August 1587, 16-20


Institute of Historical Research



Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

Year published





Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: August 1587, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 3: April-December 1587 (1929), pp. 244-258. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75364 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)

August 1587, 16-20

In accordance with your desire, I have received George Whetston as a commissary of musters under me (although all places were furnished) and hope I have contented him for his entertainment. My place here purchases me great hatred, both from the captains, whose abuses I may not tolerate, and from the States, whom I have plainly told of their ungrateful dealings with her Majesty. But notwithstanding my pressing them to perfect accounts with her, I cannot draw them to it, or get from them any commissaries to act with those on her part to pass the musters. "Their meaning, I think, is to have as few records extant of their own as possibly they can, to charge them anyway for rembursement of her Majesty's charges ; but to detain all things in such confusion as they may pretend some colour to wrangle hereafter, when they see their time." By these perverse proceedings and contempt of military laws there will be many faults, far beyond my power to redress, "and yet the blame not unlike to light upon me."—Dort, 16 August, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVII. f. 85.]
I have received your lordships' letters and am very sorry to understand that either her Majesty or any other should but so much as conceive any fault in me touching the loss of the town of Sluse ; for by land from Ostend it is well known that I did what I could ; but when I could not have any men from them (as I was promised) nor money, nor such numbers of carriages and pioneers as were requisite for such a service ; and the enemy had so entrenched and fortified himself at Blankberg, and ready to assail us with his horsemen and 3000 footmen, so as there was no passage that way without a manifest loss of the whole forces, which were only the English companies : And whereas by water we had no boats to land men in any other places, nor guides for the purpose ; and, besides, those of the Admiralty would not (contrary to their promise) adventure by the haven, which was the only way to relieve the town ... What do your lordships think could be done more than I did? Surely I know not. And therefore ... I trust her Majesty and your lordships will think well of my doings, howsoever the same may be untruly and maliciously reported and construed by others. "Touching the rest of my proceedings sith my coming hither ... it may please your lordships to consider in what a confusion I found things at my arrival ; no men, munition or money, nor Council that had any authority, nor any assistance of their captains, skilful in martial affairs. I could have alleged how I have been not only evil seconded but thwarted by the greatest ... ; besides I have been credibly informed that the Estates were before my arrival, promised and assured by others that there should have been evil reports made of them to her Majesty, and that there should be such a relation now made of them as would satisfy her ; for which they used too long and unnecessary delays in the sending of their deputies unto me. After my first dealing with them, mine absence at Ostend and upon the seas, about the succouring of the Sleuse, was some hindrance that the conference began with them, was for a whilst deferred, ... and when as I then saw the wants before mentioned, and that I was not like to prevail, I sent for some of the Estates and Council unto me ... to reproach the same unto them before their faces. If there had been any fault in me ... they would not in any likelihood have spared me, but have added this to their former untrue recriminations ; nevertheless I do verily think that none of them of any account or knowledge how things passed have done it or dare do it.... It is well known what was the general voice and opinion of the whole people, of whose violence for the loss of the said town the Estates and Council were in such perplexity and fear as that they durst not come to Flushing, nor will go abroad, but were forced to seek my placcart and protection, which I was contented, in respect of the benefit of the common cause to yield unto them, upon their late letters of excuse unto her Majesty and submission unto myself, which I suppose your lordships will think could not so easily have been extorted from them if they had but suspected myself to have been in any fault concerniig the loss of the said town." If I proceed not with such speed as desired, I pray you consider that the Estates have too long had the government in their own hands to be ruled as I wish. There have been cunning practices both from the enemy and among themselves to make a breach between us. But my meaning has ever been that whatever happened should be without dishonour to her Majesty and our nation, and so as the fault could only be imputed to themselves ; for if, on any such pretence, they had treated apart with the enemy, or any other great inconvenience had happened, I pray you consider "whether I should not then have incurred greater blame, who, in a matter so notoriously false as the untrue report of the Sluse is, am so injured and slandered at this present." By the last letters sent from Middelburg, you will have understood of the States' resolution touching an army, for the charge whereof they promised to deal with the particular provinces. I am come hither