Act of the States General on the matter of the Admiralty, (fn. 1)
appointing 5 or 6 persons to assist the Count of Nassau as Admiral
in the conduct of the war at sea ; also for building a number of
ships of war. No admiral, captain or official in the naval administration
to act without the Admiral's commission. Financial
provisions.—The Hague, 31 January, 1587.
Fr. 3½ pp. [S.P. For Archives XC., p. 201.]
LEICESTER to WILKS.
I have your letters answering mine, though not so fully as I
expected. As touching the States' information concerning the
accounts, I have already disproved them here openly in that and
more shall do hereafter, I doubt not, in the rest. I understand
how hardly the treasurer hath dealt with my men there in mine
absence, which he shall very well hear of and of his partiality.
For the money due unto me by the Council of State I understand
they have paid only 500 guilders since my coming there. I pray
you receive the residue of them to my use or let me have what is
their answer. From the Court at Greenwich this 21st January,
Sig. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XII. 30.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to BURGHLEY.
It does not a little grieve us to write of the traitorous delivery
of Deventer and the forts before Zutphen by Sir William Stanley
and Rowland Yorke, effected the 19th of this present in this sort.
Sir William Stanley, 3 days before the delivery of the town did
possess himself of a great tower joining to one of the gates ...
wherein he placed all his wild Irish ; keeping from that day
forward continually his men in arms till the same 19 at 5 of the
clock in the morning, he came to the town house, whence he
took the keys of the gates by force, and opening the gate at the
tower, himself with 5 or 6 more went out on horseback about
twenty score off, where he found Taxis with 700 foot ... and some
horse. Presently he brought them in and did put them in battle
in the market place and then disarmed all the inhabitants.
Sir Edmond Cary's company, who were not made acquainted
with the treason, being assembled together, refused to serve
the traitor and so were suffered to come away. Some few of the
Protestants of the town saved them over the walls, the rest remain
at the devotion of a most cruel enemy... The whole country
remains wonderfully amazed at this so strange an accident, not
knowing who to trust unto. If her Majesty tender the defence
of these countries and desire to have them kept out of the
possession of the Spaniard, it is time ... to give them some
extraordinary assistance...or else fear will drive them to consent
to their own ruin. We were marching to the succour of Wesel
not out of hope to have had the town at our devotion, but this
hath so altered our course as now being compelled to fill all the
towns with great garrisons, we have no men left to put into the
field, and if we be not supplied out of England, and that very
shortly, this summer will 'were' us out of a great part of the
country, whereas with her Majesty's favourable resolution to
continue her last year's charge with some increase, it will be no
hard matter to keep the Spaniard from prevailing any whit, for
his case is as miserable as may be, their men of war decayed, their
towns depopulated and ready to starve, their merchants ruined
and all trade left off. Neither is it possible for them to continue
it long if any head be made against them. These treasons do
give them a little reputation with the people, or else their credit
was diminishing apace. This practice of Sir Wm. Stanley was
doubted a good while since, but my lord had given him so large
authority and the Council or myself so little as we knew not
how to remedy it." I ask leave to remind your lp. of the hard
estate of the soldiers in her Majesty's pay, now over four months
unpaid and no means to live, all things here being so dear. I
have used all my credit for them but if we be not supplied in
fourteen days I know not what to do. "The Prince of Parma
hath his instruments in all places to suborn our men and I doubt
necessity will cause them to make some false bounds. When I
shall see what alteration this will breed I will further advertise
your lp."—Utrecht, 21 January, 1587.
Sig. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XII. 31.]
The SAME to the SAME.
Encloses attestation of a Scottish captain. Understands that
Sir Wm. Stanley sent some Irishmen into Ireland a month past
to prepare a way for his entry there. It may be that the king of
Spain, presuming on this traitor's credit there and finding the
Irish so willing to serve him, may attempt to trouble those parts.
"But if it shall please her Majesty to continue her countenance to
these countries and the charges...so timely and aptly employed,
I dare venture my life to give the King of Spain so much to do
here that he should have little means to invade any other place."
—Utrecht, ut sup.
Sig. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XII. 32.]
