GILPIN to WALSINGHAM.
As Mr. Aty, the bearer, knows all that has passed before and
since my lord Buckhurst's arrival, I need not write thereof. From
yours of March 23 I was glad to understand the continuance of
your favour ; not that I doubted it, though to many of my letters
I have received no answer. I thank you for dealing with her
Majesty on my behalf, and trust at length to prevail, my lord of
Buckhurst having promised to second your honour ; encouraging
me in the meantime to tarry, as it is most needful to have me
here. Whereupon I am resolved to discharge my duty ; assuring
you that in the time of most troubles I have stood Mr. Wilkes in
good stead, "and yet not one penny recompense towards my
excessive charges and continuing toil." I am in daily attendance
on my lord, whose letters I dispatch to all parts, besides performing
other services, and shall attend him to Utrecht.
I hear that 8s. a day is allowed out of her Majesty's pay to a
water-bailiff at the Brill ; who would sell the same, serving it now
only by a substitute. The States say there never was such an
officer in peace, nor is he needful, or at least he ought to know the
country custom and language. I would I had the allowance,
though to speak plainly I could wish for some office here in court,
whereby I might more roundly deal for the service of her Majesty
and my country.—The Hague, 21 April, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland XIV. f. 107.]
HUDDILSTON to WALSINGHAM.
Acknowledges letter for his repair to the court ; has just lost his
wife, asks him to satisfy the Queen, and will be ready at all hours
to go, to answer anything that concerns him. Meanwhile will
send for Grove to repair thither.—22 April, 1587.
Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 109.]
April 22./May 2.
Extract from resolutions of the States General for the delivery
to the Council of State of 200,000 livres for the payment of the
troops, taken on Saturday, 2 May 1587. (fn. 1)
Fr. 1 p. [S.P. For. Arch. XC., p. 212.]
April 23./May 3.
Attestation by Hotman that about February last, advertisement
was given to Mr. Wilkes (ambassador for her Majesty
in the Low Countries) by the burgomaster of Grave, that two
young Italians in his Excellency's suite had been bribed by the
Prince of Parma to kill his said Excellency, to whom Mr. Wilkes
(being very ill) asked deponent to send the said advertisement
just as it had come to him in writing ; which deponent did as
desired.—The Hague, 3 May, 1587.
Signed. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XIV. f. 111.]
ANDREA DE LOO to LORD BUCKHURST.
From London I wrote to your lordship on the 15th by Mr.
Francis Croft the substance of what was negotiated on my
last journey, and of the Duke's letter to her Majesty, giving full
satisfaction both as to his very sufficient authority and his entire
disposition to conclude the peace, and willingly granting her the
honour of nominating the time and place for the meeting of the
deputies, with assurance that the king would confirm it ; wherewith
her Majesty showed herself well satisfied. But when she
came to M. de Champagny's letter, she was much disturbed on
the point of religion, of which the said letter makes mention, for
assurance of the truth of that which I had said to his Highness
on the part of her Majesty ; viz : that she would be satisfied not
to stand on other points as to Religion than to obtain from the
king for Holland and Zeeland so much toleration as he could
concede with safety, conscience and honour ; with which his
Highness seemed to be well content, by reason of his confidence
in the good meaning and sincere intention of her said Majesty,
and that she would not urge the king further than he would wish
to go. But M. de Champagney, wishing to be clear on this matter,
rather characteristically saying precisely that Religion was not
to be spoken of, gave some offence to her Majesty, who thought
that what had been said on her part to the Duke ought to suffice,
who, when he was expecting that in reply to his said letter she
would mention place and time for the meeting of the deputies,
seeing that the affair was put off with the statement that he must
first treat with Holland and Zeeland as regards what was granted
in the treaty made with them, as without their consent her
Majesty could conclude nothing in which they were concerned ;
I say that by this it appears to his Highness that she is not proceeding
with the sincerity which has been shown on his part, and
that after having granted all that was desired, he finds himself
treated in this manner ; as if before coming to this her Majesty
should not have known, as also your lordship and the lords
Treasurer and Controller what was agreed on with the said provinces ;
a thing which afflicts me not a little, as also does, on the
other hand the departure of Drake afresh with a good fleet to do
the worst that he is able, making me fear that both these proceedings
might easily cause God knows only too much harm to
the general repose, and therefore, if it were not that I desire
much to have letters from your lordship, to understand what you
hope to do as to these people, I should go to my house, as soon as
I had his Highness' reply, and let matters take their own course,
not however without my very great grief to leave here so much
dissatisfaction, and principally with myself as the unworthy
instrument, who have been most importunate in inducing the
duke to agree to every thing for the public peace, as he
graciously accepted my account of your lordship's conversation ;
and now to have to feel that I have left them deceived, and
shall not be believed any more, amounts to this quod oleum et
operam perdo, nihil proficiendo. It would seem that for our
greater punishment God in his secret counsel has so ordained it,
since that now on this side is seen that security of their sincere
intentions which was desired. Having asked permission of his
Highness to write this he wishes me to salute you on his behalf,
desiring to make your acquaintance upon so good an occasion as
would be the conclusion of this holy peace, if God should permit
it.—Brussels, 23 April, 1587, stilo vecchio.
In de Loo's handwriting and by him. Endd. as Copy of the
letter written to M. de Buckhurst. Italian. 1¼ pp. [Flanders
I. f. 269.]
Rough notes by Burghley of moneys expended for the troops ;
endorsed by him "A note of the charges in the Low Countries."
2pp. [Holland XIV. f. 112.]
THE EARL OF LEICESTER to the CONTROLLERS AND COMMISSARIES
OF THE MUSTERS in the English garrison towns.
Order to proceed upon Friday next, the 28th inst, to take the
present muster, requiring the captains to be ready on that day
with their companies at the hour and place assigned ; it having
been found expedient by Lord Buckhurst and Sir John Norrys
to have a general muster taken of her Majesty's auxiliary forces
and others of her nation, serving in the United Provinces.—
Margin, names of eleven towns in which the musters are to be
1 p. [S.P. For. Arch. XCI., p. 92.]
