July 1586, 21-31


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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: July 1586, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 2: June 1586-March 1587 (1927), pp. 97-111. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75290 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1586, 21-31

"If our resolutions from hence ripen no faster than they have done in the answering the Instructions I delivered unto his Excellency and the Estates at my first coming, I fear we shall not conclude many things in one summer," and lest there might be thought slackness in me, I beseech you to let her Majesty know that besides the overture of them by word of mouth, they have had them in writing these three weeks, but they now promise answer within three days. A letter from divers of her Majesty's Council (with your hand to it) and one from yourself, both dated the 24th of last month, were given me by his Excellency on the 17th of this. They contained nothing more than her Majesty's commands that I should use some comfortable speeches to certain of the burgomasters and persons of best quality in the chief towns, a thing that will avail little .... At my first coming, by his Excellency's advice, I used the like to the States themselves ; but neither her Majesty's fair words nor mild reprehensions will cure the cause ; it must be strokes that will end it. "The people grow weary of their long burdens.... ; of the enemy they are solicited with as fair words and promises as her Majesty giveth them, and.... unless God give us this summer some great victory, I fear by Michaelmas the whole cause will grow desperate. His Excellency now intendeth to go again into the field. I would we had not come out of the field, and then I think we had lost fewer towns than we have by two and won more credit both at our enemy's hands and of our friends." The rendezvous is appointed at "Ameron," ten English miles from Utrecht. "This day came the news of the loss of Neuss (Nuic), won by assault with great slaughter of the enemy, to the number as it is said, of three thousand ; all within put to the sword. Bravely defended by the governor, one M. Cloet (Cloute) but evil relieved by us. Our affairs here be such as that which we conclude over night is broken in the morning ;.... we are divided in many factions, so as if the enemy were as strong as we are factious and unresolute, I think we should make shipwreck of the cause this summer." I have agreed that his Excellency shall draw 350 brave men out of the Brill. He saw them, to his great liking, at his being there with me on the 16th when he tarried a night and viewed the defects of the town ; but I hope for little remedying of them. He means to write to her Majesty for ordnance from England, but how soon that will be, your lordship best knows. As for the changing of my government for Harlingen, I am resolved to keep the Brill, "as one that would keep rather a shrew he knoweth than a shrew he knoweth not," for Harlingen has the self same defects in respect of the haven, and as his Excellency means to draw this service nearer Flanders, Harlingen would be to no service for it. Lord North is now governor of it. I am promised by his Excellency the government of the two Islands her Majesty wrote for. I am preparing to go into the field both with my horse and foot-band. His Excellency is supplying the place of those he has taken out of the Brill by some of those who came last, or I could not have weakened my charge, especially at this time.— The Hague, 21 July. Postscript. "This gentleman [added by Burghley, Mr. Saunders] hath made me much beholding unto him. I beseech you let him understand that I have written so much." Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 2 pp. [Holland IX. 43.]
July [22?] The Earl of Leicester's demands for her Majesty's service in Holland," "postilled" in the margin.
1. That money may presently be sent [Margin. The treasure now sent is thought will suffice for full pay until Aug. 12, if the States make payment of what is due from them.]
2. Also some skilful man should be sent with the money.— Sir Valentine Brown or some such to perfect accounts and give directions. [Margin. Her Majesty does not think it needful to send any body to examine the accounts as they have been looked into here ; and for Huddilston's payments hereafter, seeing he will make none but by the privity of Sir T. Shirley and by warrant of the Earl, there will be no need for an Auditor.]
3. Expences for which no provision is made by her Majesty's money. [Margin. She looked that all the principal officers of the field should have been paid by the States, as was agreed to by the Commissioners (the President of [Flanders], Mr. Walck, Paul Buis and Ortell) at the conference at the Lord Treasurer's house. As to other charges, she would have the Lord General consider how they may be borne without any further charge to her, for she is determined not to go beyond the 126,000l. It is thought they may be helped "by reason of the monthly checks."]
4. How the Auditor shall be paid. [Margin. Order shall be taken for his contentment.]
5. How Herle's expences into East Friesland shall be defrayed. [Margin. Her Majesty cannot be induced to bear his charges, which should be paid by the States, he being employed in their service. And as it seems by the Earl of Embden's answer, "the complaints against him are not justifiable."]