for their answer, after giving order for the provision of Berghen up Sone, whither the enemy were said to bend their forces. I have sent Mr. Killigrew, the Chancellor of Gueldres and another counsellor to the Estates of Holland, now assembled at the Hague, to declare her Majesty's ill-satisfaction of their former doings, and demand their full and speedy answer, which I expect within three days. The Elector of Cologne, lately come from thence, assures me that, having dealt with those States, he finds them most willing to do anything for her Majesty's contentment and the advancement of the common cause. Meanwhile, I forbear "to propound the matter of the peace as a thing resolved by her Majesty to go forward, but only by way of admonition, that they would bethink themselves what her Majesty shall be forced to do unless they give her better contentment." And I heartily beseech that the commissioners may be stayed until you are certified further ; leaving it to your wise considerations "whether this great desire which the Prince of Parma showeth to have, be not to help the house of Guise, under the colour of such a feigned peace or treaty. As I have more particularly written unto her Majesty, these rumours and advertisements of the peace, sooner known unto the Estates than unto myself, have done us much harm, and are pretended to be the principal causes of all their irresolutions and delays. If upon the receiving of their answer I shall think their offers worthy to be liked and accepted of her Majesty, I trust the stay of so small a time will do no harm.... If I shall see other cause, then upon good advice I may write unto the Duke of Parma touching a cessation of arms, and proceed to the proposition of the matter of the peace as I am by her Majesty's letter commanded..."— Dordrecht in Holland, 17 August, 1587. Postscript in his own hand. Prays them to hasten over the money and treasure, as its stay will breed such disorder as they will be sorry to hear of. Signed. Add. Endd. 3½ closely written pp. [Holland XVII. f. 87.]
"I am much bound to you for the care you take not only of my particular but of the general. For my 'none' part, I find myself truly overwhelmed with the crosses of things, for as no man wisheth or doth desire peace more than I do ... so am I sorry to see her Majesty's good intent like to turn to all contrary effect. For here hath been news by letters from Brussels and Antwerp of her Majesty's speedy proceeding with the Prince of Parma and the copy of his safe-conduct sent hither, which I verily believe is done of purpose to alienate the people's hearts from her Majesty ; as most assuredly I have suffered such three days as I never found the like since I came into this country first ; and here have been with me of the States, of the Council, of towns, only to expostulate this treaty of peace without their knowledge. Not but that I think ... that men are easily to be brought to like of a peace, or else God help them ; but as the enemies of her Majesty hath always detracted her in going about to make a peace alone without these countries, so now take they just hold, having so many copies abroad of the Prince's, with the certain names of her Majesty's commissioners set down therein ; by which they all gather that the matter is far gone between her Majesty and the Prince ; a policy, beyond all [doubt] of the Prince to withdraw goodwills from her Majesty. But for my part, I will deal, God willing, as for my life to discharge her Majesty's honour herein. And, good my lord, persuade her to stop the proceeding onward with commissioners on your part till you hear again, and to send for Ortell, who is a bad fellow, yet to make him know her Majesty only hath dealt in no piece of treaty with the Prince, but such only, as he hath sought to offer, both by his letters and passports, to her Majesty ; and that her Majesty did send over to me, as soon as she did receive the letters, to impart the matter to them here, without dealing any thing till she heard from them again ; and I pray God it may be so, and I will deal to my power as shall become me ; albeit I think there fell not out a matter this long while that will endanger me more every way. And this will be honey to Morryce and Hollock." How the States were coming on towards her Majesty, you shall hear in my next ; yet I would not believe them more than I have good cause, for I have small opinion of them, but "this matter hath bitten them at heart and if it be well salved, it will do no hurt, for the craftier sort think her Majesty more tied to them ... than they were bound anyway for themselves." I send you the replications to my lord Buckhurst, Norryce and Wilkes, but have "other matters of my lord's doings worse for the abuse of his office here" which shall come hereafter. "And so my good lord I will end, being over tired with writing, and much troubled to acquit me well with this matter, for the only hurt is the nomination of her Majesty's commissioners before these men did look that any peace was any more talked of but that when my Lord Buckhurst was here, which they were satisfied of from her Majesty ... and I would [to] God it had then gone forward.—17 August. Postscript. "Good my lord, let my replication be duly perused and weighed ... I hear, if the prince can patch up a sudden peace with her Majesty, and divide her from these countries, he doth mean to give Guise all the assistance he can possibly. The reyters be gone on. Our reyters, I can say nothing yet of them. Send with speed again, and remember Ortell." Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 2 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 89.]
