MAURICE OF NASSAU to the QUEEN.
I am informed by the Council of the Admiralty here that
being very short of artillery suitable for ships of war, they some
time ago, by means of their deputies in your Majesty's realm,
bought artillery to the amount of a hundred tons. But they
are advertised that the transport thereof is objected to by your
Majesty's officers there, perhaps supposing that it is done by
private persons, who might carry it elsewhere ; which can never
be, seeing that the purchase is made by express order of the said
Admiralty. I therefore make bold humbly to pray your Majesty
to give orders to your officers to allow it to pass freely, to the end
that your service here may not be retarded, but that we may have
the means to employ ourselves further therein, according to
our infinite obligation so to do. In which your Majesty will
find me ever ready, even to the hazard of my life.—The Hague,
11 August, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland IX. 66.]
R. HUDDILSTON to BURGHLEY.
On Thursday, being July 28, we embarked with her Majesty's
treasure in the Bull, at Margate, and having a very good wind
arrived at Flushing next day by noon. From thence I came to
Middelburg, unladed the treasure, and conferred with the merchants
for advancing the 10,000l. appointed to be received here
the 10th of August. They promised on Monday to get in what
they could for me, wherefore I have been constrained to tarry
here till this Tuesday for it. But considering the need of my
repair to the Lord General, and having received 5150l. or thereabouts,
I think it not amiss to leave the rest in their hands,
considering the great need of paying the garrisons in these parts,
and tomorrow morning propose to hasten towards Utrecht,
where his lordship now is. At our arrival, it was held for certain
that the enemy was before Berk on the Rhine, where Sir Martin
'Shynk' commands, with Col. Morgan and certain English
companies ; but since then it is given out that he "rather pretendeth"
to Bergen op Zoom. Others think that his losses at
Nuys keep him at a stand. My Lord General prepares for the
field, and companies from sundry parts are commanded to rise,
but for what purpose I cannot say.—Middelburg, 2 August, 1586.
Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Ibid. 67.]
A note of the gold coins in the Low Countries as proclaimed
by placcart on Aug. 4, 1586, giving their value in gilders and
|The English angel
|The double English rose noble
|The single English rose noble
|The Harry noble
|The angel "with the letter O upon the ship"
|The sovereign coined by King Henry
|The golden rial
|The half golden rial
|The Carolus gildern
|The French crown "of the sun"
|The Flemish crown
|The old French crown
|The golden lion
|The Burgoyne ryder
|The golden fleece
|The Andrew's gilderne
|The William's "schilt"
|The Philip's gildern
|The Philip's clinkard
|The great crusado of Portugal
|The double Spanish pistolet
|The single Spanish pistolet
|The double Italian pistolet
|The single pistolet
|The great rial of 'Osterriick'
|The ducat of Hungary, Spain, Portugal "and
those coined in Riick" [i.e. the Empire]
|The double Spanish ducat
|The golden Castillian
|The Portugal crown "with the short cross"
|The Portugal crown "with the long cross"
|The double Italian ducat
|The single Italian ducat "and the salutation"
|The Portugal "mill re"
|The Dutch gildern
|The David's gildern of Utrecht
|The Guelderland's ryder
|The gilderns of Deventer, Campian and Swolle,
|The rose noble of Guelderland and Utrecht
|The Flemish noble, old and new
|The double Zeeland's ducat
|The Hollands ducat
|The double gildern of Netherlands "called the
|The Guelderland's and Friesland's golden ryder
Endd. 1¾ pp. [Holland IX. 68.]
SIR THOMAS SHERLEY to BURGHLEY.
When I delivered your letters to his Excellency, I also let him
know how honourably you have dealt with her Majesty for the
furtherance of the cause here in hand, and of your loving disposition
towards himself, and care that her Highness should satisfy his
reasonable desires. He takes it most kindly of you, and I trust
will ever seek to requite it. He showed me your kind letter to
him, for which he was very thankful, as I am for your mention
therein of my love to him. While I live I shall study to deserve
your favour by all service that may lie in me to do to you and
yours. I think you will have heard "that since the taking of
'Nuse' the Prince hath gotten 'Mewers,' but that was had by intelligence
and not by blows." We heard that he had marched into
Brabant, but even now news comes that he is besieging Berke.
I think we shall presently go to relieve it.—"Tergrave," 6
"Sir Thomas Cecil is in very good health. He was here
yesterday, and is gone to Utrecht."
Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland IX. 69.]
Draft for the following letter to her Majesty.
Endd. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 70.]
THOMAS WILKES to THE QUEEN.
At my arrival at Utrecht on the 1st of this month, where
I found my lord of Leicester, the Council of State were at la
Hague : but they met him at Goude in Holland, where I delivered
your Majesty's letters, and declared to them as much as I was
directed. They seemed to have learnt of my coming and the
gracious message I brought, and had given some inkling of it
to the people, who received me with much gladness. The Council
showed a wonderful joy, as if raised from deep despair to a
certain hope of the continuance of your succour ; for though
they pretended to have been satisfied with your former letters,
"the constant bruit brought from the enemy of the supposed
treaty of peace between your Majesty and him, and the secret
working of Paul Bus....had so amazed them" that they began
to abandon all hope. They rendered you "immortal and eternal
thanks" (using those epithets) and promised to open their state
and hearts to your view, desiring me to go with them to the Hague,
where all their papers and records are, that they might acquaint
me with all things for your satisfaction.—Gouda, 7 August, 1586,
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 71.]
THOMAS WILKES to BURGHLEY.
To the same effect as to her Majesty above. To give the
"more show of truth" to the report about a peace, the enemy
have had a house prepared in Brussels "for an ambassador
coming out of England" to conclude it.—Gouda, 7 August,
1586, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. 72.]
THOMAS DIGGES to BURGHLEY.
I have been with his Excellency "at Haye" and here at
Utrecht seven or eight days, waiting for the Treasurer, who
stayed behind at Middelburg, I know not why. Our soldiers are
so dispersed in garrison towns, and some of them in Guelders and
'Bergh' [Rheinberg], besieged by the enemy, that it will be
impossible to perform the musters in due order, especially as to
this hour there is no certain allowance for the officers of the
army, which breeds not only confusion in the accounts but in
the service. And the men "so licentiously accustomed heretofore
as any due military discipline seemeth to them intolerable."
"Count Hollock and my lord Marshal, Sir William Pelham,
are in Brabant upon an exploit, and our Lord General preparing
with all speed to march towards the enemy with all the forces
he can draw together" ; but I think that with less hazard we
should divert the enemy from his enterprises and do greater
service by spoiling their harvest and winter store, if we bent
most of our forces into Flanders, to relieve our poor soldiers
with spoil instead of pay, than this way, where they can hope for
nothing but blows. And I think want of pay will draw his
Excellency to that course.—Utrecht, 7 August, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland IX. 73.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
I heartily thank you for your long letters, received by Sir
Thomas Shurley, "and for your friendly consideration of the
continual hindrances I have for writing....which at this
present are most extreme," from the infinite cares I have in
setting forth the army for the relief of Berk, now besieged by the
enemy. For which cause I must leave all to the report of Mr.
Herle, especially touching Embden, wherein he can throughly
advertise you what is done and the difficulty I had to bring the
States to a good end.—Utrecht, 8 August, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand. The matters of this state now
admit of no further dalliance, and her Majesty shall shortly be
advertised of all that we have been able to look into. The people
are most affectionate to her. The higher sort, that manage the
causes among them, and will at length persuade them, will I see,
"deal upon a surer ground than hitherto," or will seek another
course. They also desire to be protected by none other but her
Majesty, but the fear and doubt they have had these five months
past hath caused many inconveniences and hath disgraced all my
poor service and endeavours. "But my adventure was for God
and her Majesty, and my end shall witness it." You know, and
all here can judge what my care and pains have been, and what
crosses and thwarts I have met with from my first coming till
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 74.]
DR. THOMAS DOYLEY to BURGHLEY.
By yours of July 21, I see that you had not received mine sent
by 'Hues,' Lord Norreys' man, dated July 16. Hereafter I
will send by swifter and surer messengers, if you will ask your
son to have my letters conveyed from the Brill.
On the 18th, his Excellency went to the Brill, where he was
most honourably received and feasted by the Lord Governor.
He returned on the 19th to the Hague, and the same day news
came that Sir Philip Sydney's enterprise against Graveling had
failed, "having left forty-four men behind him." The particulars,
no doubt, you know long since ; "because it is given out
here that it was projected in England and sent over hither but
thereof Sir John Norreys was nothing made acquainted.