6. That Lord Gray and Sir William Pelham may be sent thither. [Margin. Her Majesty has already sent Sir Wm. Pelham and will shortly send the Lord Gray.]
7. Further allowance needed for the levying of horses. [Margin. Her Majesty is not yet fully paid the 8000l. disbursed for levy of his horsemen, the taxations upon the clergy and recusants not having amounted to so much as was looked for. She finds great fault that the said sum is not paid, "whereof yet lacketh almost 3000l."]
Signed by Walsingham. Endd. "20 July, 1586," (fn. 1) (sic). 2 pp. [Holland IX. 44.]
July 22. Rough draft of the "Postiles" to the Earl's requests, with corrections and additions by Burghley. Endd. with date. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 45.]
July 23. THE DISCOURSE of the enterprise of GRAVELING.
Captain Nicholas Marchant, Captain Garrett and John de Louvayne, Walloons, having won (as they thought) a serjeant and corporal, with their adherents of the garrison of Graveling, for its delivery to Sir Philip Sidney, and solemn oaths being taken on both sides, it was agreed that Marchant should lade a hoy with victuals and slip into Gravelinge, carrying the contract signed by my lord of Leicester, who was there fourteen days before Sir Philip Sidney, that they might better win more of the garrison. Sir Philip coming before the town on Saturday last, July 16, about six in the afternoon, was to shoot four great shot for a token from his ship, after which they were to lay hands on the lieutenant of the castle, assure themselves of the place and then answer with two cannon from the castle, which they did. We were to attend the coming of the lieutenant prisoner and some other chief men of the town to the ships, brought by Nicholas Marchant, in whose place other hostages should have been delivered. But they sent only a corporal and Marchant's man, who said that the lieutenant had gone the day before to Dunkirk for money to content the soldiers ; and that the three captains were out of town ; one with La Motte, another with the lieutenant, the third gone towards Bruges. But he assured Sir Philip that town and castle were wholly at his devotion ; that the sergeant (the best officer then in the town) kept the castle, and Marchant helped to guard the gate and keep the soldiers in good terms ; with many more smooth speeches. But Sir Philip, "not minding to set one man on land upon so small assurance," sent only Captain Smith back with the Corporal, who returning, said he had been in the castle, made search and spoken with Marchant, and that his honour might without doubt send three hundred men thither, as the whole garrison assured him it was theirs. But Sir Philip would not hazard it, and sent twenty-six men to see how matters stood. Two returning declared that the town was ours, that there could be no deceit ; they had searched both castle and town, and urged Sir Philip incontinently to send men. Then, not without great mistrust, he sent Lieutenant Browne with 50 [sic] men to demand assurance of the castle. Who [i.e. those of the castle] seeing they could draw him no further, "issued out at the gate upon our men (awaiting Lieut. Browne's return) with the match in the cock, and at the first sally slew divers of those 70 [sic] pursueing them to the river ; the great ordnance also, coming from the castle and town in our retreat so fast as could be charged and discharged ; and on the sea sand certain horsemen laid by them in ambush on 'France' side charged us.. but being annoyed by our shot from the ships did us no great harm ; so that of seventy at the gate there returned to the ships forty-seven. For the twenty-six, it is uncertain whether they be put to death or not," but we heard five or six small shot in the town, not long before they issued out upon us at the gate, and conjecture that they then executed them. The same Sunday night, Sir Philip returned back towards Flushing. Endd. with date. 2 pp. [Holland IX. 46.]
