ANDREA DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
Although I would not be importunate to your lordship, I
cannot but pray you to give her Majesty the letter I have written
to her, and also to communicate to her what I wrote to yourself.
[On the desirability of a negotiation ; the importance of granting
the Prince of Parma's condition concerning his envoy ; the
scruple as to whether the said Prince has authority from the King
to treat ; his friendship for her Majesty and sincerity in this
On the other hand, it being clear that the Queen is far from
wishing to have differences with the king, and would not wish to
do to him what she would not have him do to her, there is no
doubt that a way being found for them to come to an understanding
these two noble crowns would shortly embrace each other with
the holy kiss of peace ; by means of which a new world would be
born, the Burgundian mistress (amica), so long divorced, returning
to the loving embraces of England, and new espousals being
celebrated, as it were, between these realms and the afflicted Low
Countries, they being free from foreign soldiers, and mutual
commerce and free traffic re-established.
Her Majesty may be assured that very different results will
follow from treating by means of his Highness than by others who
might be sent from Spain, there being no one there who, more than
he, could influence the King ; and who, from his old affection to
the Low Countries will do more than is imagined to pacify them.
And as a good Prince, he will esteem himself happy, after so
many wars, to be the author of so blessed a peace ; whereupon
he may joyfully return to repose in his own dukedom.
In conclusion, having promised his Highness to let him know
her Majesty's mind as soon as possible, I pray your lordship to
obviate the danger lest too long delay be ill-taken, and that orders
may be given at Dover for a ship to go to fetch the personage who
is to be sent ; knowing how eagerly they are awaiting the coming
of good news. And as, from this great desire, on that side of
the sea, there may arise a general talk of peace it is not to be
expressed with what joy it would be received by all, and thus
would follow the common saying, vox populi, vox dei.—London,
11 November, 1586.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Italian. 1½ pp. [Flanders I. 101.]
ANDREA DE LOO to THE QUEEN.
My confidence in your Majesty's clemency giving me hope
that you will not take amiss my poor writing and that your
innate good disposition will lead you to be pleased to accept the
proposal of the Prince for entering into a negotiation, I pray
your Majesty, as soon as possible to make it manifest that if the
Prince, in the name of the King, shall send in good earnest to
treat you will give ear to it, and that the personage sent will
be welcomed, with the intention of not giving up any honest
means, both for the pacification of the Low Countries and for the
safety of her own dominions, of making a firm peace between
your Majesty and the King of Spain ; without allowing any
doubt which you might feel about the authority of the Prince
to retard so blessed a business.
And if your Majesty would deign to give me credit to go on
your behalf to satisfy this Prince of your good will God is my
witness that I should be most faithful on my return in giving
you a true account of what you might promise yourself in the
And if your Majesty may say that one must begin before one
can finish ; I hold it for very certain that if the affair were once
set afoot by the coming of the said personage, it would (as the
Prince himself said to me) be very speedily brought to a conclusion.....
I do not believe that he would undertake it without commission,
and by all that I have seen and hear of him (as also what he
ordered the President to say to me at the instant of my departure)
I am very sure that on behalf of the King he will give your Majesty
And for my part (poor worm as I am) if I had the riches and
more than the riches of Crœsus, I would dare to venture both
property and life in assuring your Majesty that—a way of entering
into this treaty being once made—you will find the Prince
entirely sincere, and that he will do very much to unite two such
noble crowns in peace without giving you the least cause of
mistrust in any thing, but will graciously consent that bonis
avibus et auspiciis, some one shall shortly be sent to treat, as well
for the repose of your royal person as for that of the commonwealth.
—London, 12 November, 1586.
Add. Italian. 1 p. [Ibid. I. 102.]
ANDREA DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
Praying him, in giving the above letter to her Majesty, to use
his influence that the matter may be done as quickly as possible,
and not in such a way as to irritate again the healed wound of the
offence taken by his Highness from her last letter.
Having considered what his Lordship said yesterday, he believes
that it will favour the business not now to stand on any
scruple as to the Prince's authority, much less to go into particulars
about the indemnity and other matters touching the
States of the Low Countries, before commencing the treaty ;
hoping most strongly that in these, as in other points, due satisfaction
will be given her, and that she herself will be the one to
decide on it ; calling to mind the saying of Solomon :—quod qui
observat ventos non seminat et qui pluvias timet non metet.
Wherefore, in this holy affair, he does not fear any other
difficulty than too much delay in settling it on foot, as anything
which may be found wanting during the negotiation may easily
be arranged for.—London, November 12, 1586.
Add. Endd. by Burghley. Italian. ½ p. [Flanders I. 103.]
Resolution of the States General (fn. 1) that for direction of the
contributions of the Provinces, his Excellency shall appoint four
persons out of the Council of State, from different provinces,
who, together with a treasurer chosen by him from those nominated
by the States General, shall have the oversight of the
distribution and employment of the aforesaid contributions.
