March 1587, 11-20


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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: March 1587, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 2: June 1586-March 1587 (1927), pp. 401-417. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75316 Date accessed: 24 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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March 1587, 11-20

March 11. Paper entirely in Burghley's hand, and endorsed by him "11 March, 1586. A copy of a writing devised to be notified in the Low Countries at the arrival of the Lord Buckhurst." "A report made by certain persons being of good credit and naturally devoted to the public weal of the Provinces United, lately come out of England, concerning the princely, good disposition of the Queen's Majesty of that realm towards the state of the said provinces, for more defence of them in their ancient liberties against the violence of the Spaniards. "Before their departure, the States had sent commissioners to her Majesty, to declare the state of the countries, and the need of the continuance of her Majesty's favour and of the return of the Earl of Leicester ; whereunto she was well inclined, but that she was informed of some contrary courses intended by the States and other persons having rule over divers countries and towns, and command of the men of war ; wherefore she delayed to make any resolution to the content of the commissioners until she should see whether the said contrary cause should be put in execution. And afterwards she perceived that the meaning of the States was to alter the government, without her advice or the knowledge of the Earl of Leicester (although they had agreed at his coming over that he should continue as governor, the Council of State and Count Maurice being deputed to act in his absence), to which end, those whom the Earl had left governors of countries or places were changed, new commissions made, garrisons in towns changed and newly sworn to others, the English nation, especially in Holland thrust out of towns where they were garrisoned, not suffered to have any food, a great number having served the States all the summer past, whereof many of their companies had lost their lives . . . many remained maimed and hurt, many sick and languishing, and no pay made to them of that was due, nor any provision made how they might continue their lives. "The frontier towns of Flanders and Brabant, where were both English in the Queen's pay and other bands at the pay of the States, were neglected, and even on declaration of the peril in which they stood, the States utterly refused to make any pay for their part, though her Majesty satisfied hers. "Besides this, when the Earl of Leicester had for relief of divers necessities answerable by the States caused the Queen's treasurer to pay . . . sundry great sums of money, whereby there lacked money to pay her Majesty's soldiers, and in the absence of the Earl, the States being required to reimburse the same, no good answer is made thereto ; so as upon these and many other strange courses, her Majesty had great cause of doubt how to proceed further in this action ; and yet her princely care was such . . . of the faithful and loving people of that country (whereof she understood the greatest part, and in some provinces almost all without exception, did mislike of these alterations) that she determined to continue her forces in those countries and sent money to pay them . . . and continued also in mind that the Earl of Leicester should return to that government, if she might first understand how the States would answer to these their proceedings and reform the abuses committed, and yield to a re-establishment of the former government, and especially would provide how to pay such forces as were necessarily to be continued and kept in their pay, both for the preservation of their towns and for defence of their countries. "For which cause she was sending a nobleman of her Privy Council, the Lord Buckhurst, to confer with the States, nobles and governors of countries and towns, to learn what were the intentions of these late alterations, and how they mean to reform the same ; which if he find them ready to do, and also they will show him how they mean to order their contributions, so that these may not be spent 'for private mens' lucre or pleasure' and the common cause left unprovided ; then he has authority to promise them the continuance of all her former favours ; so that it is to be hoped that the States will give her satisfaction. 'And then surely it will appear how sincerely she doth mean to proceed herein, and how falsely and maliciously there hath been reports, bruits and rumours ; yea how cunningly and craftily persuasions have been used . . . especially in some parts of Holland, to move the good, kind and loving people . . . to think doubtfully of her Majesty's favour, and to mislike both of the Earl of Leicester's government and of the good hearts of the English people towards the common service of the country.' "It is said this was partly brought in doubt by the late accident at 'Daventry,' by a person generally trusted by the English nation, who, 'by colour that he nor his garrison, being at the States' pay, could get any victual or wages, but was almost famished,' yielded to the enemy as a traitor, and so is reputed by her Majesty, and to receive the reward of a traitor whensoever he may be apprehended. And though this evil accident, hated by the English nation has been made a ground by some evilcontented to mislike all the loyal, valiant English captains and their companies, yet the wiser sort can judge how perverse this argument is, seeing daily how faithfully the rest of the English nation continue in the service of that country. 'And in England it is said . . . how many other good and strong towns have been in years past and also lately, even this last year, by the patriots of the country yielded to the enemy by treason and corruption, without any urgent necessity by lack of victuals or men, and yet there is no reason therefor to condemn the rest of the nation that are faithful.' "These kind of reports having been constantly made by certain persons bearing great good will to the public cause it is thought necessary to notify the truth to all the good, faithful people of the country ; that they may be sufficiently instructed and fortified against such dangerous and false persuasions." Rough draft, much corrected. 5½ pp. [Holland XIII. 88.]