"The 21, there were sixty of the most substantial gentlemen
and burghers proscribed by billet by authority from his Excellency
from Utrecht, to avoid the town in three hours and the land in
three days, to some neutral place."
The 22nd, Mr. William Hearl came as ambassador "with her
Majesty's letters to the magistrates and captains of Utrecht,
which he delivered with great solemnity.
"The 23, his Excellency made a most sumptuous feast to the
nobility, gentility, ladies and gentlewomen of the country at the
Hague, and was most solemnly served.
"About this time, the Count Hollock, the Lord Marshal and
the Earl of Essex drew divers companies to make a rendez-vous
in Brabant for some enterprise there, whereof the Colonel General
[Norreys], being there present, was not made privy of. All this
week I was sent by his Excellency to Utrecht to sick gentlemen,
so that I was from the fountain of news.
[Concerning the taking of Neuss]. "Clout the governor most
valiantly acquitted himself, being shot in three places, and hanged
by the Prince, being almost dead before. The Prince lost above
a thousand men, and the new Bishop of Cologne was present, and
saw his town burnt, all saving an hundred houses. He paid to
the Prince 55,000 gulders, and is to supply as many furnished men
as were lost.
"The 1st of August, Wilkes came to Utrecht as lord ambassador
and is now at the Hague. The 2, his Excellency came from the
Hague by 'Goude' to Utrecht, and returned again to Groude the
"The 6th, the Treasurer Mr. Huddleston came to Utrecht, and
the same day happened a great matter, which I fear will grow to
some mischief between the Count Hollock, the Lord Marshal and
Mr. Edward Norreys, at Gertruydenberg in the Count's own
house, the particularities whereof I send enclosed in another hand
unknown.....I see preparation of banding on both sides, and
each to stand upon their guards."
The Prince is certainly before Berke, with above forty pieces
of artillery, "and hath already got the island to foreclose them
from the river and hath entrenched himself in four places about
it. The town is not strong, but well-provided of men, munition
and victuals." There are nine English companies, Col. Morgan's,
Captains Thomas, Williams, 'Indge,' Lambert, Latham, Pawlet,
Shawe, Chatterton, and three more have been sent, but whether
they are entered, we are not sure. Capt. Williams and Capt.
Latham themselves are not there. The 7th his Excellency returned
here, and makes all haste to draw his companies into the field,
for the rescue of Berke ; "but I know not how the Count Hollock,
the Lord Marshal and Sir John Norreys (being drawn into his
brother's quarrel) can brook one to command or be commanded
of the other. I fear some dangerous sequel, but his Excellency
hath entered into the cause already, and used me as a messenger
to Sir John Norreys."—Utrecht, 8 August, 1586.
Postscript. I have just learned that his Excellency's repair
to Goude proceeds from some jealousy with the States ; for
neither will they come to any place where he absolutely commands,
nor his Excellency "where they can" ; but they cover it by
saying that they will not come "where his Excellency shall not
be obeyed ; charging the captains of Utrecht for the imprisonment
of Paul Buz, which his Excellency disavoweth, and also for
their disobeying of him for his releasement."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland IX. 75.]
Quarrel between COUNT HOHENLOHE and CAPT. EDW. NORREYS.
Count Hollock and the Lord Marshal [Sir William Pelham]
having determined a voyage into Brabant, by Gertruydenbergh,
to which the Colonel General must not be made privy, the
Lord Marshal desired Lord Willoughby to repair thither with his
horse and 500 foot and likewise Sir Philip Sydney, for some
Lord Willoughby being at Flushing, showed the letter to the
governor, and shipped himself with all speed, asking Capt. Edw.
Norris to accompany him to Gertruydenbergh ; where, hearing that
the forces were returned, having burnt a village and killed some
boors, they went to the water side to meet them, "where Sir Philip
Sydney found presently great change in Count Hollock's countenance.....Patente
[i.e. Paton] a Scottish captain, also asked
of Sir Philip Sydney whether there were any quarrel between
the Count Hollock and any of the troop, affirming that he knew
by him that he meant some mischief to some of them. Supper
time being come, everybody set, and drinking beginning ; Capt.
Edw. Norris perceived himself more than ordinarily pressed ;
and after many carouses, the Lord Marshal took a great glass
and drank to the health of the Lord Norris and my lady. Capt.