By my last of the 4th I advertised you "of the alienation of our minds here, our diffidences and miscontentments, which though as then they lay smothering within the breasts of the Council and Estates, yet the hammer of jealousy, once entered, will hardly leave beating till it break out ; as well appeared the 22nd of July, on which day the Estates in full council uttered their doleances in very close and wary terms, and yet their meanings not hard to be discerned. Their pretended griefs were : that musters were not more exactly kept, according to the treaty ; that the captains of towns usurped upon the jurisdiction of the magistrates ; that the chamber of finances was 'addressed' of some odious and evil persons, contrary to their instructions and consent ; that the convoys were enhanced without their knowledge, that the superfluity of officers was increased ; that the poor people were oppressed and spoiled." These made a good show, but in my opinion the things that pinched nearest were the numbers of English who daily arrive, more than they are able to pay, and the imprisonment of Paul 'Bwis' by the eight captains of Utrecht, "whereof, albeit my Lord be not guilty (as he protests), yet they knowing 'Bwise' to have one of the nimblest heads, and how great a mean he was for the refusal of the French and the bringing in of the English .... seeing that his Lordship maketh no haste of his delivery....pass out of one suspicion into another." To increase these unhappy differences, we declared that, as they knew, it was now high time to put into the field, and therefore doubted not that their 400,000 florins promised was ready to supply all our wants ; "otherwise not being able to keep the field nor to cut off the carriages and cannon, the Prince of Parma, with his terrible battery, would carry all our towns one after another." To this they answered that part was already received ; that half the rest should be paid in August, September and October ; and for the rest, his Excellency must please to take it up upon the impost of cloth, and thereupon also receive his own entertainment. As for the three especes of salt, soap and new tax of beer, which he destined for extraordinary charges, they were never meant but as part of his 200,000 florins a month, granted at his first coming. [Margin. They have since put us in hope to mend and hasten these payments, if satisfied in their doleances above-said.] "This answer, your honour can easily guess, did nothing content us, preparing for the field, and in great hope to repair some part of our losses....and I in secret feared....whether they like better that the Prince of Parma should win them or we defend them.... A little to appease their minds, we set on foot the qualification of their placard ; letting them understand that as its rigour was not agreeable to her Majesty ; that the French King found himself aggrieved by it, and that "good men were restrained and lewd persons secretly made their benefit" ; also, as to part with "a certain gain of traffic and custom....for an uncertain hope of licences, was nothing else but to hazard the state of this merchandizing country....we thought it very expedient to alter the form of the placard, and only to forbid traffic with those places that were confines to the enemy's and most likely to succour them, according to your Lordship's reasons delivered to me." This music sounded well in the ears of those that love their profit, yet we do not find it work enough to better their payments or pluck out the stings fixed deeply in their minds. "Insomuch that the commissioners of the Earl of Embden arriving here alienissimo tempore, and myself....taking their business to heart and desirous to do them good, I was not able to do for them so much as otherwise I might....yet I hope to work their contentation for a time. I had rather for news recount to your honour our getting of Axel than our loss of Neuss (Newce). Wherein our gain and loss were not equal, for, in effect, we have lost the Rhine, yet some comfort it is to us that near four thousand of our enemies lost their lives at Neuss. But the Maas and Rhine lost are great hindrances to our "trafficking and mechanical provinces" ; and what is worse, there is such a way opened to Arnhem and Utrecht, as, together with the accidents lately happened at Utrecht, I fear will breed evil effects. For even as I wrote these lines, the Estates came to expostulate with my Lord for the imprisonment of Paul Bwis, "and for that the captains of Utrecht had abused his honour's name, arming our Englishmen there and putting seventy out of the town as papists, being indeed divers of them (as they termed them) very good patriots ; not doubting but that in this dangerous time it would make very greatly for the Prince of Parma, from whom they imagined these drifts to proceed." I am sorry to write these evil news, yet knowing to whom I write, I will not fail to advertise anything that is fit for my place ; and meanwhile beseech you to remember "that he that 'leeseth' the fruits of his poor offices....and serveth where he hath received hard measure and seeth no reason to hope for better.....might better spend his time in his own country than here among many dangers, where no good can come to my private" ; and were it not that I would refuse no danger for the service of my sovereign, I should be more bound to you for shortening this service than for the greatest good that may befal me.—The Hague, 24 July. Signed. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland IX. 47.]
Plan, in water-colours, of the position of the towns of Axel and Hulst, and the adjacent country. 1 large sheet. Endd. "The situation of the town of Axel." 24 July, 1586. [Ibid. 48.]
"I know it needless to recommend Mr. Fremin, who hath been so long and so well known unto you ; yet my goodwill to him cannot omit—though needlessly—to beseech you to employ your favour toward him, since you cannot do it to any man that will better deserve it.....My Lord hath willed him to raise a regiment in which he means to draw together divers French who be in England. His intent is very good, and none have charge on this side who get better reputation for using their soldiers than he doth.....This only hath been to testify mine own affection."— Flushing, 25 July, 1586. Your humble son, Ph. Sidney. Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 49.]
