
not having amounted to so much as was looked for. She finds
great fault that the said sum is not paid, "whereof yet lacketh
Signed by Walsingham. Endd. "20 July, 1586," (fn. 1) (sic). 2 pp.
[Holland IX. 44.]
Rough draft of the "Postiles" to the Earl's requests, with
corrections and additions by Burghley.
Endd. with date. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 45.]
THE DISCOURSE of the enterprise of GRAVELING.
Captain Nicholas Marchant, Captain Garrett and John de
Louvayne, Walloons, having won (as they thought) a serjeant
and corporal, with their adherents of the garrison of Graveling,
for its delivery to Sir Philip Sidney, and solemn oaths being taken
on both sides, it was agreed that Marchant should lade a hoy with
victuals and slip into Gravelinge, carrying the contract signed by
my lord of Leicester, who was there fourteen days before Sir
Philip Sidney, that they might better win more of the garrison.
Sir Philip coming before the town on Saturday last, July 16, about
six in the afternoon, was to shoot four great shot for a token
from his ship, after which they were to lay hands on the lieutenant
of the castle, assure themselves of the place and then answer
with two cannon from the castle, which they did. We were to
attend the coming of the lieutenant prisoner and some other
chief men of the town to the ships, brought by Nicholas Marchant,
in whose place other hostages should have been delivered. But
they sent only a corporal and Marchant's man, who said that the
lieutenant had gone the day before to Dunkirk for money to
content the soldiers ; and that the three captains were out of
town ; one with La Motte, another with the lieutenant, the third
gone towards Bruges. But he assured Sir Philip that town and
castle were wholly at his devotion ; that the sergeant (the best
officer then in the town) kept the castle, and Marchant helped to
guard the gate and keep the soldiers in good terms ; with many
more smooth speeches. But Sir Philip, "not minding to set
one man on land upon so small assurance," sent only Captain
Smith back with the Corporal, who returning, said he had been
in the castle, made search and spoken with Marchant, and that
his honour might without doubt send three hundred men thither,
as the whole garrison assured him it was theirs. But Sir Philip
would not hazard it, and sent twenty-six men to see how matters
stood. Two returning declared that the town was ours, that
there could be no deceit ; they had searched both castle and
town, and urged Sir Philip incontinently to send men. Then,
not without great mistrust, he sent Lieutenant Browne with
50 [sic] men to demand assurance of the castle. Who [i.e. those
of the castle] seeing they could draw him no further, "issued out
at the gate upon our men (awaiting Lieut. Browne's return)
with the match in the cock, and at the first sally slew divers
of those 70 [sic] pursueing them to the river ; the great ordnance
also, coming from the castle and town in our retreat so fast as
could be charged and discharged ; and on the sea sand certain
horsemen laid by them in ambush on 'France' side charged us..
but being annoyed by our shot from the ships did us no great
harm ; so that of seventy at the gate there returned to the ships
forty-seven. For the twenty-six, it is uncertain whether they
be put to death or not," but we heard five or six small shot in the
town, not long before they issued out upon us at the gate, and
conjecture that they then executed them. The same Sunday
night, Sir Philip returned back towards Flushing.
Endd. with date. 2 pp. [Holland IX. 46.]
DR. BARTHOLEMEW CLERK to BURGHLEY.
