THE EARL OF ESSEX to LEICESTER.
I have nothing to write of save our own private wars, which
I think more dangerous than any enemy, and so dispatch this
messenger to let you know both cause and proceedings thereof.
"My lord Marshal, finding some few places left by Sir John
Norreis for this troop, thought it fitter to lodge his horse and foot
in the head of Sir John Norreis his company, leaving the other
places for your Excellency......
"This was so ill taken by Sir John Norreis that he sent my
Lord Marshal a message by Captain Price, that he marvelled my
Lord Marshal would pass his quarter, he having commandment
of all, and my Lord Marshal only of the horse. My Lord Marshal
by Mr. provost marshal, sent him both a mild and friendly answer,
assuring he meant it only for your Excellency's service . . . but
for his commandment, he knew well his place and was here to
command the whole troops, but desired to confer with him of some
place where to encamp tomorrow all together. To this he replied
... that he had his commission from your Excellency, and except
my Lord Marshal had one and that better than his, he would not
loose his commandment" ; besides many other speeches to the
I hope your Excellency will take some present order herein,
for things cannot hold in the terms they are now. For my self, I
think "every private man touched, our commander being thus
quarelled withal."—The Camp, 21 August, 1586.
Copy. Endd. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 99.]
SIR WILLIAM PELHAM to LEICESTER.
"I am right sorry that my good meaning should be misconstrued
and unkindness at every slight occasion taken ; as
by two messages sent me from Colonel Norreis since my sitting
down here may appear....And as in truth my authority in this
place is nothing, not being under any confirmation, so rather
wishing to die than to purchase any disorder in the service, it
were much better we both were in Turkey than inconvenience
should grow."....—At the Camp, 21 August, 1586.
Postscript. I pray you inform me when and with what troops
you mean to march, that we may appoint a convenient ground
Copy. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland IX. 100.]
LEICESTER to WILKES.
"I am sorry to let you know how far Mr. Norris again doth
abuse himself. As I sent him with the vanguard before, even to
satisfy his desire more than for any reason to send it so far before
our army into that place, so since, as our forces increased, I sent
yesterday the Marshal with them to the Camp, thinking Mr.
Norris would acknowledge his place as his betters in office and
degree do ; but he flatly refused at his arrival to obey him any
way. Hereupon I wrote to him and to the Marshal, but as
you may see by sundry letters how proudly he behaveth himself,
even now that the enemy is drawn within five or six miles of them ;
a most foul part and a manifest taken he neither regardeth the
cause of God nor his prince and country. For who would not,
at this time, rather bear than seek to quarrel.
"Thus you see...what my case was before with him, being
at like terms with any man that bare office that was not either
his man or follower. But how unhappy am I to be thus matched
with such a man in these services.....I do now call to mind how
his envy once overthrew the Count Hollock, and after, the good
and worthy La Noue, he only was cause of it ; dividing his forces
from him and disdaining to obey him. Even so would he do
now with me, for the envy of the Marshal, but if he continue his
obstinacy till I come...I will take a direct course with him, for
this pride is the spirit of the devil."—Arnham [sic], 22 August.
"Your old friend, R. Leicester."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. Seal of arms in garter.
WILLIAM HERLLE to BURGHLEY.
I am presently arrived from beyond seas, having brought you
letters from the Lord General and a packet from Sir Thos. Cecil,
with others, to be delivered by myself, and to report the state of
But having tossed at seas with winds and storms, I have not
slept since Wednesday night, landing at ten last night at Dover,
and am so wearied that it may please you to wait until tomorrow
for my attending upon you. I have also two letters and a memorial
from the Lord General to her Majesty, likewise letters to my
lords of the Council, Lord Admiral, Mr. Vice Chamberlain, Mr.
Secretary &c. ; meaning after I have presented myself to your
lordship to repair immediately to the Court.—Temple Bar,
22 August, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland IX. 102.]
"Matter to charge the Council of State. And their answers
1. They assured her Majesty that until they had a lord of
quality to command their affairs with the English auxiliaries,
they had sufficient means to sustain the cost of the war.