Enclosing a declaration touching certain dealings of Dr. Doylye, whereby his lordship shall see "the honesty of the man, and how fit a mate he is for such as he is linked with." Desires that he may be examined on the points of the letter, and dealt with "as the matter shall fall out."—Dort, 18 October, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley. ½ p. Seal of Arms. [Ibid. XVII. f. 91.]
William Waytes to his Excellency against Dr. Doyley.
Informing him of certain things said and done by Dr. Doyley, using the advice of Mr. Digges and Mr. Christopher Blunt therein. On White Sunday, Dr. Doyley complained to him of unkind treatment from Sir John Norreys and the old Treasurer, who gave his "entertainment" to Dannett, Marr, and Lester ; and said that if his Excellency would restore it, he could do him very acceptable service by advertising him of the practices of Norreys, Wilkes and Dr. Clarke against him ; saying further : "neither my lord of Leicester nor General Norreys but would serve their turn upon us, not caring if afterwards we were hanged, and why should not we then seek to serve our turns upon them." Advertised Mr. Digges of this, who advised him to say to Dr. Doyley that so great a personage could not be "articled and conditioned withal," but if he would deliver some matter, he [Waytes] might deal with his lordship. Doyley, however, refused to deliver anything beforehand, lest he might lose both the General and his Excellency saying that he would use Rowland York's policy, to have two strings to his bow, and blaming Waytes for not having put off his cap to the General the day before, even although he had dealt hardly with him. He further said that the Earl would marvel to hear how strong a faction General Norris had in England, and what he, Wilkes and Clarke had practised and written against his Excellency. Also that the States had written against him to her Majesty, declaring how unprofitably her treasure was employed ; what small service was done and what factions his Excellency had stirred up between them of Utrecht and the States of Holland ; divers copies of which letter were sent "lest Mr. Secretary should keep it in his pocket." Further, that there was a great league made by the Germanic faction, viz. : Count Maurice, the Grave of Mœurs, Count Hollock and divers others, protesting that they would not be commanded by his Excellency ; and that Hollock had written a private letter to her Majesty, assuring her of his admiration for her constancy in religion and rare virtues, but declaring that (for divers injuries put upon him) he would never be commanded by his Excellency, "being so good a man and as well born" as himself. Finally, Doyley said that he could procure General Norreys to submit to his Excellency, and do him all good offices. At this time Waytes went to Utrecht and imparted the matter to Mr. Blunt, who advised him to persuade Dr. Doyley to get a letter of submission from the General, but the doctor, who then also came to Utrecht, refused, saying that the General was too wise and stood upon too lofty terms to write such a letter, and that it would now take no effect, as the Lord Marshal was coming over, and Lord Willoughby had already commission to supply his [Norreys'] place. At their next meeting, all Doyley's speeches were to persuade Waytes to leave his Excellency and follow Norryes, saying that when his lordship once conceived ill, it was a hard matter to persuade him to conceive well, and that one Mr. Web had incensed him against Waytes, saying that he meant to return to the enemy. Marvelling at this alteration Waytes asked what the General would do for him ; to which the Doctor replied : "More than ever his Excellency will," but that he must first clear himself of certain accusations [of joining with Digges in articles against the General]. Since the news came that the General was to be displaced, Doyley has tried to persuade Waytes to send his wife into England ; his purpose being that she should take back with her as her maid a woman whom he had brought from England, lest the knowledge thereof should come to his wife's ears, and other of his friends. But he seems to be partly persuaded, by the States letters to her Majesty, that General Norreys will remain here, "which if he shall do, then will Dr. Doyley, as he wish, persevere in his first course touching his discoveries." There is one about Grave Hollock who reveals all his dealings to the General ; who does the like "for his Excellency." Signed. 4½ closely written pp. [Holland XVII. f. 92.]
