SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to WALSINGHAM.
I received yours of the 7th at Dort, and according to your good
advice, took leave of his lordship and came hither, "where I find
the greater sort well affected toward her Majesty ; but what
they will do when they shall hear of a peace I know not ; but
it is to be thought they will the better like of it by reason of our
"In my opinion, there is little hope of any good to be expected
either from the Estates or Count Hollok ; but rather it is to be
feared that they are won for the king, for they will hardly be
brought to any conformity ; neither do I think that the lord
General hath taken the best course in seeking of them so much ;
but rather to have declared the cause of his coming to the towns,
and withal to have signified unto them the good content her
Majesty had to follow the wars, if they would join their forces
with hers ; otherwise to have left them to themselves.
"It is certain that the enemy hath some great enterprise in
hand and that by sea, for that this five or six days he will not let
any go out of Antwerp, and hath brought from Gaunt and divers
other towns all the shipping he may, beside ; besides a fifteen
or eighteen ships that he hath made of late.
"This is the eighth month that I have been here and have
never received penny pay, and most part of the garrison are
behind for eleven months. What this may breed to in this
dangerous time, I leave to your good judgment." I wish there
might be a "settell" garrison appointed and paid as in times
past. And that you would favour the party you wot of and me so
much that we might come home, "for here is neither honour,
profit nor pleasure, but a place of great practice and danger by
reason of our evil neighbours." Flushing, 26 August.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. Seal of arms. [Holland
XVII. f. 187.]
ANDREA DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
I wrote to your lordship on the 14th from Gaunt and next
day from Haelst (five leagues from here) sending a letter from the
Sieur de Champagney and a list of the Duke's commissioners, for
making out the passports desired from her Majesty. And since
my arrival here, I have received yours of the 9th, with a note
from Mr. Controller.
I was glad to hear that her Majesty read my letters herself, but
felt with shame how unworthy they were to be seen by so great
a princess. I confess to the fault your lordship taxes me with ;
but the essential point is this : That the Duke of Parma expects
her Majesty's commissioners to come to the place and at the time
which it pleases her to appoint ; when his own will go at once to
meet them there, to treat together without any previous mention
of a cessation ; to avoid suspicion of desiring further delay (of
which, he says, there has been too much already) ; and to speak
frankly, it is unlikely that the Duke will give up his preparations
until he sees something more than words and to demand a cessation
before beginning to treat is quite unreasonable. Her Majesty
must therefore consider what will be best for her to do ; I am
myself persuaded that she should rest satisfied with the good
intentions of the Duke. The safe-conducts you have ; their
commissioners are ready and we see what M. de Champagney
writes. His Highness already, as the case stands, is out of the
field, and his soldiers do not move, while he awaits the commissioners,
who will settle amongst themselves what they think
best. As soon as they reach Berghen the Earl [of Leicester] may
at once send to the Duke to treat of the said suspension, and if
the deputies should send for me at the house of Signor Carlo
Lanfranchi at Antwerp, as my Lord Buckhurst did, the needful
order might easily be given.
I trust that your lordship was not displeased at my writing
on the 29th ult. about the safe-conduct, the cessation of arms,
and about going myself to treat with the Duke, as I only wished
to write my simple opinion, for the greater benefit and despatch
of the affair.
The words of the safe-conduct to which her Majesty not
unjustly objects were doubtless an inadvertence of the Secretary,
without his Highness having given a thought to them ; and her
Majesty may use a like form in her own safe-conduct. I was
doubtful about the point as soon as I saw the safe-conduct
and had time and place allowed, I should certainly have had it
changed. The Duke has made no other mention of the receipt
of the last letters, for it would have served to no good end
because M. de Champagney has told me, since my arrival, I
must do nothing further concerning the suspension of arms,
it being clear that his Highness would never grant it openly
until he saw the commissioners together. Meanwhile the
suspension, seems sufficiently made (tacitly) as aforesaid. But
if his Highness shall see within these next days that her Majesty
does not think fit to send her commissioners so soon, it is to be
doubted that he may take another course, and think of this no
more. I have gathered this from M. de Champagney the President
and Signor Cosimo ; and that it would avail nothing to labour
with the Duke about the suspension. Her Majesty should be
promptly advised of this, so I send the bearer (my own man)
to you in all haste, praying that he may bring me a prompt
answer of her Majesty's resolve.
With this there goes a copy of my last, and also of the letter
and note which M. de Champagny wrote to me, rather than the
originals, the roads on this side being very unsafe. Nothing more
is heard of the Earl of Leicester.—Brussels, 26 August, 1587.
Postscript. It is said that the brother of the Duke of Florence
is coming here ; going to see the world.
Add. Endd. 2¾ pp. Italian. 2¾ pp. Seal. [Flanders I.
A copy of the same, in de Loo's hand. Italian. 2¼ pp. [Ibid.