Norreys desired his lordship to take a lesser, saying it would be
no pleasure to his Lordship to see him drunk ; calling Mr. Sydney
to witness that in eight days before he had forborne to drink
wine for his health. But being urged, he pledged him, and drank
it to the Count of Essex, who drank it to the Count Hollock,
saying it was to the health of Mr. Norreys' father. The Count
asked whose horse, and that he used not to pledge horses, and
notwithstanding that the Earl repeated it twice or thrice he would
not understand it otherewise, which Capt. Norris began to wonder
at, but said nothing. Immediately my Lord Marshal took the
like glass again, and drank to Capt. Norris, who musing much at
it.....took the glass and set it by him as the manner is. But
the Lord Marshal, reaching over the board....said 'Capt.
Norris, take your glass, and if you have any mind to play, seek
other companions, for I will not be played withal ; therefore
pledge me.' Capt. Norris said I trust your lordship will not
force me to drink more than 1 list ; and though now your lordship
be in higher place, yet in England you would not have disdained
me for your companion." [The Marshal still persisted in urging
Norris to drink, with scornful words, which at last Norris, to
avoid offence, consented to do.] Then standing up, "he was
drinking to Mr. Sydney when the Count Hollock, saying nothing
and to whom nothing had been said before, took the cover of a
great bowl and threw it violently at Capt. Norris's head,....and
cut him a great gash to the bone, the blood running down his
face and eyes. The Count presently rose to have stabbed him,
but was stayed by Sir Philip Sydney and others and so carried
away. Capt. Norris, amazed, went to his lodging, and next
morning departed the town, being warned that he was in danger
of his life ; the place being in the hands of the Count's people.
"It is but a slender defence for my Lord Marshal to excuse
himself by his cups ; but often the cups bewray men's humours,
and demask their malice,....whereby this broken head may
save and avoid a greater danger ; but certainly the Count Hollock
saw how the stream went, and thought to have done a pleasure
to the company in killing of him."
Endd. "8 August, 1586. Mr. Edw. Norrys, with the discourse
of the quarrel between him and the Count Hohenlo."
2¼ pp. [Holland IX. 76.]
Another copy of the same, with the following additional
paragraph :—" The next day after his departure the said company
met at the Count Hollock's house, and were all in so good terms
that not one of the company had either falling band or ruff left
about his neck untorn clean away ; and yet there was no blood
Endd. by Burghley. "8 Aug., 1586. Advertisement of a
difference at Gertrudenberg. Count Hollock, Sir Wm. Pelham."
3 pp. [Ibid. 77.]
Reasons by WILLIAM MILWARD why the whole trade of the
Adventurers should not be settled in the United Provinces.
1. It has been thought well ever since the beginning of her
Majesty's reign, that there should be a place for the vent of their
trade outside the Low Countries ; wherefore they procured
privileges at Embden and afterwards at Hamburg ; whereby,
when the King of Spain banished English commodities from the
Low Countries in 1563 and embargoed English ships in 1568 ;
and also upon the hard dealing of the Hanses in 1578, they
"found means at Embden to utter a great quantity of cloths,
not only to the good of the realm but to the bridling of the Hanses,
were able to have vent for their goods. So long as there was
passage up the river [Scheldt], they found free vent in that town,
but now that the river is possessed by the enemy, the merchants
of Italy and Germany neither bring their goods nor send to buy
English commodities there, and not one half of what the Adventurers
bring thither is sold.
It has been said that if the whole trade was diverted to Amsterdam,
the merchants would both be safer and do more trade than
at Embden ; but this can hardly be so, for to Embden, the merchants
of Italy, Germany and Eastland send their commodities
and then buy English cloths &c. ; which, in the time of these
troubles, they will not do in the Low Countries, especially as for
a third of the year the rivers are frozen.
The Council of State, in their last treaty with the Earl of
East Friesland, have shown that their quarrel with Embden
was more from envy of its prosperity than desire to annoy the
enemy or advance the common cause ; wherefore it is to be feared
that if the trade were diverted, the Earl and his town would
join with the Hanses, "who have long desired to have Embden
and the Adventurers at squares."
He thinks therefore that they should only feel the minds of the
States ; and so leave the matter and make report to her Majesty
or the Lords of the Council.