It being understood that the Instructions for the same shall be
drawn up with the advice of the States, and that the aforesaid
college or the Treasurer, together with one or two of the secretaries
shall employ some clerks for the better ordering of all things,
but that the said clerks shall have no voice in the college nor
power to sign any of the ordinances or discharges.—23 November,
1586. Signed by P. de Meer, president, and countersigned by
Endd. Copy. Dutch. ½ p. [Holland XI. 14.]
Another copy, in French, of the above.
[S.P.F. Archives XC., p. 48.]
Directions by the Earl of Leicester for a speech to the States
before his departure. He thinks it strange that they have not
yet signified their resolutions as to their commissioners, or
whether he may certainly assure her Majesty that they will go
at all ; and have imparted nothing what their points of dealing
with her Majesty shall be ; which, considering the place he holds,
he ought to be acquainted with. Nor have they sought any
conference concerning their affairs, whereby he might be able the
better to satisfy her Majesty and advance their cause. He cannot
"but with grief expostulate this matter unto them, seeing the
time so passeth away without any profit in this behalf" and his
departure so near that no time is left for better satisfaction ;
which they must know to be matter of great consequence to him,
and that he cannot be contented "to be passed away as slightly,"
without any regard of himself, her Majesty or their own causes,
not knowing how he may answer "much less satisfy her in any
one point of their greatest affairs." It doth 'thole' him greatly
to be forced to pray at their hands what they should desire at
his ; the "want" of which will be theirs more than his ; for he
has often put them in mind of the need to deal with her Majesty
speedily, and this long before he thought of going into England.
They must esteem him very simple if they suppose he can conceal
"that they have some other design than to proceed with her
Majesty ; for else so present and so urgent occasions would not
be let slip.
"And further you may declare unto them that I shall be able
to make better report of the love and good inclination of the
provinces of Frise, Guelders, Overyssel and Utrecht than of
them of Holland, who of themselves have made offer of the
sovereignty to her Majesty."
In Leicester's handwriting, with marginal notes by Wilkes.
Endd. "Novembris, 1586. A speech used by his Excellency
to the deputies of the States a little before his departure towards
England" ; but from the last sentence it would appear that it was
to be made by Wilkes. 2½ pp.
On the covering sheet, the following notes by Wilkes, apparently
of the States' reply :—
Sovereignty. The power of his Excellency. They have
desired his Ex's. stay. Hoping that he would not go the journey,
they had appointed two ; then finding that his Ex. desired greater
number, they named four more. They have put in deliberation
the sovereignty, with a greater number of assembly. No province
may treat to grant the sovereignty apart but jointly ; it is contrary
to the sworn Union. The succours to be dealt in, and not sovereignty,
by cause she hath refused. Schauen, Nivelt, D. Sill,
Menen, Valke." [Holland XI. 15.]
Notes in Wilkes' handwriting, of "Remembrances for his
1. To give warrant to Mr. Treasurer for full pay of the garrisons
of Flushing and the Brill, according to her Majesty's
Instructions to Thos. Wilkes.
2. "Sithence there is some order taken in the matters of
P. Bus and Ringault....to take order also for the qualifying
of the placcard for the traffic of these countries ; being a special
article in the said Instructions."
3. As the States stand upon the completing of the numbers
in her Majesty's pay, and as thereon will depend the clearing of
the accounts between her and them ; to take order for the one
and the other, and to appoint the Treasurer and Muster-master
to remain here till they be finished.
4. To remember, that, in the appointing of a fit person to
take command over all her Majesty's forces, "he do give him a
commission wherein may be remembered her Majesty's original
commission to his Excellency, by virtue whereof, the authority
and government may be established in the same person.
5. To advise whether it be meet that the said Lieutenant
"have jointly any kind of absolute authority for the whole
government here, as well for the civil as military," and if not,
"to procure the other to be laid upon some principal person in
whom his Excellency may have some interest."
Endd. 1 p. [Holland XI. 16.]
Memorials exhibited to the States General, on behalf of his
Excellency.—24 November, 1586.
Fr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XI. 17].
[Printed by Bor, bk. XXI, f. 73.]
Another copy from Leicester's Letter Book, dated 23rd November.
Fr. 1 p. [Archives XC., p. 90.]
Copies of, (1). The Act of the States, ordaining that during his
Excellency's absence and in view of his promised speedy return,
the commandment matters both of policy and war shall be in the
Council of State. All despatches made by them to be in his
Excellency's name, and such as he is accustomed to sign to be
signed "by command and authority of his Excellency" by Count
Maurice and one of the members of the Council. All governors,
chiefs, generals, colonels, ritt-masters, captains and soldiers in
pay of her Majesty to be expressly commanded to obey all such
orders. They pray his Excellency to agree to this, and to issue
commands accordingly. The Hague, —24 November, 1586.