COL. FREMIN to LEICESTER.
Unnecessary to write of the affairs of the country, but must
tell him that his speedy return is very necessary and will be of
more use than ten thousand men.
The Duke of Parma dreads nothing so much, knowing well
that his future ruin depends on nothing but her Majesty's
embracing of the government of the country and H.E.'s return.
Meanwhile, he is about to put in execution some great enterprises
in the islands of Tertolen, Tregouze and other places, which will
assuredly be prevented by H.E.'s presence.
Refers to letter sent by Capt. Vere. Has still three foot companies
remaining of the regiment which H.E. was pleased to give
him, and hopes on his return to receive better treatment than has
had from the Estates.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 25 April, 1587, old style.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 114.]
GILPIN to WILKES.
Perceiving that you cannot come hither because of your indisposition,
I will briefly tell you what has passed since our
arrival. On Saturday, my lord was met, a mile from the town
by horse and foot ; the Count of Meurs, the Baron of 'High
Saxon,' Baxe and other gentlemen ; also by General Norris and
all his captains. As he entered the gates the great ordnance was
shot off ; the burgers were in arms up to his lodging where the
magistrates, who had before saluted him at the gates, made
another speech and feasted him with great cheer, "with many
healths, but all modestly and in sober order ; having never seen
nor heard the Count of Meurs so quiet."
Sunday afternoon the States of Utrecht saluted his lordship,
and were asked to come next morning to hear what he had to
declare to them, but owing to a swelling in one of his legs, he kept
his bed and they were deferred till to-morrow morning. Yesterday
(being Monday) afternoon, the captains of the town came to
welcome him, "their Secretary making a solemn speech, wishing
her Majesty to accept the sovereignty etc., whereto was answered
in courteous sort, concluding that although her Majesty found it
not fit as yet to intermeddle with the sovereignty" yet she was
resolved to aid them with a larger force than last year.
My lord has several times met with Mr. Norris and Mr. Clark
but I know not what is resolved. I find the burgomaster, Deventer,
resolved to maintain the authority of his Excellency,
and using all means to that end.
Here are certain deputies from Guelderland and Overyssel,
busy about the dispatch of their deputies to the general meeting
with instruction to deal especially with the negotiation of my
lord Buckhurst, and what must be done against his Excellency's
I see small hope of the return of the banished men, especially
the five principal ones, but after to-morrow's meeting I shall
know further. I have had sundry conferences with Mr. Webbe,
but defer particulars till our meeting. Sir Thos. Shirley is gone
this morning into Zeeland, to try to levy some money among the
merchants, the want whereof has hindered the proposed enterprise.
I hear that the soldiers of Lochum have spoiled the townsmen.
"These be the fruits of deferring so long to relieve their necessities."
Signed. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XIV. f. 116.]
April 25./May 5.
"Copy of the oath ministered anew by Count Maurice," resolved
by the States on the 6th of March, 1587, sent with letters
of May 5 to Capt. Villiers [and other captains] desiring them to
take it themselves, and have it taken by their men. (fn. 2)
Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 118.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to BURGHLEY.
What effects my Lord Buckhurst's negotiation has wrought
with the States General, he himself has certified to you, and by
all appearances the differences here will also be easily compounded.
For my own particular, "I had employed my father and mother
to solicit my revocation at such time as my lord of Leicester
should return, not willing to endure such violent usage as was
offered me by my lord during his government. By my lord of
Buckhurst's induction, who is persuaded that by tarrying here I
may do her Majesty and the cause service, I have given my consent
thereto ; not that I look that the affairs shall proceed otherwise
than they have done, or myself better used ; but because I
will refuse nothing that may be pretended to the advancement
of her Highness' service."
I have only moved that I may have my commission from her
Majesty, and crave your favour in this, as a most reasonable
request. A great disgrace is offered me by my lord of Leicester
"in appointing the muster-master and the auditor to make
warrants for the distribution of her Majesty's treasure, leaving
me clean out of any knowledge thereof ; a very extraordinary
example, that such one as should be thought fit to command her
Majesty's forces might not be suffered to be acquainted with the
laying out of the money." The fruits of this I have already
felt, for though I engaged myself for certain sums to relieve the
companies in their necessity, yet I am not appointed to reinburse
one penny ; and as for the treasure brought out by Sir Thomas
Shurley, I have received both for my horse and footmen not ten
days' pay, and if the like authority be continued for the distributing
of the next, I must break my companies, both of horse and
foot ; "which hitherto I have maintained the fairest in this
country, to my extreme charges."
In their commission also there was no mention for paying
of any entertainment to me and my officers, so that if my lord
Buckhurst had not favoured me with an order,...I had been
utterly unprovided.... I pray you stand my good lord that
our entertainments may be established from her Majesty, "for
I am too well acquainted with the States' paying to be referred
over to them, and in truth, it would be a plain show to be disfavoured
by her Majesty if I do not receive pay and commission
from her Majesty ; which were as much worth as my life if I did
fall into the enemy's hands."
The extreme want of victuals has held back the enemy. "He
is now on foot in every quarter, and maketh show sometimes to
attempt Berghes up Zome ; sometimes Sluis or Ostend and sometimes
to march toward Guelderland, and in my opinion, thither
will be his chiefest force employed. On our side, the most of
our companies, both of horse and foot are greatly decayed ; our
towns unprovided of victuals and all provisions of war greatly
behind-hand ;...it now plainly appeareth that if we had kept
the field this winter but with a reasonable troop, we had made
the enemy unable to make war this summer." I am going up the
Rhine to revictual the towns in those parts ; my troops are but
small and our pay very short ; wherefore I beseech you to further
the despatch of supplies and money, that no disaster may happen
to us.—Utrecht, 26 April, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XIV. f. 119.]