Resolution of the States General on the proposal of the Earl of
Leicester to engage 2000 German reiters, 3000 soldiers and 1000
pioneers, and a request to her Majesty to help bear the cost. The
Hague, the last of January, 1587. President Wynbergen. By
order, C. Aerssens. (fn. 2)
Copy. 8½ pp. Dutch. [Ibid. XII. 33.]
Deposition on oath before Dr. Reynier van Sandt and Arnoult
Wyntgens, echevins of Arnhem, of Captain Thomas Nuiton.
Convoyed the receiver of la Velewe the day Deventer was
Col. Stanley went out towards Zutphen about 11 on the night
between Wednesday and Thursday and returned with Taxis
and 7 to 800 men, entering by the north gate about 2 o'clock.
The common soldiers remained with Stanley, but the captains
and reiters departed.
Saw York in the town who told him he was going to find Parma
at Brussels and if deponent would stay, he would have him paid
every month by the King of Spain.
Col. Stanley had said to him : I will act so that the country
as far as Holland and between Wesel and Emden shall be completely
ruined within six days ; and I will cause the biggest game
and war in Ireland that the queen has had in her life.
The Irish and English soldiers told him that Stanley's brother
had recently left for England to take the Colonel's wife and
children to Ireland and to stir up war.
Had seen a passport on parchment written in French, dated
about 4 months [back], to the effect that York might serve what
master he pleased, signed by his Excellency, which he showed to
Taxis who was greatly amazed and spoke in Spanish.
Stanley had a passport to go where he pleased but declared he
would give a finger to be out of the service and in Ireland. Had
not seen the passport. Heard it quite 2 months ago.
Stanley made excuse concerning the bad payment made by the
Stanley wanted him to seize the receiver at Deventer, saying
that one ought not to let the money slip.
On the same day he had seen the cornet of Baron Sidney in
that town and had spoken with him and several others of that
company whom he did not know, only by a certain blue sleeve.
Lieutenant Yorck told him that he wished all his goods in England
were changed into money in Spain.
The Governor, on the evening, had it announced that no citizen
should appear in the streets for any tumult, having plundered all
that the citizens had ready. He who held the chief intelligence
between the Prince of Parma and Stanley, as the English have
told him [blank] one might make enquiry of the other English,
saying he had seen the same within the town.
Showed a passport dated 20 Jan., 1587, signed Stanley, to
enable one to leave Deventer without danger.
The deponent took oath on the truth of above. The 21
January, 1587. Signed Sluysken.
Copy. Endd. 21 Jan., 1586. The examination of Tho.
Nuton taken at Arnham touching the loss of Deventer. 2½ pp.
Fr. [Holland XII. 34.]
The deposition of Marten Ruloffs, gunner, sent to the fort before
Zutphen by M. de Fama. On Thursday morning between 7 and
8 the Governor Yorck ordered him to have the artillery of the
fort ready, as he had invited the governor of Deventer and wished
to do him honour. While Yorck was speaking heard many
reports of guns at Deventer which he supposed to be the firing
after the boats as they left.
Half an hour later Yorck came with another English gentleman
of Deventer, saying that the Governor Taxis has entered that
town with 300 horse and some foot, and that Stanley was awaiting
Yorck at the water edge outside the town, which news was taken
to Yorck's room.
Yorck had sent all his officers saying that he must go and speak
to the governor, making several other remarks in the presence
of the commissioner for provisions, Walter Pots, Lieutenant
Grenn, Capt. Fermer's ensign and sergeant. Hearing that Yorck
was going to meet the Governor deponent told him that it was
not good to leave the fort and the sheep might stray ; to which
Yorck replied, attend to your artillery, I shall do what I have to
do, and mounting the horse of a sutler and taking his Irish page
with him, he set out for Deventer.
Yorck had most [of his things] out of the fort and had sent his
horses and baggage to Deventer.
York started at ten and returned towards evening, as promised,
saying that he had seen Taxis on La Velue before Deventer and
had not spoken with the governor ; that the enemy crossed with
the boats to take him prisoner, but he escaped, firing after them,
and if they did not believe him they should ask his servant.
Arrived before his lodging the Ensign Mors of Capt. Fermer said :
Soldiers of Fermer's company take arms and baggage. I must
set out at once. He who will not come, let him stay. His
sergeant, being English replied Ensign, if you wish to go I protest
before God and the soldiers that it is not my wish to leave.