Signed by Aerrsens.
(2). Act of authority by his Excellency for the directing of
the contributions by four persons to be chosen by himself and
a Treasurer, in accordance with the Act of the States General
[see p. 225 above] 23 November, 1586.
[This is endorsed by mistake as relating to No. 1.]
(3). "Act of authorization (fn. 2) made by his Excellency" giving
powers to the Council of State in his absence. 24 November, 1586.
French. 9 pp. in all. [Holland XI. 18.]
Another copy of (3) above.
Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. XI. 19.]
Another copy of (1) above in Leicester's Letter Book.
Fr. 1½ pp. [S.P. Foreign Archives XC., p. 47.]
Another copy of (2) above, in Leicester's Letter Book.
Fr. ½ p. [Ibid. XC., p. 48.]
Another copy of (3) above, in Leicester's Letter Book.
Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. XC., p. 45.]
Answer of the States General to the above questions. To the
first and second, they say, that until now they had hoped his
Excellency would defer his departure, as they have often begged
him to do, thinking it very necessary at this present conjuncture ;
but having heard his final resolution to the contrary, they pray
him to take with him the letters they have written to her Majesty,
and of which they give him a copy. And by his proposal and
advice, they have resolved to send deputies to her to pray for
further succours from her. Their Instruction is also drawn up,
as his Excellency has seen by the copy thereof. It has since been
thought good to increase their number, and Holland has named
Johan, Sieur de Schagen, Bersingerhorn &c., Guillaume de
Zuylen de Nivelt, Sieur de Aertsberche &c. and Mre. Nieasius
Sille, doctor of laws, counsellor of Amsterdam. Those of Zeeland,
the Sieur Pierre de Rycke, counsellor of the said States and from
Frise, Withye de Camminga, knight ; to whom shall be given such
ample charge as the deputies at the Assembly of the States
General have power to draw up. Which commissioners will
be able to communicate to his Excellency all things further which
shall be resolved, and by his advice to prepare and do whatever
shall be required, as they will be expressly desired to consult
with him in everything ; praying him to assist them with his
authority and favour.
On the third point, concerning their further contributions to
the war, they pray him to assure her Majesty, her Council and
the Parliament, that the States General and the several provinces
having already resolved and promised to do all that in them lies
for the preservation of the true religion and their own privileges
and liberties, will not fail to continue their contributions according
to their power, until God, by the aid of her Majesty shall
deliver these countries from this war, as has been done by those
of Holland and Zeeland for the space of fourteen years. And
although consent to the contributions at first was only for three
months at a time, then for six, and now from year to year, this
was not done with intent that the consent should not be renewed.
Yet, as the state of the country might in short time be greatly
changed, by invasion of the enemy ; devastation ; great inundations
(to which Holland, Zeeland and Frize are very subject)
mortality or other like accidents, they cannot assuredly promise
the present rate of contribution for several years. Nor can they
take into account that formerly their aids to their princes were
granted for three, six or even nine years, seeing that this was
in times of peace and under very different conditions. Nevertheless,
the States hope that before the expiration of the current
agreement, they will be able to consent anew to the continuation
for a year of the promised contributions, although they are
hardly supportable, as they hope her Majesty will be duly informed.
But knowing well that they are labouring to the utmost
of their power in order to make head against the enemy and force
him to quit the field, and thus prevent the disunited provinces
from getting in their harvest ; and that the contributions drawn
by the enemy from the low country may be taken by these ;
many towns recovered, and by these means an end put to the war,
for which God gave them a very good opportunity last year,
and they have a still better likelihood now, by reason of the great
dearth of victuals in all the towns held by the enemy ; the States
hope that her Majesty will be moved to take this opportunity
to heart (by the aid of his Excellency) for the protection of these
countries, and, that in the coming season a sufficient camp may
be set up and maintained for five or six months to oblige the
enemy to quit the field. And should it please her to augment
her promised succour of a thousand horse and five thousand foot
to two thousand horse and ten thousand foot, the deputies of the
several provinces pray his Excellency to advertise the States
timely thereof, and to require their consent to the erection &c.
of the said camp, hoping to obtain from the provinces of Holland,
Zeeland, Utrecht and Frize, 200,000 florins a year for a period of
three years ; by which in addition to all the other contributions,
a camp might be formed of 2000 lances, 2000 reiters, 500 carbines,
12,000 or 14,000 footmen, 1000 pioneers, five or six hundred carts
and the necessary train of victuals and ammunition ; whereby
many towns of the enemy might in very short time be taken, and
great contributions drawn therefrom.
