Certificate, by M. de Buy, of what he wrote to his cousin de
Mallery to be represented to Duke George Jehan, palatine of the
Rhine, Duke of Bavaria.
Talking with Duke Casimir, told him that the Queen of England,
if he should not march in person, would be glad that he should
allow the son of Duke George Jehan to be made general of the
army. To which Duke Casimir replied that if Duke George Jehan
would give him an acknowledgment that he would undertake
nothing against the Palatinate, and in favour of the good amity
which there is between them, he was willing that his Excellency's
eldest son would be declared head of the said army.
Item, his said Highness said also that he would never consent
that anyone whosoever should have any forces, nor by his means
any military power, who had any design against himself and his
This M. de Buy's said cousin was to put before his Excellency
that the best way might be found to maintain their friendship
Endd. : "Copy of M. de Buy's certificate of Duke Casimir's
answers concerning the Duke of Petite Pierre's son. 1 May,
Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 170.]
LEICESTER to COL. SONOY.
The disturbances since my departure have been the cause that
her Majesty has not been able to reply to the States' demands as
they wished ; and it seems that some there, instead of desiring
our aid, are beginning a civil war against us. But having heard
Jehan Michelssen's report of your dutiful proceedings and continued
good will, her Majesty feels that you have been her very
faithful servitor, and for myself I thank you for the care you
have had of my honour and reputation.
As to my return, I know not what to decide. On the one side,
everyone desires it ; on the other, those factious persons who
have tried to prevent it, so do still underhand. Count Hohenlo
has sent the minister Villiers to the Lord Buckhurst and Councillor
Wilkes to declare on his behalf that I have entertained
men there in order to kill him and therefore he was noways well
pleased with me ; which has grieved me much, not only because
the reports are false, but that he has such small esteem of me and
my honour as to believe and allege them. And I cannot but
believe that he has invented them at the moment when he saw
me ready to return ; in order to serve his ends. I have written
to the States and the Council of State to demand that the truth
of it should be known before I decide what to do, for I do not
desire that my return, instead of relief, should bring further
distress to the country.
Since my return from the Baths I have been told that her
Majesty has already sent dispatches concerning your case to Lord
Buckhurst, on which we await your reply. I will do all that I
can that her Majesty may continue her favour to you at this conjuncture.
—The Court at Croydon, 1 May, 1587, stilo vet.
Copy. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 172.]
WALSINGHAM to WILKES.
I have stayed this bearer somewhat, in order to advertise you
of our proceedings here. "We are displeased with two points of
your negotiations here. The one, for your acceptation of so
slender satisfaction for so great indignities done unto her Majesty.
The other for your earnest recommendation of a request thought
[so] unreasonable by us here as the loan of 50,000l... If we deny
it, we fear some change there, and to grant it is a matter that goeth
against our heart, to disburse so great a mass of treasure. And
although it hath been oft times alleged that the only way to make
a peace (which is the thing that her Majesty doth chiefly affect,
and to say the truth is most fit for her and the realm) is to put
on a good countenance by being strongest in the field...yet no
reason that breedeth charges can in any sort be digested." As
the Earl of Leicester's going over is yet doubtful, I forbear to
move her Majesty for your revocation.—The Court at Croydon,
2 May, 1587.
Postscript in his own hand "Themistocles [Leicester] (fn. 1) is greatly
incensed against you by some information given unto him as I
take it by Atye (but hereof I am not assured) that you were privy
to the offensive letter written by 100 [the States] against him.
But the chief ground of his mislike is in respect of the good will
he conceiveth you bear to Sir John Norreys. You are greatly
beholding to Cleanthes [the Vice Chamberlain], who in my hearing
did very friendly with her Majesty for you, who was greatly
incensed against you by Themistocles' informations, who now doth
greatly possess her Majesty's favour. I would we were both well
stablished at Bath. Il mal mi preme et mi spaventa il peggio."
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 174.]
Rough draft, corrected by Walsingham for the letter below.
[Endd. 12 pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 176.]
THE QUEEN to LORD BUCKHURST.