By my last of the 4th I advertised you "of the alienation of
our minds here, our diffidences and miscontentments, which
though as then they lay smothering within the breasts of the
Council and Estates, yet the hammer of jealousy, once entered,
will hardly leave beating till it break out ; as well appeared the
22nd of July, on which day the Estates in full council uttered
their doleances in very close and wary terms, and yet their meanings
not hard to be discerned. Their pretended griefs were : that
musters were not more exactly kept, according to the treaty ;
that the captains of towns usurped upon the jurisdiction of the
magistrates ; that the chamber of finances was 'addressed' of
some odious and evil persons, contrary to their instructions and
consent ; that the convoys were enhanced without their knowledge,
that the superfluity of officers was increased ; that the poor
people were oppressed and spoiled." These made a good show,
but in my opinion the things that pinched nearest were the
numbers of English who daily arrive, more than they are able to
pay, and the imprisonment of Paul 'Bwis' by the eight captains
of Utrecht, "whereof, albeit my Lord be not guilty (as he protests),
yet they knowing 'Bwise' to have one of the nimblest heads,
and how great a mean he was for the refusal of the French and
the bringing in of the English .... seeing that his Lordship
maketh no haste of his delivery....pass out of one suspicion
To increase these unhappy differences, we declared that, as
they knew, it was now high time to put into the field, and therefore
doubted not that their 400,000 florins promised was ready to
supply all our wants ; "otherwise not being able to keep the
field nor to cut off the carriages and cannon, the Prince of Parma,
with his terrible battery, would carry all our towns one after
another." To this they answered that part was already received ;
that half the rest should be paid in August, September and
October ; and for the rest, his Excellency must please to take
it up upon the impost of cloth, and thereupon also receive his
own entertainment. As for the three especes of salt, soap and new
tax of beer, which he destined for extraordinary charges, they
were never meant but as part of his 200,000 florins a month,
granted at his first coming. [Margin. They have since put us in
hope to mend and hasten these payments, if satisfied in their
"This answer, your honour can easily guess, did nothing
content us, preparing for the field, and in great hope to repair
some part of our losses....and I in secret feared....whether
they like better that the Prince of Parma should win them or we
A little to appease their minds, we set on foot the qualification
of their placard ; letting them understand that as its rigour was
not agreeable to her Majesty ; that the French King found himself
aggrieved by it, and that "good men were restrained and lewd
persons secretly made their benefit" ; also, as to part with "a
certain gain of traffic and custom....for an uncertain hope of
licences, was nothing else but to hazard the state of this merchandizing
country....we thought it very expedient to alter
the form of the placard, and only to forbid traffic with those
places that were confines to the enemy's and most likely to
succour them, according to your Lordship's reasons delivered to
This music sounded well in the ears of those that love their
profit, yet we do not find it work enough to better their payments
or pluck out the stings fixed deeply in their minds. "Insomuch
that the commissioners of the Earl of Embden arriving here
alienissimo tempore, and myself....taking their business to heart
and desirous to do them good, I was not able to do for them so
much as otherwise I might....yet I hope to work their contentation
for a time.
I had rather for news recount to your honour our getting of
Axel than our loss of Neuss (Newce). Wherein our gain and loss
were not equal, for, in effect, we have lost the Rhine, yet some
comfort it is to us that near four thousand of our enemies lost their
lives at Neuss. But the Maas and Rhine lost are great hindrances
to our "trafficking and mechanical provinces" ; and what is worse,
there is such a way opened to Arnhem and Utrecht, as, together
with the accidents lately happened at Utrecht, I fear will breed evil
effects. For even as I wrote these lines, the Estates came to
expostulate with my Lord for the imprisonment of Paul Bwis,
"and for that the captains of Utrecht had abused his honour's
name, arming our Englishmen there and putting seventy out of
the town as papists, being indeed divers of them (as they termed
them) very good patriots ; not doubting but that in this dangerous
time it would make very greatly for the Prince of Parma, from
whom they imagined these drifts to proceed."
I am sorry to write these evil news, yet knowing to whom I
write, I will not fail to advertise anything that is fit for my place ;
and meanwhile beseech you to remember "that he that 'leeseth'
the fruits of his poor offices....and serveth where he hath received
hard measure and seeth no reason to hope for better.....might
better spend his time in his own country than here among many
dangers, where no good can come to my private" ; and were it
not that I would refuse no danger for the service of my sovereign,
I should be more bound to you for shortening this service than
for the greatest good that may befal me.—The Hague, 24 July.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland IX. 47.]
Plan, in water-colours, of the position of the towns of Axel and
Hulst, and the adjacent country.
1 large sheet. Endd. "The situation of the town of Axel."
24 July, 1586. [Ibid. 48.]
SIR PHILIP SIDNEY to WALSINGHAM.
"I know it needless to recommend Mr. Fremin, who hath been
so long and so well known unto you ; yet my goodwill to him
cannot omit—though needlessly—to beseech you to employ your
favour toward him, since you cannot do it to any man that will
better deserve it.....My Lord hath willed him to raise a regiment
in which he means to draw together divers French who be in
England. His intent is very good, and none have charge on this
side who get better reputation for using their soldiers than he
doth.....This only hath been to testify mine own affection."—
Flushing, 25 July, 1586. Your humble son, Ph. Sidney.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 49.]
LORD NORTH to BURGHLEY.