I will not fail to deliver your letter to Sir Thomas Sherley, whom we expect daily, hearing that he was to take shipping two days since with my lord of Buckhurst. His servant goes to-morrow into Holland with money for the soldiers, and hath relieved Bergen and Ostend with some imprest. Count Solms has taken possession of the government of these isles without her Majesty's privity or consent ; "how it will proceed I know not. Sir, I thank you for all your good and comfortable letters before our governor's arrival here, who now hath taken the burden off me, to my great contentment."— Flushing, 11 March, 1586. Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Ibid. XIII. 89.]
The arrival of the 5,000l. has much relieved her Majesty's poor subjects, "howbeit the horsemen, being driven to a hard exigent, . . . as neither to be suffered to have garrisons in towns, nor quarter to live upon elsewhere, and threatened by the Counts Maurice and Hohenlo to be cut in pieces in case they stayed within the limits of Holland, so as in all appearance they were to abide either famine, the violence of the threateners or to disband and depart towards England, I saw no remedy for them but to engage myself for some means to feed them until other order might be taken" ; whereupon, with the help of friends I borrowed 800l., which I divided amongst the eight companies (including your lordship's new cornet) by poll, "which extended to 30s. sterling a man, wherewith they have lived ever sithence in good sort." Your company was then received into Utrecht, where they remain. I procured a patent for the companies of the Lord Marshal and Sir William Russell to go to Bergues-op-Zome ; Mr. Dormer's company, being small, Count Maurice was contented to bestow at Tergau [Tergoes]. Those of the Earl of Essex, Lord North, Sir Robert Sidney and Mr. Sherley are yet upon the villages about Iselstein, and cannot be placed in any garrison. The 3,000l. for the horse and foot in her Majesty's pay shall be bestowed as directed. I am to-day going towards Utrecht to take order therein with Sir John Norreys, who cannot depart thence without danger to the place, "such have been the practices of the Count Moeurs in dividing the town into faction ; who had drawn away from her Majesty and your lordship six of the captains, meaning to have forced the rest by violence, and so to have subjected the town to those of Holland," had not the timely arrival of her Majesty's and your lordship's letters not only stayed those who inclined to the Count, but drawn two away from him, "so as now the division is equal, but strongest on our side, by reason of the garrison being all English." I am informed that on publication of the letters the Count said that her Majesty's promises were commonly without effect, and [he] had rather be possessed of one English rose noble than trust to the accomplishing of English promises ; persuading those of his side that if they trusted them, they would be deceived. If your lordship would write to the magistrate and captains of the town, it would confirm our friends and amaze the rest. Among others not forgetting in particular M. Deventer, who has shown himself very constant and devoted to her Majesty, your lordship and our nation, "and for the same is extremely envied by the States General and Council." There has been little alteration since Sir Roger Williams' departure save the publication of the placcard made by the States of Holland, whereof you have been advertised by Mr. Hotman, your agent. (fn. 1) Dordrecht and Gorcum have refused to accept it, as "repugning" your lordship's authority. The lieut.-Governor of the Brill took the placcard from the magistrates who were publishing it, and "would have laid them by the heels" for doing so. Gorcum has also refused to accept Count Philip as their governor, acknowledging no authority but your lordship. Nevertheless, Monsieur Clerhagen is put from his superintendency by the usurped authority and his company drawn from thence, and had been cassed if our friends at Utrecht had not received them into the Waert. They have also removed Bax from the castle of Muyden. I have not been negligent, by solicitation to the ministers and letters to those constant in affection to your lordship, to have the people informed of the ungrateful and dangerous proceeding of the States, and with so good effect that they are now wonderfully animated, and have delivered each where in speeches that if by the overthwart dealings of the States, her Majesty shall be drawn to stay her succours and goodness towards them, and that thereby your lordship be also discouraged to return, they will cut their throats ; and you would wonder to see the people (who so lately by the practice of the said States and the accident of Deventer and the fort were notably alienated) so returned to their former devotion . . . The States are so terrified with these threats of the people, and their fear of being called to account at your lordship's return that within these three days they have given us to understand that whereas they were informed that some of the Council had privately charged them with violating your lordship's authority and spreading the like opinion amongst the people, they desired any having such a conceit to deliver his mind frankly to them, and they doubted not but to satisfy him. Perceiving by their speech (uttered by Barnevelt) that I was the person addressed, I answered that true it was that they had very injuriously trodden the authority of your lordship and this