Upon perusal of your late letters, reporting your proceedings
with the States General, we find it very strange to see you accept
so weak and slender an answer as satisfaction for what you were
directed by us to charge them withal [enumerates all her grievances
against them] and many other disorders wherewith our servant
Wilkes had before charged them. As yet (so far as we can learn)
no satisfaction has been made either to you or Wilkes ; wherefore
we see great cause to mislike your loose way of proceeding ; for
"you ought to have urged them either to have yielded better satisfaction...
or else to have acknowledged their faults and sought
our favour by some offer of amends hereafter" ; for we cannot
but think our honour greatly touched that a minister of your
quality should "put up matters of so great contempt," moved
thereto (as we see by your letters) because you thought a sharper
manner of proceeding would have exasperated matters to the
prejudice of the service and that it was "more fit to wash the
wounds rather with water than with vinegar ; wherein we could
rather have wished, on the other side, that you had better considered
that festering wounds had more need of corrosives than
lenitives. For your judgment ought to have taught you that
such a slight and mild kind of dealing with a people so ingrate
and devoid of consideration as the States have showed themselves
to be of towards us, is the ready way to increase their contempt."
And as in defence of their proud letter to the Earl, they said it proceeded
from a piquant letter by him unto them, we marvel that
you did not require to see the letter, which would have shown you
their deceit, for we have seen it, and shall send you a copy,
whereby you shall see that it has no sour or sharp words in it,
"but full of gravity and gentle admonition, so as it deserved a
kind and thankful answer ; and so may you maintain it to their
reproof, for we do not think it meet that they should be let slip
with so slight a charge, having offered so great indignities to one
supplying our place there as governor...."
"And whereas it appeareth by your last letters of the 19th
of April that sythence the departure of Aty, there hath been
delivered unto you in writing by the Count Hohenlo and Count
Maurice certain grievances against the said Earl, which we would
have been glad to have seen ; and therefore do mislike that you,
having knowledge thereof, did not send over the same unto us,
and the rather for that...Villiers, the French minister, did
report unto Dr. Clark that whatsoever show the Count Hohenlo
made, that all unkindness and dislike between him and the said
Earl was removed, yet inwardly he stood ill-affected towards
him, in respect of some information given to the said Count, that
the Earl, at the time of his being there had entered into some
practice for the killing of him ; a matter so foul and dishonourable
that doth not only touch greatly the credit of the said Earl,
but also our own honour...."
Therefore our pleasure is that by examining Count Hohenlo
himself, and any other who has been a party to the matter, you
sift out how this malicious imputation has been wrought ; as we
have some reason to believe that it grew out of a cunning practice
to stay the Earl's return, and discourage him from continuing his
service in those countries. "For we cannot in good sense conceive
that the Count would have written so kindly to the said
Earl as he hath done of late, if he had been persuaded that the
Earl had any such malicious intent against him as is pretended."
And being informed that Wilkes is somewhat acquainted with
the matter, having acknowledged it to Villiers and Dr. Clark, you
are to command the said Wilkes not only to discover to you
what he knows, but do his utmost to discover the beginning of
this malicious imputation.
As to the other points in your letters, viz : the request of the
States for the loan of 50,000l. towards raising an army, and the
speedy sending over of our cousin of Leicester ; for the first, we
marvel at your preferring such a request, "being not ignorant
how greatly we stand charged otherwise, and how unable we are to
furnish such a sum, over and above our ordinary contribution,"
for your duty was to dissuade them from propounding so unreasonable
a demand. Besides, when the commissioners here
made the same request, you yourself did not seem to think it
convenient for us to yield more than 20,000l. additional. You
shall therefore let the States understand that we see no cause—
considering the weak state of the enemy, who, from the decay of
his forces and lack of victuals will not be able to continue long in
the field or attempt the siege of any towns—why they should
raise such an army as is set down in the project, for as far as we
can learn from those who know the state of the country and the
forces of the enemy an army of 10,000 or 12,000 (fn. 2) footmen, 4000
horse and 100 pioneers would be strong enough to make head to
And for furnishing the said footmen, we see no reason but that
4000 (fn. 3) may be taken out of the garrisons, so long as the army is
in the field, and therefore do not find but that the extraordinary
contribution of 100,000l. will suffice without any further charging
of us ; and the rather that it will be so late before the said forces
can be levied, that they would not be in the field above three
months. "And therefore you may tell them that considering
their unkind and ungrate dealing towards us, they ought with
good reason to content themselves with the continuance of our
former contribution without pressing us to any further charges.