"I received the good advice of my lord Admiral and you for my stay here awhile to answer my lord of Lester's accusations now coming, for the which I yield many thanks unto you, and as you may perceive by this enclosed, which was written before my lord Admiral's letter came to me I was of the same mind myself." I pray you, if the accusations be already come, to vouchsafe (as heretofore you did in most loving sort) to let me understand them, that I may the better prepare to answer, "which, be you assured, I will do to his reproof and my full justification" hoping to come to some end "by the setting down of his particularities, for by the course of his generalities" there can be none. I beseech you to send me my books and writings.— 18 August, 1587. Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 97.]
Your letters of July 30, received to-day by Mr. Connawaye have greatly comforted me, touching my brother George's appointment to the government I had. (fn. 1) I also find myself very well dealt withal by his Excellency. He is removing hence towards the Dort. This morning came news that the enemy is making great preparation at Antwerp, and, as is thought, against this place or "about Dousboroughe towards Gelderland." Grave Hollock and his consorts have done great harm to these provinces, "yea and the States themselves are wilful enough, even to suffer and secretly procure the loss of their own towns, either by crossing us, her Majesty's servitors, or by secret practices with the enemy, so unconstant are they in all their actions." For particular matters, I refer you to the bearer, Mr. Robert Carpe, who has witnessed all that has passed here. As to the matter against Harry Eland, it will be proved "that all was done of mere malice against him, whatsoever the Deputy doth write to the contrary." Thanks.—Bargen up Zome, 18 August, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVII. f. 99.]
Since my last I have received two letters from Count Hollocke, both asking me to come to 'Gurtridenberge' ; "writ (as I suppose) upon my former dealings with a gentleman ... to draw the Count unto some perfect reconcilement. But because no touch was made of those especial points ... and considering his later practice at Camphier and other reasons to breed suspicion, I thought it not fit to satisfy his desire, nor ... will pass to any place so much at his devotion." But I have written how ready I am to meet him in any convenient place near hand, and that if he would come to his Excellency he should be lovingly entertained, and see how greatly he had been abused by such as desire nothing but sedition. If his desire for conference was simply meant, to make me an instrument for his peace and union his next reply will discover it, when I will follow your lordship's direction so near as I may. I was bold in my last to give my simple opinion how these wars might be brought to an honourable end. But hearing that of late the Spanish fleet hath been on our coast, and also that a parley for a peace is in handling, and most of those of common judgment cannot but wonder, "being both so opposite the one unto the other, and may not well be entertained without imminent danger, if we consider that the strong enemy never offereth peace but for some farther advantage" ; yet our confidence in your lordship's fatherly care, gives us the best hope of good success, leaving it to your wisdom to judge "how surely the enemy might be paid home, if her Highness might be persuaded to assist, or with her treasure to join with the German army going towards France, and withal to enter so absolutely in government here as we might be able to encounter her enemies in the face, to her Majesty's never ending fame, and safest for her estate and people. —Dort, 18 August, 1587. Postscript. "Mr. Killigrewe was yesterday sent to the Hague with the States, and is not this day returned, which giveth some cause to suspect that matters will not succeed as we desired." Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1¾ pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 101.]
"Because I despair of any new putting again into the field this year, I am resolved to repair with all speed to the King of Navarre, who, as I hear, useth such gentlemen as come unto him honourably. I desire humbly to know your pleasure herein. "I am resolved to live in the wars for a time, or else, to travel for a year or two ; and because I came without leave of her Majesty, my humble request is that it would please you to procure me liberty for so long." I refer myself absolutely to your direction. "At my going from my father, I left him most naturally affected towards me . . . which would no doubt work very much for me if it will vouchsafe you to make trial what your persuasions may do with him.—Bergen, 18 August. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holland XVII. f. 103.]