It is long sithence I wrote to your Lordship, but I cannot but advertise you of the loss of "Newse," "which was wonderfully battered and assaulted, and most nobly and notably defended by Clowte the governor, the soldiers and burgers. On the 15th of this month, being Friday, at two oclock after midnight, the Prince began to batter with 36 cannons, which played all day without intermission, "for he had his charges of powder ready in bags, and by them milk, vinegar and all other necessaries to cool the pieces." He made it saultable by midnight, ....and on Saturday morning by daylight gave the assault. Eight assaults were "manly defended," the governor being the most resolute man that hath ever been heard of. Fifteen hundred soldiers were slain in the town ; and of the enemy not less than three thousand. Clowte was hurt in five places, and conveyed to his lodging. Before the 9th assault, the Prince sent to offer him honourable conditions. "He answered that he had wedded himself to that town and to his honour ; and for his life, it was but servant to them both. He was resolved, as he had lived long there, so he would be found dead in the same place. In the interim of this parley there slipped out two Frenchmen, who went to the Prince and advertised him that there was not three hundred good men left in the town ; so that with another assault, it should be his own, and that with little loss. Clowte being resolved to give the Prince a bloody victory with little gain.... gave order that upon the next assault given, some should set fire of the town, which was done accordingly. The Prince, notwithstanding, sent to the walls to parley, whereupon the whole company came to the breach....to hear, as the manner is. The Prince had caused all his battery pieces to be charged, and suddenly shot them off all, in the time of the parley, and made a horrible slaughter of the men. In the neck thereof, he followed with the assault and entered the town with ease and slew all the men and many women." The Spaniards had borne the brunt of the assaults, and the Italians entered with them at the last and there was great question between them both for the honour and the spoil. The Spaniards standing firm, the Italians set fire at the other end of the town, so that all is consumed save about twenty houses. The Prince entered at one end of the breach, and the three Archbishops (as they say) at the other, viz. Mentz, Treves and Cologne. "They took Clowte, wounded as he was, some say without the privity of the Prince of Parma, and first strangled him, then smeared him with pitch and burnt him with gunpowder. Thus with their holiness they made a tragical end of an heroical service. It is wondered that the Prince would suffer so great an outrage to be done to so noble a soldier, who did but his duty. The Prince is thought weak of footmen and horse by this loss, and by putting garrison into Grave and Venloo I. trust our general shall be shortly able to counter with him, whereunto he hasteth much."—Utrecht, 26 July. Holograph. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland IX. 50.]
July 26./Aug. 5. ORDINANCE of the EARL OF LEICESTER.
For continuance to Sir John Norris, Colonel general of the English foot, of the entertainment of 2000 florins per month, in conformity with the agreement made with him by the Council of State before his arrival. Also for an order to be sent to the Treasurer at Wars, for advance of a month's money destined for payment of the camp, on account of the arrears of the said entertainment fallen out since January last. Utrecht, 5 August, 1586. With note that this ordinance, although it seems to be absolute, is only made par provision, and without prejudice to the principal. Copy. French. ⅓ p. [Holland IX. 51.]
Recommending M. Fremin, his honour's old acquaintance, who hath served very honestly and well, and being now made a Colonel, hopes to make two or three companies of Frenchmen and to bring them from England with him. Prays his honour to aid him therein, and to help him to speech with her Majesty.— The Hague, 27 July, 1586. Postscript in his own hand. I have written a letter by this gentleman to her Majesty and trust you will help him to deliver it. "I assure you he is the most sufficient captain we have of this country, and understands as well all this state. If he need anything for the sending his men over, if it be a hundred pounds or two, I will see it paid here presently. He is captain of the Castle of Woa, near Berges-up-Some. He will tell you how well your son Philip [Sidney] behaved himself at the winning of Axel." Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 52.]
I entreat you to be favourable to this bearer, Lodovic Burgrave, "brother to my faithful, honest servant, for so will he be, albeit sometimes a councillor of estate here, and a principal president in Flanders ; as sufficient a man as ever I met withal of any nation ; very well learned, exceeding wise, and sincere in religion. I cannot commend the man too much, and the only comfort I have had of any of this nation," wherefore I pray you show some extraordinary favour to his brother in a small matter he requires ; which is but to pass so many pelts of sheep skins as may be worth 150l. or 200l. "They be of good family, and brought up this Lodovic as a merchant. They be all confiscated in Flanders, their own country, for the cause sake and religion ; and therefore deserves the more favour..."—The Hague, 27 July. Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal. 1 p. [Ibid. 53.]