"A brief memorial of the proceedings touching the succour of
the town of Scluyse, as well before his Excellency's arrival . . .
The town being besieged on June 13, new style, Counsellor
Valcke, Martyn Drogue and Cornelius Claisson assembled at
M. Ste. Aldegonde's lodging to confer of giving succour to it,
when certain things were set down in writing, and given to M.
Valcke to take to the Estates in Holland.
In the meantime his Excellency arrived on July 6 at Middelburgh,
and the 8th and 9th entered into the Council of State,
earnestly declaring to them her Majesty's charge to procure
the succour of Scluyse, and his desire to employ himself therein.
Also, desired to know what help he might have of those countries
in means and men ; the state of the grant of 200,000l. sterling
extraordinary made by the Estates ; and a list of the companies
in camp in Brabant under Count Hollock.
The Council showed him the charge Valcke had to go to solicit
for the necessary provisions, which his Excellency confirmed,
joining the counsellor Bardese in commission with Valcke, who
were then dispatched towards the States.
Count Maurice in the mean time promised his Excellency to
bring 3000 footmen.
The commissioners went first to Gertrudenbergh to Count
Hollock, and wrote thence to his Excellency that the Count
would send 2500 foot and some horse ; they then went towards
To his Excellency's enquiries, the Council of State answered in
writing on July 12 that they could say nothing of the extraordinary
grant, as they could not accept it in his Excellency's absence ;
nor could they satisfy him as to the troops with Count Hollock
as that camp was a thing done without their knowledge and advice ;
so that for both points the coming of the States General must be
awaited. His Excellency then went to Dort, returning on July
19, when the deputies of the States also arrived. On the 20th
his Excellency propounded his enquiries, to which they answered
that they believed Count Hollock had not more in all than 4000
men, and that they had sent him powder, match, artillery and
and store of victuals, of which they gave his Excellency hope
to have some for Sluys. On the 21 and 22 of July, they conferred
again, and after many debates, they agreed to furnish 10,000l.
sterling in ready money (to be deducted from their extraordinary
grant) together with as much provisions as could be got out of
Holland and Zeeland.
Conference was also had with the Council of the Admiralty,
who promised to provide ships both of war and to carry men and
In the mean time, his Excellency armed as many of his English
companies as he could ; but though he had written from England
to have the said armour ready (for payment) the matter was
so handled that at his departure for Sluyse there were 18 companies
In the Council of war, the manner of the succour was often
debated before Count Maurice, the Admiral Justinian, Martin
Drogue and other sea captains ; and by the seamen was declared
that it could not be done by sea or by the haven unless his
Excellency first attempted it by land. And those who spake
against this opinion were reproached and threatened.
His Excellency hereupon began to debate how the enemy might
be assailed by land. [The three ways discussed, as already
reported on p. 258 above.]
Meanwhile, his Excellency had demanded the promised aid
from Count Hollock, which was refused, although the States
General also sent deputies to him to ask for it.
On July 25 his Excellency left to go himself to succour the
town. [Further discussions concerning, and difficulties made by,
the States against succour by sea.]
There was brought in a mariner called Michell van Trappen,
who, a few days before had gone into Sluys "swimming in amongst
the enemy's boats" and returned with letters. He reported
that the enemy had no bridge at the passage there, but only
five ships at anchor ; no fort but at Terhofstead, so low that the
enemy "lay very open in it," and on the other side, on the sands,
but a little trench with one or two pieces of artillery. That
at the old Castle there was no trench or fortification, and that
those of Scluyse had made a fit place behind it to lay many ships
and boats in safety.
The greatest difficulty was where to cover the vessels from
danger when they had passed. Martin Drogue declaring that in
this point the mariner abused them ; that he knew the place and
it was impossible to cover boats there in safety. His Excellency
and the English councillors and captains maintained the contrary,
believing the mariner's report who was known to be honest and
skilful, and had seen it. His Excellency also caused a letter
from Sir Roger Williams to be read, assuring him that there was
a commodious place to save the boats ; and the same was
advertised from the secretary of the town to the burger-master
thereof, then at Flushing, which letter was read to M. Ste.
Aldegonde in presence of Martin Drogue, who yet declared "that
it was an abuse, and that there was no such place."
And thus "because all the ships . . . that should pass were
to be accounted as lost," Admiral Justinus brought five captains
who offered to make ready flat-bottomed boats "with which
they would pass alone or with the rest of the fleet, making no
difficulty touching the fighting with the enemy at land." This
was accorded by his Excellency, who gave the men 20l. sterling
instead of 15l. only, which Justinus had demanded, appointing
Col. Morgan with divers English captains and almost a thousand
men to join with them. From day to day, the Estates were urged
to give the necessary provisions and money, whereupon some
provisions were sent to the fleet, but not in needful quantity ; for
"Count Hollock would not depart with one grain of anything he had,
neither was there sent one penny of the 10,000l. sterling . . . every
man yet promising from day to day that they should be paid.