It is long sithence I wrote to your Lordship, but I cannot but
advertise you of the loss of "Newse," "which was wonderfully
battered and assaulted, and most nobly and notably defended
by Clowte the governor, the soldiers and burgers.
On the 15th of this month, being Friday, at two oclock after
midnight, the Prince began to batter with 36 cannons, which
played all day without intermission, "for he had his charges of
powder ready in bags, and by them milk, vinegar and all other
necessaries to cool the pieces." He made it saultable by midnight,
....and on Saturday morning by daylight gave the assault. Eight
assaults were "manly defended," the governor being the most
resolute man that hath ever been heard of. Fifteen hundred
soldiers were slain in the town ; and of the enemy not less than
three thousand. Clowte was hurt in five places, and conveyed
to his lodging. Before the 9th assault, the Prince sent to offer
him honourable conditions. "He answered that he had wedded
himself to that town and to his honour ; and for his life, it was
but servant to them both. He was resolved, as he had lived long
there, so he would be found dead in the same place. In the
interim of this parley there slipped out two Frenchmen, who
went to the Prince and advertised him that there was not three
hundred good men left in the town ; so that with another assault,
it should be his own, and that with little loss. Clowte being
resolved to give the Prince a bloody victory with little gain....
gave order that upon the next assault given, some should set
fire of the town, which was done accordingly. The Prince,
notwithstanding, sent to the walls to parley, whereupon the
whole company came to the breach....to hear, as the manner
is. The Prince had caused all his battery pieces to be charged,
and suddenly shot them off all, in the time of the parley, and made
a horrible slaughter of the men. In the neck thereof, he followed
with the assault and entered the town with ease and slew all the
men and many women." The Spaniards had borne the brunt
of the assaults, and the Italians entered with them at the last and
there was great question between them both for the honour and
the spoil. The Spaniards standing firm, the Italians set fire at
the other end of the town, so that all is consumed save about
twenty houses. The Prince entered at one end of the breach,
and the three Archbishops (as they say) at the other, viz. Mentz,
Treves and Cologne. "They took Clowte, wounded as he was,
some say without the privity of the Prince of Parma, and first
strangled him, then smeared him with pitch and burnt him with
gunpowder. Thus with their holiness they made a tragical end of
an heroical service. It is wondered that the Prince would suffer so
great an outrage to be done to so noble a soldier, who did but his
duty. The Prince is thought weak of footmen and horse by
this loss, and by putting garrison into Grave and Venloo I.
trust our general shall be shortly able to counter with him,
whereunto he hasteth much."—Utrecht, 26 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland IX. 50.]
July 26./Aug. 5.
ORDINANCE of the EARL OF LEICESTER.
For continuance to Sir John Norris, Colonel general of the
English foot, of the entertainment of 2000 florins per month, in
conformity with the agreement made with him by the Council
of State before his arrival. Also for an order to be sent to the
Treasurer at Wars, for advance of a month's money destined for
payment of the camp, on account of the arrears of the said entertainment
fallen out since January last. Utrecht, 5 August, 1586.
With note that this ordinance, although it seems to be absolute,
is only made par provision, and without prejudice to the principal.
Copy. French. ⅓ p. [Holland IX. 51.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
Recommending M. Fremin, his honour's old acquaintance,
who hath served very honestly and well, and being now made
a Colonel, hopes to make two or three companies of Frenchmen
and to bring them from England with him. Prays his honour
to aid him therein, and to help him to speech with her Majesty.—
The Hague, 27 July, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand. I have written a letter by this
gentleman to her Majesty and trust you will help him to deliver it.
"I assure you he is the most sufficient captain we have of this
country, and understands as well all this state. If he need anything
for the sending his men over, if it be a hundred pounds or
two, I will see it paid here presently. He is captain of the Castle
of Woa, near Berges-up-Some. He will tell you how well your
son Philip [Sidney] behaved himself at the winning of Axel."
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 52.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
I entreat you to be favourable to this bearer, Lodovic Burgrave,
"brother to my faithful, honest servant, for so will he be, albeit
sometimes a councillor of estate here, and a principal president
in Flanders ; as sufficient a man as ever I met withal of any
nation ; very well learned, exceeding wise, and sincere in religion.