But if these people obtain the whole trade, and so the Merchants
Adventurers are out of favour in all other places, it may fall out
very ill for the advancement of her Majesty's purpose ; for
"they shall be the readier to oppose themselves against any
action intended for the common cause if the same be to their
disliking," some of them having said to him "that as good reason
cloths etc. should be forbidden to be transported out of England,
as butter and cheese to be restrained from transportation out
of these countries. If therefore....it should be found convenient
to restrain anything to be transported out of these countries,
they, having the whole trade of cloth in their hands, would, to
hinder such purpose, restrain cloth to pass out" from hence.—
The Hague, 9 August, 1586.
Signed. 2½ pp. [Holland IX. 78.]
State of the contributions granted to his Excellency by the
States of the United Provinces, for the six months from Feb. 10
to Aug. 9, 1586.
Giving the payments to the regiments, horse and foot, with
names of captains of companies ; to officers of the field and governors
of towns, and for various other items of expenditure.
Total disbursements upon the contributions 1221729 florins 9
paters or 122172l. 19s. 2d.
French. 36 pp. [Ibid. 79.]
A "Summary computation of the above.
4 pp. [Ibid. 80.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
I have dealt with my cousin Cecil touching the Brill,... and
he finds it as I wrote. I hear Sir Francis Drake hath brought
store of ordnance with him. Eight or ten pieces shall be wellbestowed
For the finances, if I have the requisite assistance, I can perform
all I said ; but I doubt the malicious dealing of some, "specially
the lewd plot laid by Paul Buys" which hinders it greatly already.
Mr. Wilkes is examining it and will tell you what he finds in that
and other thwart dealings here. There is only one way to make
all safe :—for her Majesty "to take that upon her which I fear
she will not."
Touching the States' payments to her or myself, "they have
paid of late so ill for themselves as I think they made small
reckoning to pay anybody ; so strange an alteration I found in
them since the loss of Grave." But I dealt so flatly with them
before Mr. Wilkes' coming that I brought them to a better pass :
and his arrival and good messages have confirmed things far
better than I hoped ; and such is their desire of her Majesty's
protection, that if she gives them assured encouragement all
will fall out as well as we may desire.
Touching the moneys, I now understand the right of it, and
have assented to it, but your words were not so plain in your
other letter, "neither yet where you say that you would have
our 12d. sterling to be at 20d. Flemish, I cannot find of what
money you mean, for if you reckon it by the stiver, which is their
common small money they pay, ten of their stivers makes our
12d., and according to that rate do they rule the rest of their
"Touching the rose noble, I did likewise perceive your Lordship
right, and have declared my opinion accordingly, and his
value better known now than at the first, yet where he hath
been paid, we can see none come abroad again for repayment.
The offer that was made me should have been so performed as
her Majesty should have had forty thousand pounds before
Michaelmas, and some help....for my charges here. I do not
know what hindrance it could have been to her Majesty....for
the piece should have been as fine gold and as full weight as our
rose noble is, and every way as rich and good. It was I think
another manner of reckoning than is made at the Mint in England
by any man, and I have mused a thousand times why it was
refused. What can be done now I know not, but, it is like
nothing, for that the rose noble as you advised is now abated to
his value as the angels are, and I will no further deal in that
matter before I have first good warrant, when such a bargain is
offered, that I may take hold of it," and if I then find nothing
can be done, there is no harm done by the warrant. The party
is not here, but I will send for him.
"The counterfeit money was made as I hear in Amsterdam,
as your Lordship saith, for he is taken of late and like to be
executed, but a secret worker he was as you have in England,
but at Goicum there is open working and I cannot yet stay it.
I hear it is for Don Antonio, but there is process again out for them,
and shall be prosecuted to the uttermost, for it is a great dishonour
to her Majesty's coin indeed and will deface any that
shall be made here after of that sort, it is so far amiss.
"I perceive the merchants would have broken with your
lordship for money, alleging the loss of Grave and Venloo. I
marvel at it, for they had no trade that way at all. Surely you
must take care of their doings or else they will bring the realm
there into hard terms I fear, for I think they do no good at
Middelborowe indeed but 'pelting' between them and Antwerp,
wherein I have been fain to deal for them and help them, both
for money and goods forfeited."
"The matter of Emden....I have ended to the ambassador's
contentation that came from the Earl, greatly against our men's
wills here, who in troth I must say shall be great losers by the
traffic at Emden, as all North Holland will cry out for it ; but
I had rather they cried than England should weep."