[His Excellency's departure to Ostend and the march of his
army to Blankenberg, as narrated in previous reports.]
His Excellency had left order that some should be sent to
Scluyse with news of the succour, wherein Michell van Trappen
was employed "to pass in by swimming" ; who arrived the first
night at the enemy's bridge, found the passage open as he had
before declared, and returned incontinent . . . to advertise
Count Maurice thereof, departing again the next day, and passing
through to the town of Scluyse.
His Excellency, on Monday, after the army was marched,
coasted along the shore, to give aid to the army with his artillery
if need were, and anchored before Blankenberg, where, seeing the
strength of the fort and the forces of the enemy there, and
especially that the passage between the fort and the sea was
stopped up with a strong palisade ; having also certain intelligences
that the Prince himself was to come the next day from Bruges
with 2000 horse, and that 4000 footmen more were marching
thither from the Prince's camp, sent Sir H. Goodyer aland to
the Lord Marshal, where, upon conference "as well of the former
reasons, as also for that they had nothing fit to assail the fort,
it was by his Excellency's order appointed that the army should
retire towards Ostend and embark with all speed to follow towards
the fleet, which they did accordingly."
On Tuesday, August 3, his Excellency arrived at the fleet
"where thinking somewhat had been done by water, or was
ready to be done, he found Count Maurice, with Colonel Morgan
and the most part of the ships departed towards Zouterland,
upon occasion (as they said, though indeed there was none) of
foul weather the days before.
The ships and soldiers being arrived at the fleet, his Excellency
began to urge Count Maurice and the Admiral to attempt the
succour by sea, "the wind and tide being so fit for it ;
but they plainly said that except his Excellency first fought
with the enemy by land, they were resolved not to pass by
water," refusing even to allow the flat-bottomed boats to make
Whereunto his Excellency answered : Well, since there is no
other means, give me fit vessels to disembark my forces in order ;
we will land, and as I have always offered you to do, we will
fight with the enemy. But there were no boats for the purpose,
and they answered, they could not provide them ; it belonged
to them of Zeeland.
[Further vain attempts to persuade the Count and his adherents
to do something.]
His Excellency thereupon protested against their naughty
dealing, saying that he would send for the Council of State and
Estates' deputies at Middleburg, to show them how he was
hindered, lacking all necessaries, and "especially, being matched
with men that had no disposition to further the matter." The
next day, Count Maurice sent from his ship to tell his Excellency
that the sea captains prayed him to send some to hear their
resolutions touching the attempt by sea. He sent Lord
Willoughby, Sir William Russell and M. Burchgrave, who found
the sea-captains in good number, but they only said as before that
his Excellency must first assail the enemy by land. This much
troubled his Excellency, "especially perceiving by the signs from
the town that they could not hold out long, but there was no
remedy since the sea men would do nothing."
On the evening of the 5th the Estates arrived, to whom he
made, by Mr. Beale, a large discourse of all that had passed,
"receiving no answer of effect but that they thought it fit to
stay till their reyters came, that so the joined forces might give
the more effectual succour.
"His Excellency replied that the town could not suffer that
delay, and that therefore himself would cause somewhat to
be attempted that night ; and indeed that day was the town
accorded to be given up, those within having seen the army on
sea, staying there eight or ten days without once essaying to pass,
the wind and spring tide being most fit for them, and knowing
that the town could not be succoured by any other means than
"Notwithstanding, his Excellency not knowing of the yielding
up of the town commanded this evening a boat made of fireworks
to be carried down, to break down the enemy's ships and forts ;
but those that should go with it, being threatened and discouraged
by other captains that should conduct them, passed
Next day, the 6th, news was brought that the town was yielded
up, whereupon his Excellency departed to Flushing, sending all
necessary provisions to Ostend and other places.
Colonel Grunevelt, Sir Roger Williams, Capt. Wm. Henrick-sonne
and all the other captains, with Michel van Trappen and
the other mariners of the town, affirmed publicly in the Council
of State, in the presence of Count Maurice, "that the succour
by water had been feasible and without any great peril and that
there was no other way of succour but that. . . They declared
also that behind the Castle there was a place of safety for above
300 vessels, maintaining constantly that they were abandoned
unluckily and without desert. And the same hath been testified
and deposed by divers others who had been in the enemy's camp
during the siege time.
"William Henricksone further declareth that after the town
was yielded, having been in talk . . . with the enemy's vice-admiral,
called [blank] ; that he . . . confessed that he and all
other seamen greatly marvelled that those of our fleet enterprised
nothing by water, and that they had commandment from the
Prince to retire their ships if our men had presented themselves . . . .
"Sir Roger Williams declared also that the Prince of Parma
himself told him that our men had done contrary to their promise
if they had attempted anything by sea."