I cannot commend the man too much, and the only comfort
I have had of any of this nation," wherefore I pray you show
some extraordinary favour to his brother in a small matter
he requires ; which is but to pass so many pelts of sheep skins
as may be worth 150l. or 200l. "They be of good family, and
brought up this Lodovic as a merchant. They be all confiscated
in Flanders, their own country, for the cause sake and religion ;
and therefore deserves the more favour..."—The Hague, 27 July.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. 1 p. [Ibid. 53.]
July 27./Aug. 6.
Apostiles by his Excellency upon articles presented to him by
Holland and Zeeland.
1. Touching the muster and pay of the soldiers.
His Excellency finds this demand reasonable and will give
order for its satisfaction, both for the past and future.
3. Governors of the cautionary towns.
Will treat with M. de Cecil, governor of the Vrielle [Brill], not
to exceed the terms of the treaty made with her Majesty.
5. Touching the management of the means of the country.
Having noticed to his great regret the confusion which there
was in the administration of affairs, he has found it needful to
separate the administration of the public moneys from other
state affairs, reserving to himself and the Council of State the
superintendence and absolute disposition ; but considering the
reasons here alleged and desiring nothing more than to satisfy the
States in what is for the good of the country ; his Excellency is
content that all the contributions and means of Holland and Zeeland
shall be at the disposition of none but himself and the Council
of State, and that these provinces shall recognize none other
commandment or ordinance ; this being by provision, and until
he has established a chamber for the administration of the
contributions, in such manner as shall be found fitting by advice
of the Estates, who are desired to come to a resolution in
the matter as quickly as may be.
What has been done in regard of the convoys is to settle them
equally and in order, in accordance with the intention of the
States General, by provision and only until the States shall have
drawn up a certain list of the convoys, having regard both to
the profit of the common cause and the conservation of traffic.
His Excellency will have due regard thereto, having had the
lists of officers and their entertainment viewed, in order to
[blank left (fn. 2) ] whatever may be superfluous.
8. Military discipline.
His Excellency having nothing more at heart than to relieve
the subjects from extraordinary charges and to have military
discipline observed, will give fitting order in so far as is possible
for some reasonable entertainment to be given to the men of war.
And in order to have better means to satisfy this article, he
desires the States to hasten the advancement of the money
granted by them.—The Hague, 6 August, 1586. Said to be
signed by Valcke, President, and the Earl. Countersigned by
French. 1¾ pp. [Holland IX. 54.]
[Articles and apostiles printed at length by Bor, bk. XXI, f. 48b.]
LEICESTER to the COUNT OF EAST FRIESLAND.
Has received complaints from the noble Dietrich Snoy of the
manner in which Hayo Maninga and his son (who is married to
Snoy's daughter) have been treated by his Excellency [recounts
the proceedings] and urges the Count to do justice to Maninga.
Is confident that his Excellency will act in such manner that
petitioner may be satisfied, and have no cause of complaint left
in where he may justly claim help and support from himself
[Leicester] and others ; but though he doubts not that his Excellency
will do his duty, he would be glad to have a certain
answer for his justification.—"Graefshagen" in Holland, 28
July, 1586, stylo veteri.
Copy. Endd. German. 1¾ pp. [Holland IX. 55.]
LEICESTER to the States of EAST FRIESLAND.
On the same subject. Earnestly exhorts them to further the
cause with their Lord, that he may re-instate Hayo Maninga
in his old, peaceful and lawful possession of his inheritance ;
and if the said Maninga intends to take action in the matter,
that the same may be carried on in due manner of justice, that
any harm likely to arise to the Count's subjects may be avoided.—
Graefshagen, 28 July, 1586, stilo veteri.
Copy. Endd. German. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. 56.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
"I cannot express the extreme want and misery we have been
in for lack of money. God send it speedily, or me from this
charge and company, whose extremity cannot but grieve any
man to see ; the sight whereof hath caused many a new come
soldier to run his way.
"We have come now within this three weeks above three thousand
men, very full and lusty men, they be almost now furnished.
Armour is so stolen away by our merchants as our men are fain
to tarry ten or twenty days for armour. It is happy our Englishmen
came, otherwise you had heard of a good many towns
going at a clap. There hath been much lewd practice used to
alter men's minds of these countries and it hath someways
taken too much place. But as ill as it is, it will lie in her Majesty
yet to save all. For my part, I have no cause but for her Majesty's
sake and my country to speak much for these men ; but if matters
be yet well handled, all will be as well or better than before ;
but otherwise all will be gone....and none can help it but her
Majesty under God.