Council under their feet, and so proceeded to particulars, wherein I was reasonably seconded by the Counsellor. The States stood upon the point that they were sovereigns, and therefore not fit that the Governor who drew his authority from them should call them to account for their doings, no more than the governors of Charles V. might tax them for any action of his done in the government. To be short, I did what I could to beat them from that humour of their sovereignty, which I declared and proved to be in the people, showing that upon that error they had grounded the rest of their wilful absurdities. But to the end they might see their follies the better, I delivered unto them yesternight in writing to the number of 15 or 16 articles of their disorders and breach of their oaths in violating the authority of your lordship and of your Council, whereunto I suppose they will make some answer in writing, wherewith, as with the effect of the articles, I will acquaint you by my next. "I have caused your lordship's speedy return to be constantly given out to the people, who are much recomforted therewith, and those that have opposed themselves against you are as much grieved and terrified with the news. But to conclude, my good lord, your presence here will disperse all these clouds and save these poor countries from ruin, which in all likelihood cannot be preserved but by her Majesty's goodness and your Lordship's presence, contrary to the vain opinion of the States, who have published that they are able to maintain themselves without the succours of her Majesty or of any other prince." I have received of your Lordship's entertainment some 1500 florins, which have been employed for your servants' diet and your horses. I lately solicited payment of the residue but am answered that you have already had the whole and about 3000 florins over. They say you have received here three score and odd thousand gilders and of her Majesty's treasurer at wars forty thousand, which they have allowed as part of your entertainment. I have been careful to entertain all who professed to love you and our nation, among whom I have found many time-servers whom I shall make known to your lordship at your coming. M. de Brederode has continued a true friend to you and to us all. I will not omit any endeavour to retain all who are honest and worthy of your favour. For my own particular I doubt not but to show you "that I have well deserved towards you in your absence, contrary to the opinion conceived of me at home. I will only beseech your lordship that other men's faults . . . may not be ascribed to me. I will be neither ungrateful nor unthankful. If I have committed any error in my proceedings towards your lordship, as I will not altogether excuse myself, because Humanum est errare, yet the same hath been far from malice or evil meaning to you, as he knoweth best that must judge us all."—The Hague, 12 March, 1586. Copy. 4¾ pp. [S.P. For. Archives XCI., p. 69.]
Stating that the troubles and practices are such that he was driven to take up victuals etc. to the amount of 100l. which he has employed for the strengthening and furnishing of the Ramekins, having credible intelligence that they of Holland knew of its weakness and intended to surprise it. Earnestly prays his Lordship to take order for repayment of these merchants. Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 90.]
I have been constrained to bend a little to the present storm, and have so far succeeded that Gorcum is for the present preserved to her Majesty and your Excellency, not having accepted Count Philip of Nassau, whom they wished to put in my place. Still less is the garrison taken in, both of horse and foot, which they tried by cunning and other means to put here. I hope it will hold firm till your Excellency's arrival, greatly desired by all the towns in these parts.—Utrecht, 22 March, 1587. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 91.]
Sends these by Francisco Taxis who has had speech with the Marquis of Renty and this governor about the writer. Their intention depends on the relaxation of two friars, the one prisoner in Ostend and the other in Middelbourg. "The Marquis greatly desires the liberty of the latter, and demands him of me, but without your assistance, I know not how to obtain him. Capt. Litleton hath already promised to send the other to me at my pleasure ; yea, and to send a gelding worth 600 florins also." The Marquis desires two hackneys from England, and would not only pay well, but would obtain passport for the bearer to transport two mares in exchange. He will be in Brussels on Monday next, and would at once treat with his Altesse about me, and send hither the order for my release. However it fall out, I must beseech you for more money, that I may not have to stay here for want of it. If I had not been forced to pay 230fl. for Captain Brackenbury ; 112fl. for Thomas Whithead, a gentleman of my lord of Oxford ; and 50fl. for one Robert Galeys, the fifty pounds your honour sent me of late would suffice. If those bound had care of their credit and thought upon God, they would long since have sent me the moneys with which I assisted them in their necessity. I hope this will not cause you to withdraw your aid from me.—Dunkirk prisons, 12 March, 1586, stilo anglie. Postscript. The friar in Zeeland is Lion Roeloffs, if you will procure his liberty for mine ; "but it must be the said two friars to pay their own charges." Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Flanders I. 114.]