Upon which declarations, Martin Drogue has been detained
prisoner, and has confessed that when van Trappen the mariner
after entering Scluyse by swimming, reported that the enemy's
ships and stakes at the passage were as before, he told Justinus
his Excellency ought to be told thereof, to which Justinus
answered that it was not needful, as his Excellency had resolved
to fight by land whilst they attempted by water ; "wherein it
appeareth that Justinus, under colour of a former resolution
(which indeed was no resolution but only an offer that we would
land in any place where we might, which we always were ready
to perform if it might possibly have been done) would not have
his Excellency advertised how easy the passage was by water."
Endd. "27 of August, 1587 . . . Sent from the Earl of
Leicester." 9 closely written pp. [Holland XVII. f. 189.]
Aug. 27./Sept. 6.
Copies of documents concerning the Earl of Leicester's connection
with the quarrel between Count Hohenlo and Sir Edward
I. Statement by Jehan Reynbouts Danckartssen, secretary to
Sir John Norreys, denying that he ever thought or said his
Excellency was the instigator of the cartel sent to the Count
by Norreys or ever heard that H.E. took any part in that quarrel,
except to try and make peace.—Dordrecht, 6 September, 1587,
stilo novo. Signed, J. Reynbouts.
Fr. ¾ p.
II. Letter from J. de Blandre, secretary of Count Hohenlo, to
Danckaertsen. Report of his statement that the Excellency was
the instigator of the cartel, so that his life might be in danger.
Advises him to leave the service of the General, and go to the
Count, in order to avoid danger.—The Hague, March 10, 1587
French. 1½ pp.
III. Danckertissen's reply to the above. Astonished at the
charge and advice but thanks him.—Utrecht, 3 March, 1587,
French. 1 p.
IV. Blandre to Dankaertssen.
Having shown your last letter to the Count, his lordship desires
me to inform you that he reputes you as a liar, and expressly
forbids me to receive or write henceforth any letters from or to
you.—Delft, 18 March, 1587.
French. ½ p.
V. Certificate of Pierre van Laere, public notary.
Testifies to meeting Danckaert at the Hague about 8 months
ago with M. Adrien de Spiegel, surgeon ; Jerome Bel, secretary to
Col. Pieron ; Henry Notchman and others, when Danckaert
and Spiegel spoke about the quarrel between the Count Hohenlo
and Sir Edward Norris, but never heard Danckaert say that his
Excellency had been the instigator of the cartel or any such thing.
He was present from beginning to end and heard all that was
said concerning this business.
And the said notary has made this public instrument at
Dordrecht, in presence of Capt. Corneille Hoghendorp and
Fr. 1¼ pp.
General endorsement, by Burghley's Secretary. "6 Sept.,
1587. Tankard's Declaration, touching the cartel sent to Count
Hohenlo by Sir Edw. Norris [etc]." 5 pp. in all. Fr. [Ibid.
XVII. f. 195.]
Aug. 27./Sept. 6.
Declaration by the EARL OF LEICESTER.
Paper endorsed "Minute in English of the writing exhibited
by his Excellency up to the States General, corrected according
to the French copy which was delivered." Also, by Burghley
"6 September, stil novo, at Dordrecht. A full declaration of all
the Earl's proceedings from the beginning."
Touches upon the granting of the government to him by the
States themselves, the betrayal of Deventer and subsequent
prejudice against himself ; the lack of aid to Sluys ; his own
preference of the public to his now particular welfare, his hopes
of a reconciliation, Count Hollock's refusal of his good offers
and credence of the untrue reports against him ; their promise
to provide for an offensive war for two months ; his communications
with them after coming to Dordrecht especially the need for
greater strength to resist the enemy ; the new calumnies uttered
against him instead of any answer being sent to his remonstrances ;
his fresh protests ; the reports by some that the cause of delay
was the inability to maintain the wars and by others that it
was due to the Queen's rumoured treaty with Parma for a peace ;
his own declaration that if their means were sufficient to carry on
the war her Majesty would continue her aid ; but if not, she
was no longer bound by the contract ; her great expenses at
home etc., her directions, both to Lord Buckhurst and himself,
as to informing them of the Duke's overtures ; assurances of her
Majesty's determination to agree to nothing that would abuse
them, as shown by the sending of Sir Fras. Drake into Spain,
and himself back hither to carry on the war if he found means
thereto, and finally, if they either will not or cannot continue the
war, what they would have him to do, and what they require
more at her Majesty's hands.
If they will yield the government to him, (according to their
own Act), and the managing of the finances to himself and the
Council, and show that they have means to carry on the war,
he is ready to do them the best service he may, but it must not
be for the keeping only of one or two particular provinces, seeing
that her Majesty had contracted with all, and that "the weal and
safeguard of the one should be esteemed alike of all and so likewise
the danger," anything else being contrary to the treaty with her
and union among themselves.