The value of moneys are agreed upon. We could tarry no
longer for Palmer and I have set down for her Majesty as your
lordship wished. It will keep your gold at home and your
silver. Money for our soldiers is scant here. I have been
here fourteen days and at length by fair means and foul I have
got some, and am promised the rest (due three months since) on
the 15th of this next month ; i.e. 350,000 florins. Twice I have
had our men ready and the day appointed to march to the relief
of Newce [Neuss], but could not get our pay.
"Now the enemy having had a great loss of his men at Newce,
(though the town be gone and clean burnt to the ground), to the
number of four thousand as we hear dead in the ditches ; and that
we may take great advantage upon the enemy, yet can we not
haste this pay of theirs ten days sooner ; whereby we might go
into the field. Strange humours are among them. Two or
three attempts they have given, specially whilst Paul Buis was
at liberty, to resume the government into their hands again ; at
least indirectly to have it by giving out all manner of directions
here at Hague, as I have usually done since I had the place.
Since my being here, I have dealt somewhat plainly and roundly
with them upon great occasion offered against our whole trade
at Embden. I did never deal with such heady people as these
States are. I cannot blame the common sort to mislike them ;
for there is no reasoning against their resolutions. But yet, as
the governor of the merchants can tell, I was forced to say to
them that which cooled them in the end ; and finding them bent
wilfully to overthrow the trade, I dealt plainly with them. I
would grant the merchants their free passages, and would see
who would gainsay it ;....and asked them what authority they
had to meddle in this matter whilst I was governor ; and
sequestered them out, and required the Councillors who were to
advise me, and not the States, to consider of this cause....who,
I must say truly dealt very honestly and dutifully towards her
Majesty ; and we straight agreed to that which our merchants
did like so well as they be now better than they were, and by
their means all other merchants, who were utterly prohibited
and forbidden before any traffic at all to Embden ; and the States,
perceiving what order I had taken, they made them means to
come in to speak with me, and with a fair flattering tale, offered
all service to her Majesty....I could not be so soon satisfied,
for I told them what wrong they offered to my place and authority
given me by themselves, and that this was not the first within
two months space that they had thus dealt with me, and so I
found them very sorry, and promised all fidelity to her Majesty...
and that they meant only to use this restraint for our merchants
only to draw them into this country, when they should have all
liberty and good usage, and they thought should as well utter
their cloths here as at any other place, Embden or any. They
were answered....they should have sought her Majesty's favour
first before all things ; for it was not force could bring this to pass,
but rather a means to bring her Majesty's utter displeasure and
indignation upon this whole country. They continued their
excuses in all humble sort....and besought me....that I would
not let her Majesty know any matter to breed her mislike towards
them. I said I was none of those that would make the worst
of such a matter, specially finding their earnest profession such
toward her Majesty as I did, and with such like ended."
I pray that this may breed no further speech, and if the merchants
be informed of what passed ; for the governor was present
for awhile, "and showed himself a wise, grave fellow and well
languaged. His name is Mylward, an ancient man and very
religious as I hear, and the rather do I wish indeed no challenge
be made to these men, for....the whole trade of North Holland
is cut off by this trade to Embden....and it would benefit those
towns and augment the customs 20,000l. sterling a year and more
if our merchants were from Embden and at any place else....but
I cannot see how any other place as the world stands can be
found so commodious for our men except the "Reyne" be free,
and then I trust your lordship will be a mean they may come
hither. And as I have begun it, so I trust to perform that work
to set that river free and all the passages to "Collen" 'or'
many months....if I be not kept from that which all generals
and captains hath had evermore.
"Your lordship will not believe how the town of Axel is like
to annoy these parts. There is already so much corn, cattle and
grass destroyed as is worth two millions of florins. The place
very strong, and a good vessel of 40 tons may come to it. The
P[rince] is come to Antwerp. His army is risen, and some gone
into Friesland ; the greatest part towards Flanders....If Grave
had done that Newce hath done, he had been utterly overthrown.....As
hard as things of late have gone,....it will lie
in her Majesty to help all. I wish some men....of good calling
to come, for matters stand now even at the point of fast or loose.
There must be wise and good handling had in these causes.....