On the fourth point, viz. what resolution they would take if
the King of Spain offered a peace [&c.], they declare that they
undertook this war for the defence and preservation of the true
Christian religion, and of the privileges and liberties of their
country ; and that having by all means tried to come to a reconciliation
with the King of Spain, with conservation of the said
true religion and privileges, they have during many years found
that such reconciliation is utterly beyond hope ; and are still
assured that no treaty could be made with that king without
the extirpation of the said true religion not only in these countries
but in the neighbouring kingdoms and countries, to the ruin and
subjection of their estate and the great concern of their neighbours :
praying his Excellency so to work with her Majesty that no means
of reconciliation with that king shall be treated of, nor any
communication with him be entered into ; seeing that even a
simple communication would be prejudicial to these countries,
as regards the common people, who are heavily weighed down by
the great contributions for the war, and having often but little
discretion might easily be seduced into dangerous views.
On the 5th point, touching the alliances and correspondence
of the States with the King of Denmark and other princes &c.,
they declare that long ago, such contracts and alliances were made,
and are still maintained, although the King of Denmark in spite
of the said treaties, has, during these wars, imposed heavy
imposts upon the inhabitants of these countries for their ships
passing through the Sound ; and though often required to desist
from them has never done so. But they declare that, besides
God, they have had no support from, or correspondence with,
any king, prince or neighbour since the treaty made with her
Majesty ; nor have any now save from her and his Excellency,
on whose protection they entirely rely.
On the 6th point, concerning the union of the provinces, they
declare that between the United provinces there is a solemn contract
made and sworn called the Union of Utrecht, being the
foundation on which rests the defence of the country, and that
the said contract remains in force in all points not changed by
common consent, saving what was attempted by some in the
town of Utrecht, which the Estates hope will, if need be, be
redressed by the authority of his Excellency.
Touching the last point, viz. how many ships they could equip
for her Majesty's service if she were attacked by the King of
Spain, they reply that the aid of ships to be so given is treated
of in the contract made with her Majesty, to which they refer
themselves ; trusting to conform themselves thereto, and in this
event, to do their best endeavours for the service of her Majesty.
Resolved and replied by word of mouth to his Excellency,
November 24, 1586. Signed by ordinance of the said States
General, C. Aerssens. (fn. 3)
Copy. Fr. 9 pp. [Holland XI. 20.]
Another copy of the same.
Fr. 5 pp. [S.P.F. Archives XC., p. 100.]
"Memories sur les apostiles de la Remonstrance des Estats
d' Hollande, Zeeland and Frise, avec les apostilles de son Excellence,
en date du 24 de Novembre, 1586.
Copy. Fr. 4½ pp. [Holland XI. 21.]
Another copy of the above. [Ibid. XI. 22.]
Also, a copy in Leicester's Letter Book. [S.P.F. Archives
XC., p. 41.]
Restriction of the authority given to the Council of State by
his Excellency, enumerating the points on which they were not
to have full powers.—The Hague, 24 November, 1586. (fn. 4)
Fr. 1 p. [Ibid., p. 44.]
Instructions from his Excellency for the Commissaries of
Musters, both of her Majesty and the United Provinces, according
to which they must precisely regulate themselves.—The Hague,
24 November, 1586.
French. 7½ pp. [Archives XC., p. 91.]
WILKES to BURGHLEY.
I pray you pardon my not writing by Dr. Clarke, whose departure
was sudden and my leisure then little. The treasure
came safely and is in the Treasurer's hands, for whom I hope her
Majesty will receive a more perfect account than hitherto has
been made. The treasurer and muster-master are to stay for a
time after my lord, to clear the accounts with the States, who
complain that her Majesty's forces have never been mustered
with the privity of any commissary of theirs as agreed. The
muster-master affirms that he has often "required" one from
the Council of State, "but could never have any, until lately
when they appointed some whom however the States General
refuse to allow, saying such commissary should be appointed and
sworn by themselves" ; so as the muster-master not addressing
himself to the States at every time of his musters taken, hath
bred a breach of the contract, and will breed a confusion in the
This bearer, Mr. Webbe, appointed by his Excellency clerk of
the check here, desires to discover to you some matters concerning
her Majesty's service. I pray you give him favourable hearing.
Mr. Henry Killigrew will inform you of the state of these countries,
being best able to satisfy you by reason of his experience here.—
The Hague, 15 November, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XI. 23.]
Paper endorsed "Du Fresne his answer to the matter of
Anticipations, offered to her Majesty by Mr. Wilkes, 15 November
1. Anticipations for money taken on interest for the payment
of certain garrisons ; for victuals, arms &c., and for raising a
company for Col. Schenk. 16,463l. 13s. 4d.
[Margin. This specification is made void by the list annexed
2. For setting up a camp and levying 2000 reiters ; over and
above the monthly contribution of 200,000 florins, already disbursed.
[Margin. The Receiver-General, de Bie has accounted for
this and the next article.]