If, however, they will not yield him such authority nor have
means to maintain the charge of such a war, he must once again
protest that whatever losses or troubles follow, the fault cannot be
imputed to her Majesty or himself.
Or if they mean to limit him further as regards their contributions,
he "must not receive it," for he has always declared
that these contributions were insufficient, and they themselves
have confessed that they will not serve to pay the ordinary
garrisons. What part then can be employed about a camp and
for the answering of other necessary charges ? To this might be
added needful reparations of their ships and pay of the companies
of townsmen lately levied in divers places. Unless a better
contribution be made, he does not see what good he shall be able
to do among them ; wherefore he earnestly desires their resolute
and speedy answer, that he may advertise her Majesty.
And further, as she was induced to the treaty of assistance by
reason of the ancient treaties of amity and traffic with their
provinces and cities and that the charters and instruments
"with many of the towns are yet extant [9 names], her Majestys'
pleasure is that he shall signify the same to the said towns and
others, that they may understand her good will and desire to
have performed all required of her both by the said ancient
treaties and contracts and the late treaty of assistance, in case
she had found such reciprocal correspondence as is agreeable
with the said treaties and convenient for so great a cause.—
Dordrecht, 6 September, 1587, stilo novo. (fn. 1)
English translation. 11 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 199.]
Copy of the above Remonstrance, in French (as delivered to
the States), divided in 35 articles.
17 pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 206.]
Aug. 27./Sept. 6.
(fn. 2) to his "confrere" Capt. de la Ramonerie, governor of
[Concerning letters received etc. Has not heard from
Mondragon.] There is no news worth the writing save that the
deputies are named who are to negotiate with those of the Queen
of England ; but neither place nor day are yet settled. It is
said that a caravel from Spain has brought commissions for the
governments of Artois and Huisden, Tournay, Tournhaisis,
l'isle, Douay and Orchie. His Highness has summoned to court
the Duke d'Ayschot, Count d'Egmont, the Marquis de Berghes
and other lords, for the purpose, as I hear, of declaring his
Majesty's intentions touching the above commissions, which
delays his coming to this town. M. de Werp is there, still
soliciting to be freed from his charge here, as I wish I could be
likewise from mine, for the toil thereof increases from day to
day and the means diminish. Your mistress has written to me
by a chaplain. The Perè Bergaigné has sent me the annexed
piece of a letter in answer. My wife sends her the thread [blank]
for making candles, and the lantern which she asks for ; you
will find us always very ready to serve you. My mother in law
sends affectionate greetings.—Antwerp, 6 September, 1587.
Postscript apologising to Mademoiselle for not writing.
Add. Fr. Copy. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 28.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
Neither my leisure, "in my infinite present toil of businesses"
or my indisposition of body suffer me to write in my own hand.
I have written very particularly to her Majesty of the state of
things here and "what I have been driven to do with those who,
taking hold of her Majesty's dealing for peace, have endeavoured
thereby to alienate the people... and indeed have made a very
great and dangerous impression to that purpose." This round
proceeding has already much availed, and it is not doubted by
the wise and well-affected but that it will work good effect.
Only four or five of the principal men prosecute the plot against
her Majesty, and they are already discovered and will be dealt
with ere long. I earnestly pray you to beseech her Majesty
not to hasten too much the treaty of peace, "which the Duke of
Parma will seek to procure by all means possible, that he may the
better intend the matters of France, but ... so to temper the
proceeding in it as that the people of this country may concur
in the same, to which I doubt not but to win them by degrees ;
whereas otherwise, if it shall now come hastily on, when they are
greatly sharpened against it, and when there is wrought in them
by naughty instruments a perilous general suspicion of her
Majesty's no sincere intent towards them, in her dealing in it ;
no doubt I see nothing but great confusion likely to ensue, with
evident danger to the whole course of her Majesty's proceedings."
There is one other thing which I wish you "to bolt out the conveyance
of ... so near as you possibly may. I am credibly advertised
by an honest man ... that the Estates have a copy of my last
instructions, as also of the letter of her Majesty written lately
precisely to me touching the dealing in the peace.... Yea,
further that they are thoroughly and particularly made acquainted
with a late letter of mine to her Majesty, written with my own
hand, and whereof I would have no copy taken, because I would
have no man acquainted with it.... They have by some means
gotten knowledge of the contents hereof upon some advertisement
out of Court or Council ... and have intimated the same secretly
to the provinces, intending thereby to draw me into hatred and
suspicion of the people, as though this dealing for peace were
procured by me. But, for the matter, I shall I hope deal well
enough. For this treacherous usage of her Majesty's secrets,
I wish you there to consider, for it cannot be but there be there
some very lewd and false persons." I trust her Majesty will not
think me negligent for not sending these men's resolutions more
speedily. You know their manner of delays. "I have now
brought it to a point and you shall receive shortly a resolution,
good or bad ... and though I wish a peace as much as any other,
yet must there be great consideration in the proceeding withal ;
lest you not only lose the love of the better sort of these countries
but her Majesty's honour be touched thereby ..."—Dort, 28
Postscript in his own hand. For your better information I
send the bearer over, only to inform you of the present estate and
what hath past. "Her Majesty chiefly, and I her poor minister,
have been very badly dealt withal by some of the States here.