Margin. No such discourse held with her Majesty.
2. That when his Excellency goes into the field, they fail to
furnish him with victuals, munitions, boats &c., for which cause
he has been forced to abandon the campaign and delay the
services before Nimegen.
Margin. Delayed because of the wind, and by commandment
of his Excellency.
3. They have not discharged the 200,000l. granted for the
expenses of the war, according to the Act of contributions.
Margin. These are discharged.
4. The 200,000l. payable on Feb. 10 and for the three months
following, were not paid at the prefixed time.
Margin. Has been paid, and anticipated for four months
5. They have not kept their promise to pay the principal
officers of the army.
Answer. Read, sergeant-major, not paid by the States because
they have one of their own nation. Sir John Conway, Master of
the artillery not paid for the same reason. Two not necessary.
The Treasurer, handling her Majesty's treasure not to be paid by
French. ¾ p. [Ibid. 103.]
Memorial for the ambassador [Wilkes] of what he is to put
before his Excellency from the Council of State ; being their
reasons why it is advisable for them and those of the Finances
to be always resident at Utrecht, and so within easy reach of
the province of Holland, viz. the number of despatches sent
thither with demands for victuals and ammunition ; and the
constant arrival there of new soldiers. Also that they may keep
their eye upon the moneys, which, for the most part come from
Holland ; and may be able to go frequently and without great
expence to the Court.
In another hand. It will be well to put before his Excellency
the disorder committed in regard to carts, viz : that they are
all stayed at Arnhem, and are so overladen that they break in
pieces ; the horses die, or are wounded or killed ; the carters
beaten, and the wheels broken ; so that no one will serve any
Endd. Fr. 1½ pp. [Ibid. 104.]
Document endorsed. Matters to be inquired of at the Camp.
Answered there by my Lord."
What forces requisite to keep the field?
Margin. 15,000 foot ; 3,000 horse ; 1,000 pioneers.
The number of English it were fit to have in the frontier towns.
How many to be drawn from the Queen's companies ; how many
from the voluntaries.
Margin. Needed only in the cautionary towns, Ostend,
Bergen-op-Zoom, Sluis and Berke, unless the enemy offer to
What numbers of English fit to be put on a sudden into
Flushing and Brill if the country should revolt, and how to be
victualled till relief may come from England.
Margin. Flushing 1,500 and victual for a month. Brill :
"look at Sir Tho. Cecil's notes."
"What number of English are by poll...of such as are under
the pay of the States."
Margin. "This can hardly be known until a pay come."
The accounts to be perfected with all expedition.
Margin. "There is a commission to Mr. Digges and others
to examine them."
How the money reserved for levying of the horse is employed.
Margin. Mr. Attey.
What frontier towns are held by the enemy and with what
garrisons ? [Not answered.]
Whether the States have answered the 5,000l. disbursed for
levying the first troops sent over by Mr. Norreys and the 7,000l.
lent to them for payment or levy of forces by themselves ?
Margin. They have not answered.
Sir John Norreys. 1. To answer the matter of the muster
of his dead men and not supplying of the numbers.
2. The matter of the old armour, and making the soldier
pay for new. 3. The matter of the two dead pays.
Whether her Majesty shall be let understand what entertainment
the States do give his Excellency.
Endd. 1 p. [Holland IX. 105.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
I was in great anguish of mind with news of the restraint of
passage at the ports in England and bruits "of peril her Majesty
should be in," but thank God these are cleared by your late letters.
You and I and others have often earnestly dealt with her of the
peril likely to arise to her "by the favours and access given to
known papists in court," and though hitherto she has not had
that regard of herself which this horrible conspiracy shows to have
been needful, it may be that she will now give order for redress
in this behalf. And though I know how vigilant and ready you
are in such cases, yet being absent, "and knowing the devilish
plots laid by the papists against her person," I earnestly pray you
to call incessantly upon her "to give strait order for restraint
of all papists and evil affected to the estate from her presence
and court. I may not enter into judgment against all of that
kind so far as to think they are of mind to attempt such villany
against her person ; but this I assure myself, there is no right
papist in England that wisheth Queen Elizabeth to live long ;
and to suffer any such in her court cannot be but dangerous...
by the flocking of the other worse affected to them ... "—The
Camp at Elten in Cleveland, 29 August, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand. I have willed Tho. Dudley to
repair to you about a matter wherein I entreat you and Mr.