Giving a description of Oostergoo, the first of the three parts of Frizeland ; its boundaries, chief cities, bailiwicks or 'Grietenyen,' and monasteries or cloisters, of which, and of ecclesiastical goods, Oostergoo has more than all the rest of Frizeland, and so has the chief place in the Assembly of the Estates. Describes the manner of meeting of their Estates from the ancient times, when the lord Governor of Frizeland, with the Council of the Court, was wont to summon a parliament ; sending letters on receipt of which the people, being assembled, appointed one or two amongst them as their deputies. When they came together, each part of Frizeland has a chamber apart, where they discuss the matters separately, and then "by suffrages and voices," it is concluded. The three parts are Oostergoo, Westergoo and the Seven Forests. Absence is said to give consent. Such an assembly was of late called together after the ancient manner, "by the Council of the Court, but appointed by the deputies themselves," when those of Oostergoo appeared, lawfully chosen, though certain give forth falsely that their deputies were but private men. Prays that his Excellency will by commissioners hear the whole matter, when there is no doubt but that all inconveniences will be easily remedied, otherwise it is to be feared that their commonwealth, partly by malice, partly by negligence, will go to wrack.—Dordrecht, 18 August, 1587, old style. Signed. Endd. "The description of Oostergoo translated out of the Latin copy into English, sent over by the Earl of Leicester, the 27th August, 1587, the Court being at Otelands." 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 105.]
Aug. 18. Thos. Digges' answer to "that part of the Lord Treasurer's letter [to his Excellency] that ensueth," viz. :
That her Majesty is informed that of the 6000 footmen, "there ought not to be paid from October until your coming last thither above 3000 footmen, and of the 1000 horse not above 400" ; therefore until she knows certainly, by means of the muster-master, what ought to be defalked by checks, she will not pay a penny.
Answer. This information is so far from truth that he who gave it ought to come over to prove it, wherein he shall have all the muster-master's records to help him. It is not possible to send over a certainty of the checks in six weeks, even if all the captains had brought in their books, which many refuse to do till the Treasurer comes. Further, the muster-master could never get any from the States General to join with him in concluding the captains' accounts without which they hold themselves bound to no reimbursement, so that without some authorization from them he dare not finish the said accounts ; but he will bring over with him "abreviates of all musters," whereby the untruth of that information shall appear. Signed. Endd. with date by Burghley. 1 p. [Holland XVII. f. 107.]
Aug. 18/28. LAURANCE TROOSTE (?) to his brother CAPTAIN L'AMONERIE.
Writes to ask how he does, and to send them such news as those parts afford. The Contadore Collona (with others being assaulted between Antwerp and Brussels by freebooters) was shot with a bullet, but saved himself by swimming. Eight Spaniards and Italians were slain, and others wounded, both men and women, and many taken prisoners, amongst whom was the cousin of M. Champagni and Martin de la Failla. There is hope that the Contadore will recover. The court came hither ten days since and all the lords are written for. The Marques van Renti is looked for daily, and the Marques of Guasta is lodged in Bombarghen's house. "Upon Monday after the Holy Sacrament day of Miracles there was a scaffold made to see a play, which brake, and the parish priest of St. Tergoel's church was sore hurt and some others wounded to death. The President Pamell was sore hurt, but (God be thanked) is well recovered . . . and amongst others, the cook's wife of his Altezze and the Vraw Recard." Sends messages to Serjeant Frazes and Katrina Patris. When he receives the money of the Martyn fair, will give the Holy Sacrament of Miracles a crown. Doynekin his daughter sends messages. Peter and Loys are very well. Desires to know what he will have "offered at hall," and how many masses are to be said. The lady of Monrusarte and her lord, Signor Cosmo and his wife and Mistress Carmage his neighbour are all well. [Mentions also "your cousin Botesse's" marriage ; the Heer Ranse, and Madame de Frezine.] The Earl of Hoghstrate and his wife are there, and she is big with child. Hopes the leaguer will come before Berghes, and there will visit him.—28 August, 1587. Addressed to "Monsieur Captain Michaell dwelling in Antwerp at the mint, to be sent to Captain L'Amonerie in garrison at the castle of Wawe. Cito, cito." Endd. as translated out of Dutch. 1 p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 221.] (fn. 2)
As I am greatly beholden to your lordships for sending me the answers of the Lord Buckhurst, Sir John Norrise and Wylkes, "tending to the impairing of my credit . . . so far as in their malicious wits and slanderous tongues did lie to devise and utter ; so have I now sent you . . . such most true replies as I upon mine honour will always be ready to maintain ; most heartily praying your lordships . . .that I being found clear and they in those high degrees to have slandered me, I may have that remedy against them which in justice is due." As for their ill dealings for her Majesty's service, I leave you to deal with them as you think fit ; praying you to hold me excused that by reason of my infinite businesses I sent the writings no sooner. And as I see that some fault might be imputed to me for the loss of Sluys I now send a brief relation of things done by my directions in that cause since my arrival ; as also another by Colonel Grunevelt, late captain of Sluyse of what passed there, "together with a plot of his of the passage by the river," (fn. 3) whereby I hope you will see "that I have not omitted anything that might be devised to be done by me, and that the fault hath been wholly in this country people, especially in those of the Admiralty." I pray you make her Majesty acquainted therewith.—Dort, 19 August, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. 1¼ pp. [Holland XVII. f. 113.]