You shall understand it at more length by the bearer."
Signed. Add. Endd. 2¾ pp. [Holland XVII. f. 215.]
"A collection out of the Earl of Leicester's reply of such principal
matters as the Lord of Buckhurst is to be charged withal."
Reply to Buckhurst's answer to point 2, first part.
That he [Buckhurst] procured one of the Counts "to give unto
him his doleances," and persuaded the States to send her Majesty
the last new accusation, promising that none but her Majesty
should see it, and saying that they had satisfied him and thereby
would satisfy her also.
Reply to point 5.
That he charged the Earl with dispersing a letter of Buzenval's
dangerous to the State, but which the said Earl protested he
had never seen, showing more care to allow of the States' dealings
than to defend the Earl from wrongful imputations.
Reply to point 7.
That he dealt maliciously as regards a letter written by the
Earl to his secretary Junius, charging him, by what he said
therein, to have sought the sovereignty, whereas the words were
as follows : "que je retourne p[ar de la en] (fn. 3) confidence qu'ils
feront cesser doresenavant [torn] et cederont une authorité
legitime, telle que [torn] administrer la souverainté dudit pays,
[whereby it appeareth] (fn. 3) the said Earl sought, not the sovereignty
but only the ad[ministration] of the sovereignty, without the which
there could be no form of government established in that
That he never or seldom conferred with the Council of State
but always with the most suspected men and those worst affected
to her Majesty.
Reply to point 8.
"That he received accusations aginst the said Earl and set
them down contrary to her Majesty's commandment, being
directed to charge the States and to reply to them in the Earl's
Reply to point 9.
That his allegation of the dispatching of Wilkes with the copy
of Junius's letter is untrue, as the original was taken from Junius
after Wilkes' departure.
Reply to point 10.
That he sent for two fellows who (as he heard) had reported
that Stanley had said he served the King of Spain by the Earl's
consent, and had passport from him ; and tried to persuade
them to put it down in writing, "thinking to have gotten some
matter against the said Earl." (fn. 4)
Endd. with date. 2 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 217.]
Another copy of the same, in the handwriting of Walsingham's
clerk, and corrected by Walsingham himself.
Endd. 3 pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 219.]
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
Is not very well, but is sending over the bearer Atye, who will
tell his lordship of the present state of affairs, "which is bad
enough."—Dort, 29 August.
Postscript. "I trust in God your lordship hath procured the
treasure to be sent 'or' this time ; or else you will be sorry to
hear of that is like to happen among our soldiers."—
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. ½ p. [Holland XVII.
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to WALSINGHAM.
There has been some discord between the commons and
magistrates of the town, touching their privileges, but both
parties are well affected to her Majesty and contented with the
augmenting of the garrison. Our greatest doubt is that our poor
people, for want of service money for the new companies and
of the soldiers' pay in general may grow to some sudden disorder.
"They do greatly desire that the garrison may be settled without
any more altering of companies, but for the number, they are
content, and in my opinion it were not good to diminish it."
If you will procure us speedy order for service money, and if
we may receive pay as heretofore, I hope to keep the garrison
in good liking with the townsmen, but if not, I am out of all hope
of the continuance of good affection to her Majesty or good
government.—Vlisching, 29 August, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 224.]
ORTELL to WALSINGHAM.
I should have been glad if your convenience had suffered me,
the other day, to have had more ample communication with you,
for I see here such dangerous opinions that if prompt remedy
be not applied, I fear they will bring about irrecoverable loss,
to the great advantage of the enemy, and shame and confusion
to ourselves. God knows how grieved I am, and what I have
done to calm the discontents, although some falsely charge me
with the contrary. But veritas temporis filia will bring all to
light ; will show who are honest people, and the States will
conform themselves to the good designs of her Majesty, which
now they so audaciously condemn. Which, as I have worked
for during long years, I desire still so to do, if her Majesty will
openly declare to me her will, I hope that my present services
may be no way inferior to those of the past.
But I must again pray you to inform her Majesty how much
it vexes me to see affairs fall into such decay and tumult, thus
by our divisions, opening to the unhappy designs of the enemy the
gates which by the wise guidance of the late Prince of Orange and
the admirable constancy of the country have been defended until
As the Estates General have commanded me to learn her
Majesty's good pleasure in regard to the reply to their letter
of the 15th instant, I pray your lordship's advice, whether I
should apply to her for it, or await her further resolution.—
London, 29 August, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holland XVII. f. 226.]