Yet if you see apparently that the 100,000l. will not suffice
to maintain such an army as may make head to the enemy, and
that for lack of some support from us that cannot put themselves
with sufficient strength into the field, as also that our not yielding
further support in this their necessity may breed some alteration
of their good-will towards us, you may, as of yourself, let them
understand "that in case they will undertake, with a supply
to be yielded by us of a hundred or and hundred and fifty thousand
florins to set into the field the numbers of horse and footmen
below-mentioned...you will do your best endeavour to draw
us to yield into the furnishing of such a sum, with assured hope
to obtain the same." But you shall make no such offer but upon
manifest likelihood of some such danger as has been before
mentioned. And as touching the speedy return of the Earl,
you shall let them understand that if they can put into the field
the numbers above-mentioned, and make good proof that the
100,000l. shall be put into the hands of some of the country
chosen by the said Earl to supply the place of Treasurer for that
army—to be issued out by his direction, with the privity of the
Council of State,—at such seasonable time as shall serve to
defray the charges of the said army, we will not fail, on receiving
your assurance of the performance thereof, to send the said Earl
over, to whom we have given order to put himself in readiness
for that purpose. "Given under our signet" at Croydon,
3 May, 1587.
P.S. "There is small disproportion betwixt a fool that useth
not wit because he hath it not, and him that useth it not when
it should avail him."
Copy. Endd. 4 closely written pp. [Holland XIV. f. 184.]
DR. LOBETIUS to WALSINGHAM.
My last letters were on the 15th of January. I do not write
often, as I receive nothing from you, which I attribute to your
great occupations, but should be very glad to hear that my
letters had been received. In this town we stand upon our guard,
seeing and having arms on all sides. The Lorraines have had time
to make great martial preparations and it was said that they
would go as far as the banks of the Rhine, but this report has
rather died down, which we impute to the jealousies which there
are in France, by which the League is enfeebled. As to what
we hope may be done for the succour of the King of Navarre
and the churches of France, you will, I believe, have more sure
information than we have in this town. The Swiss seem none
too well united amongst themselves, as some Catholic cantons
have separated themselves in order to join the side of Spain.
The lords of this town are about to treat of an alliance with the
Swiss, at any rate with the cantons of the Religion ; their secretary
being at present in Switzerland to this end. The Duke of Savoy
keeps coy and those of Geneva stand on guard and are collecting
all the corn they can, in order not to be taken unprovided.
People talk of great preparations in Spain and Italy against
England. The Pope is amassing treasure ex presentibus futura
prospiciens notwithstanding that St. Peter said aurum et argentum
non est mecum. The Emperor wishes for an imperial Diet, and
has sent an embassy to obtain the consent of the Electors of
Saxony and Brandenburg, but the time and place is not yet
known. The election of Poland is put off until the end of June.
Meanwhile, factions increase, and it is said that three brothers of
the Emperor aspire to that crown. It is reported that the Archduke
Maximilian is contriving a marriage with the daughter
of the King of Sweden, as a means to this end. But I think, if
they hold an Imperial Diet, it will be in order to make a King
of the Romans, whereof there is diverse talk.—Strasburg, 3 May,
1587. Signed J. L.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holland XIV. f. 187.]
SIR THOMAS SHERLEY to WALSINGHAM.
You must provide for the worst if wind and weather hinder
the coming of the money from England. The ambassador and
I have tried to get the merchants to provide two or three thousand
pounds but we see no hope that they will do it, and men cannot
live here without ready money, as no credit is to be given to our
nation. Our men fall into strange conceits of the small pittance
they have after so long patience as they have endured. I beseech
you have present care of this, as being more to be regarded
than in any former time. "Sir John Norreys is entered into a
journey of importance, and if any occasion should happen, I am
no way able to supply him."—Utrecht, 5 May, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XIV.
LEICESTER to BUCKHURST.
I have written lately at large in answer to letters received from
you. "I am sorry I had cause to frame them of that tenor."
I have also received a letter from Utrecht dated about the
end of April, wherein you assure me "of the hatred and mislike
of Count Maurice, Count Hohenlo and sundry of the States,
and of their ill-meaning towards me, not wishing me to come over
except I brought a face every way able to command them." (fn. 4)
But in a letter to Mr. Secretary, of the same date, you "contrarywise
persuade and hasten my coming, as the cause else is desperate."
How these two can be reconciled, together with a
third project, differing from both, I cannot tell. I think you
must have met with cunninger heads than you left here. For
my own part I thank you, as it gives me good cause to make
more difficulty than I meant to have done for my going over.
I am still pressed by her Majesty to take the journey, yet see no
cause sent from you to draw her to any such resolution. But it
must rest upon her pleasure, which I will obey at all hazards,
wishing "that I had excused your lordship's travail, seeing so
much time already lost for the common cause, and delays depending
upon practice and discourse only, without effect or
fruit.... I cannot tell for which to thank you, either for
desiring my coming or persuading my tarrying."—Nonsuch,
7 May, 1587.
Copy. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 191.]