March 12. "Articles presented to the States General and of Holland by Mr. Wilkes, touching their violating of the Earl of Leicester's authority." Twenty articles. Endd. Fr. 9½ pp. [Holland XIII. 92 ; also in Treaty papers XXXIII.]
March 12. Synopsis, in English, of the above. 1. "Their breach of their commission to him, touching his absolute government, which he accepted at their importunity."
2. Their like breach of their oath of Feb. 4, 1586.
3. That with their consent, before departing he had passed his authority by commission of Nov. 24, to the Council of State, reserving only to himself the change of governors.
4. Their encroachment on his authority first appears by an act of the Council of State, Jan. 31, 1587, when Barnevelt and the rest of the States of Holland required the said Council "to forbear to grant any patents for placing any garrisons in that province."
5. That in the said province, "the drum hath been sounded, levies made, commissions granted etc., under the name and authority of the governor and States . . . and in some places only of the magistrate of the town etc."
6. Contrary to the Council's placcard of Jan. 10, 1587, commanding that no garrisons, either in towns or forts, should be changed or placed without their commissions in his Excellency's name, a placcard is published by the States of Holland, without mention of him or the Council, "not to receive any companies without licence of the Governor of that province or his lieutenant with further authority to cut in pieces the companies in the 'plat pays' if they shall infringe any point of the said authority.
7. "That they have sworn to them certain captains, whereof, notwithstanding some have protested that they mean not by that oath to falsify that which before they had taken to his Excellency."
8. They have removed de Bacx' company from Muyden and de Clarhagen's from Gorcum, and have 'required' the Sieur Sonoy to take a new oath and commission.
9. Contrary to the Act of Nov. 24, 1586, they have changed the garrisons of the frontier towns, Woerden, Gorcum, etc.
10. They have made Count Philip of Nassau governor of Gorcum and given the regiment of Zeeland to Count Solms ; which not long before was, by provision, by the Council of State granted to Count Maurice. Also the Estates General, at the request of the Count de Moeurs have given new commission to the Baron of Hochsaxen to command over certain frontier towns in Overyssel and Gueldres ; whereof he, in regard of his former oath, refused and excused himself by letters to his Excellency.
11. They have, notwithstanding his Excellency's and the Council's passport, inhibited the transportation of grain, etc., "and namely to an English merchant for provision of a quantity at Amsterdam and Enchuysen for England," with other like inhibitions.
12. That a placcard having been published by the Council on 13 Jan. last, with consent of the States General, permitting free traffic into all neutral countries except Calais and Embden ; the States of Holland have written to the master of the convoys at Amsterdam to order himself according to their resolution of Feb. 7, by which they mean the placcard to extend to those places.
13. "Where Camphere was assigned for the retiring of the ships and prizes of the King of Navarre by his Excellency, the Council of State and Zeeland, they have revoked the same, without permitting him any other port."
14. By an act of Feb. 4 they have omitted in the continuation of the Council of State the Sieurs de Meetkerke and Brackell, "with a clause of inhibition that none hereafter may appear in Council as members of the same. And that those who continue should take new commission of the States General ; whereby they exclude the province of Flanders."
15. They have forbidden the Sieurs Aisma and Feitsma (mistranscribed Aisins and Feilains) lawfully appointed by his Excellency for Frise, to enter the Council.
16. Their opposition to his Excellency's authority touching the Admiralty jurisdiction by their act of Jan. 31, 1587, and their enlarging of Paul Buys, "contrary to the jurisdiction of Utrecht, and his Excellency's authority."
17. "Also divers disgraces offered to the said Council of State by revoking their passports, patents etc. ; not permitting them to deal with money or redress complaints. As also the stay of publishing the placcard of proscription of Stanley and Yorck."
18. "That the publishing of the said placcard might have served to have satisfied the people touching the hard conceit of the English nation, scandalized by their lewd part."
19. "That the said Mr. Wilkes could show many more particularities of their ingratitude, towards her Majesty and disobedience towards her lieutenant since his departure, and [towards the] Council of State, but that according to the offer by them made to the Council of State the 16th of March last, he hopeth reparation thereof will be had ; or to show reasonable causes to justify their proceedings ; without alleging their sovereignty, as they had expressed the same in sundry of their writings and acts."