The money I borrowed did the poor soldiers more pleasure
than any they received a good while. "Your lordship will not believe
the wants they have suffered, nor the harm it hath done to
all those that are newly come. I know there is of our numbers
two thousand slipped away. Her Majesty had been better, both
for her own honour and for the reputation of her subjects to have
spent 40,000l. than that they had been driven to this extreme
want....My case hath been hard many ways ; I pray God to
spare any other my friends and countrymen from feeling the
"Touching the precedent taken upon Atyes warrants drawn for
me to sign, I marvel he did not satisfy your lordship and the
rest at his being there ; he could have told you how little cause
there was to make a precedent of his warrants, for those were
made upon a special service and necessity, upon the disbursing
of the 4000l. which I borrowed for the setting forth of the journey
to the victualling of Grave ; whereof your lordship has heard.
When there was not one penny to be gotten of her Majesty nor
of the States, I did....not only borrow the 4000l. but gaged
most of all my vessel and plate for money for myself and others ;
and because I was driven to use the service as well of those in
the States' pay as her Majesty's....I caused the warrants to be
made in haste after that manner giving but a prest only to every
band that went at that time ; which if this only time of necessity
drew me unto, I would fain know why the Treasurer should
make this only one time his precedent ; but my lord, I wrote
the very truth although I found how small my credit was,....for
by the Lord in heaven the Treasurer confessed to myself his
meaning was both by that and his other payments without my
warrant at all to those soldiers, to have thereby the payment
of them in his office ; not doubting, he said, but at last the States
would and must pay the money laid out again ; but saving for
the trial of my credit it is a small matter to me; for my warrants
were made as any careful general in the world would make them,
having such a service in hand and not a penny of treasure to
be had but this borrowed by myself upon mine own band, as I
have the merchants' letters to show, when Mr. Treasurer took
up at the same time 2000l. saying her Majesty did owe it him,
and yet promised me he would discharge the garrisons at Berges
unpaid and Ostend ; and he paid only 300l. or thereabout to
Berges alone, a thousand and a half being due, and the soldiers
having mutinied and ready daily to mutiny. But I speak not
this to increase any more matter against him, for I mean no
way to deal further than by my direct warrants to further the
best I can her Majesty's service, but I say thus much for the
truth's sake, which was not believed before in me.
"Your lordship is in the right for Dunkirk and Newport. I take
them to be of greater account than Berges or Gaunt for England,
and they be not places unthought of if I had all things as ready as
our enemy hath. I must do as I may, being limitted as I am,
otherwise our enemys could not have tarried so long where he
is unmet withal.....
"For fly-boats, I see rather that there will be fewer than
more upon that coast, though it concern themselves.
"Mr. Wylkes is come in very good time ; his letters and
messages most dearly welcome to this people. God grant her
Majesty to be well encouraged to go through with this action,
howsoever I have been discouraged. Touching the Master of
Gray, I think it happy he comes not, for we have no money for
him, nor they desire no more numbers here. There must be a
remedy for these men's dealings, which, if God send me good
speed this journey, I know which way to bring them to a better
pass well enough, her Majesty continuing her gracious countenance
and favour toward me. I will impart all to Mr. Wylkes and he
shall come thoroughly instructed of all things.....He is a marvellous
sufficient man, and her Majesty could not have chosen
a fitter for this purpose than I see he is like to prove.
"For Paul Buys, I perceive by messages from her Majesty
that she thinks him a friendly and an affectionate servant unto
her, and that he was always for England. It is true, when he
thought France should have these countries, he wished her
Majesty rather their prince but let all men say, since I have
served here, whether any man hath been such an opposite, both
against her Majesty's service and to impeach anything that I
should go about touching the service here.
"This bearer, your lordship doth know, ever loved him of all
men of this country birth. Let him tell you what he thinks
of him, and whether ever man hath sought a man as I have
Paul Buys, even for the ability I found in him above all men,
but except he may govern and direct all men and all matters,
he is not to be assured of. Methinks her Majesty should somewhat
better trust me, having so great a charge as I have, to think me
of more judgment than to lose such a man, whom myself hath
made choice of, of all others here, and whose purse hath paid
for it 200l. thick to him alone, to make him surer if good turns
would do it, having bestowed more offices and benefits on him
than upon any man else here. And except it were for exceeding
great causes, it should be thought I would not mislike him ; but
in very truth, my lord, he is a most naughty man, and so reputed
of all men 'or' I came hither ; and was thrust in by extreme
labour to come in commission into England to her Majesty ;
for he was clean cast off here, both from the States and Council,
and removed from his chief office, being Advocate of Holland ;
and his falling from me was because he could not make me his
instrument of revenge, and to make such counsellors as he named,
and refuse such as he misliked, being of better credit than ever
he would be, as Medykyrk and Walk and one Telinge, a very
honest and most sufficient man for matters of the finances. Yet
had he the naming of divers whom I took, and be the veriest
crafty, wrangling and poling companions in a country. I would
your lordship did see how I am watched, except it be three or
four who be both wise and honest. As for P. B., he is of no
religion, but those he favours are papists, and there is not in
all these countries a more notorious drunkard in the worst degree.