Secretary to deal with her Majesty for me. It concerns the vile
traitor Salsbury, my servant and ward, and as I was made to
believe a protestant, "till within a year he was altered by a
Jesuit or such like .... He had the farm of part of my demesnes
at Denbigh, under the very castle wall. I desire her Majesty to
grant it me upon this forfeit ; the rather for that I both told it
Mr. Secretary himself and to divers of those merchants to whom
I mortgaged my lordship of Denbigh that I had redeemed the
lease from Salsbury.....I did assure myself so, yet as soon as I
was gone....he hath dallied out the time....and would not
sign the book." Two or three counsellors at law can confirm
this ; I think Mr. Owen and Mr. Solicitor [Egerton], and one
Crooke my solicitor. "It is my own land if I redeem it again,
and he holds 40l. or 50l. a year of his land of me also.....The
rent he payeth me is either 10l. or 16l. a year ; not above 20l. I
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland IX. 106.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
I have received your last letter by Edm. Yorke, and this time
and place being so unfit to write, I have thought better to commit
my answer to Mr. Wilkes' mouth, to whom also I refer you for
a report of all things here, he being very well able to inform
you of them.—The Camp at Elten, 29 August, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand. "I understand among those most
horrible and detestable villains that conspired lately against her
Majesty there is one Salsbury, a man of mine. I pray God
confound all her enemies, and that these may be made such an
example as may be a fearful terror to all such. This Salsbury
had a lease of my demesnes at Denbigh, and I was agreed with
him before my coming away, as Tho. Dudley can tell you ; and
yet like a knave to me went from it. I beseech you, my lord,
move her Majesty for me, being mine own land."
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 107.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
Concerning their anxiety in consequence of the reports of the
conspiracy against her Majesty, as to which they are now "satisfied
and revived." Refers him to Mr. Wilkes for all news.—
The Camp at Elten, 29 August, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. 108.]
Aug. 29./Sept. 8.
PIETRO BIZARI to DAVISON.
My business with the Elector of Saxony had, by God's grace,
happy success. If I had not gone in person, I should have lost
my usual pay, owing to the great change in that court upon the
death of Duke Augustus. In Hamburg I received a letter from
his Highness to the effect that in future I should no more receive
any pay or pension from thence, his Highness not intending to
make any further use of my work. Such news was very unpleasing
to me, and the more so in this my old age, and after the
continual service of fourteen years ; but I went to Dresden, and
by means of a very favourite counsellor of his Highness, Signor
Andrea Pauli, I obtained in a moment what I desired, viz :—to
remain in the good graces of the new prince and to enjoy my usual
pension of a hundred and forty imperial thalers. He was,
moreover, pleased with my present of four English dogs, which
I had taken over, not without much trouble and expence.
I arrived in Dresden on July 2, old style, and the day following—
which was the Sunday on which his Highness started to go to the
Marquis of Brandenburg, his father-in-law, in order to resort
in his company to the Assembly of Protestant Princes in Luneburg,
where also was the King of Denmark,—I was dispatched, to my
very great satisfaction, thanks to the Divine goodness and that
good counsellor who was so kind to me.
I rejoice exceedingly that God has revealed the great conspiracy
against her Majesty and her kingdom. May he protect her and
bring to nought all the designs of her enemies ; and also preserve
your Excellency, your wife and family in all happiness.—Dort,
8 September, stilo novo, 1586.
As to affairs here, there is shortly expected some great event,
which I pray God may be good both for the Queen and this poor
Add. to Davison at the Duke of 'Nourfock's' house in London.
Italian. 1¼ pp. [Holland IX. 109.]