In the writing of Burghley's secretary. 3½ pp. [Holland XIII. 93.]
"Monthly charge" from Dec. 12, 1585 to March 12, 1586-7. Total 134,275l. In the handwriting of Burghley's secretary. ½ p. [Ibid. XIII. 94.]
Implores him to return as soon as possible, lest the country should fall into irretrievable ruin. For himself, he awaits her Majesty's and his Excellency's commands ; and puts under her protection himself, his only son and his subjects, to be disposed of as she shall think fit.—Cuylenborch, 13 March, 1587, stylo veteri [as to day of the month]. Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 95.]
I have received yours of the 3rd, and a copy of her Majesty's to Sir John Norris, concerning the care of the cautionary towns ; "as truly the late alteration of this shaken state requireth no less," to prevent the suspected designs against these places and other frontier towns. I have written secretly to Sir John to have two more companies sent hither ; this town being full and strong with disordered people, and greatly incensed against our nation ; and in the mean time we will stand upon guard until relief is brought by Sir John. It will be hard to lodge the two companies without great discontentment of the inhabitants, "except the ordinary allowance called service money be allowed for lodging and paid by her Majesty till further order may be had." Also order must be given to the treasurer or the merchants for a weekly imprest for them, as the other bands here have, otherwise it will breed emulation among the soldiers and discontent to the inhabitants, "who may not be forced to victual them unless we might command absolutely, which of force must be, in mine opinion, if they do continue in their present contempt and alterations against her Majesty. Your honour's good assistance herein I crave with all convenient speed."—Vlisching, 13 March, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 96.]
Having occasion to send the bearer, Capt. Astell into England, refers his lordship to him for the late occurrents in these parts, praying him to give good consideration thereto, as they threaten some evident danger to the places held by the English.—Vlishing, 13 March, 1587. Signed, ¾ p. [Ibid. XIII. 97.]
March 13/23. DR. HOTMAN to WILKES. (fn. 2)
Sending him letters received for him. As that of Colonel Morgan, coming from Bergen, might have contained something important to communicate to the Council of State, he gave consent for Mr. Gilpin to open it.—The Hague, 23 March, 1587. Underwritten in invisible ink. I hear that Count M[aurice] is affronted (a un pied de nez) because Sonoy would not take a fresh oath or receive garrison into Medemblick ; saying that he had made oath to his Excellency, from which he must be dispensed before taking a new one. Junius is returned, but I know not yet what answer he brings. Capt. Mornau, came to-day from Zeeland, says that the people are ill-pleased at the coming of the Count de Solms. Count Hohenlo has to-night been at Leyden, (fn. 3) and runneth up and down like a madman because his Excellency is coming or because things do not succeed to his intent. Two or three have told me to-day that the said Count H. hath received yesterday a letter from the enemy to this effect, that he should remember his promise. I do not believe it, (fn. 3) but the bruit gives him a very ill reputation. (fn. 3) Some schippers of Scheveling say that H.E. cometh within these few days again, but I do not believe it. (fn. 3) They speak very diversely and strangely of Utrecht. I pray you let us soon hear from you. Signed only H., but name given in endorsement. Add. to Wilkes at Utrecht. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 98.]
March 13. "Docket" of letters and papers taken by Lord Buckhurst into the Low Countries ; including letters from her Majesty to the States General ; Council of State ; Counts Maurice, Hollock and Moeurs ; and Elector Truchsess. Endd. with date. 11/8 pp. [Holland XIII. 98a.]
March 14/24. New oath presented by the States of Holland to all the soldiers in service in their province to be taken to Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count Hohenlo and the States of Holland, Zeeland and West Friesland.—24 March, 1587. Copy. Fr. ¾ p. [S.P. For. Archives XC., p. 181.]
March 14/24. Letter of the Council of State to the Earl of Leicester. Difficulties owing to failure of the States General to provide means to pay the troops. Jealousy and dissension among the chief men and the towns. Difficulties with Utrecht. All these troubles might be ended by H.E. and beg him to hasten his return. Enemy preparations. Danger of Bergen. Money only received from Holland and Zeeland. Need of prompt assistance from her Majesty. Complaint of Gruenevelt's procedure. Agreement to engage reiters.—The Hague, 24 March, 1587. (fn. 4) Copy. Fr. 3¾ pp. [Ibid. XC., p. 182.]