3. Also, granted to his Excellency. 10,000l.
4. Ordinary contribution paid and consumed in the months
September—December ; which the States declare was disbursed
for the charges of English, Irish and Scottish companies lately
brought into this country and entertained by his Excellency's
orders, of which no particular account has been given. 80,000l.
[Margin. This must be understood reasonably. Much is
employed, monthly, and does not come under the head of anticipations.
(Gives a long explanation of the matter.)]
Memo. Most of the garrisons have received no pay for four
months past, nor any means of satisfaction from the ordinary
contributions, by reason of the anticipations of the said four
months ; the whole payment for which equals 144,786l. 5s.
[Margin. Explanation of the manner of these payments.]
6. More for provision of a month of victuals for the camp, for
which the accounts are not yet perfected.
[Margin. The accounts not yet given in.]
7. Also the payment of our English and Irish companies,
being fifty-one in all.
[Margin. The payment is seen by the states (i.e. lists or
accounts), excepting some sort not yet given in.]
Note by Arthur Atye, in Latin. Du Fresne in his abstract (fn. 5) (?)
prays that the specifications contained in this paper may be
written out, excepting those of the 300,000 florins for which
Dominus de Bie has already satisfied him.
French. 1½ pp. [Holland XI. 24.]
Letter from the States General to her Majesty. Regret at
Leicester's departure. Ask that he may return as speedily as
possible and for the continuance of her favour, excusing their
failure to reward the earl and the gentlemen who accompanied
him as they would wish because of the heavy charges of the war.
—The Hague, 25 November, 1586.
Fr. 2½ pp. [S.P.F. Archives, XC., p. 105.]
Paper endorsed "List of those that remain in pay," and by
Burghley "11 November, 6400 footmen, 1000 horse, 1586."
Footbands in her Majesty's pay from 11 November, 1586,
ratified by the Earl of Leicester, 16 November, at Rotterdam.
40 companies, with names of captains. Total, 6400 men.
Horsebands in her Majesty's pay, from 12 October, 1586, forward ;
ratified ut supra.
11 cornets, with names of captains. Total 1000 men.
The names of [the captains of] English companies remaining
at the States pay ; ratified ut supra. 24 companies.
3 pp. [Holland XI. 25.]
THOS. WILKES to BURGHLEY.
Informing him of the arrangements made for the government
of the countries in the Earl of Leicester's absence ; viz : the
political power with the Council of State, acting in his Excellency's
name ; the charge of the English troops with Sir John Norreys ;
that of "the troops of the strangers" to remain with Count
Hohenlo ; but "the chief charge in field upon occasion of service
against the enemy" to be left to be given by the Council of State
to whomsoever they think fit to appoint.
"The Count Hohenlo doth show himself opposite to my lord's
government here, and an enemy to our nation ; and it is greatly
to be feared that he will presently attempt some dangerous
alteration" ; therefore some governor of quality, wisdom and
experience should be sent with all speed, lest all should come to
confusion ; for though united by contract, they are much distracted
in mind and affection. What the deputies are to say to
her Majesty I leave to their own report.
Sir John Norreys entreats me to give you some testimony of
his demeanour here, lest, by sinister information of such as envy
him, you might conceive amiss of him. "And truly, my good
lord, besides the value [i.e. valour] wisdom and many other good
parts that are in him, I have noticed a wonderful patience and
modesty in the man, in bearing and tolerating many apparent
injuries done unto him....contrary to all reason, to disgrace
him." I pray you continue your honourable opinion of him,
"for I dare avouch that the Queen's Majesty hath not a second
subject of his place and quality so able to serve in these countries
as he."—Rotterdam, 17 November, 1586.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holland XI. 26.]
WILKES to WALSINGHAM.
"The voyage of Sir Francis Drake into these countries is not
like to be unfruitful, althouth at his arrival he found no disposition
in the States and people at all to assent of his motions.
They cannot yield to assist his voyage with any general conbribution ;
but are contented to deal with the inhabitants of the
principal maritime towns to furnish in every of them a ship or
two, according to the ability of the merchants there residing" ;
from whom they expect a speedy answer. So that if Sir Francis
is to return to the Indies, he will doubtless have some good
assistance from hence. "Of what necessity it is that the Queen's
principal enemy be attempted that way, your lordship can best
perceive, but we find it more than probable here that if he may
enjoy his Indies quietly, he will make her Majesty and these
countries soon weary of their defence. I have partly instructed
Sir Francis Drake of the state of these countries ; and how and
in what state my lord departeth hence, he hath best discerned
by his own experience," wherefore I refer you to him.
[Urges the speedy sending of a governor [as in previous letter]
and of Dr. Clarke or some other of judgment and diligence, that
he himself may not be "left alone in Council."]—Rotterdam,
17 November, 1586.
Postscript. Desires to know if he shall put her Majesty to any
charges by sending over letters or dispatches, as he is not warranted
thereto by his Instructions, nor able himself to bear the
cost of messengers.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XI. 27.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to BURGHLEY.