Also, copy of the same.
Endd. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 109.]
Since my last writing, I have not found the state of these countries much amended. Truly, we have seen a writing for continuing to his Excellency his due authority, but of what will ensue therefrom we can at present say nothing certainly. I have delivered to his Excellency the notes of what passed for the relief of Sluys, which he is sending to her Majesty.—Dordrecht, 19 August, 1587. Add. Endd. French. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 111.]
The bearer, Robert Bridges, was confined in the prison of Newport, when they treated him very ill, and were minded to hang him, because he had no means of paying his ransom. I went to the governor who delivered him to me with a passport. I paid him four hundred florins, the said [Bridges] promising to [re]pay me. That very day the governor hanged an Englishman who had no means of paying his ransom, and bound another hand and foot and cast him into the sea, which is great cruelty. He is a man of no conscience, worse than a Turk. He has now taken prisoner some 56 English soldiers, captured at sea coming from Zeeland, but all have been released save eight or ten gentlemen, now in the prison at Newport. To-day the men-of-war of this town took two English ships laden with coal, and there are at present before the harbour fifteen ships laden with wheat and rye from the Eastlands, Hamburg, Dantzic and other parts. The wheat, which was worth 40 florins is now worth no more than 15, and the rye which was sold at 26 and 28 florins the half bushel is worth at present 6 or 7. There is no news save that the Prince of Parma is at Brussels with all the court and council, and it is daily reported that there is to be a great parliament where all the States will unite, and (as is said) some from Holland and Zeeland, to make a general accord and peace. As to the field, most of the troops are either before or within the Sluys, and round about it are some companies of horse. Nothing is yet known of the intended movements of the army, but it is presumed that it will some day suddenly appear before Ostend. Some say that it will go before Bergen but Ostend is more likely. All the king's wheat and rye remains at Ypre and Dunkirk, and some is being collected at Brussels. The artillery and all the munitions remain at the Sluys. They do all with such secrecy that it is impossible to know of it until one sees it with his eyes. I have written some letters in Flemish, in order to write, more at large. I have not written for so long because I have been very ill, but I am ready to serve for anything you may command. Postscript. I have previously reported my loss in the flyboat taken to London. I hoped that, being German by nation, by your honour's help, I should not lose it all. As I am too infirm, to pursue my business, I pray you to favour me. Add. Endd. "Advertisements from Calais," and with date by Walsingham's clerk. Spanish. 1¾ pp. [Flanders I. f. 319.]
I have gathered the following particulars from M. de Thorise, nephew to Champagny, a prisoner here. They are making at Antwerp 14 flyboats and one galeasse with 24 oars, 40 pieces of brass and a prow and poop musket proof, of very rare building, made by Italians, which will take so much time that the flyboats will be ready long before it. He affirms that our voyages to the Indies and Don Antonio's enterprise holds them in greater fear than any other thing ; and that "amongst them all the world is desirous of peace, so that every one might have liberty of conscience ; that the ministers of either part should not reproach one another (as they do) nor intermeddle against all reason with the affairs of policy ; and that our forces might be joined together in war against the Turk or some other enemy to both parties. That if the Queen of Scots had lived, the Duke of Parma had attacked the realm of England. "In praising the gracious disposition of her Majesty he confesseth that she hath good cause to hold a frontier war on this side, forasmuch as it is the only means to defend her own, which otherwise, before this time had been assailed ; and if the King had had so great advantage against her Majesty as her Majesty hath of him, he would ere this time, have declared his bad affection. "I find by him his Uncle much inclining to advance a peace. In the mean time, I wish we had an honourable war. We here look to be assailed, and therefore arm ourselves to defend.— Berghen op Zoom, 20 August, 1587. Postscript in his own hand. "It is certainly bruited by the enemy, a peace should be treated between Waw and this place by great personages sent from England, and they joy much at it. If we had the Indian treasure, I would their hope were frustrate." Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland, XVII. f. 115.]