THE ELECTOR [TRUCHSESS] OF COLOGNE to WALSINGHAM.
I should not have failed, according to her Majesty's commands,
to give all assistance to the Baron of Buckhurst in redressing the
misunderstandings arisen since the Earl of Leicester's departure.
But immediately after he left, I came from Dordrecht to this
town, as being the one most well-affected to her Majesty, withdrawing,
at the same time, from all public affairs, holding communion
only with books, while patiently awaiting the will of
God. The letters from her Majesty were only given me when
Lord Buckhurst came hither on April 23, when by his skill and
God's blessing, affairs were already restored to a good condition ;
as Secretary Athy has doubtless reported.
The Earl of Leicester's return must be hastened, both for her
Majesty's service and the welfare of these provinces I pray you,
with your well-known zeal, solicit this point both to her Majesty
and the Earl.—Utrecht, 7 May, 1587, stylo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 193.]
STEPHEN LE SIEUR to WALSINGHAM.
As the post is going for London, I send this to say that I still
enjoy the liberty of this town, at the request of Col. Morgan to
one Mr. Middleton here, and of Mr. Middleton to one Mr. Owen,
who obtained it of the Prince. On Tuesday last, Mr. Middleton
and I dined in the Castle with Col. Mondragon, who used me very
kindly. What discourse we had. I defer to tell you at another
I have as yet no certainty of my liberty, though persuaded by
Col. Morgan's letters that I shall shortly enjoy it.
The Prince is still at Brussels, but his departure for the field
daily expected. "There is a great disette of grains in all these
parts ; a peace and union with her Majesty, Holland and Zeeland
is generally wished, and the common people (yea others) persuade
themselves that it is in treatise or will be shortly ; for otherwise
many would change their habitation." I beseech you to write to
Col. Morgan to assist you, and if possible that Don Juan de
Castilla, whom he holds prisoner be not released unless I likewise
obtain my liberty.—Antwerp, 7 May, 1587, stilo Anglo.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders I. f. 273.]
THE PRIVY COUNCIL to SHERLEY. (fn. 5)
To employ the 30,000l. sent over by the bearer upon weekly
lendings seeing that the amount will not suffice to make pay until
the 12th April and H.M. cannot be induced to send a greater sum.
Endd. : May, 1587. ½ p. [Holland XIV. f. 195.]
DE LOO to LORD BUCKHURST.
Having been troubled by a tertian fever, I have had neither
spirit not strength to reply to your lordship's very welcome
letter of April 28 ; from which I am comforted to learn your firm
opinion of the perfect intention and sincerity of her Majesty for
the conclusion of a holy peace.... For my part, I have ever
been assured of the same, nor has the Duke himself felt any doubt
as to her Majesty's good disposition and affection to him, although
he fears sometimes whether she may not listen to some who would
persuade her of the contrary. It would truly be a great pity if by
such means this pious negotiation were disturbed.... As to
his Highness, since he has seen your letter, which I gave him translated
into Italian, he seems not a little satisfied, whereas before
that I had left him much displeased, forasmuch as he had granted
all that could be desired, and that from the first it had always
been declared that his Highness could not settle the matter of
religion. I am sure you will know how to arrange about sending
of the deputies to treat.
The king of Spain, as I hear, has expressly commanded that
no consent shall be given to the exercise of any religion but his
own ; so that therein the Duke can do no other but will concede
them all other favours which they can desire, wherein
I am sure he will go as far as possible ; indeed I find his Highness
most desirous of quiet as I believe her Majesty is also. And
it would grieve him if by reason of Drake or any other occurrence,
he were ordered to make a stay of the treaty, as it would
then be out of his power to do what he now desires for the
general good. I pray you to give your aid therein.
His Highness returns your greeting, and desires to know you
personally. Without your letter, he would have remained very
I cannot yet learn when I shall have my dispatch, his Highness
saying to me, the last time I spoke with him, that he had done
his part, and if her Majesty will give order for the deputies, those
on his side will be quite ready.
It will be a great favour to me if you will let me know what
your wisdom has been able to accomplish in persuading those
people to be willing to embrace the peace.—Brussels, 17 May,
Copy in de Loo's handwriting. Endd. Italian. 1¾ pp.
[Flanders I. f. 275.]