July 27./Aug. 6. Apostiles by his Excellency upon articles presented to him by Holland and Zeeland.
1. Touching the muster and pay of the soldiers.
His Excellency finds this demand reasonable and will give order for its satisfaction, both for the past and future.
3. Governors of the cautionary towns.
Will treat with M. de Cecil, governor of the Vrielle [Brill], not to exceed the terms of the treaty made with her Majesty.
5. Touching the management of the means of the country.
Having noticed to his great regret the confusion which there was in the administration of affairs, he has found it needful to separate the administration of the public moneys from other state affairs, reserving to himself and the Council of State the superintendence and absolute disposition ; but considering the reasons here alleged and desiring nothing more than to satisfy the States in what is for the good of the country ; his Excellency is content that all the contributions and means of Holland and Zeeland shall be at the disposition of none but himself and the Council of State, and that these provinces shall recognize none other commandment or ordinance ; this being by provision, and until he has established a chamber for the administration of the contributions, in such manner as shall be found fitting by advice of the Estates, who are desired to come to a resolution in the matter as quickly as may be.
6. Convoys.
What has been done in regard of the convoys is to settle them equally and in order, in accordance with the intention of the States General, by provision and only until the States shall have drawn up a certain list of the convoys, having regard both to the profit of the common cause and the conservation of traffic.
7. Officers.
His Excellency will have due regard thereto, having had the lists of officers and their entertainment viewed, in order to [blank left (fn. 2) ] whatever may be superfluous.
8. Military discipline.
His Excellency having nothing more at heart than to relieve the subjects from extraordinary charges and to have military discipline observed, will give fitting order in so far as is possible for some reasonable entertainment to be given to the men of war. And in order to have better means to satisfy this article, he desires the States to hasten the advancement of the money granted by them.—The Hague, 6 August, 1586. Said to be signed by Valcke, President, and the Earl. Countersigned by Chr. Huygens.
French. 1¾ pp. [Holland IX. 54.] [Articles and apostiles printed at length by Bor, bk. XXI, f. 48b.]
Has received complaints from the noble Dietrich Snoy of the manner in which Hayo Maninga and his son (who is married to Snoy's daughter) have been treated by his Excellency [recounts the proceedings] and urges the Count to do justice to Maninga. Is confident that his Excellency will act in such manner that petitioner may be satisfied, and have no cause of complaint left in where he may justly claim help and support from himself [Leicester] and others ; but though he doubts not that his Excellency will do his duty, he would be glad to have a certain answer for his justification.—"Graefshagen" in Holland, 28 July, 1586, stylo veteri. Copy. Endd. German. 1¾ pp. [Holland IX. 55.]
July 28. LEICESTER to the States of EAST FRIESLAND.
On the same subject. Earnestly exhorts them to further the cause with their Lord, that he may re-instate Hayo Maninga in his old, peaceful and lawful possession of his inheritance ; and if the said Maninga intends to take action in the matter, that the same may be carried on in due manner of justice, that any harm likely to arise to the Count's subjects may be avoided.— Graefshagen, 28 July, 1586, stilo veteri. Copy. Endd. German. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. 56.]