On my return to Dort, I hoped to have found the whole States with his Excellency, but as yet they are not come, which gives cause to fear some underhand course, "and joining the present discontentments between Themistocles [Leicester] and Hollock, (fn. 4) with the still retaining of these strangers, who cannot be here . . . before the 25 of this next month, when the use of their service will be past, giveth just cause to suspect some bad measure, so that unless they two be reconciled before that time, it will be found that they shall be wrought to strengthen Hollock's (fn. 4) faction, and easily drawn thereunto, being a people by nature mutinous. Therefore if anything is to be done in this cause let it be hastened. The Elector of Cologne, Truchses is here, "a very fit instrument to work by . . . if he be not thought too much devoted to Themistocles."—Dorte, 20 August, 1587. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 117.]
His Excellency having taken the best order he could for Bergen up Zoom, and leaving Lord Willoughby governor and Mr. Thomas Wilford serjeant-major of the infantry, came to Dordrecht on the 13th, to meet the States General for a full conclusion of all matters, either of former faction or present furtherance of the service. Where he has waited till this day, during which time many things have been bruited here, some true, some foisted in to continue their factions, as "that there is likelihood of peace to be concluded between her Majesty and the King of Spain, whereby these poor afflicted people and the country shall be left a spoil to the enemy. Others give out that her Majesty layeth all the fault of the loss of the Scluse to his Excellency, and that Sir John Norreis shall come presently over with great store of men and authority ; with many other forged reports, to amaze the people and to hinder the service." And on the other side, the Count of Hohenlo does all he can to keep the States from conformity and the people from obedience. From whom he has encouragement and means, your honour may guess. Count Maurice was here with my lord, and from hence went to the Hague, where the States General first meet "with great show to be very desirous to work all things to good effect. And yet I fear his will would do much if the plurality would hearken unto him. On Wednesday the 16th, the Count Moeurs departed hence to encounter and conduct the Reisters, with Mr. Allen, Monsieur Parasis and other commissioners, but albeit he promised his Excellency to use all diligence, he is as yet at Utrecht, and has drawn certain cornets of horse into the town. My lord, hearing of this from the magistrates has written to desire Count Moeurs to march forward with his troops, and to require the town to be very circumspect for the safety of the place, promising to be there very shortly and meanwhile, to send aid if required. "How the Count Maurice, Admiral, and Justinus de Nassau his base brother, Vice-Admiral, in translating the Admiralty from Vlussinghe to Camphere, have behaved themselves," I am sure Sir William Russell has told you. There has been a practice at Utrecht between one Creke, an Englishman in Deventer, and an old abbot in Utrecht, to betray the town, which was discovered by letters intercepted. Here is great talk of the King of Spain's preparations for sea, "and that he hath not left a captain or old soldier in any of his garrisons, the which is esteemed to be for England, whether they go towards Ireland or Scotland."— Dordrecht, 20 August, 1587. Add. Endd. "From Flodd." 3 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 119.]
Finding the States still resolved to keep things in such uncertain confusion that her Majesty's officers cannot tie them to any certainty of reimbursement, I have pressed them most importunately, and find myself greatly disliked for it. I send you the enclosed articles "wishing some speedy course might be taken to clear all further mistakings and to bring differences to some accord, that they by all means labour to entangle with more confusion." —Dort, 20 August, 1587.