The commissioner and deponent reported this to Yorck, having
spoken with the Ensign in English who among other things
remarked in Flemish, Rascally drunkard, and at once shut the
gate of the fort, the ensign having asked for his flag and let
himself drop with it from the ramparts.
After this Yorck returned to his quarters to eat. After about
two hours at table he sent for his officers. Commissioner was
there but not deponent, so cannot say what was discussed
especially as they spoke English and French.
At the same time Fermer's sergeant and Owaen came and asked
deponent if he approved of abandoning the fort. He replied it
would be a great shame. They went together to this commissioner
to ask him for how many days he had provisions. He replied
for fourteen besides what the commanders had.
Copy. Endd. Jan., 1586. Fr. 2¼ pp. [Holland XII. 35.]
Another copy. Fr. 2 pp. Endd. with year date. [Ibid.
Entertainment of the Governor of Flushing with the officers
and companies there, also of the Brill. Total, 1021l. 1s. 4d. per
Endd. with date. 1 p. [Ibid. XII. 37.]
Jan. 22./Feb. 1.
Points and articles concluded and granted between the Council
of State on behalf of his Excellency, with the consent of the
States General, and Adolf Count of Neuwenar and Moeurs etc.,
commander Jehan van Plettenborch, Thom. Walle, lieutenant,
Joos vander Werde, Frederick Rantzouw and Frederick Schultis,
both for themselves and the other rittmasters of 2,000 reiters,
concerning the expenses, losses, services and pretentions claimed
by them and the said reiters for their equipage and mounting,
and for their services yet to be rendered.—1 February, 1587.
Fr. 4 pp. [S.P. For. Archives XC., p. 139.]
Jan. 22./Feb. 1.
Letter from the Council of State to his Excellency. Concerning
the betrayal of Deventer by Stanley and the fort of the Veluwe
before Zutphen by Yorck. They had not the smallest cause of
offence as shortly before the troops had received a full months'
pay besides 6000 florins to buy provisions. Fears for Arnheim.
Have got the Count of Neiwenar and General Noreys to take
steps to secure the frontier towns. Respect and obedience are
much diminished by the act restraining their authority, wherefore
they ask him to renew it by another act. Also to urge her
Majesty to assist the country.—The Hague, 1 February, 1587.
Fr. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XC., p. 143.]
[Printed in Bijdragen etc. van het Hist. Genootschap, Utrecht
Pt. xxxiv., p. 153.]
WILKES to LEICESTER.
The town of Deventer...upon Friday morning last, somewhat
before day, being the 19th of this present, was most traitorously
delivered to the enemy by Sir William Standley, as likewise the
forts before Zutphen by Rowland Yorke. It is a thing that hath
been long feared here by the manner of his government and the
continual intelligence between him and the enemy. Taxis,
the governor of Zutphen, entered himself into the town, with
600 'landsknights' and three hundred horse. The gates were
opened to him, and he and his troops marched directly into the
market place, where Standley received him with great joy and
courtesy, and after they had walked awhile together, and disposed
certain Corps de garde of the landsknights and Irish at every
carfours of the town, and at the gates, bulwarks and other
strengths within the same, Standley with the whole regiment
took their oaths to the King of Spain. The company of Sir
Edmund Carie did only refuse to be traitors and were thereupon
suffered to depart out of the town. From the market-place,
Taxis and Standley went to the town house, whither the woeful
magistrates were called, and made to welcome Taxis and were
there required with all expedition to furnish and make ready so
much money as should pay all the arrearage due to Standley and
his regiment sithence their coming into these countries, who had
received a month's pay of the States not eight days before he
received the enemy into the town. They were also required to
furnish and deliver as much more money as might give three
months' pay to the troops of the enemy then newly entered.
It would grieve your lordship to understand the conceits of the
people had of this accident, and the dishonour and discredit
grown to our nation thereby. Rowland Yorke is said to be
the practiser of this treason, who, as soon as the enemy was
entered at Deventer, came to the gates to enquire whether the
enemy were quietly possessed of the town, and upon notice
thereof, being on horseback, galloped to the fort, where he made
the companies to leave their colours and forsake the place. There
were two companies of strangers which would have held the
place if ours would have assisted them, but the enemy being at
hand, they departed towards Campen, and Yorke, with such as
would follow him, into Deventer.