But I doubt not but if her Majesty find it good—notwithstanding
all his and others' practices—to take them to her protection
freely and fully, all will go well."—10 August.
Postscript.—"I may not forget to commend...this poor bearer,
who hath taken great travail in this voyage to Emden, wherein
he hath very well used himself.....It is time he had some 'stay' ;
and I know he hath long loved your lordship....and hath been
careful to do me all the service for her Majesty that he could.
"Till this day....we had no money from the States to set
forth our army, and we are not like to have 2000 footmen of
theirs, they have such broken bands and so many garrisons,
and yet I am fain to leave above 5000 Englishmen in garrisons,
or else they will be in danger."
Endd. as sent from the Earl of Leicester to Lord Burghley by
Holograph. 5¾ pp. [Holland IX. 81.]
ROGER EDWARDS to WALSINGHAM.
So soon as I came to Holland I wrote to your honour, leaving
the letters with Geoffrey Gale. He gave them (as he saith) to a
skipper of 'Schevelin,' who, coming into England was surprised
by them of Dunkirk, and the letters lost. "The purpose of my
going into Germany was to feel the discretion of the Divines
concerning the restitution of Israel" (on which depends the
restitution of all things and blessing of all creatures, according
to the prophets and gospel). "Being come to Francfort on the
Mayne, I rested and penned down the matter and sent it to Duke
Casimir, to be commanded to the divines of Heidelberg, among
the which Joannes Jacobus Grinœus beareth the chief place and
admiration. There were also the preachers that were compelled
to depart from Metz and Verdun ; there was also Isaac Josephus
the Jew. They all conferred upon the matter, and seeming
(as I took it) to condemn it by silence, I urged them by very great
bitterness, by a letter unto the Duke. Whereupon he sent
unto...... (fn. 1) learned gentleman of his own [?] named Georgius
Erasmus Schregelius, who for answer....said : that Calvin,
Beza and Acolampadius, with others had so sufficiently written
in the cause that they need not deal with it. Which I reproved
as a fable, for that the question was not handled before this time.
Then I wrote to the Landgrave William of [Hesse] Cassel,
a man most famous in the mathematics. He received the book
and said that he would try the judgments of the learned concerning
the same.....The Archbishop of Mayance took the book and
caused it to be copied out and sent me mine again. The divines
of Francfort answered (both the Calvinists and Martinists) as
those of Heidelberg did, wherein I reproved them with much
eagerness, yet would they not answer. The divines of England
began in the same course, whereby it is manifest....that they
all are comprehended in one predicament by the prophet Esaye
saying Neque ex his erat quis quam qui miret consilium aut interrogatus
"Having thus....sufficiently tried the spirits of the English
Dutch [i.e. German] and French divines and finding the trial
according to the word I shut up my book and put up my pen and
said Lord, I am a worm, of no force or value ; make therefore
the heavens and the earth to pronounce the verity of thy word,
and in the power of thine own arm perform the covenant of thy
mercy, to the comfort of thine elect, to the shame of thine enemies
and to the everlasting praise of thy name, Amen."
My business being thus dispatched, I turned head homewards
about the 27th of September. At this time there were no occurants
in Germany worthy the writing.
"The last year was the Elector Augustus of Saxony greviously
afflicted with an ill spirit, for the which a witch was had in question
at the torture, who before the Piene confessed the practice, and
discovered above forty persons, gentlemen and gentlewomen of
his court and elsewhere, with their consorts, privy to the same.
The duchess within a short while after died, and the Elector
married a young lady, with whom he lived about half a year, and
then died ; leaving one son, whose infirmity is such as his house
may be said rather to be vacant than furnished with a Prince
Elector ; for he is very lunatic. He hath to wife the youngest
daughter of the Marquis of Brandenburg.