LORD BUCKHURST to WALSINGHAM.
I will do all I can for Mr. Brune, but the necessity of this State
is such that if they employ their money to pay debts and not to
pay the soldier, all would be lost. I can but procure him some
assurance of pay towards winter, when the enemy is gone into
garrison ; yet the fear is that all the money will be wasted with
this summer's war. I am sorry not to see by your letters that
Browne was committed and severely punished, for he justly
deserves it. When he obtained the 1500l. the debt owing him
was known well enough and promised to be paid, but he was
told that first care must be taken for the victualling as the
soldiers were like to be perished ; "whereas, so soon as he had
the money, he retains it to pay his former debt, and leaves the
poor soldiers to famish ; which they had done, or a revolt of the
town to the enemy, if we had not devised new means to help it."
There are many other complaints against him, but with my lord
of Leicester's countenance, he dares do anything.
Mr. Brune, on the other side, is here much commended ; but
let him take heed how he disburse his money here upon hope of
pay, for God knows it is dangerous.... I hear he is a very
honest man, and therefore I pity the more his case.—27 April,
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland XIV. f. 121.]
STEPHEN LE SIEUR to WALSINGHAM.
On the 9th instant, I wrote to you from Dunkirk that I had
taken up 50l. sterling and sent the bills to your honour which I
hope you have accepted. Next day I was to have taken my
journey to Conde but it fell out that I came directly to Brussels
in company with a Spanish captain of Dunkirk and Mr. Bodenham.
Reaching Brussels on the 13th, by order of the Prince I
was sent to the public prison of the Provost General, who ordered
the keeper to lodge and use me well, and to let me speak with
such as I desired. The next day, after dinner, the Prince sent
for me. His speeches being to no great purpose, I desist to write
thereof, hoping in person to declare them to you. I returned to
the prison, and the day following three Spanish soldiers came to
bring me to this castle. At the water-side, I met with Sir William
Stanley, Mr. Yorck, Mr. Tressam and others, in whose company
I came to this town ; they lamenting my poor estate and offering
to assist me to their power. Arriving here the same night, I
came with my soldiers to the Castle, where I was lodged in a
tavern. The next day the soldiers left me. The 17th "Col.
Mondragon came to my lodging, and having received me kindly,
told me that it was the Prince's pleasure not to lodge me in a
prison, but where I might be well used, yet well looked unto for
escaping ; and that I should speak with nobody but by consent" ;
giving me hope shortly to enjoy my liberty, but how, I could not
know. The 20th he sent for me to the garden and told me he
had a letter from Col. Morgan, now governor of Bergues, on my
behalf, and had sent it to the Prince. "With this and great
kindness in words, I returned to my solitary lodging... On the
22nd, one Mr. Middleton came with leave of Mondragon unto me,
by whom I understood that at the request of Col. Morgan and M.
Fremyn, long since made unto the said Middleton I was come from
Dunkirk hither with good appearance of my short liberty. These
friendly actions make me believe his words, for he has persuaded
the Prince to let me have more liberty ; and being delivered into
his hands, he brought me into a very good lodging in the town.
He is bound for me, that I shall not depart without leave, but
demands no other assurance than my faith—which God willing
I will keep unviolated—and I may walk up and down the streets
at my pleasure.
I beseech you to acknowledge these great favours to Col.
Morgan, M. Fremin and Mr. Middleton, whom I find my very
friends and by whose means I hope within few days to receive
my liberty and return to England.
I pray you let my lord of Leicester and Sir Robert Sidney have
part in this letter.—Antwerp, 27 April, 1587, stilo Anglo.
Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Flanders I. f. 271.]
LORD BUCKHURST to WALSINGHAM.
"I perceive that more advertisement touching the supply of
2000 men to be sent out of England is understood as though so
many of her Majesty's soldiers here were dead, and thereby so
much less money to be transported hither," wherefore I have
thought it expedient to explain the truth. The cautionary towns,
by her Majesty's express order, have now in them 500 men above
the ordinary garrison, which Sir John Norris thinks most necessary
to continue ; there are at least 1000 men too weak, sick and
impotent to serve ; 200 men are allowed to my lord of Leicester
and 100 to Sir William Pelham, "whereof, as Sir John Norris
assureth me, there hath not been since the end of October, nor
is at this present, one man.
Our English in the States' pay have been so ill paid and provided
for "that of eleven companies there will scarce rise a
thousand men, and those so weak and ill-furnished as is lamentable.
Any checks that result from incomplete companies are
allotted to necessary uses, as to the raising of decayed and broken
bands. Thus you may guess how inconvenient it were to abate
the sending of the treasure, assuring you that if it comes not
very speedily, we know not how or what to do. Fearing that
want of wind might delay it, Mr. Treasurer is even now gone to
Middelburgh with my letter to the merchants, to see what both
our credits can procure.
I beseech you also to send the 2000 men as soon as may be,
for it is most necessary, which must be done "by levies of her
Majesty and not of private captains, for the year is now so far
spent as that those kind of levies would come too late."
Sir John Norris and I have conferred whether her Majesty's
forces may be filled without charging the country by making
a full pay to the 12 of May, and we both think it may be done ;
and that thenceforth, if 20s. a man be allowed to every captain,
out of the checks, the bands shall be very well completed. He
says it was continued with very good success until it was overthrown
by the muster-master (whose pay and profit arises wholly
out of checks).
I have had great care for furnishing Ostend and Sluis with men
and victuals. For Sluys, it is affirmed by the States that on the
captain's return from England, besides the 600l. from her Majesty,
he had 1700l. from them, and was sufficiently victualled for a
good while, if he have not wasted it ; and that for men he has too
many, since fewer might well defend it.