"Upon the advertisement of the loss of the said town and fort,
the whole College of the States came into the Council, and there
charged the Councillors with extreme negligence and wilful
loss of the town in suffering Standley to continue within the same
after they had received so many advertisements of his evil
government, and arguments of his familiarity with the enemy.
It was answered that the Council could not prevent it, in respect
of a special act of restriction, made before your lordship's departure
from hence, by the which they were inhibited to change any
governor or principal officer in your lordship's absence, whereof
divers copies, as it now appeareth, were given abroad even at
your lordship's going ; and that Standley himself did protest
always that he would be commanded by none but by your
lordship or her Majesty, which is true. Hereupon the States
entered into extreme speeches against the said act, alleging that
the same was and would be the loss of their whole estate, requiring
to know who were the authors thereof ; persuading themselves
that your lordship did not establish the same but with the privity
of some of that Council. They all disclaimed any assent given or
privity thereunto ; then were the Secretaries and the clerks
called ; and the matter so narrowly examined that in the end it
was found that M. de Bracle had given the said act to one of them
to be written out, which I fear will lie very heavy upon him although
by chance he was now absent at Utrecht. In this
conference, the States called to their remembrance that your
lordship had nominated Sir William Standley with Sir John
Norreys and Sir William Pelham to have been a very fit man to
take the charge of all the English forces in your lordship's absence,
and that likewise upon some petition by them made unto you
not to commit any trust to York, in respect of his perfidious
dealing with them before, your lordship answered that you would
undertake for his fidelity as for your brother, whereat they
seemed extremely to marvel. To all these things I made answer
as became me, that touching the establishing of the act, I could
say nothing, but did assure them that your lordship therein
meant nothing but their good. And for Standley I knew her
Majesty herself reposed as great trust in him as in any gentleman
of his sort in her realm. But all this served for no payment
being (as they said), too late to allege reasons when the mischief
is not to be remedied."
I will once more reiterate, and protest, if there grows any
further harm, I have not neglected to give admonition thereof ;
that if your lordship's absence be not speedily provided for, I see
the apparent loss of all at hand ; from the dissensions in these
provinces ; the lack of discipline among our English soldiers, and
the want of money for her Majesty's forces ; most of whom are
unpaid since the beginning of September, and their poverty so
great that they daily commit such disorders as make us hateful
to these countries. I beseech you to consider this and remedy it
before it is too late.—The Hague, 24 January, 1586.
Copy. 2½ pp. [S.P. For. Archives XCI., p. 46.]
WILKES to BURGHLEY.
I have written at large to my lord of Leicester of the giving
up of Deventer, and of the forts before Zutphen ; which I trust
he will impart to her Majesty and the lords of the Council that
some speedy order may be given to save the rest ; "for sithence
Sir William Standley hath failed (whom all men thought so loyal)
I know not whom we may trust. The loss...doth endanger the
whole provinces of Overyssel and Utrecht to the very gates of
the town, which we fear extremely, considering the enemy is
already coming into the field and we not able to draw out against
him above 3000 men at the uttermost and leave the towns
provided. The enemy groweth strong in all places, and prevaileth
against us daily by practice and corruption ; and the State here,
through the absence of a Governor, so disunited and distracted,
the obedience so slender and the wants so great, that unless
it may please her Majesty to send over a Governor and enlarge
the succours with speed, it is like that all will run to ruin whereof
I beseech you to take some care." I have often written....of
this to my lord of Leicester, and I trust he will further the
remedies.—The Hague, 24 January, 1586.
Postscript in his own hand.
I humbly beseech you not to credit any sinister reports against
me ; praying your lordship to remember "that at the first I
declared to you that if I dealt faithfully with her Majesty in this
service, it would be my undoing ; which I have now just cause
to fear, if your lordship should abandon me."
Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Holland XII. 38.]
Copy of the above (but without the postscript), in Wilkes'
Letter Book. [S.P. For. Archives XCI., p. 48.]
WILKES to VICE-CHAMBERLAIN HATTON.
"You shall now perceive the fruits of our government here.