Those that be rich and politic fellows, they hunt after their own
wealth and surety, and without an assurance of a strong assistance,
they will be suddenly gone. And it is high time to look into
the course her Majesty will take hereafter. The year groweth
away, and these people begin to grow doubtful, as you have
heard. I dare not take upon me to give advice, but I will set
all things down truly before her Majesty if any man may come
A diet is to be held at Luneburg, and it is said the King of
Denmark is already there. The princes in Germany "have
thought much" that I have not written to them since I took
the government here ; but being in her Majesty's displeasure,
I durst not ; neither dare I yet unless she command it.—The
Hague, 29 July.
Postscript.—I perceive the ambassador here for Emden will not
accept this order set down, but will have the river free for all
strangers, "which, if it should be unfriendly, these sea-towns
here are utterly undone. The order was that our merchants,
with our ships, should come and go free, with all our merchandise
whatsoever, being in English ships ; but all other strangers
should pay their custom. Of this shortly I will write more at
Holograph. Covering sheet wanting. 6 pp. [Holland IX. 57.]
July 30./Aug. 9.
Resolution of the States General for satisfying the demand
of his Excellency to be paid the sum of 400,000 gulden for the
erecting of a camp.
Dutch. 6 pp. [Ibid. 58.]
ANSWER BY THE STATES GENERAL to Articles propounded by
Sir Thos. Cecil from her Majesty. (fn. 3)
To her Majesty's request to know what forces they have, by
sea and land, what their entertainment is and how they are
distributed, "after a months deliberation" they say they cannot
yet answer. Nor do I think they mean to do so this summer.
"As touching bringing foreign coins and their own to a certain
rate, they are agreed upon it, and I think the Lord General "hath
or meaneth forthwith to certify her Majesty thereof." Already
the double rose nobles are fallen "two English shillings in a
As touching the coinage of her Majesty's and other princes'
money, they deny having allowed the coinage of any such money
in their own mints. Certain have been taken that coined money
in King Antonio's and the Prince of Chimay's (Seymens) name,
which they have forbidden, but no man as yet punished for it.
For her request touching Count Edzard, they have satisfied
his ambassadors, who are still here with the Lord General.
Concerning the placard, they have reduced the restraint of
general traffic into Spain to victuals and munition.
For answering the entertainment of the Lord General and
chief officers of the field, they flatly deny any such promise,
saying that a brevet of the charges thought reasonable to be
found by them was indeed delivered, but they returned it "without
allowing or disallowing of it," and for their parts, never
knew of any Prince agreeing to send an army without allowing
entertainment for the officers who conducted it.
Touching the nonfulfillment of their promise to pay the pioneers,
they answer that they have disbursed divers sums which her
Majesty is to repay ; whereupon they will "make up their
account," and if they owe anything, it shall be duly answered.
Endd. with date "Sept. [sic] 1586." 1¼ pp. [Holland IX. 59.]
[Probably drawn up about the end of July. Sir T. Cecil reached
the Brill on June 24, and the States speak of having deliberated a
month on his propositions.]
ENGLISH COMPANIES in the LOW COUNTRIES.
Flushing. Sir Philip Sidney, 200 men, Captains Edward
Norris, Ri. Wingfield, Huntley [Hinder] (fn. 4) and Randall, 150 each.
Ramekins. Capt. Robert Sidney, 150.
Briell. Sir Thomas Cecil, 200. Captains Henry Norris, Hill
and Roberts, 150 each.
Bergen-op-Zoom. Captains Tuttey, Banister, Havers, Cromwell,
Scott, Vavasor, [Thos.] Maria Wingfield, Hunnies, Udall,
Basquerville, Hart, Buck, Blunt and Poole, 150 each.
Ostend. Captains Wilford, Knollis, Blont, Carcey, Brett,
Erington, Littleton, Rolles, 150 each.
Amersford. Capt. Wootton, 200.
Arnhem. Captains Wilson, Turvile, Breton, Lee, 150 each.
Berke [Rheinberg]. Colonel Morgan, 200. Captains Hudleston,
Sir W. Waller, Inge, Shawe, Thomas, Williams, Pawlett, Lambart,
Chatterton, 150 each.
Wagening. Capt. Darcey, 150.