For Ostend, where are six companies of her Majesty's men,
I could not persuade them to furnish a siege magazine ; they
saying that divers times having done so, the English soldiers
broke into them and consumed them, and that now, wanting pay,
they would do the like again. Whereupon I got their consent
that 500l. due by her Majesty's soldiers to those of Brill might be
used for a magazine for a month's victuals there, promising to
take order with Sir John Conway (as I have done) for it not to
be touched save in time of siege or for ready money. The rest
of the loan money due to Brill, I got them to disburse to certain
English soldiers in their pay, being in most miserable want.
I hear nothing yet of the King of Portugal's son. When he
brings me her Majesty's letters, I will do my utmost to perform
her will therein.
I told you before how far I thought her Majesty's treasure
would extend, but since then the remainder has fallen out to be
greater and thereby the pay lesser ; for certainty whereof I refer
you to the account sent by Mr. Treasurer.
In his own hand. "And thus, lying lame in my bed and therefore
forced to use my servants' writing, I commit you to God's protection.
—Utrecht, 28 April, 1587.
P.S. I caught my hurt with the stroke of a horse, which of
itself not great, but being forced by continual business to neglect
due care thereof, and to go upon it, hath made it now very ill
unto me. I hear by bruit the 200 men are arrived at Ostend."
Add. Endd. 2¾ pp. [Holland XIV. f. 123.]
April 28./May 8.
Summary state of the troops in the pay of the States according
to the muster made on May 8, stilo novo.
Cavalry, 19 companies, besides that of Baron Willoughby,
transferred to her Majesty's pay
Infantry of the States
" 11 English companies, comprising
Sum of the Infantry
Attested by De Vic. Noted as exhibited on 6 June. Endd.
¾ p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 125.]
LORD BUCKHURST to WALSINGHAM.
I send you enclosed a letter lately received from Andrea "di
Lo" and the copy of my answer, praying you as my especial dear
friend that if, when you impart them to her Majesty, there should
be anything offensive to her in my answer, "you will help it
with her the best sort you can, knowing that whatsoever fault be
found, it is committed in the abundance of all love and duty to
Touching Hohenlo (fn. 3) I am infinitely bound to you for your good
counsel. "Mr. Wilkes never meant it to such an end ; for he
had but bare suspicions, nothing fit, God knoweth, to come to
such a reckoning. He saith he meant it but for a premonition to
you there, but I think it will from henceforth be a premonition
to himself, to take heed to have good ground before he write of
such particular. I could have done the same upon most of his
own grounds, and so the like also touching others, but being
but bare presumptions, and yet shrewd presumptions, I thought
best rather to deliver it in a generality than in particular."—
Utrecht, 29 April, 1587.
Postscript. "I write nothing to you but at your pleasure you
may impart to Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, sed non sic de ceteris ;
I mean for such things as by your discretion are not to be showed
to all, whereof I think shortly to send you a long letter."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 126.]
WILKES to WALSINGHAM.
My lord Buckhurst, after his late dispatch, sent by Mr. Atye,
repaired to Utrecht, "where he received her Majesty's packet
brought by Mr. Francis Croft, myself remaining sick at the
Hague. Immediately upon the receipt whereof, his lordship
wrote unto me to come with all expedition to Utrecht, and to
bring with me my cipher, by the which he was to decipher a letter
written unto him by her Majesty ; and because I was not then in
case to travel without danger, I sent to his lordship the cipher,
and excused myself in respect of my disease.
"Notwithstanding, the next day, upon a second letter from his
lordship, signifying the necessity of my repair unto him for her
Majesty's important service, I ventured the journey and arrived
here upon Wednesday last. As soon as I came, his lordship
showed me a letter in cipher, signed with her Majesty's hand, by
the which he was commanded, after advice first had with Sir
John Norreys (fn. 4) and me to proceed to the seizing of the person of
Count Hohenlo, whereat I was not a little amazed, considering
that her Majesty's resolution in that case was founded upon a late
advertisement written by me to your honour, which I hoped you
would have reserved to your own knowledge, until upon further
inquisition I might have been able to have attained to a more
perfect understanding of the matter, by discovering of his instruments
and the effect of his practice with the Duke of Parma.
But to the purpose of her Majesty's letter :—how difficile and
dangerous a thing it will be to proceed to the apprehension of
his person, as her Majesty commandeth, your honour in your
wisdom and experience can best consider, although the means
thereunto were as facile as her Majesty's conceipt to imagine the
same ; the executing whereof is accompanied with so many dangers
to this broken and weak estate, as in all appearance the attempting
thereof will hazard the ruin and overthrow of the countries,
for the reasons at large deduced in my lord's letter to her Majesty,
which I forbear to mention herein because I know you shall be
made partaker of that.
"I have made it appear unto my lord from whom I received
the intelligences and of what persons, amongst whom there are
some that avouch to have seen and spoken with the ministers of
Hohenlo at Tremulus [Deventer] coming thither with letters to
Stanley and to the 60 [Governors] of Caesar [Zutphen] and
Androglass [Groningen], then remaining at Deventer, which
persons were now by chance in this town, to be spoken withal
by his lordship. I have also nominated and offered to produce
others for the verifying of like advertisements from other places,
so as it is not to be doubted but Hohenloe hath been tampering
with 25 [the enemy], but to what end, or what hath been concluded
is yet unknown.
"I trust my last letters by Page's man are come to your
honour's hands, and that it hath pleased you to have consideration
of my danger, which is manifoldly increased by the participating
of my letters concerning Hohenlo with her Majesty
who as your honour knoweth, can hold no secrets. If her Majesty
do impart it to Themistocles [Leicester] I am sped, unless you help
to hasten me home the faster, and in the mean time that her
Majesty be seriously entreated to conceal it from Themistocles, or
in case it be imparted unto him, then to lay upon him an extraordinary
charge and commandment not to use it to my harm.