Sir William Standley and Sir Rowland Yorke had either of them
a commission apart, whereby they were exempted from the
commandment and authority of Sir John Norreys, to whom the
charge of the English forces was committed at his lordship's
departure. These two men, to requite my lord for the honour and
favour he did them, have sold and delivered over to the enemy
the town of Deventer and the forts before Zutphen ; being two
or the principal parts of his lordship's endeavours and victory
here." ... By this dishonour...we are all grown hateful to
this people, having nothing in their mouths but the treasons and
disorders of the English." Unless her Majesty sends better
succours, and a person to command with better method and
discretion, they must be wholly lost or seek to the Spaniard for
a peace, to her great disadvantage. I have formerly written of
the likelihood of these accidents, but can hear nothing what is
thought thereof, or what purpose there is to go forward in the
matter of these countries.—The Hague, 24 January, 1586.
Copy. 2/3 p. [Ibid. XCI., p. 49.]
WILKES to WALSINGHAM.
Concerning the loss of Deventer, the discredit of the English
nation, the need of a governor and the misery and lack of discipline
among the soldiers, as in other letters above. Has written
"the manner of the treason" at length to the Lord General,
and hopes his honour will be made acquainted therewith.—The
Hague, 24 January, 1586.
Copy. ¾ p. [Ibid. XCI., p. 49.]
M. DE DEVENTER to LEICESTER.
The Count of Niewenar is back here from the Hague, where he
has been about the German reiters. He would have never arrived
at anything therein but for the loss of Deventer. Those of
Arnhem, Swol, Campen, remain constant, except that they fear
the English garrisons. We, on the other hand, ask for no other,
being very content with Lord Audley. Paul Buys is appearing
as usual in the Council of State. We shall protest against it,
but they take no notice of our letters. I also hear that St.
Aldegonde has arrived at the Hague with fresh talk about the
wrong done to the Prince of Parma in Portugal by the king of
Spain, in sort that if the king should die the prince would think
of compensating himself with the Low Countries in exchange, and
we should thus reach a good and stable peace. They say that
St. Aldegonde is to turn up in this district, but I do not believe
that it will be suffered. Your Excellency may now judge how
necessary it is either to abandon the cause or to return at once.
Without dishonour we may not be abandoned ; without danger
your Excellency's return may not be delayed.—Utrecht, 24
January, 1587, old style.
Add. Signed. Endd. 1 p. Italian. [Holland XII. 39.]
Jan. 24./Feb. 3.
The STATES GENERAL to the QUEEN.
Notification of the release of Paul Buys, imprisoned at Utrecht
since the 19th July, upon security of 25,000 florins, several towns
of Holland having appealed for him, as well as the town of
Leyden, and no one having appeared against him ; his Excellency
also declared several times that he had no charge to make,
so that the arrest and detention of Buys appeared contrary to
the rights and privileges of the country, to preserve which they
are at war. They hope her Majesty will interpret their action
in good part and not give ear to any reports and calumnies that
may be made by ill wishers.—The Hague, 3 February, 1587.
W. Roelsius. By order : Aerssens.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. Fr. [Ibid. XII. 40.]
Jan. 24./Feb. 3.
The substance of the letter written by the States to Her Majesty
touching the release of Paul Buys.
Endd. with date. 1 p. [Ibid. XII. 41.]
Jan. 24./Feb. 3.
GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
By my last I spoke of the inconveniences like to fall out if
not prevented. The disaster is fallen out of the loss of Deventer.
I send a copy of the particulars. "The loss is of most great
importance as the town is a principal place and victualled for a
great time, as also that other towns which depended chiefly
thereupon and were thence victualled are in danger to be lost,
being so situated that without strong force they cannot be
succoured. But the greatest loss is that hereupon a general
dislike and discontentment groweth among the people, of our
nation. Many odd speeches of mistrust being used and few or
none towns, where English soldiers be, but are had in jealousy ;
many complaints coming in from all places daily of the disorders
which in part I think be true and for want of money, by reason of
the evil payments whereby the poverty is great, which causeth
poor men to make shifts or else must perish, also the absence,
which is too common and used almost of all captains, from
their charges, causeth disobedience and neglect of duty. But I
perceive likewise that there be some who wish all were worse,
and make their profit by the disaster, having in public companies
showed their inward joy by words and otherwise. Besides
practices are laid and wrought that with more honesty and
wisdom might be forborne ; but I doubt not but we shall meet
with them well enough, and all shall not have their wills that
enter into factions. There were of late in open assembly used
speeches by one (fn. 3) proceeding of abundance of passion that were
afterwards wished unspoken, and would have made a colour over
them but I ...bear them in memory...having acquainted Mr.