March 14. A private memorial for Lord Buckhurst. To confer with Col. Norris how far he can defend the country with her Majesty's present support, he having offered to do so if her charges be duly answered. To understand whether he means all the United Provinces or only Holland and Zeeland. As Counts Maurice and Hohenlohe seem to think the country able to maintain and defend itself without her Majesty's aid :— to inform himself of the likelihood of this. Whether the people's hatred to the States be so great as is reported. How they stand affected to a reconciliation with Spain ; whether there be secret instruments among them to draw them that way, and which provinces seem most inclined to it. What hope they have of aid from any other prince, if her Majesty should abandon them. Whether the people stand soundly affected to the said G., as is said ; and who principally oppose him. To inquire "underhand" if the English bands in her Majesty's pay be as decayed as is said. And what number of them serve under the States' pay, and how strong they are. Endd. with date. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 99.]
Mar. [14 ?] Heads of Lord Buckhurst's Instructions. Establishment of a better government, by removing the present confusion for lack of a governor. Amendment of the contract. To consider change of her Majesty's succours of men into money. The reconcilement of such captains etc. of the United Provinces as were drawn by the Earl of Leicester to her Majesty's service. Resolutions upon certain points reserved to his going over ; viz. : satisfaction for consumption of the magazines ; liquidation of accounts ; satisfaction for money taken out of the comptoire, by the Brill garrison ; some certain establishment of trade ; an act of disavowal of mutinies "covered with pretence of service to her Majesty ; the case of victualling Flushing garrison. To deal with the States for assistance by sea as promised. To acquaint them with Medekirk's offer touching Ostend, and if found profitable, to require approbation by act of Council. Not dated or endorsed. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 100.]
Acknowledges three letters concerning the furnishing of the cautionary towns ; my Lord of Leicester's discontent with his letter to her Majesty ; and an offer to try to procure a reconciliation. For the first, refers to letter to the queen ; for the second, returns thanks. For the last, has understood by others that my lord seeks by all means to disgrace him ; but knowing "that he has done nothing but what her Majesty's service and his own reputation required will patiently attend the issue. One point in the letter grieves him more than all my lord's malice, the suspicion that he was set on by some in England to oppose the Earl ; protests that neither by her Majesty or any other has he been encouraged to cross him. Events will show the need of giving her Majesty some notice of the distaste the country had of my Lord's government. Asks to be sent to some place where he may have no intermeddling with my lord's actions," or else to procure that the earl desist from doing him wrong. "As for terms of reconciliation, his Lordship is too great a personage for him to enter with ; and he will not acknowledge that he has given any occasion of offence. Ready at all times...to justify all his doings." "For the conclusion ... the time passeth and our preparations for the war are very 'lateward' ; the enemy is ready to take the field, and will undertake the besieging of some town that shall cause the loss of four or five others. The Hollanders are in such a proud humour that they care for no quarter but their own, which is a most pernicious counsel, for certainly if the rest were lost, Holland will not hold long after."—Utrecht, 14 March, 1586. Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. XIII. 101.]
Though advice not asked, begs leave to say that in order to confound this count of "Hoogenloo" and all his followers it would be well to make a new levy of three or four thousand foot, of the men of these countries, and to give sufficient pay to all the horse captains of this nation for them to put their companies into good order and a competent number ; and to send letters secretly to all the said colonels and captains, who are still in service that if they wish, with their men, to be employed in her Majesty's service under H.E., they shall have a month's pay and will be entertained and paid, and at the end of the war recompensed like the English or those of any other nation, who have served her Majesty well and faithfully. By so doing, H.E. will gain all the hearts of the men of war of the said nation and easily make himself master of all the towns and fortresses where they are in garrison. Because the greater and better part of the burghers and inhabitants of the country are well affected to her Majesty and to H.E. Has spoken of this matter to divers captains and officers, old soldiers and friends, whom he has found very resolute to do the queen and H.E. good service, and very ill-affected to Count "Hoaghenloo" and his faction. Offers his good offices.—Utrecht, 24 March, 1587 [style doubtful]. Add. Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Holland XIII. 102.]
March 14. "The State of her Majesty's forces presently in these countries, partly upon the musters...and the rest by report" on this date. Endorsed by Laurence Tompson "This note is imperfect." 3 pp. [Ibid. XIII. 103.]