"Here is, notwithstanding the late pacification on all sides
made by my lord Buckhurst, secret working under-hand as well
by Count Maurice, Hohenlo as 100 [the States] to make all things
sure before the return of Themistocles. The two first are even
now departed on a voyage upon the frontiers of P. [Holland] and
into R. [Zeeland], to assure all the towns, and to establish in them
such new companies as were appointed unto them at the
beginning of our alterations here ; and in Zeeland they intend
also to confirm him who was lately elected by Count Maurice as
his lieutenant, as well over the whole province as over the regiment.
"To deal plainly with your honour and under confidence of
secrecy, I do see and palpably touch that the three above-named
will never be soundly reconciled to Themistocles, whose return,
in all appearance, will work dangerous effects here ; and yet
I see the necessity of his coming such, for the preservation of
these countries, that there is no remedy but that he must come
and withal, if anything make Hohenlo play false, it will be the
return of Themistocles, whom he hateth deadly, notwithstanding
all his fair promises to my lord ambassador. I am sorry that the
state of things here do give me cause to write in this sort unto
your honour, which in discharge of my duty I may not omit to
do. For mine own particular, howsoever the world go, or
whosoever cometh or cometh not, I beseech your honour...that
my revocation be speedily procured,"—Utrecht, 29 April, 1587.
Postscript. After writing this, your honour's of the 13th was
delivered to me, wherein, to my great discomfort, you advise me
not to labour for my revocation, because her Majesty from some
opinion of my ability to serve her here, will hardly be drawn to
yield thereunto. "I may answer justly that I am very insufficient
for many considerations...yet when mine employment
shall be accompanied with so many apparent hazards of my poor
life...it seemeth unto me, under correction, a hard reward for
my faithful services to be left to the mercy of such as have will
and means by revenge to bereave her Majesty of a true and obedient
servant, and me of my life in an obscure sort to my perpetual
infamy, to the pleasing of mine enemies and the discomforting
of all honest men by my example from serving of her Majesty with
that due sincerity that in her like services will be requisite, and
therefore I trust your honour...will have good consideration
of my case."
Copy. 3 pp. [S.P. For. Archives XCI., p. 89.]
LEICESTER to LORD BUCKHURST.
I have received both your letters, and am very sorry it was my
hap to procure you so much travail but so little advantage to me,
your poor friend ; but contrary to my expectation and I trust
against any former purpose of your lordship, things have other
wise fallen out than I looked for. Before I tell you my particular
grief, I will call to your remembrance my manner of dealing with
you, and your own resolution how you meant then to proceed,
unless your lordship will have me think that all the informations
you [sent?] here (which not only your ears but your eyes were
witness of) were altogether frivolous and false. (fn. 5) "But leaving
you to those thoughts of yours then, I will now go to the particular
parts of your letters whereby I cannot but draw them to a
flat contrary course from that you both seemed and faithfully
promised to me you would take.
"The first particular point which seemed strange to me was
[that] in dealing with the States touching the lewd letters which
[you?] did see, and I am sure then did mislike it, nevertheless
that app[arently?], upon a simple answer without replication
your lordship accepted the same for satisfaction, and specially
they alleging unto you that the letters they wrote grew upon a
piquant letter first written from one unto them, which answer
was as false as it was, in my poor opinion, over easily rec[eived]
and past over ; for I suppose for the meanest friend that you had
had any estimation of, your lordship could not have done less,
specially in advertising her Majesty but first have called for a
sight of the letters, and if they had given you such cause to
procure me in your opinion such a[n answer] from them, I must
the less have blamed you to lay so m[uch] open ; but it seemed the
answer was acceptable and used accord[ingly] readily for their
excuse and my discredit ; but although you [did not] do so much
for me as to cause call for such a letter before [...] it, yet I thank
God I have procured the [......] and to my lords of the
Council, by whom I trust I [am exonerated of] giving any such
cause to the States either to word [their letter] as they did or at
all to mislike my letter.... This being [the case I] think it
must then be found there was little regard had for [my] credit,
which I did wholly and altogether recommend unto your...
"The second particular matter that I have some cause to
[think my] friendship in small account with you is this. It was
[.....] to yourself, not only by mine own information to you
but [by your] own letter to her Majesty, which your lordship
brought to me and read it to me, albeit it pleased her Majesty
before to show it me, and what resolution yourself made of Mr.
Norrys to me I refer to your own memory ; but this I am sure :—
you thought him no fit man to be in service with me, neither at
that time to remain there, but advised her Majesty yourself
most earnestly to revoke him from thence ; and for my part, I
did then resolutely and advisedly tell you that he and I would
not serve there together and thereon did you advisedly and
resolutely agree and conclude with me that he was no man to
remain there, no, if it were your case as it was mine, all the world
should not make you have him serve with you." There are
enough here who are not ignorant of this. Yet you have not
only changed that mind, but have written to her Majesty "that
she may not remove Mr. Norrys and that there is no such man for
that service...and withal moving her Majesty in a 'reciphreque'
manner as it were to deal between Norrys and me as though he
were my equal, and no offence had been made me, and that you
had prepared his mind to be well content to receive my favour
conditionally that the like promise be made on my part as of his ;
wherein, how little soever your lordship esteemeth both of my
place and calling, I would have had more regard of my lord of
Buckhurst if the case had been between him and Norrys or his
match... Your lordship hath deserved little thanks of me, if
I must deal plainly, that doth equal me after this sort with him,
whose best place is Colonel under me ; and once my servant and
preferred by me to all the honourable places he had. And I
must now, in your lordship's sight be made as it were a competitor
with this companion, who never yet to this day hath done so
much as take knowledge of my mislike of him," no not to say
this much that he desired my suspension till he might either
speak with me or be charged from me, and if then....it should
appear he had justly given me cause of offence, he would both
acknowledge his fault and make me any honest satisfaction....