"I cannot express the extreme want and misery we have been in for lack of money. God send it speedily, or me from this charge and company, whose extremity cannot but grieve any man to see ; the sight whereof hath caused many a new come soldier to run his way. "We have come now within this three weeks above three thousand men, very full and lusty men, they be almost now furnished. Armour is so stolen away by our merchants as our men are fain to tarry ten or twenty days for armour. It is happy our Englishmen came, otherwise you had heard of a good many towns going at a clap. There hath been much lewd practice used to alter men's minds of these countries and it hath someways taken too much place. But as ill as it is, it will lie in her Majesty yet to save all. For my part, I have no cause but for her Majesty's sake and my country to speak much for these men ; but if matters be yet well handled, all will be as well or better than before ; but otherwise all will be gone....and none can help it but her Majesty under God. The value of moneys are agreed upon. We could tarry no longer for Palmer and I have set down for her Majesty as your lordship wished. It will keep your gold at home and your silver. Money for our soldiers is scant here. I have been here fourteen days and at length by fair means and foul I have got some, and am promised the rest (due three months since) on the 15th of this next month ; i.e. 350,000 florins. Twice I have had our men ready and the day appointed to march to the relief of Newce [Neuss], but could not get our pay. "Now the enemy having had a great loss of his men at Newce, (though the town be gone and clean burnt to the ground), to the number of four thousand as we hear dead in the ditches ; and that we may take great advantage upon the enemy, yet can we not haste this pay of theirs ten days sooner ; whereby we might go into the field. Strange humours are among them. Two or three attempts they have given, specially whilst Paul Buis was at liberty, to resume the government into their hands again ; at least indirectly to have it by giving out all manner of directions here at Hague, as I have usually done since I had the place. Since my being here, I have dealt somewhat plainly and roundly with them upon great occasion offered against our whole trade at Embden. I did never deal with such heady people as these States are. I cannot blame the common sort to mislike them ; for there is no reasoning against their resolutions. But yet, as the governor of the merchants can tell, I was forced to say to them that which cooled them in the end ; and finding them bent wilfully to overthrow the trade, I dealt plainly with them. I would grant the merchants their free passages, and would see who would gainsay it ;....and asked them what authority they had to meddle in this matter whilst I was governor ; and sequestered them out, and required the Councillors who were to advise me, and not the States, to consider of this cause....who, I must say truly dealt very honestly and dutifully towards her Majesty ; and we straight agreed to that which our merchants did like so well as they be now better than they were, and by their means all other merchants, who were utterly prohibited and forbidden before any traffic at all to Embden ; and the States, perceiving what order I had taken, they made them means to come in to speak with me, and with a fair flattering tale, offered all service to her Majesty....I could not be so soon satisfied, for I told them what wrong they offered to my place and authority given me by themselves, and that this was not the first within two months space that they had thus dealt with me, and so I found them very sorry, and promised all fidelity to her Majesty... and that they meant only to use this restraint for our merchants only to draw them into this country, when they should have all liberty and good usage, and they thought should as well utter their cloths here as at any other place, Embden or any. They were answered....they should have sought her Majesty's favour first before all things ; for it was not force could bring this to pass, but rather a means to bring her Majesty's utter displeasure and indignation upon this whole country. They continued their excuses in all humble sort....and besought me....that I would not let her Majesty know any matter to breed her mislike towards them. I said I was none of those that would make the worst of such a matter, specially finding their earnest profession such toward her Majesty as I did, and with such like ended." I pray that this may breed no further speech, and if the merchants be informed of what passed ; for the governor was present for awhile, "and showed himself a wise, grave fellow and well languaged. His name is Mylward, an ancient man and very religious as I hear, and the rather do I wish indeed no challenge be made to these men, for....the whole trade of North Holland is cut off by this trade to Embden....and it would benefit those towns and augment the customs 20,000l. sterling a year and more if our merchants were from Embden and at any place else....but I cannot see how any other place as the world stands can be found so commodious for our men except the "Reyne" be free, and then I trust your lordship will be a mean they may come hither. And as I have begun it, so I trust to perform that work to set that river free and all the passages to "Collen" 'or' many months....if I be not kept from that which all generals and captains hath had evermore. "Your lordship will not believe how the town of Axel is like to annoy these parts. There is already so much corn, cattle and grass destroyed as is worth two millions of florins. The place very strong, and a good vessel of 40 tons may come to it. The P[rince] is come to Antwerp. His army is risen, and some gone into Friesland ; the greatest part towards Flanders....If Grave had done that Newce hath done, he had been utterly overthrown.....As hard as things of late have gone,....it will lie in her Majesty to help all. I wish some men....of good calling to come, for matters stand now even at the point of fast or loose. There must be wise and good handling had in these causes..... Those that be rich and politic fellows, they hunt after their own wealth and surety, and without an assurance of a strong assistance, they will be suddenly gone. And it is high time to look into the course her Majesty will take hereafter. The year groweth away, and these people begin to grow doubtful, as you have heard. I dare not take upon me to give advice, but I will set all things down truly before her Majesty if any man may come hither." A diet is to be held at Luneburg, and it is said the King of Denmark is already there. The princes in Germany "have thought much" that I have not written to them since I took the government here ; but being in her Majesty's displeasure, I durst not ; neither dare I yet unless she command it.—The Hague, 29 July. Postscript.—I perceive the ambassador here for Emden will not accept this order set down, but will have the river free for all strangers, "which, if it should be unfriendly, these sea-towns here are utterly undone. The order was that our merchants, with our ships, should come and go free, with all our merchandise whatsoever, being in English ships ; but all other strangers should pay their custom. Of this shortly I will write more at large." Holograph. Covering sheet wanting. 6 pp. [Holland IX. 57.]