Aug. 30./Sept. 9
Discourse between his Excellency and certain of Gueldres,
Utrecht, Frise etc. [Margin : the Counsellor Cappelle of Gueldres
Caminga of Frise, the burgomaster of Leewaerden and Donselaer
Having audience on this date, in presence of the Counsellors
Killigrew and Beale, and Secretary Gilpin, the Counsellor of
Gueldres declared their intention to go at once to Rotterdam, to
try to induce the States of Holland to give satisfaction to his
Excellency, that misunderstandings might be removed, and
order given for the preservation of these countries, now in such
dangerous and pitiable terms ; praying his Excellency to await
the good reply which they hoped to bring ; with other discourse
in relation to the matter.
His Excellency replied by Mr. Beale that no one more desired
the welfare of these countries, or would more willingly employ
himself therefor, sparing himself in nothing, as effects might
testify ; but the indignities offered him touched too nearly the
honour of her Majesty and her people ; some being so impudent
as to talk as if she meant to put these countries into the hands
of the enemy by a peace, without regard to the words of the
treaty, and that he and those of his nation should be the instruments ;
with many other like false words ; a thing so far from
the gratitude they owe to her Majesty as cannot be endured.
Therefore he demands that such people be sought out and constrained
to answer therefor and that the States give order to
their provinces that in all places, these disturbers of the public
welfare be proceeded against in like manner. And the deputies
may be assured that if her Majesty should withdraw her good
affection from these countries, they would very shortly see how
impossible it is for them to defend themselves against so powerful
Also, they would find no one who would give them so great
succour, wherefore let them advise themselves and see that right
be done her against these unhappy persons, who are well enough
known, and if need were might be named and their deeds proved.
Adding moreover that Count de Hohenlo and other lords of
the country bear themselves very discourteously towards her
Majesty and concluding that in case they wished to ruin
themselves, his Excellency did not desire to be present, but would
commit them to God and take his departure.
Upon which the said deputies, thanking his Excellency for his
kind admonition, promised to endeavour to do all good offices.
Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVII. f. 230.]
M. H. to WILKES.
I have received by my man the discourse you gave him
concerning your affairs, for which I humbly thank you. They
are beginning here to be much softened in regard to you ; time
being partly the cause, which, as you know, cures all maladies,
joined to the difficulty in which we find ourselves owing to the
obstinacy of Count Hohenlo and the opposition and traverses
of the States, who seem to seek only means to tire out his
Excellency and make him drop this morsel.
Our troubles and quarrels will at any rate serve you as a justification,
at least to a great extent. It is true they say here
that without your practices his Excellency would have found
the States more tractable and the Conte de Hohenlo less fierce.
For myself I practise the ordinary device plus penser que dire,
but when I am with men capable of reason and void of passion,
I soon make them understand the truth.
Our affairs have never, for a year and a half, been worse than
now, and we are on the brink of a great disturbance ; for if he
is detested in England, he is not less so here. Inviso semel
principe, seu benè seu malè facta premunt. And what I predicted
concerning his friends, and those who have followed his fortune
here is come to pass ; for not one of them is a crown the better
for his coming, and poor Mr. Donellus is not re-instated. If he
had been, I should not remain here half a day longer ; it is only
this matter which keeps me here, for I do not wish to be called
ungrateful or disloyal to my friends. Immediately afterwards
I shall follow your advice, for indeed I also cannot see the ruin of
this State and the discontent of so many honest men whom you
and I have kept together in good will and at the devotion of his
Excellency, in expectation of his return and acknowledgment.
The States offered him yesterday the proposals they had resolved
on ; viz : to retrench part of his authority, and that he should
no longer use his name and his arms on placcards and commissions.
Also that he should send from him those who are not agreeable
to them. He is now about making his reply. I do not know
what it will be, but Atye and others are advising him to return
into England. My Lord North is going away discontented and
will soon be there. He thought to have the government of
Flushing, but I believe that is destined for another.
Monsieur, believe that your friends are always your friends
and have conceived nothing against you. Among others, M. de
Brederode is pleased to hear news of you. I thank you for your
kind offer, which I heartily accept, and assure you that I long to
be there, but I shall arrive as poor as ever ; rich enough, however,
if after six years of faithful service I can escape without danger.
I hope that my lord Buckhurst will remember me at fit time and
place, sed inhil urgeo, only I greet him, the General, yourself and
Mademoiselle your wife.—Dordrecht, 30 August, 1587.
"Vostre humble et très-affectionné serviteur qui connoissez, H.
Postscript. I pray you so to use this attestation that it may
not prejudice me. Mr. Gilpin is a good fellow, and I see daily
that they have done him wrong. Truly I know not why he is
in the same case as myself, and in fact his Excellency also in as
small esteem as the least of all his. I have ante-dated the attestation
and with reason.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2½ pp. [Holland XVII. f. 228.]
Aug. 30./Sept. 9.