And ever so much I think your lordship doth me wrong...to
make so little difference between John Norrys, my man not long
sithence and now but my man under me, as though we were but
equals. And I cannot but more than marvel...when I remember
your promises of friendship, first to me and then your
opinion and judgment so resolutely set down of the man ; knowing
my heart and full mind as you did, making you also acquainted
with the thwart and unthankful dealings of Wilkes, and all other
the usages there against me. [Further reproaches and protestations.]
"As for the reconciliations and love days (?) you have made
there, truly I have liked well of it, for your lordship did show me
your disposition therein before, and I allowed of it ; and I had
received letters both from Count Maurice and Hohenlo of their
humility and kindness towards me ; yet now in your last letters
you write that they have uttered at last the cause of their mislike
towards me, which you forbear to write of, looking so speedily
for my return. [But] therein, my lord, I think it is some wrong
offered me, that [I should be] so handled as by those men, who
one while speak [fair words of me] and another while they accuse
and show discontentation [of me]... [If] it should be that the
Count Hohenlo should now seem dis[contented, it] groweth upon
a practice that I should hire one to kill him. This is a matter
properly foisted in to drive me to choler [and] bring my name in
question for so odious an act ; but your lordship sh[all] see,
whether it please you to deal well or otherwise in it, I [shall not]
suffer it to rest thus. I will challenge so much f[avour at] all
the Provinces' hands as either I will be publicly [cleared of] this
slander or the authors duly and severely punished. And albeit
I see well enough the plot of this wicked devise, yet shall it not
work that effect the devisers have done it for. No, my lord, he
is a villain and a false lying knave, whatsoever he be and of what
nation soever that hath forged this device ; for Count Hohenlo
doth know I never gave him cause to fear me so much. I would
not have used him as I did, if I had had so hard opinion of him.
There was ways and means offered me, as well by himself as
others to have quitted him of the country if I had so ill liked of
him, but there was a former device as true as this which he always
alleged to be the ground of his unkindness till now, and that was
that I did procure Edward Norrys to send him his cartel, wherein
I protest before the lord I was as ignorant as he that was in
England, and his brother John can tell whether I did not send for
him, to have committed him for it, but that in truth, upon the
perusing of it, it was very reasonably written ; and did consider
also the great wrong offered him by the said Count, did forbear
it, and no other cause did he allege but this all this while till a
new monstrous villany is found out, which I so hate and detest
as I would look for the right judgment of God to fall upon myself
if I had but once imagined it. I had more cause to fear those
practices than he had, and I was so careful for his safety after the
brawl between him and Norrys as I charged Sir John that if any
harm came to the Count's person by any of his or under him that
he should answer it. Therefore I take this to be bred in the bosom
of some 'machelike' [qy. Machiavelic] atheist or villain whatsoever
he were and I will complain me to the whole States and
Provinces of it, and to make trial whence it came, as there is
means enough. For Villiers is the first breaker of it to Dr.
Clarke and Wilkes, and took witness of Wilkes that he hath
heard of it before. All which makes good proof of his former good
dealing with me, that hath heard of so vile and villanous a
reproach of me and never gave me knowledge. But I trust your
lordship shall receive her Majesty's order for this, as for a matter
that toucheth herself in honour and me, her poor servant and
minister as deeply as any matter can do."
For what you show me in your letters of the earnest desire of
the people for my return and the speed you wish me to make
thither, I can hardly be persuaded, howsoever the general sort
desire it, that the higher sort do wish it ; neither hath your
lordship, in my judgment, taken the way to have it so.... As
first for the matter of Sir John Norrys, with whom you knew I
would not serve, you would not so hastily without me have given
the advice you did to her Majesty ; for thereby it must appear
either you thought me a very unconstant man or a very simple soul
...either to allow of Norrys, or else, if I [valued] myself no more
than one of your men would do, I must refuse to come thither."
[Refers again to the matter of Buckhurst having too easily
accepted the States' answer, giving it as a proof that his lordship
did not really desire his return.]
"The third impediment that I gather that your lordship meant
not my so hasty coming over is the villanous slander...which
was a matter only to choke my disposition if any might serve ;
as indeed this nor any the rest can if her Majesty deal in the cause
so graciously as is wished. For as I know her Majesty will make
more difference between Norrys and me than I find your lordship
doth, so do I not think that would be any stop to me, no more
should the rest, being most assured the trial of them shall turn
to mine honour, both there and here, and I am not so simple, my
lord, but I can see very easily all these drifts and the ground of
them. And as one device failed Mr. Norrys when he offered to
serve with the same forces her Majesty doth now only allow
against all the King of Spain's forces, and saw no cause why her
charges should be increased, so now it appears from your lordship
and himself also that 50,000l. increase is little enough ; and yet
you know I yielded to less than that sum ; but I mean not to
strive with his worship, but to be 'habled' to maintain the cause
with probability. I [am] no mercenary man ; let them make
bargains as they can that must [live] by them. For my part, if
her Majesty deal to enable to whole [...] by her protection and
goodness, I will adventure mine own [life and] all I have withal,
otherwise all Holland cannot hire me [to do it]....—Croydon,
last of April, 1587. (fn. 6)
Copy, in Wilkes' hand. Endd. 5 pp. [Holland XIV. f. 129.]
LORD BUCKHURST to BURGHLEY.
"We stand here upon hope and expectation from England,
wherein if we fail, we are very like to fall. I beseech God incline
her Majesty's heart to send a full pay for her poor soldiers. They
live in great want and many also die, and her Majesty saves never
a penny ; for the checks, they say, must of force go to new raising
of bands, as in truth I think they must, or else in a short time they
will decrease to nothing. I have sent a project of a new form of
government here if my lord of Lester come not, and I verily
think it will bring great good and surety to this estate. (fn. 7) I did
it, being advertised that my lord of Lester's coming was doubtful,
in respect of the great demands from her Majesty. I am forced,
being stark weary with writing, to refer your lordship to Mr.
Secretary's letter.—Utrecht, last of April, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 133.]