The Camp. The Colonel General, 300 ; Sergeant-Major, 160 ;
Capt. Lloyd, 260 ; Capt. Shurley, 450 ; Captains Borrowes, Ward
and Farmour, 300 each ; Sir John Tracie, 500 ; Captain Dennis,
'Bourrowes,' Hen. Norreis, Pettie, Powell, Price, Tanner, Barnish,
Latham, Clerke, Gashfield [i.e. Gachill], 150 each. Sum total
[This is however rather lower than the actual number given.]
Endd. "July 1586." 3 pp. [Holland IX. 60.]
Another copy of the same.
Endd. 2¾ pp. [Ibid. 61.]
Notes of payments to Col. Norreys ; Lieut-Col. Roger Williams,
Nicholas Erington, master of the artillery ; Jehan Pris, sergeant-major ;
Henry Swynnerton, muster-master and Peter Crispe,
Also, notes of the following disbursements, with the States
"exceptions," showing cause why they should not pay them.
1. Sums due to her Majesty at passing the accounts for the
time of Sir John Norreys.
2. Disbursements by Sir Ph. Sidney "about the surprise of
Gravelinge and Axel" ; and by Brune and Browne the victuallers.
[Margin. "Brune was victualler appointed by her Majesty,
and so known to be, with his allowance set down by the treaty
provisional for Antwerp."]
3. For the Pioneers ; Flemish companies at Ostend ; diverse
munitions, arms, corn etc. brought from England.
[Part of a longer document, as the 1st p. is numbered fol. 6.]
4 pp. [Ibid. 62.]
Lists endorsed. "July 1586. Principal officers in the Low
Countries, with their allowances. Such as are contained in the
contract provisional, and such as are omitted in the same."—
viz. the Earl of Leicester, Lieut.-General, with two chaplains,
English secretary, French secretary, two surgeons, ten carriages,
two trumpeters, a drum, a fifer and 30 halbardiers.
Lord Gray, high marshal and captain general of the horsemen,
with chaplain, surgeon, three carriages, a trumpeter and 15
Sir William Russell, lieutenant of the horesmen, with surgeon,
two carriages and a trumpeter.
"Mr. John Norris Esquire," Captain general of the footmen,
lieutenant, serjeant major, 4 wiflers. Retinue as Lord Gray's
but with drum and fife instead of trumpeter.
Captain Erington, Master of the Ordnance. 2 clerks, 3 bowyers,
3 fletchers, master gunner, 6 gunners.
Richard Hurleston, Esquire, Treasurer of the forces, 2 clerks
Sir William Stanley, master of the camp and provost marshal.
Judge ; 2 clerks ; 6 halbardiers, 6 tipstaves, 2 gailors, 2 carriages.
Thomas Digges, Esquire, Master of the musters and trenchmaster,
Mr. Edmond Yorke, chief harbinger and Master of the forage,
3 under-harbingers ; a clerk.
Master of the Carriages, Master of the Scouts.
Browne and Bruine, commissaries of the victuals. 1 clerk.
The "herault" and his two men.
A pursuivant and his man.
Further notes of allowances to the above.
In hand of Burghley's clerk.
Endd. 4½ pp. [Holland IX. 63.]
Reasons on the part of her Majesty against the allegations
of the States, touching the debt of M. Palavicino.
Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. 64.]
WILLIAM KNOLLYS to BURGHLEY.
I humbly beseech your lordship's favour "touching some
escapes which happened in the King's Bench, wherein, as I am
informed by Mr. Catesby, I have been hardly dealt withal, considering
I was absent and in her Majesty's service." They that
pleaded against me vouched that I had said I was content to
be sued, as Mr. Catesby would hold me harmless ; but I never
uttered any such speeches, and if I had, should have been very
foolish, for I had no bond from Mr. Catesby save his promise
to defend me from all escapes.
The state of this country is so intricate that I dare give no
judgment thereof. I am sure you have heard of the loss of
'Newce,' and its valiant defence, even to the last man ; of the
failing of the enterprise of Graveline "where too much trust had
like to have beguiled us" and of another surprise off Dam, by
Bruges, which likewise failed by reason by a storm and contrary
wind. My Lord now goes into the field ; and I hope will be able
to fight the Prince of Parma. Sixty wealthy Papists of Utrecht
are banished by those of the Religion.
Postscript. It is credibly reported that the Marquis of Guasta
and Count Charles Mansfeld were slain before Newce ; "the one
buried at Antwerp, the other at Cologne." [Undated.]
Signed. Add. Endd. "Aug. 1586." 1 p. [Ibid. 65.]