DE LOO to [SIR JAMES CROFT ?].
I believe you will have thought it strange not to have heard
from me, but it has been only from want of matter, for I have
been little at this court ; both because of the Whitsun feasts (fn. 6)
and because his Highness has not been very well, and also that,
having presented her Majesty's letter, and given his Highness her
message by word of mouth (on which I knew he would wish to
deliberate) I went to visit my mother, aged 84 years, and on
arriving was seized with so violent a tertian fever that I thought
I should have died. I have not yet recovered my strength but
being returned here, I write to tell you how astonished his Highness
is at what is contained in her Majesty's letter concerning
Religion ; declaring that from the first I have been told that he
could not grant the exercise of it ; and truly the Lords of the
Council here have continually assured me that the king had
expressly commanded him not to consent to it in any way. And
this is what the Duke wished to hint at in his letter to her Majesty,
saying that he hoped she would be content not to urge it.
From his Highness' affectionate discourse with me, it may
certainly be said that he is acting with great zeal and most sincere
heart and open mind ; seeing it to be for the good and quiet both
of her Majesty and the king to make a good peace, which he has
now authority to conclude ; and will do so with all possible reputation,
honour and glory to her Majesty, preserving at the
same time what is due to the king his master ; and conceding to
Holland and Zeeland, by the intercession of her Majesty, some
years in which they shall not be molested or questioned for matter
of religion, with all other favours (saving the exercise) which
may be reasonably desired. And it seems to his Highness that
they may as well be contented with this as were Maestricht,
Ghent, Bruges, Brussels and lastly Antwerp ; with many other
places which have become reconciled, and now go on in happy
And they ask me what was done in England when her Majesty
came to the throne, seeing that in the time of Queen Mary numberless
persons were born and bred up in the Catholic religion. And
in fact this has been the chief point of which my friends in Antwerp
have warned me ever since January a year ago, when by
licence from her Majesty I first began to meddle in this matter,
on being informed of the good disposition of his Highness, and his
desire to accommodate the differences between her Majesty
and the King of Spain, on condition that she would be pleased
not to seek to lay down the law to the King in the matter of Religion,
any more than she would have him do to her ; as indeed no
Prince would allow, each being left to render account to God to
content himself with the rule granted him by the divine favour.
And Lord Buckhurst having caused me to say to the Duke at
another time on the part of her Majesty that she was content not
to stand otherwise on the point of Religion, or to wish to press
the King to more than he could grant with safety, conscience and
honour, it seems that the Duke was satisfied with this, holding
the Queen to be of so noble a disposition that she would not demand
more than was in his power, [the document is here injured
by damp] and declared himself ready to treat, if her Majesty would
do the like, giving her the appointment of place and time for the
meeting of the deputies, in order to decide the business as quickly
as possible ; that he was most ready, and did not wish that by
delay, any accident might happen to make the king change his
mind ; and that he had orders from Spain to bring the treaty to
a stand, as if such a thing should happen, we might come to lack
that which now may be had with the highest honour and reputation.
Cum sit that daily strange chances are seen to intervene,
the fortune of war being ever uncertain. Therefore, as I have
often written, it is well to strike the iron while it is hot, for it
might happen to the United Provinces as the proverb says :—
Chi tutto vole, tutto perde ; and it being likewise granted that a
poor agreement is better than a good lawsuit. Whence it may
be said that it will be no small thing which the intercession of her
Majesty may enable them to recover, to her perpetual praise and
immortal glory. And thus there might be concluded a very
honourable peace, which would be a blessing to both crowns, to
their people and their realms, enabling them to live in peace
and happiness, without further shedding of human blood. [Enlarges
further on the advantages of the treaty.]
I cannot learn when I shall have my dispatch, and it may be
that his Highness will not make much haste, seeing or believing
that matters on that side are not yet sufficiently settled to come
to a conclusion. As also, sometimes he does not know how to
make a reply which will satisfy the Queen, while on the other hand
he is energetically preparing for war. I would willingly depart,
being here at inconvenience and great charges, and to great injury
of my private affairs, as you may easily imagine ; having abandoned
my house for a whole year. Yet all this, truly, would
cause me but little vexation if I could spend my blood for the
public good, which may God be pleased to bring to a happy end
From Antwerp I hear that they have sure advertisement that
by love or by force his Highness is to be King of Poland. God
grant it, for he is worthy of the Imperial crown. I send you
copies of the letters written to Lord Buckhurst, to which I hope
for his reply before departing, in order to satisfy his Highness,
who wishes to have news of him. And finally I say that by no
other means than by this benign Prince can there be concluded
with more advantage and honour the aforesaid peace ; for which
(and this I declare from the bottom of my heart) it would greatly
grieve me that so good an occasion as the present should be lost.