More than a month past, my lord of Leicester resolved to leave
the commanding of her Majesty's forces with Sir William Pelham,
and gave me licence to pass over with him. But three days ago,
he altered his purpose, and hath ordered me to stay here ; which
order, being for her Majesty's service, I am ready to obey ;
though I would willingly have been there at his arrival, to justify
myself against those informing against me ; and as I know the
root of that former malice is not withered, I pray your lordship
to continue me in your good opinion and protection, and that,
if anything should call my honesty or reputation in question,
I may come over to clear myself.
I defer to write to you of the state of her Majesty's forces and
those of the country, as also what course my lord has left for the
government ; the one because we are about to take muster of
them all ; and the other because my lord has so barred me from
the Council that I am not so well instructed in his proceedings as
I hope to be in short time.
I have not yet received any commission, though I attended his
lordship to his ship. "It is promised to be sent me, and in the
mean time I understand that my lord hath granted separate
commission to Sir William Stanley, Rowland York and others,
exempting them from obeying of me ; which, if it be true is only
done to nourish factions, to interrupt any better course in our
doings than before hath been." Therefore I pray that if I
remain here, I may receive my commission from her Highness,
whereby I may give better account of her service.
"It is no small confusion that we shall fall into, upon the
discharge of a great many English companies, which are cassed
and lack money to satisfy them. Among all the horsemen that
are at her Majesty's charge, there is not left here any one captain ;
the infantry very poor, and yet for anything that I can see, for all
her Majesty's treasure late sent over, by the time they are mustered,
there will be three months behind unpaid. The country
stood never in more dangerous terms ; the enemy reinforceth
himself from every quarter, and we are grown odious to our
friends." I will shortly write more particularities, and meanwhile
desire your lordship to inform yourself from my brother
Edward.—Rotterdam, 17 November, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. Seal of arms. 2 pp.
[Holland XI. 28.]
LEICESTER to the STATES OF UTRECHT.
On leaving for England recommends to them the advancement
of religion, good relations with the allied Provinces and loyalty
to the governor, the Count of Newenar, the only way to win her
Majesty's heart for their defence which the quarrels between the
States General and the deputies of their Province over the
refusal to have the seigneur de Deventer as burgomaster of
Utrecht had done much to forfeit. Had appointed him to that
office and determined to uphold him.—Dordrecht, the 27th of
Copy. 1¼ p. French. [Holland XI. 29.]
LEICESTER to the [STATES GENERAL].
Concerning certain false and mischievous rumours put about
touching the reasons for his journey to England, which are likely
to cause dissension and division among the loyal and can only
serve the interests of the enemy. Asks them, in the interests of
the country, to resist such rumours by all proper means, causing
his previous declaration and this one to be circulated by the
magistrates in the towns of their Provinces, and to announce
that his journey, by God's help, is for the benefit of the country,
to uphold the Christian religion and defend its liberties against
the enemy.—Dordrecht, the 28th November, 1586.
Copy. Dutch. 2 pp. [Ibid. IX. 30.]
ADOLF, COMTE DE NEUWENAR to THE QUEEN.
Since it has pleased your Majesty to summon the Earl of
Leicester to England ; and knowing that the furtherance of the
common cause demands that his absence should not be long ;
I desire by these lines humbly to pray that you will show such
favour to these United Provinces, as to send him back as soon as
possible, that the difficulties which might otherwise ensue may be
avoided by your Majesty's authority and his presence. On my
part, I will do my utmost duty and continue in my affection for
the service of your Majesty and these countries, whereof I doubt
not you are well assured. And seeing that in this service, and
by the misfortune of this war, I am stripped of my property,
I pray you to hold me, with my wife and family in your favourable
esteem and to show yourself always our patron.—Dordrecht,
18 November, 1586, stilo juliano.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XI. 31.]
ARNOLT, SIEUR DE GRUNEVELT to LEICESTER.
I regret extremely the death of the Baron de Sideney, and my
grief is much increased by hearing of the sudden departure of
your Excellency for England, whereby we lose a true lord and
father of our country, for however short a time you may be
absent, we shall feel it presently ; but we must hope that it will
be for her Majesty's service, and that these countries may be
favoured thereby. I am so ill that it is not possible for me to
pay my respects to you, and thank you for all the benefits which
the town of L'Escluze, my regiment and I myself have continually
received since your Excellency's arrival in these countries. As
long as our hearts beat, we shall ever remain your very humble
servants ; and I pray you to recommend us to her Majesty, for
I fear the States General will have little care of us, as they have
many times shown, although L'Escluze is a good and fine place,
very fitting for the assuring of Zeeland and the regaining of
Flanders ; and also that the enemy would draw a very great
treasure from the said country, were it not for the impediment
offered by L'Escluze and Ostend to the North, West and South
quarters. Her Majesty may rest assured that this town, my
regiment and myself will remain her very humble servants, and
as faithfully obey her as can any of her own subjects.