SIR THOMAS SHERLEY to BURGHLEY, HATTON AND WALSINGHAM.
Finds it almost impossible to perform his duty as commanded
by their letter in regard to the disboursement of the treasure,
seeing that many payments are made at sundry remote places
at one time, as at Brill, Flushing, Bergues and Ostend ; these
being made by several paymasters of the Treasurer, while he
himself is not furnished with officers, nor allowed to join with
those of the Treasurer. And he can only take knowledge of
his lordship's warrants unto the Treasurer for so much as is so
sent and paid ; and for such other payments as are made, where
the Treasurer resides, he attends with diligence and is most
willing to stretch his poor service as far as possible, but makes
bold to signify this "by way of pre-occupation, to prevent any
conceit of negligence" in him, and prays that if anything falls
out ill in the issuing of the treasure, he may be held blameless.—
The Camp, 29 August.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. 110.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
Having sent by Mr. Wilkes all that concerns the whole state
here, I need not trouble you further. "If any occasion shall
fall out that any be sent hereafter, as no doubt there will be great
cause..... I wish for her Majesty's better service that he
[Wilkes] be employed, for he is a very sufficient and a very
I made a suit to your lordship to move her Majesty for me
touching Salsbury, but I remember that "all things were past
before my departure thence." If I shall need your help I trust I
shall find it. I am this morning removing our camp.—30 August.
Postscript. "The impression of these States touching her
Majesty's assistance and aid is such as they are 'manuvring'
and staggering even to their own most danger."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland IX. 111.]
Paper containing (1) Copy of the Queen's letter of Feb. 14 to
the Earl of Leicester.
(2) "A declaration of the manner of treating of peace underhand
to the Earl of Leicester."
Mr. Controller [Sir James Croft] hath a kinsman about the
Prince of Parma named Bodnam, who (by his instigation) has
attempted some communication with the Prince, for "some
good unity" between the King of Spain and her Majesty. And
Mr. Controller has a man in Calais named Harrys, [qy. Norryce]
by whom intelligence is given to and from Bodnam.
The Prince of Parma hath good liking of Mr. Controller, and
promises that "the doing and thanks thereof shall not be taken
from him" when it shall be dealt in.
"One Carlo Lanfranki, an Italian merchant in Antwerp, great
with M. de Champagni, certain months past wrote....to one
Andreas de Loe, a Dutch merchant in London, to see if he could
move a treaty of peace to some of her Majesty's Council, affected
to a peace and fit for the furtherance of it." De Loe showed the
letter to the Lord Treasurer, who showed it to the Queen, "who
very well liked the motion and wisheth forwardness in the
On this the Lord Treasurer willed de Loe to answer the letter,
but not to name himself or to make any other privy to the matter.
De Loe told Lanfranchi he had found one well-affected to the cause
and willing and able to further it ; to which Lanfranchi replied
that if her Majesty continued that good meaning, she should
have conditions to her "best liking" (amongst other, repayment
of her money lent in the Low Countries), on condition that she
would not meddle in matters of religion. It was confidently
answered that she was content not to do so. This being understood,
M. Champagni himself wrote a "very formable letter"
to de Loe, which also was shown to her Majesty, who very well
liked and commended it, and answered de Loe, by the Lord
Treasurer, that her goodwill was still as before, but for the peace
she looked that the Prince of Parma should first seek it. De Loe
was wished to work it all he could, but to have a care that his
dealings came not to the knowledge of others (especially of the
Earl of Leicester), "for that there were that sought rather war
At this point, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain [Hatton] was first made
acquainted with de Loo's doings.
In the midst of these actions, one Augustin Grafinga, an
Italian merchant in London, by persuasion of the Lord Cobham
"took upon him to go over to the Prince of Parma to treat also
about a peace ; and coming over had good audience of the Prince,
but so handled his matter there as he almost confessed to be sent
from hence. His proceedings are known, and therefore not
material to be told."