Writing because of Thomas Trent, recently captured at sea by the ships of war of this town, though his ship was rescued by the Flushingers, and brought hither with divers others, English and Hollanders, prisoners. What shall become of him is not as yet known." Despairs of own liberty, for almost all the assistance he was to expect in this vain world was buried with his master Sir Philip Sidney, yet nothing shall cause him to forget either God or his long begun profession. "These men, perceiving that he will not be exchanged for "Pedro Cibiur, demand of him two friars, the one kept in Ostend and the other in Middelbourgh." On no other conditions will they grant him liberty ; wherefore determined patiently to endure the afflictions God shall lay upon him.—Dunkirk, 14 March, 1586, stilo Anglo. Add. Endd. Fr. 1¼ pp. [Flanders I. 115.]
March 15/25. FREMIN to WALSINGHAM.
Acknowledges letter of February 10. It is very needful that his Excellency should return speedily both for her Majesty's service and the welfare of the country. To send another would not remedy the present evil, as he would not know the state of the country, or distinguish between malicious spirits and those truly affectionate and zealous for her Majesty's service. Also it is very requisite that he should be of a great house, of authority, wealth and reputation ; or at any rate so great a captain, of virtue and reputation that he shall be obeyed and respected. Undoubtedly the Earl of Leicester is—without deprecating any one—the most worthy and capable person to represent a monarch, and well beloved by honest men here, who pray daily for his speedy return. The Duke of Parma is still at Brussels, meaning shortly to assemble his camp and get the start of us, seeing that all things go on very slowly here. They seem to be preparing in Flanders to besiege Ostend and the Sluys. The Marquis de Renty, admiral, is at Bruges and La Motte at Gravelines, making preparations against Ostend. It is very important that it should be preserved. The new forces from Spain are still stationary in Luxembourg. Mondragon's regiment, of 25 companies is in the Pays de Liege. Don Geronimo de Loisbassan [Loysa Bazan], maître de camp, and four Spanish captains with some forty men, all of Mondragon's regiment, going from Brussels to Liege were met by an ambuscade of foot from this garrison near to Louvain and put to flight on the 18th, the colonel killed, nephew of the Marquis of Ste. Crois ; a captain left for dead, two escaped and some fifteen soldiers, and a captain taken prisoner. He is named Jan de Castille [Juan de Castilla], an old captain of more than sixty years of age. The Duke goes on wisely and with skill when he can and is meaning to come to Antwerp. Five days ago, three hundred carts of corn were brought to the castle. If his Excellency were here, we could do a great deal, but in his absence, all goes slowly. The Duke of Guise has demanded some force of foot from the Duke of Parma, who has replied that if the King of France required it of him, he would aid him. As your Excellency is well informed of the state of affairs here, I will discourse no further thereof. I do not complain of ingratitude, but would pray you to let me be taken into her Majesty's pay, not having received a patart these ten months for my men, who deserve better entertainment ; nevertheless I have endured so far in order to see what resolution will be taken in England. Who serves at the altar (Vostel) ought to live by the altar.—Bergen, 25 March, 1587. Postscript. Colonel Morgan acquits himself very well in the command of this place. Add. Endd. "15 March, 1586." Fr. 1½ pp. [Holland XIII. 104.]
March 15. NORREYS AND WILKES to the town of GORCUM.
Changes and misrepresentations made since his Excellency's departure for England, to induce the belief her Majesty had abandoned them and that his Excellency would return no more. Such allegations are entirely false. As proof of her Majesty's constant resolution, there is coming the Baron de Buckhurst, her near kinsman, and one of her Privy Council, by whom they will shortly learn her latest will. Meanwhile, they will do very well to oppose all changes and innovations in their town, remembering the fidelity sworn to his Excellency, who will shortly be here himself to thank them, and to remedy the evil caused by the malice of those who are enemies to himself and to this State, in several provinces. By doing so they will greatly increase her Majesty's good-will towards these poor afflicted countries, and the courage of her subjects in fighting valiantly for their preservation, for which there would be but small hope without such aid. —Utrecht, 15 March, 1587. Signed, by both. Copy. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 105.]
On behalf of the bearer, his sergeant-major, as tall a soldier as any on that side the seas, fitter to command a thousand men than only a hundred or two, and a very sufficient man to take charge in garrison or in camp ; "like as when Captain Reade, who was sergeant-major to his Excellency, being in camp, did take his directions concerning his watches ... did always find him." Morgan's own entertainment is so small that he can neither help his sergeant or himself, and therefore prays his honour's aid for both.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 15 March, 1586. Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 106.]