Ut recolemus illud poeticum, quis nisi mentis inops, optatum
respicat aurum ; begging you to pardon me for my boldness, and
praying that the Divine mercy may grant long and happy life
to her Majesty, the Lord Treasurer, yourself and Mr. Secretary.—
Brussels, 18 May, 1587.
Postscript. It coming to my ears that divers are threatening
me, saying openly that they shall lie in wait for me on the sea,
I beg that Mr. Secretary will give orders that I may pass without
harm ; and from Calais or Dunkirk I will write to Hains, your
man, of my arrival there.
Holograph. Endd. Italian. 4 pp. Covering sheet wanting.
[Flanders I. f. 276.]
THE ESCOUTETTE, BURGOMASTERS AND COUNCIL OF UTRECHT
to THE QUEEN.
Reiterating their former requests for the return of the Earl
of Leicester, and assuring her Majesty that no other could do
the good which they expect from his presence.—Utrecht, 8 May,
Signed by Vander Voort. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 sheet. [Holland
XIV. f. 197.]
Commission given by the Council of State dated 9 May, 1587,
to see that the moneys of Brabant shall be properly received and
employed ; with authority from H.E. to Nicholas Doublet and
Dirick Jan te Lonck to superintend the same.—The Hague,
18 May, 1587.
Fr. ¾ p. [S.P. For. Arch. XC., p. 236.]
THOMAS BRUNE to WALSINGHAM.
My lord Buckhurst and Mr. Wilkes have promised me all the
favour they may concerning my payment from the States ; who
were earnestly dealt with by Sir John Norris and Mr. Wilkes
before my coming over, but could get neither promise nor assurance
of pay, which will be my undoing unless I be relieved by
some other means. This bearer, Mr. Webbe offered to do me all
the good he could in this my suit ; and counselled me to get my
cause recommended by the lords of the Council to my lord General
at his next coming over, promising also himself to solicit him in
my behalf. If you will speak to him to assist me as much as he
may, I shall feel assured of satisfaction from them.
Mr. Browne has left the victualling at Bergen, and has no
cause to use my houses, yet he keeps them from me ; neither
offering payment for them or anything else had of mine, amounting
by inventory to 702l. 12s. ; and when I desire my money, his
deputy answers that I shall have nothing until your honour has
determined thereof. The delay makes Mr. Browne talk much to
my discredit ; besides my lack of my own, which I beseech you
to end before my Lord General's coming over.—Mydelbrough,
8 May, 1587.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIV. f. 210.]
THE PRIVY COUNCIL to LORD BUCKHURST.
Her Majesty learning that the Captains in the Low Countries
do not keep their companies so complete as they ought to do, and
yet demand pay for the whole number, thought meet, for avoiding
this abuse, that the men should be paid by the poll, for which
purpose, instructions were given to Sir Tho. Shurley, the Treasurer
there. And now her Majesty is informed that this order "is
impugned by some of the captains in a kind of mutinous and
disordered sort, by threatening the muster-master and casting
out libels against him" ; as though it were done by his particular
advice, which is not true. Wherefore she desires you to find out
the authors of the disorder and have them punished with all
severity ; and also to remove such captains as shall be proved to
have been parties thereto.
And whereas the captains have objected that such payment
would work their undoing, in respect of credit which they have
given for soldiers now dead, stolen away or licenced to depart,
the Council finds no such difficulties, as the captains and the
clerk of the bands might deliver upon their oath a true note of
the death or departure of the said men, with certificate from the
merchant and victualler what they have delivered to these men
upon the credit of the captains and so order taken for their payment.
And to the end that her Majesty's instructions to the Treasurer
may be duly put in execution, we think meet that your lordship,
assisted by Sir John Norreys, the Treasurer, Dr. Clarke, Mr.
Wilkes, the Muster Master and the Auditor, shall send for some
of the ancient and discreetest captains of the garrison towns, and
acquaint them both with her Majesty's mislike for their impugning
of the said direction, and with her pleasure that this method of
paying by the poll be hereafter duly executed and exemplary
punishment inflicted on such as are found to be offenders.