His complaints against the proceedings of the States. Their unwillingness to appoint commissaries to join with him to pass a general muster, in order to have no record on their part that any new bands have been sent to their aid ; at any rate until they are reduced by sickness and service. To delay which, they find fault with all past payments, as being made according to the English rates, though shown that they were ratified here by his Excellency and the Council at Wars, and allowed by the Council of State. To which they answer that her Majesty and his Excellency have acted against the contract, and that the Council of State cannot dispense with it. Have urged them many times to bring in all their demands against her Majesty's soldiers or captains, but they still keep them back, "to double charge her Majesty and wrangle upon the reimbursements hereafter. "They will take great hold of Sir John Norries' averment that there wanted 2,000 soldiers in her footbands all last winter," therefore he must prove it, which he cannot, for there was never near 1000 wanting ; or else must acknowledge his error, so that the States cannot make it a colour. Divers captains, now departed, have taken up so much upon credit that if this is paid, it is thought there will be nothing left for the soldiers, yet if not paid, the States will demand it of her Majesty. [Margin "To be answered by Sir John Norriss."] Of all Sir John Norries' horseband, the lord Willoughby cannot get twenty horse, and those say either their horses be their own or else that Sir John Norries hath sold them unto them as part of their reckoning, whereas he ought to have left the band as strong as he looks, upon last muster, to be paid for it." His clerk, Gibson, and others, privy of his reckoning should be present at the inquiry. [Margin, "To acquaint Sir John Norryce."] By the States' assertion, there is 20,000l. that the treasurer should have defalked before paying either soldiers or merchants and which is now demanded of her Majesty. This should be ordered before a final conclusion of Mr. Huddilston's accounts, and either he or his deputies here, to explain difficulties. [Margin, "To acquaint Mr. Hudleston herewith."] Some of these things do not pertain directly to his own office but he has been bold to solicit the States and also to advertise his lordship thus much, "that like good order may be taken with such as are in England as his Excellency meaneth to take with such as are here, for a final clearing of all inconveniences upon this next full pay." To-day hears from Mr. Killigrew and Mr. Beale that they are so wearied by dealing with the States for order in these matters that they will meddle no more therein ; and he himself by the contract has no access to their Council, therefore prays that other order may be taken or himself discharged ; her Majesty's loss being like to be so great and no means in him to help it.— Dort, 19 August, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. with marginal notes by Burghley "18 August" [sic]. 3 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 121.]
Aug. 20/30. Articles exhibited by the deputies of the States of Holland to his Excellency in presence of the Marshal, Baron North, Sieur de Brederode and other Councillors of State, 30 August, 1587. Thanking the queen for her aid. They always meant to maintain his Excellency in authority.
In the margin : H.E. declares that he never claimed a greater authority than was granted by the States or wished to derogate from the authority of the States but he wishes his own authority to remain entire, according to the treaties.
2. They assure her that they have always meant to maintain his Excellency in his authority.
3. But since the removal of the King of Spain, all acts of sovereignty have been legitimately exercised by the said Estates, who conferred upon his Excellency the authority of Governor General.
4. The States declare that they are not represented by private persons, but by the knights, nobles and towns of the countries, and that if any fail of their duty in any way whatever, they shall be punished.
[Dissertation as to the rights and authority of the Estates under the governors of the Emperor Charles V. etc.] They understand that his Excellency's powers extend to entire command over all the men of war, both on sea and land, but not to levy more troops than they could pay. They also pray him to carry on the war at sea by the Admiral, and to let the changes and transport of garrisons be made by the governors of the respective provinces. They ask him to give satisfaction for what was done by ill-disposed persons in his name during the last year, and to carry into effect what the Estates have desired by their preceeding remonstrances, in conformity with the treaty made with her Majesty and the Act of the delation of government ; not giving credence in the affairs of the country to such as seek to stir up discord between him and the States, and consequently to throw the countries into confusion, and imperil his Excellency's reputation. (fn. 5)
In the margin : Acceptance of the articles by H.E. French. 7½ pp. [Holland XVII. f. 125.]


1 As governor of Connaught, 1584-7.
2 This appears to be one of the two intercepted letters mentioned by Willoughby in his letter of the 3rd Sept. at p. 297 below. The folds correspond with those of Willoughby's letter.
3 He did not send them until the 21st Aug. See below.
4 Cipher.
5 The Dutch text of the remonstrance in Bor : Ned. Oorloghen lib. xxiii.,f. 22.