July 30./Aug. 9. Resolution of the States General for satisfying the demand of his Excellency to be paid the sum of 400,000 gulden for the erecting of a camp. Dutch. 6 pp. [Ibid. 58.]
[July, end of?] ANSWER BY THE STATES GENERAL to Articles propounded by Sir Thos. Cecil from her Majesty. (fn. 3)
To her Majesty's request to know what forces they have, by sea and land, what their entertainment is and how they are distributed, "after a months deliberation" they say they cannot yet answer. Nor do I think they mean to do so this summer. "As touching bringing foreign coins and their own to a certain rate, they are agreed upon it, and I think the Lord General "hath or meaneth forthwith to certify her Majesty thereof." Already the double rose nobles are fallen "two English shillings in a piece." As touching the coinage of her Majesty's and other princes' money, they deny having allowed the coinage of any such money in their own mints. Certain have been taken that coined money in King Antonio's and the Prince of Chimay's (Seymens) name, which they have forbidden, but no man as yet punished for it. For her request touching Count Edzard, they have satisfied his ambassadors, who are still here with the Lord General. Concerning the placard, they have reduced the restraint of general traffic into Spain to victuals and munition. For answering the entertainment of the Lord General and chief officers of the field, they flatly deny any such promise, saying that a brevet of the charges thought reasonable to be found by them was indeed delivered, but they returned it "without allowing or disallowing of it," and for their parts, never knew of any Prince agreeing to send an army without allowing entertainment for the officers who conducted it. Touching the nonfulfillment of their promise to pay the pioneers, they answer that they have disbursed divers sums which her Majesty is to repay ; whereupon they will "make up their account," and if they owe anything, it shall be duly answered. Endd. with date "Sept. [sic] 1586." 1¼ pp. [Holland IX. 59.] [Probably drawn up about the end of July. Sir T. Cecil reached the Brill on June 24, and the States speak of having deliberated a month on his propositions.]
Flushing. Sir Philip Sidney, 200 men, Captains Edward Norris, Ri. Wingfield, Huntley [Hinder] (fn. 4) and Randall, 150 each.
Ramekins. Capt. Robert Sidney, 150.
Briell. Sir Thomas Cecil, 200. Captains Henry Norris, Hill and Roberts, 150 each.
Bergen-op-Zoom. Captains Tuttey, Banister, Havers, Cromwell, Scott, Vavasor, [Thos.] Maria Wingfield, Hunnies, Udall, Basquerville, Hart, Buck, Blunt and Poole, 150 each.
Ostend. Captains Wilford, Knollis, Blont, Carcey, Brett, Erington, Littleton, Rolles, 150 each.
Amersford. Capt. Wootton, 200.
Arnhem. Captains Wilson, Turvile, Breton, Lee, 150 each.
Berke [Rheinberg]. Colonel Morgan, 200. Captains Hudleston, Sir W. Waller, Inge, Shawe, Thomas, Williams, Pawlett, Lambart, Chatterton, 150 each.
Wagening. Capt. Darcey, 150.
The Camp. The Colonel General, 300 ; Sergeant-Major, 160 ; Capt. Lloyd, 260 ; Capt. Shurley, 450 ; Captains Borrowes, Ward and Farmour, 300 each ; Sir John Tracie, 500 ; Captain Dennis, 'Bourrowes,' Hen. Norreis, Pettie, Powell, Price, Tanner, Barnish, Latham, Clerke, Gashfield [i.e. Gachill], 150 each. Sum total 11,710.