I hope your Excellency will have received my letters by the
Sieur de Meetkerke, my lieutenant-Colonel, and seen the instructions
and will, before his departure, give orders for what is fitting
to be done in this matter. I now send the Sieur de Maulde, son
of the late M. de Mansart, with the Pensioniary, to supply my
defects humbly praying your Excellency to take my excuses in
good part, and to grant them audience for what they will declare
by word of mouth.—Castle of L'Escluze, 29 November, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. Seal of arms. [Holland
CORNEILLE VANDER NIEUSTADT to DAVISON.
Since, in the time of your embassies, your honour was pleased
to reckon me in the number of your friends and servants, so far
as to keep me in your household when Brill, my birthplace, was
taken possession of for her Majesty ; and seeing also the familiar
acquaintance which had always existed between you and my
father-in-law, Counsellor Buys, the extreme necessity in which
we now find ourselves plunged, makes us bold to write this to
your honour, in the name of our unhappy mother and ourselves,
praying you not to forsake us in our extremity.
Last July, at Utrecht, a few of the meaner sort, not being of
the magistracy, and having no authority or any public charge,
beyond the care of the gate and watch of the town, and bearing
the name of captains of the burghers, so far forgot themselves
as to dare to arrest our father, a councillor of State chosen by his
Excellency, and imprison him in one of the public buildings in
the town ; making themselves guilty of lese Majesté by laying
violent hands on a servant of the Prince (as all counsellors of a
prince are reputed). On his Excellency coming to the Hague
shortly afterwards, the whole being by us put before him, some
deputies were sent to Utrecht to enquire into it, who went first
to the Comte de "Nyennaerde," the governor, and afterwards
to the magistrates, who alone have authority for such an arrest ;
but they replied that the matter did not touch them and that they
would not move in it. The commissioners then demanded of
those who had seized him why they had done so, who replied
that they desired to send the causes of their action to his Excellency.
Whereupon we applied to his Excellency praying that
he would be pleased to order the said captains to release our
father, and if any had accusation or charge to bring against him,
they should do it before his Excellency and his Council. To
which his Excellency replied that although he had felt himself
privately offended in several points by our father, he had not
known of, and much less given consent to his apprehension, and
would give the warrant we demanded. Whereat we being
astonished, replied that if he were heard in his own defence, we
hoped he would give his Excellency entire satisfaction ; who a
few days afterwards sent letters commanding the captains to
set our father at liberty, or send him to the Hague ; but they did
neither the one or the other. We then applied again to his
Excellency, but in spite of all our solicitations have so far obtained
nothing ; on the contrary, he is kept such close prisoner that none
of us have had access to him, nor has he been allowed ink and
paper, wherewith he might petition his Excellency or her Majesty,
a thing not usually denied to the most apparent offenders of these
countries. And having in August last obtained an apostile from
his Excellency to our petition, praying that our mother and we
his children, might be allowed access to him in presence of a
deputy of the magistrates, four were deputed, three of whom
were his enemies and had been present at his arrest. Moreover,
they removed him from the place where he was into the public
prison, to a little place which was nothing more than an entrance
to where the other prisoners were, declaring that it was done by
order of his Excellency. Our father having been kept for three
months in this pitiful place, where we were only two or three
times admitted to speak to him, and he had no means at all of
writing ; at last by our solicitations, he was a week ago removed
to the house of the lieutenant Escoutette of the town, upon
exhorbitant caution, and even there had not liberty to use ink
and paper ; nor have they ever declared the causes of his imprisonment,
nor made any judicial suit, which they were bound to
do the third day after the arrest. But knowing no colour for
holding him longer without cause in prison, it seems that of late
they desired his Excellency to allow them to bring their accusation
before the provincial Council of Utrecht, who, in reason,
cannot be his judges ; for as Councillor of State these should be
his Excellency and Council ; or otherwise, as a subject of Holland,
he recognises as judges only the provincial Council of Holland,
or the magistracy of Leyden, of which town he has been an
inhabitant and citizen for five and twenty years. Moreover,
the said captains our adversaries and their adherents rule and
command in Utrecht, without any way regarding the provincial
Council or the legitimate magistrates and governors of the town,
so that even the States cannot hold their free assemblies, wherefore
we cannot trust a judgment given by the said council in a
town at the mercy of our enemies, and hope that his Excellency
will not consent to their demand, but that before any further
course of justice, our father may be liberated. To obtain this,
seeing that we have here tried every means, and are almost in
despair, we are driven to apply to her Majesty, praying that by
your intercession, she will be pleased to write a word to those in
Utrecht for our father's deliverance, upon the above-mentioned
security to appear before his judges when required ; remembering
the good offices done by our father, as she knows, in this last
journey to England, followed by such happy results, nothing
doubting that from the respect they bear to her Majesty
and the benefits received and expected from her, they would
submit to her pleasure. Otherwise, we remit him altogether to her
wisdom, it sufficing us that by letters or other means our petition
may take effect, the equity whereof appears by the opinion here
annexed. Only we pray that it may be done with the approbation
of his Excellency, which is dearer to us than anything in this
world ; it grieving us much that our father is in danger of losing it
by the sophistries of his enemies, he himself having lately declared
that nothing has distressed him so much as falling into his
Excellency's ill-graces, to whom he thought to have done the best
offices he could devise, though we cannot deny that to his regret
his affairs have sometimes had other issues than he desired.