It being also reported that the clerks of the several bands have
not kept true and exact accounts, I have refused, upon order from
the muster-master, to deliver up "true books by poll" of the
numbers in the bands :—his lordship is to cause the said clerks
to keep their books in good order and deliver them as above
And whereas her Majesty has presently sent over 30,000l. and
that it appears that for a full pay up to April 12 last, the sum of
42,000l. is required ; they think it necessary (seeing that her
Majesty cannot be induced to send a greater sum) that the 30,000l.
be so issued as to relieve the soldiers' wants by weekly lendings,
as is done in the two cautionary towns ; and from the same
30,000l. some convenient sum to be alloted to each of the captains
by way of imprest, such as by conference with the above parties
shall be thought meet.
The manner of distributing the treasure by way of lendings
we leave to you and the above named persons, not doubting but
that you will take care that captain and soldier may be so provided
for that no disorder may ensue.
Some accounts should be made with the captains and their
bands up to a certain date (say May 12) that her Majesty may
know what will be due to them then, all defalcations being made ;
and therefore what treasure should be sent over.
Draft corrected by Burghley. Endd. with date. 6¼ pp. [Holland
XIV. f. 198.]
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to WALSINGHAM.
For our dealings about 'Joan de Castiel' I refer you to the
bearer, Capt. Fremin, "whom I have used as a special mean in
the matter, and found him—having interest in a great part of
his ransom—very forward" as regards your honour's request.
The money I have sent to Bergen-op-Zoom and Col. Morgan
promises me that in three or four days I shall have the prisoner
brought thither. The full sum of his ransom is looked for by the
other captains that have part therein, which will breed some difficulty,
but I make no doubt to have him here by that time. I
pray you to procure weekly lendings from the merchants for the
two companies newly come hither, or we shall have a new confusion
of debts to the town and discontentment of the soldiers.
My lord of Leicester's coming is daily looked for and greatly
desired by all....—Vlisching, 9 May, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Holland XIV.
COL. THOS. MORGAN to WALSINGHAM.
As Colonel Freminge is going to England, I leave it to him,
my friend and companion in arms, to tell you "of the estate of
our accidents" here ; and fall to entreat you to be a means that as
"I was the first English captain that put foot aland in this country
in this action, and remain this day the eldest colonel that
bears name and continuance in the same, for the which service
of late I have rather the style than benefit, the pay of a private
captain I have, the which is allowed unto the services of the army,
and if my services were to be presented to any Prince in Christendom,
continuing the university [sic] of discipline that I have
done for this seventeen years, I should continue the pay that hath
been thought I deserved so many years agone, if not a better,
the which I hope your wisdom will consider of in conference with
[Asks that Mr. Morgan Woollphe and Col. Freminge may be
remembered] "whom I take to be two as sufficient men of service
as any we have in these parts."
If his Excellency will not admit me that entertainment, your
letter unto the Dutch church may accomplish the same ; for I
would not be retained by my will by any estate of the world but
by her Majesty, and yet a great many friends I have to pleasure
that I may not do with so private a pay.
"My friend Mr. Moortoune will solicit my cause unto your
honour from time to time, and so I end from Flushing, where I
have been dealing with the lord governor for John de Castylia
who shall come there that further dealings may be used for
Monsieur Tylleni ; and for the residue of the moneys I beseech
you to take order for the sending over of it for the contentment of
the soldiers."—9 May, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 206.]
MORGAN WOOLLPHE to WALSINGHAM.
I take my pen to tell you of an accident happened to the
cavalry of Bergen. "Upon the 4th of May, Seigneur Coriden (fn. 7)
late [sic] commander of Wowe Castle, delivered by a drum in
Col. Morgan's lodging a wish that sixty of his lancers might
encounter with a hundred of the best horsemen in Bergen,
carbines or lancers, to try which of the both parties should master
the field ; who was answered by Mr. Parker, my lord Marshal's
lieutenant that he should have a hundred gilders for making of the
match. After the which, divers times six or seven horses of
Coryden, when our horsemen had been abroad or when the ports
were shut against dinner, would come before the town to give a
bravado, for trial of whose courage, upon May day in the morning,
we went to the number of 80 lances and 20 carbines to Sandvlyet
a maying, which is a Dutch mile from Lillo ; but we found no disposition
in the enemy to welcome us into the country. And in
the evening upon the 3rd of May there went forth out of Bergen
forty carbines and certain footmen to the village of Toornehowlte,
where Captain Coryden and his cornet with 35 lancers came on
the 4th of May for contribution, as they say ; but that I doubt it
greatly, for that they were armed cape a pied, and that it was by
advertisements of the villages that our carbines lay there all
night, that they came there. Our footmen were departed before
their coming out of the town, and our carbines discovering them
to be upon them to ride away out into the field, when the Corydens
pursued and charged them, and upon the first onset brake
them through but left their cornet by the way, and three or four
of their bravest gallants besides. Whereupon our troop closed
together and gave them another volley, in the which divers of
their horses and some of the men were hurt and slain. The
skirmish lasted betwixt them three hours long, wherein they
showed more courage than policy in renown of their captain's
brave device, one of whose bannerols I have sent hereinclosed
unto your honour.... This encounter made an end of Coryden's
squadron by the bullet of surprise, all save five lancers that became
couriers to bring the occurents to Antwerp."