BUCKHURST to WALSINGHAM.
"Lest it may seem strange unto you for that in my project I
appoint so great authority to Hohenlo, (fn. 8) upon whom lately so
vehement suspicion hath been laid, I have thought good by these
few [lines] to let you know that as the matters gathered against
him are merely matters of presumption and not of proof, so hath
both Sir John Noris, Mr. Wilkes and myself...thus finally
resolved :—namely that either it is a device plotted even between
the States and him only to entertain the enemy with vain hope
for awhile, whereby the rather to stay him from his preparations
and attempts ; which kind of practice the Prince of Orange
oftentimes did use : or else, if it should be meant indeed, that
there it only groweth from the root of that mortal hatred which
he bears unto 40 [the Earl of Leicester]. To the intent that if
the said Earl of Leicester shall return, and by his authority and
proceeding so bridle Hohenlo as might not be to his liking, that
then he would always have this matter in store, as well to make
his gain as to revenge himself upon the said Earl of Leicester.
But if the said Earl shall not return and withal Hohenlo to have
such honour and authority as by the said project is ascribed unto
him, it is thought that without all doubt, howsoever the case stand,
he will retire himself from all such intention and faithfully and
truly serve the States. (fn. 7) —Utrecht, last of April, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 137.]
THE QUEEN to BUCKHURST.
Whereas we have of late used your service about an intended
treaty of peace between the King of Spain and us, dealt in by
the Duke of Parma, to the end you may now perceive how far
forth the matter hath since proceeded we send you herewith the
copies of such letters as have lately been written, both to ourself
by the said Duke, and by Champigny to the Controller of our
house in that behalf ; by the contents whereof, finding that the
gravest difficulty like to be by them stood upon will be the point
of religion, we think it necessary for the better removing of the
same, to dispatch one to the said Duke with a copy of such letters
as we have lately received from the States ; by the which it may
appear how peremptorily they do specially stand upon the said
point of religion, to the end that upon knowledge of such their
resolution, he may the easilier be persuaded to employ himself
to dispose the King's mind to relent therein, in some convenient
sort. And for that purpose, we have taken order that the said
Duke, by the party whom we mean to send unto him shall be
put in mind of the treaty held at Gaunt in anno 76, called the
Pacification of Gaunt, which being afterward confirmed by the
King himself was published at Brussels in anno 77. And that
in a later treaty, held at Cologne in anno 79, it was, among other
articles also agreed that the said treaty...should in all points
be duly observed and executed ; which giveth just cause to hope
that if the said King be willing to embrace peace, and the said
Duke to further the same, as he pretendeth he may be induced to
such a toleration as in the said pacification is contained.
"Now it resteth that you should seek to frame the minds of
the people of these countries...to content themselves with the
said toleration, for which purpose you shall of yourself, as one
that wisheth well to the Countries, deal with some well chosen
persons there...good patriots, void of ambition and covetousness
and not desirous of the continuance of the war, in respect
that thereby they draw private gain...laying before them how
impossible it is for them, by means of the contributions...to
continue the war and to make head any long time against so
mighty and puissant a prince as the King of Spain ; and how
unable ourselves shall be to supply them still with such relief
as the necessity of their state doth require...the consideration
whereof, you may tell them, moveth you...to advise them to
dispose both their own minds and the minds of that people to a
sound peace, which, in your opinion, they cannot at any time
treat of with greater advantage than at this present ; the King of
Spain being, as he is, at so low an ebb both at home and in these
countries, for want as well of victuals as of other necessary things
to continue the wars ; which occasion being not now taken hold
of, they shall not perhaps hereafter happen upon the like again ;
with such other pertinent reasons and persuasions as yourself
may devise and find necessary to prepare their minds to hearken
to a peace.
"Nevertheless, if you shall find that the using of these reasons
and persuasions in our name may further the cause by moving
them the rather to hearken unto peace, we leave it to yourself to
use in such case, your own advice and discretion therein. And
for that some ill-affected persons there, upon speeches that may
be given out touching our dealing with the said Duke (whereof,
as we understand, they have some inkling) may be some ground
to breed some unnecessary jealousies in the peoples' heads of
the countries, we think it meet that you should assure them,...
that whatsoever shall pass between us and the said Duke, we will
not fail to have the care of them that appertaineth, considering
how greatly their surety standeth with our well-doing (?).
Endd. "April, 1587. M[inute] from her Majesty to the Lord
of Buckhurst, touching the proceeding in peace." 3¾ pp. [Holland
XIV. f. 228.]
Paper endorsed "Abuses [i.e. slanders] offered to her Majesty,
his Excellency and her nation, by the States and others in these
That her Majesty, by demanding a thousand lasts of corn for
the famine in London, meant to exhaust these countries of victuals
and means of carrying on the war.
Margin. The minister at Delft, M. Moreau came to ask me the
truth of this, saying the town was much excited by the news.
A merchant of La Rochelle, desiring a passport for corn, told me
he had heard the same.
That she was giving ear to ambassadors of foreign kings and
princes, to treat of peace with Spain, against her promise and the
Margin. This has been in the mouth of many, whereupon the
letter was written by M. de Villiers to her Majesty. Parasis says
that Sylla has written it from England, and M. Menin says he
knows of it for certain.
That she would not accept the sovereignty except entirely
and without reservation, and wished to put these countries
under the law of "Pressed," i.e. forcing men to go to the war.
Margin. This rumour was spread at Leyden, shortly after
the taking of Deventer. Rogemorter came express from Leyden
to ask me about it. And Mr. Deventer writes that there has been
the same report at Gorcum.
That Stanley being a person of such quality in England, it is
not likely he would have committed such a treason without the
knowledge and consent of her Majesty.
Margin. Sir Roger Williams has heard this and other like
discourse at the table of the Count of Hoh[enlo].
That on his departure his Excellency had the coffers of the
Treasury opened and carried away what he chose into England.