But if it had pleased his Excellency to disclose the particulars in
which he had not given satisfaction, we should all have prayed for
mercy ; as we now pray that you will be pleased by your intercessions
to persuade her Majesty (his Excellency being already
departed) after hearing the particular causes in which he feels
himself offended, to deign to hear our father in his defence,
before abating her good opinion of him, and that after satisfaction
has been given by him, a happy reconciliation may follow by
means of her Majesty's authority and the intercession of your
lordship and other noblemen.—The Hague, 30 November, 1586,
Add. Endd. Fr. 4¼ very closely written pp. [Holland XI. 33.]
LEICESTER to WILKES.
I forgot to speak with the Council of Estate for one of these
to keep the seals, albeit I told Mr. Valk of it, but he is here. My
opinion is that the old Chancellor [Leoninus] is the fittest for many
respects, though I think for his own part he hath more need of
some liberal consideration for his great travail and expenses
this year taken than of any troublesome offices to be added,
except some good profit might grow thereby ; yet if he shall
accept of this, for my part, I wish he may have it.
I pray you recommend me to them all even most heartily,
letting them know that never man of what nation soever hath
more faithfully and more sincerely served than I have done these
countries committed unto me, and albeit my good will might
be darkened through many wants whereof I may well acquit
myself from proceeding from me, yet do I love them so well
and wish the cause such prosperity as I cannot but put them in
mind that they and the States, and the States and the provinces
united may have such timely correspondence together as some of
their wants may be hereafter by their wisdoms better prevented
than I had them supplied heretofore. And that my earnest and
hearty affection shall assuredly remain toward the cause and shall
not be discouraged for any 'my none' particular whatsoever.
Howbeit, it hath been no small grief unto me to see the noblemen
and gentlemen of my country so hardly dealt withal at their
departure, and promises broken with them for their assurance
for their due pay, wherein, they were content to release some the
half, some a third part and every man one part or other ; for
some that deserved well....had nothing at all. How great a
touch this must be to me, who brought all these men to serve
and adventure with me their lives and spend their goods in their
service, I will leave it to themselves. And what minds our men
shall have hereafter to serve them, God knows. I think they
never dealt so with any before, that they denied to give them bills
instead of money, when they lacked money. I saw them more
careful to preserve the credits of them who foully deceived them,
even as much as their whole service was worth....than I found
in them to satisfy these our men that had spent more pounds
than the others had done pence ; and spent their blood, many of
them, where others never came to blows. But it is possible that
some (but I trust but very few) that be not so well satisfied with
me as I have been desirous to content them, would procure such
indirect discouragements as might in a sort cover their dislike,
and I will hope that such few shall hardly circumvent so many
wise, grave and well-affected patriots and counsellors from a
true course for their own benefit.
"I must pray you and require you also to be very careful in
satisfying the States touching Ringault. I did promise upon
mine honour he should be brought back again, and so I have
done ; but I will be no butcher to the greatest monarch in the
world, much less a betrayer of a man's life who I caused myself
to be apprehended to please them.... What some of themselves
have sworn and vowed touching his death you know, and I
pray you declare ; for as I will keep promise with them for the
person of the man so do I look to have my honour regarded at
their hands, seeing more malice than just desert indeed against
him, although I take the man to have faults enow, but not
I pray you give such directions as you find requisite for his
safety. I will not write how the weather hath letted me ; but
I shall be at the Brill to-night. I entreat you to procure that the
bands for those gentlemen who have money due to them be sent
forthwith after me. You must procure a true note of all sums
the treasurer there has paid them, as well of the Lord Marshal
as to others, that I may know what is paid to those men going
over with me now.
Pray send me "those copies that I left behind which were to
pass between the States and me, and also mine own copy that I
wrote which you spake and noted, as also the copy in French
which I willed Ottamon [Hotman] to translate." Let me know
how Count Hollock proceeds. It were not unfit for her Majesty
to hear also of it.—Rotterdam, 20 November, 1586.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 4 pp. [Holland XI. 34.]