About the beginning of May, Mr. Controller (who had perfect
knowledge of all that had passed) began himself to treat with de
Loo as from her Majesty (having made privy to it Mr. Vice-Chamberlain,
Lord Cobham, Sir Walter Mildmay and two others,
of whom one is, as is thought, the Lord Buckhurst) and persuaded
him to go over himself, showing him the good liking her Majesty
had that he should deal in the action, and her desire for peace,
and assuring him that upon this treaty she would call back Drake
and stay the ships prepared to go to him ; and that all the towns
in her power should be rendered to the King. But this she
entreated ; "that all favour might be showed to his poor subjects
of the Low Countries, and that Drake might quietly return."
Meanwhile, on May 7, her Majesty received an Italian letter,
with divers Latin sentences, which she took "with good liking,"
and immediately de Loe's dispatch was devised, and the letters
in the Lord Treasurer's hands returned to him, having each of
them notes of the Lord Treasurer's hand upon them.
Instructions were given to de Loe, and he was charged to go
neither into Zeeland or Holland, lest the lord of Leicester "that
sought rather war than peace" should, by stopping his return
hinder his proceedings.
At this point, Augustin Grafigna "was won again by the Lord
Cobham to go over....and advised to go before [de Loe] that he
might win the spurs." He started on May 8, and on May 11,
"with many good words from her Majesty," de Loe departed.
As to Grafigna, both the Lord Treasurer and Mr. Controller
told de Loe not to fear him, as the Prince of Parma had promised
not to take the matter out of his [de Loo's] hands.
Amongst other charges which Mr. Controller gave to de Loe,
he desired him so to work that M. de Champagni might be the
man to come over to treat of this peace ; first, "for that her
Majesty had of him best liking," secondly that he is known to be
a fit instrument, from the furtherance he would have by his
brother, the Cardinal of Granvelle, who bears great rule with the
King of Spain. And whensoever he came, he should find her
Majesty and the most and best of her Council well inclined to it,
"except the Secretary, who against so many others, should be
able to do little hurt."
Endd. "August 1586." 2¾ closely written pp. [Holland IX.
[Aug.?] (fn. 1)
THE QUEEN to the STATES GENERAL.
Having shown by the results thereof the care which she has
always had for their preservation, there is no need to write
thereof. But she must tell them that instead of the gratitude
due to her, she thinks it strange to learn that some there, little
caring for the welfare of their State, and less respecting her
meritorious dealings in their behalf, should have been so malign
and audacious as to have scattered false and scandulous reports
of her in the United Provinces, endeavouring thereby to give evil
and pernicious impressions of herself and her past actions, in
regard to the aid that she has so liberally given them ; not only
imputing to her faults which they pretend have been committed
by certain of her ministers, employed in the said provinces for
their defence, but also insinuating that her intention from the
beginning has been by underhand dealings to take to herself
the sovereign authority, and put her foot upon their necks.
Whereof, as God is her witness, she has never even thought.
Wherefore, to prevent such imaginations from entering their
minds, to the prejudice both of her honour and their estate, she
gives them to understand that the authors of such false and
dangerous reports have no other object than to rouse their
jealousy of herself and her proceedings, to the end that, on their
part they may give her occasion to grow weary of their alliance
and leave them a prey to their enemies, from whose servitude—
by the grace of God and her succour, they have been freed,
when, after the loss of Antwerp, (fn. 2) they were on the point of being
overwhelmed. And it is not, and never has been her intention
to encroach upon them, as her actions can testify. Finally, if
any of those to whom she has committed the charge and leadership
of her army and affairs in their provinces should, through
ignorance or lack of instruction in the affairs of their state, have
done anything to the injury thereof, she protests and prays them
to believe that it has been without her knowledge and against
her will. And if they had informed her thereof, she would not
have failed to remedy the same ; as she will do should the like
happen in the future (which she would greatly regret). And as
she desires on their part but a good and friendly correspondence ;
while showing her the respect due to her quality and her merits,
they may expect from her whatever may be in her power.
... Our Castle of Windsor, the — day — ½ a broad sheet, 3 copies.
[Holland IX. last entries.]