March 15. M. BUY to WALSINGHAM.
Is thinking of his departure, although his dispatch does not seem to be ready. Has not yet taken leave of her Majesty, the Earl of Leicester or the Lord Treasurer, which he could do after dinner. It would be a great convenience to him to go over with the Lord Buckhurst, wherefore he must not spend much time over anything save setting out as soon as he gets his dispatch ; which should be such as to show that he has not wasted his time, so that the lords may have no ground for dissatisfaction, especially the Conte de Moeurs (Mors). Does not yet know who is to take her Majesty's letters into Germany, and has not seen Capt. Wilhem [qy. Williams]. Prays his honour to speak a word to 'Conbes.' Undated. Add. Endd. with date. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 107.]
March 15. Note of the distribution of the 3000l. sterling delivered to Sir J. Norreys, March 15, 1586, by virtue of a letter from the lords of the Council dated Feb. 21, and appointed to be distributed to the companies of horse and foot at her Majesty's pay, in garrison or at large, in the provinces of Holland, Utrecht and Gueldres and the county of Zutphen. Signed by Norreys and Wilkes. Endd with date. 5½ pp. [Ibid. XIII. 108.]
Whereas it pleased her, about a year and a half ago, to send thither her garrisons, which have been usually maintained by a commissary of her own, both as to victuals and accoutrements ; by which the town and burghers are greatly prejudiced, having no profit therefrom, put great charges from lodging the troops as well as they can with their small means (in consequence of the heavy taxes these last twenty-one years) : And as the town is the only one remaining in Brabant which holds out against the enemy, and being the chief frontier for Holland and Brabant, is of very great importance :— They humbly pray her Majesty to take order that the garrisons now there, or hereafter to be sent, may in future be paid in money from month to month, or at least by weekly prests, which will be the only way to maintain good order in the town. Also to take order that a good correspondence may be kept up between her garrisons and the towns-people, so that nothing may be attempted to the prejudice of the rights and privileges of the said town.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 26 March, 1587, stilo novo. Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holland XIII. 109.]
Request to direct Mr. Wauton to restore to Garret Hendrickson, a poor shipper and master of the Golden George, the sum of 29l. 5s., received for fish from Rouland Stokes, fishmonger, and taken from him by one of Mr. Wauton's men named Simon, searcher of the port of London. Mr. Wauton being unable to re-deliver it without his lordship's warrant.—London, 16 March, 1586. Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. XIII. 110.]
Has not written earlier because since his Excellency's departure he has retired from all affairs into the town of Utrecht, there patiently awaiting God's will ; but has heard of his welfare from others. Has conversed freely with the Sieur de Schoonewal, (fn. 5) a very clever gentleman and extremely zealous for the public good, to whom he refers his Excellency for all things. The ill turn at Deventer and the fort of Zutphen was the work of particular men, and he entirely agrees that if wisely used, it may by God's blessing turn to advantage ; but the return of his Excellency is above all necessary.—Utrecht, 17 March, 1587, stilo veteri. Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 111.]
Understanding by your Excellency's letter that Captain Williams' report on my behalf has led you to think that we bear no good affection to you, I cannot fail to assure you that I in no wise meant to impute to you what has happened in my regard, by the instigation of certain evil instruments, but only to give you to understand my great regret for the wrong which has happened to me. That your Excellency may be better informed of my intent, I have discoursed very particularly of the whole matter with the Sieur de Schoonewalle, the bearer of this, who, I am persuaded, will not fail to put it before you ; begging you to give him speedy audience and entire credit. To the rest of your letter, I will reply more at large by the first opportunity, and will inform you of all that passes in these parts.—Delft, 29 March, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland XIII. 112.]


1 A placard issued on the 27th Feb., O.S., proclaiming Count Maurice as Governor General of Holland, Zeeland and West Friesland, with Count Hohenlohe as his lieutenant, with a provision that no troops should enter any of the provinces of that government without a patent or passport from the governor. See Wilkes' journal of events, apud Cotton MSS. Galba C, x. folios 95, 96. Brit. Museum.
2 Printed in Bijdragen en Mededeelingen van het Historisch Genootschap (Utrecht), Deele xxxiv., pp. 174-5.
3 The two passages between daggers are in English.
4 Printed in full in Bijdragen etc. van het Hist. Genootschap (Utrecht), Deele xxxiv., pp. 175-81.
5 Noel de Caron.