Margin. Mr. Wood and other English heard Cooper say this.
And M. the Elector [Truchsess] says that Bardesius used the like
That his Excellency managed the contributions granted to
him so badly, that the garrisons received no pay during the nine
months of his government.
Margin. Captain Le Farge said this one day at the table of
M. de Buy in the presence of several captains.
That he received from these countries and from England great
sums which are not accounted for.
Margin. This report has been in everyone's mouth.
That the English gentlemen who came over made their personal
profit with H.E.'s knowledge.
That he had thrust himself into the government and they
must thank God his year was expired.
Margin. Brassart and others of the States said to be the
authors of this.
That he put Stanley and Yorck into their posts expressly in
order to betray them.
Margin. Penredoc heard this at Leyden from a Walloon
That by means of the Restriction of the Council of State
he had carried the authority into England, where he and the
Privy Council might dispose of all things at their pleasure.
Margin. Said by Barnevelt and others both in open Council
That the English nation has been ill-treated both by words and
deeds, and at one time the talk was of chasing them away and
cutting them in pieces, as enemies of the State.
Margin. Said to have been threatened in the Council of State.
That the country had never been so much deceived by the French
as by the English ; and that their government was intolerable.
Margin. Said by Barnevelt in the Council of State.
That the country had fallen de tyrannide in tyrannidem and if
they had not suffered the tyranny of the Spaniards and French,
still less will they bear it from the English.
Margin. Carlo Roorda has held this and the like discourse at
the table of M. the Elector.
That the English are cowards and unfit for war, so that they
cannot bear its hardships.
Margin. The Count of M[œurs] has said this several times.
And that there should no longer be any English troops or governor
but only money from her Majesty to carry on the war.
Margin. Mr. Roger Williams says that a burgomaster of
Delft uttered this at Count Hollock's table.
And say moreover openly that this country and especially
the province of Holland can defend itself without foreign aid ;
and that it was very harmful to impress the contrary opinion on
the minds of the people.
Margin. Barnevelt said it in the Assembly of the States of
Holland, and Paul Buis, in talk with me, has maintained the
Endd. "Aprilis, 1587." Fr. 3 pp. The marginal notes
in a different hand. [Holland XIV. f. 93.]
BONAVENTURE VAN ONCKEL to WALSINGHAM.
Lamenting that the hopes of help given him by his honour
have not yet been fulfilled. If his Excellency returns to the
Low Countries, would wish to be recommended to him, to make
manifest by results what it would be boastful for him to say of
himself. Fears that factious persons or ill-wishers may have
traduced him, or that his honour's multiplicity of affairs has
prevented him from learning the truth. Would rather be at
once dispatched by a mortal blow, considering the extremity to
which he is reduced, not by evil living but by failure in that to
which he had vowed himself ; which will not make him fear a
more sad and thorny path, to save the soul of honour.
Add. Endd. "April 1587." Fr. 1 p. of very close writing.
[Ibid. XIV. f. 150.]
Names of towns or garrisons, with, in some cases, number of
cannon. No covering sheet. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 152.]
Note of places where the nine commissaries of musters are to
be placed. With names both of those of her Majesty and of the
States. 1 p. Endd. with date. [Holland XIV. f. 153.]
"Means to strengthen the bands both of horse and foot."
For the cavalry ; to give the captains three or four months'
pay according to their old rolls. Or else, send six soldiers and
six merchants into the East countries, where they can buy as
many good horses as they list for six and eight pounds apiece,
as the reiters have.
For the footmen ; to give the captains two months' pay after
their old rolls, or else 40s. a head.
By these means, within three months after receipt of their
money they will have their companies complete and fair, according
to the numbers by their commissions.
Endd. "April, 1587." ½ p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 159.]
"The expence of her Majesty's treasure for the Low Countries."
Payments for the troops, garrisons of cautionary towns, principal
officers, extraordinaries etc., amounting to 192,154l. 12s. 7d.
2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 160.]
Copy of portion of the above ; with memoranda by Burghley.
2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 162.]
Another copy of part of the above.
1½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 164.]
Notes of the said charges by Burghley, apparently part of a
draft for the above.
2½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 166.]
Document endorsed "List of the horsemen and footmen pretended
to be in the States' pay, and as they mean to have the
companies filled. Delivered to my L. Buckhurst. A cunning
attempted by the States in pretending to have so many in their
pay, to the end they might have no more of the English brought
Names of captains and number in their companies. A grand
total of 35,151 heads.
7 pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 155.]
A "project of the ordinary [and extraordinary] charges to be
sustained by the States of the United Provinces, April, 1587."
"A project of the ordinary yearly charges, as well of the
20,000 footmen in garrison as also of sending other things thereto
pertaining [details given]
"The ordinary yearly charge of 2000 horsemen lances ordinary
to be dispersed in garrison or to be adjourned to the army.
Sum total, 296,800l.
"A project of the extraordinary charges for 1000 pioneers ;
7000 footmen and 2000 ritters ; parcel of the army. And of
divers other things belonging to the said army [details given]
Sum of all the said charges, 94,600l.
And so the whole charges for the war for this year...amounts
to, over and besides the ordinary forces of her Majesty 391,400l.
Toward which is paid by the ordinary contribution of 20,000l. a
And so remains to be paid by extraordinary levies 151,400l.
of which the General States promise to levy 101,400l., so as it may
please your Majesty of your grace to disburse the other 50,000l.
Endd. 2 sheets. [Holland XIV. f. 135.]
Notes, with contents endorsed as follows :
(By Burghley's clerk) "April, 1587. Entertainment of principal
officers of the field.
Per diem, 10l. 10s. Per mensem, 294l."
(By Burghley). "The entertainment of the Earl of Leicester
by the States at 27l. per diem. Whereof received, a 22 May, 1586,
ad 28 Jan., 1587 [N.S.], 6205l."
1 p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 168.]