"The Elector Palatine is a young lad, and the Duke Casimir
his uncle and tutor, not greatly esteemed among the princes,
because he holdeth not Confessionem Augustanam, but hath
reformed the Principality after the order of Basel and Geneva ;
for the which the overseers of Elector Ludovic's will (namely the
Marquis of Brandenburg, the Duke of Wirtemberg and the Landgrave
of Cassel) have quarrelled with him upon divers actions in
the Imperial Chamber.
"The Emperor lieth most at Prague, in very mean state, not
inclined to marry, but wholly given to liberty of life. The chief
of his Council [consist of? (fn. 2) ] three or four Spaniards and an
Italian, by whom he is in heart made more malicious towards
the Religion than were any of his ancestors....At Augsburg the
whole city were in arms, divided for the receiving and refusing
of the new Almanac, and had fallen to fury if Hans Fugger had
not by his labour, discretion and estimation pacified the rage of
the citizens ; the end whereof was the uniform receiving of that
"The State of the Empire in the Princes of all sorts, is overflown
with covetousness and oppressions. The nation in general are
sonder Gott except in terms. The greatest grace of the Lutherans
in their preaching is to rail and conedmn the Calvinists with more
bitterness than even they were wont to do. Men preach and
teach and strive, but the Lord is gone another way."
I came to Cologne, and finding the ways downward very
dangerous from the men of war of Truchsess and Bavaria, "I
used such care and industry as by God's good luck I came safe
to Wezel," and thence took boat for Emmerich and so to Arnhem.
But on the Rhine, I was surprised, spoiled and carried to Berck
by the men of war of that place," being a people that robbed and
spoiled all that came in hand." I wrote to Mr. Norris and others,
but was let lie till my lord of Leicester came, when I was freely
delivered, safely brought into Holland, and reached the Hague
on "Sheref Tuesday," where my lord used me with much grace.
I wish I could do him some good service, for he "redeemed me
as out of hell." Howbeit, by the favour of Janakin, Yoncker
van Hefte, I was well entreated [and protected from] the blood
furious people. The Lord save him from the violent hands of
the enemy, who is now (as I understand) in Berck. "The people
that took me and their captain, Lambert Hernehoft, were removed
to 'Newse' against the enemies came....and there they
I need not give you advertisement of the state of things in
these regions, as you know it all, nor dare I deal with reports,
they are so diverse and deceitful. "The hasty and lucky success
of the enemy doth greatly daunt and terrify the people. Within
the space of these ten last weeks or little more, they have obtained
the strong town of Grave, and Vendelo, far stronger than it. When
I was at Berke it was said that they had in Vendelo corn sufficient
for five years. Newse was a fair town and very rich before it
was taken by the Grave von Mewrs ; now remaineth but the
relics of it, for three parts of it are burnt." In his coming to
Berke were rendered unto him Crakowe, a strong castle of the
Grave vom Mewers and the towns of Alpenen and Mewrs....and
now, being at the siege of Berke, he will not away before he get it,
unless....by some means as may please God ; for the place is
not so strong as it seemeth ; for the fortification is of sandy earth,
full of 'pypple' stones ; a substance most pernicious for the
defendants, in face of the great shot. Besides that, there is a
great wood near unto the town, which will serve for many devices
to aid the siegeants...." The parts of the town towards Santon
lie upon hard hilly ground. I think they have small store of
great artillery there. It is as big as Gorchom and very fair built,
and has been very wealthy, by great traffic on the Rhine and
tillage, but now spoiled and in great poverty. It had a fair
castle for the Bishop of Cologne's dwelling and a huge stable
but about — years past, on the 13 of July, it took fire from the
heavens and was all burnt except the walls. Bishop Salentin,
now Grave von Isemberg "bestowed great cost to repair the
I hear that Wezel is so terrified that they have received garrison
from their Prince, the Duke of Claves, to whom they have
not these many years rendered obedience till now. If the Duke
of Parma get Berke, he will have the Rhine from Nemegen to
Cologne, which will make him mighty in shipping and having
also the mastery of the Maze, has overcome the greatest difficulty
for the relief of Brabant and Flanders.
I hope to see your honour in England shortly, for I am here
but an idle improfitable body. Please pardon Geffrey Gate, the
bearer for the miss of the other letters. Utrecht, 10 August, 1586.
Add. Endd. 2 pps. very small close writing. [Holland