Wilkes therewith, as I do with all I can learn.... It is most
needful and more than time to send some chief person over that
be of such calling and of that authority and so accompanied as
may bear some sway and countenance even with the best, for
here is such huddle dealing that it cannot thus long endure, for
these Hollanders would incorporate and rule all, so as authority,
commandment, trade, traffic, gains, quietness and what they
would else should be theirs, and all others used as their instruments
to serve their turns... There is order taken to assure all towns
and places with garrisons, each governor to his quarter, and I
perceive will commit the custody of none to Englishmen...so
as your honour may easily perceive how the world here goeth."
Asks that his suit may be remembered. The people would be
glad to be rid of him out of the Council because he understands
their language so perfectly, as well as their nature, fashions and
humours. Would gladly resign, but if he is to stay suggests a
letter from her Majesty recommending him to the Council of
State.—The Hague, 3 February, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. with date 23 January (sic). 3 pp.
[Holland XII. 42.]
Jan. 25./Feb. 4.
The STATES GENERAL to LEICESTER. (fn. 4)
Complaint of the trouble caused by ambitious, avaricious and
pernicious persons, as for instance over the forging of the rose
noble of England at Amsterdam ; the injurious placart ; the
neglect to secure the service of German reiters for which they
had been encouraged to hope. Also since H.E. came no muster
has been made of the horse and foot sent by her Majesty to their
aid, though the horse has been paid at the charge of the country
from 12 November, 1584, when it was not half ready to pass
muster three months later. The troops have been so ill paid
and ill treated that the like was never heard, and the country
thereby reduced to great confusion. Hypocrites and Hispanophiles
have been improperly appointed to important positions.
Public authority has been taken from those to whom it legitimately
belonged and encroachments made on the rights of the country.
An Act of 24 Nov. was also produced removing from the Council
of State some of the most important matters and reserving them
for H.E. The consequence is seen at Deventer. The like might
happen at Bergen op Zoom, Ostend and other places. They were
warned about Stanley and Yorck but could do nothing for lack
of commandment, which was reserved to H.E. He had prescribed
Stanley to them against their remonstrances. They
have thus been compelled to take control of the Government.
They feel confident her Majesty will continue her aid to redress
what has occurred. They also notify the release of Paul Buys.
—The Hague, 4 February, 1587. W. Roelsius, President.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 6½ pp. [Holland XII. 43 ; also S.P.
For. Archives XC., p. 156.]
Jan. 25./Feb. 4.
Act of the States General for the continuation of the Council
of State for three months.—The Hague, 4 February, 1587. (fn. 5)
Fr. 1 p. [S.P. For. Archives XC., p. 145.]
The tribunes of the people of UTRECHT to LEICESTER.
Express the desire of all good men for his return, there being
no one with full authority to rule. They look for their safety
in the present tempest to God, Her Majesty and his Excellency.
They will shed their last drop of blood in defence of their homes
and only beg her Majesty and H.E. to consider their cause and
this just war which concerns the glory of God, their holy faith
and the tranquillity of Belgium and her Majesty's own realms.
Utrecht, 1587. VIII. Calendas, Feb. stylo veteri. Eight signatures.
Signed. Add. Endd. 20 January (sic), 1586. Latin. 1½
pp. [Holland XII. 44.]
Jan. 25./Feb. 4.
GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
Recommends the bearers (fn. 6) and their cause, which proceeds
from dutiful affection to her Majesty. They come from the
chiefest part of Friesland, called Oestergoe, to offer her Majesty
the sovereignty or protection, without restrictions. Their
good will deserves well and may be a means to provoke other
provinces to the like ; the common people generally being well
affected and none oppose but the deputed states, who being in
Government would still continue.—The Hague, 4th February, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. XII. 45.]