[This is however rather lower than the actual number given.] Endd. "July 1586." 3 pp. [Holland IX. 60.]
Another copy of the same. Endd. 2¾ pp. [Ibid. 61.]
July. Notes of payments to Col. Norreys ; Lieut-Col. Roger Williams, Nicholas Erington, master of the artillery ; Jehan Pris, sergeant-major ; Henry Swynnerton, muster-master and Peter Crispe, provost-marshal. Also, notes of the following disbursements, with the States "exceptions," showing cause why they should not pay them.
1. Sums due to her Majesty at passing the accounts for the time of Sir John Norreys.
2. Disbursements by Sir Ph. Sidney "about the surprise of Gravelinge and Axel" ; and by Brune and Browne the victuallers. [Margin. "Brune was victualler appointed by her Majesty, and so known to be, with his allowance set down by the treaty provisional for Antwerp."]
3. For the Pioneers ; Flemish companies at Ostend ; diverse munitions, arms, corn etc. brought from England. [Part of a longer document, as the 1st p. is numbered fol. 6.] 4 pp. [Ibid. 62.]
July. Lists endorsed. "July 1586. Principal officers in the Low Countries, with their allowances. Such as are contained in the contract provisional, and such as are omitted in the same."— viz. the Earl of Leicester, Lieut.-General, with two chaplains, English secretary, French secretary, two surgeons, ten carriages, two trumpeters, a drum, a fifer and 30 halbardiers. Lord Gray, high marshal and captain general of the horsemen, with chaplain, surgeon, three carriages, a trumpeter and 15 halbardiers. Sir William Russell, lieutenant of the horesmen, with surgeon, two carriages and a trumpeter. "Mr. John Norris Esquire," Captain general of the footmen, lieutenant, serjeant major, 4 wiflers. Retinue as Lord Gray's but with drum and fife instead of trumpeter. Captain Erington, Master of the Ordnance. 2 clerks, 3 bowyers, 3 fletchers, master gunner, 6 gunners. Richard Hurleston, Esquire, Treasurer of the forces, 2 clerks 4 carriages. Sir William Stanley, master of the camp and provost marshal. Judge ; 2 clerks ; 6 halbardiers, 6 tipstaves, 2 gailors, 2 carriages. Thomas Digges, Esquire, Master of the musters and trenchmaster, 2 clerks.
Mr. Edmond Yorke, chief harbinger and Master of the forage, 3 under-harbingers ; a clerk.
Master of the Carriages, Master of the Scouts.
Browne and Bruine, commissaries of the victuals. 1 clerk.
The "herault" and his two men.
A pursuivant and his man.
Further notes of allowances to the above.
In hand of Burghley's clerk.
Endd. 4½ pp. [Holland IX. 63.]
[July?] Reasons on the part of her Majesty against the allegations of the States, touching the debt of M. Palavicino. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. 64.]
I humbly beseech your lordship's favour "touching some escapes which happened in the King's Bench, wherein, as I am informed by Mr. Catesby, I have been hardly dealt withal, considering I was absent and in her Majesty's service." They that pleaded against me vouched that I had said I was content to be sued, as Mr. Catesby would hold me harmless ; but I never uttered any such speeches, and if I had, should have been very foolish, for I had no bond from Mr. Catesby save his promise to defend me from all escapes. The state of this country is so intricate that I dare give no judgment thereof. I am sure you have heard of the loss of 'Newce,' and its valiant defence, even to the last man ; of the failing of the enterprise of Graveline "where too much trust had like to have beguiled us" and of another surprise off Dam, by Bruges, which likewise failed by reason by a storm and contrary wind. My Lord now goes into the field ; and I hope will be able to fight the Prince of Parma. Sixty wealthy Papists of Utrecht are banished by those of the Religion. Postscript. It is credibly reported that the Marquis of Guasta and Count Charles Mansfeld were slain before Newce ; "the one buried at Antwerp, the other at Cologne." [Undated.] Signed. Add. Endd. "Aug. 1586." 1 p. [Ibid. 65.]


1 This is the date given to the Earl's demands, above. Probably the day when they were received.
2 [Bor] "Omne af te suyden" i.e. in order to cut down.
3 See under date June 20, above.
4 Capt. Hinder's name is omitted in this list but included in the second one [and in the total].