A proclamation has been made by his Highness' command in
Brussels that it should be lawful for any of Holland, Zeeland or
the other United Provinces to come to buy or sell to Antwerp
or Brussels without impeachment.
At Bergen I remain as one that missed my expectation, but I
hope your honour will remember me to his Excellency for a place.
I find here as well governed companies of soldiers as ever I saw,
having small allowance and being absolute masters of the town,
yet devoid of abuse towards the inhabitants, whom I never heard
complain, "unless of a couple of soldiers who had committed a
rape upon a boor's wife and were hanged." Colonel Morgan
takes great pains to fortify the town and bring the water about it,
which purchases him great love from the inhabitants.
I would have sent you the plat of the town with my opinion
of the fortification which would enable it to stand ten months'
siege if well supplied ; but I hear you have the plat already, so
only send a figure without scale. I think it will be shot at ere
long, for it does more mischief to the enemy than all the other
frontier towns.—Bergen-op-Zoom, 9 May.
Overleaf. Rough sketch of the town, with bulwarks already
made or to be made. With calculations of the expence of the
proposed defences, and a note that within five years the town
had in it 1800 burgers' houses ; of which 450 have been spoiled
by the soldiers ; "but now they fall a-building their broken
Add. Endd. 2 pp. Very small writing. [Holland XIV. f. 208.]
THE STATES GENERAL to LEICESTER.
To the same effect as that to her Majesty below ; but giving more
details of the capture of the Sieur de Ranzou. Send him copies
of their letter to the King of Denmark and also of one from the
Council of State in his Excellency's name, and pray him to lend
a helping hand, to persuade her Majesty to use her influence
with the said King that the arrests may be annulled and the
pledge money returned ; and also that, instead of going on with
proposals to the Spanish King for the pacification of the present
wars, (the fruits of such proposals having often been found worse
than war) he will rather assist them with his troops and money
to deliver the other provinces from subjection to the Spaniards,
and unite them to these United Provinces.—The Hague, 20 May,
Signed, J. van Oldenbarnevelt, president, and C. Aerssens,
greffier. Fr. 1¾ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 212.]
THE STATES GENERAL to HER MAJESTY.
When the merchants and mariners trading to the Eastland
learned that all the ships and goods of the merchants of these
provinces were stayed in the Kingdom of Denmark, we resolved
to send deputies to that King, and asked the Baron of Buckhurst
to aid us by his letters, and to pray your Majesty on our behalf
to intercede with the King to make void those arrests. We have
since heard that the stay was made at the instance of the Sieur
Chaus Rantzou, who being sent by the said King to the Prince
of Parma, fell into the hands of our soldier adventurers of the
garrison of Bergen-op-Zoom, between Brussels and Namur, and
now claims reparation for what the soldiers took from him. We
also hear that the said ships and goods are released upon the
security of 30,000 imperial dollars ; but we still think it is needful
to send the said legation. And assuring ourselves that your
Majesty's favour would be of great authority with that King in
the matter, we humbly pray you to intercede for us, that he will
not only absolutely annul the arrest and restore the moneys
delivered [as security] but that navigation and traffic may remain
free between his kingdom and these countries, according to the
ancient treaties.—The Hague, 20 May, 1587.
Signed, Jan van Oldenbarnevelt, president. Countersigned,
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIV. f. 214.]
Copy of above. Fr. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 216.]
Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the States
General, for the assignment of 100,000l. on Holland, Zeeland
Utrecht and Friesland for the payment of debts incurred for the
defence of frontier towns etc. (fn. 8)
Dated incorrectly 30 May at the end. Fr. 1½ pp. [S.P. For.
Arch. XC., p. 215.]