JAN WYCHGERDE to WALSINGHAM.
I have been for some days indisposed. As I wrote you, I
paid the ransom of Robert Brydsys ; otherwise the Governor
would have hanged him, to terrify the rest of the prisoners into
paying heavier ransoms. [Repeats story of one English man
hanged and another drowned.]
Three days ago there came from the court a providore, Francis
de la Massa by name, who has brought money to Dunkirk to make
ships of war for a fleet.
As soon as he arrived he went to the harbour and examined
all the ships ; and it is said that he is come to arm some 20 or
30 ships of war for the service of the King. As soon as I know
aught of what is going on I will advise you of it. It is likewise
said that he will take all the ships of war from the private
ship-owners, for the service of the King. They must be intending
some enterprise, that they resolve to arm so many ships of war.
These private ships, ten in all, have, as they say, put out to-night
to prey upon whatever passes at sea.
I have come to Calais in the interest of my friend, Thomas
Jeffry, merchant, who is a prisoner at "Neyporte" and in a
grievous plight, with great irons on his legs. He is the same
man whom you sent to Calais four months ago, wearing a reddish
hat by your order. He is in great trouble, as the Spanish
presume that he is a spy, though with no warrant whatever,
knowing only that Monsieur Gordan [governor of Calais] wrote
some time ago to M. de Gronevall [Grunevelt] that spies sometimes
went and came to and fro from England ; and upon this suspicion,
they presume that all the English they take are spies. They
have no warrant save the letter of the governor of Calais. I hope
in God it may be possible to procure Jeffrey's discharge forthwith
from prison. I will do all possible diligence to that end. He
computes his ransom at 600 florins, with 100 florins more for
costs. I fear they will not let him go for this, but cost what it
may I will do all in my power to get him out of prison.
The Governor of 'Neyuporte' is worse than a Turk. He inflicts
a thousand tortures on the prisoners and has no conscience.
The camp remains before Sluys, with all the artillery and
munitions ; only some soldiers withdraw into the forts whence
they had been brought. Within are [only] some five companies,
so that it is anticipated that they will come suddenly some day
I have written to Lord Cobham about a certain affair of which
I could not write at large in Spanish. He will apprise you of it,
if you think well.
I pray you give the prisoner, Thomas Jeffry some assistance,
for he is in great distress.—Calais, September, 1587.
Spanish. 2 pp. [Flanders I. f. 321.]
BURGHLEY to DE LOO.
Yours of the 14th only reached me on the 25th. Her Majesty
liked well that the Duke "continued the expectation of our
commissioners to repair over" ; but having sent to my lord of
Leicester to inform him of her intention to proceed in this treaty,
and that he should move the States to condescend thereto ; and
also to advise him to send some person to the Duke, to know how
and when he would determine of a cessation of arms ... upon
these directions, her Majesty suspended her pleasure. Yet
within these four days, my lord of Leicester, by letters of the
18th instant (before he received the directions from hence) wrote
"how that of late the States, yea the vulgar people, have been
advertised from the Duke of Parma's ministers that the Queen's
Majesty hath already treated of a form of a peace ... without
any regard had to the States and people of the Low Countries,
and that to show proof thereof there were sundry copies of the
late safe-conduct sent hither by you, containing the special
names of the lords and counsellors as thereto named by her
Majesty ; and all these things being done without making the
States of the Low Countries privy thereunto, they are in a great
disliking of her Majesty and her government ; so as the Earl of
Leicester hath greatly been troubled therewith, specially for
that he never heard of this safe-conduct until it was brought to
his sight by divers of the States and by some vulgar persons."
On both points her Majesty looks for an answer as soon as the
wind permits passage, and therefore I have made no answer to
your former letters, nor has the Duke had answer for the same
cause, whereof she would have you make him privy ; and for
proof of her intention to continue, she has written to the King of
Denmark, "that because he sent to her Majesty to know her
liking for him to send some of his to the place of the treaty, she
thanketh him for his kind offer, and sheweth him that she mindeth
to have her commissioners this next month to be at Berghes up
Zoome, with hope to be treating of the peace before Michaelmas."
Besides this, she has stayed Sir Francis Drake and others from
going towards Spain, although order is not neglected for keeping
her own navy and other ships of war in readiness, "if either from
Spain she shall see cause given of hostility, or by breaking off
in the treaty there she shall see that reasonable conditions
may not be had, as well for the liberties and sureties of the Low
Countries, which she hath professed to defend, as for her own
The safeconduct sent must be altered, for her Majesty has
occasion to change some, and may change more. She rests
upon the Earl of Derby, Lord Cobham and Mr. Controller, but I
think Mr. Thomas Randolph will go in place of one of the others.
The safeconduct might be either general, or with these names,
and for two or three more without name.
"It is further to be considered by what commission the King's
ministers shall treat ; for if it be (as reason it should be) by the
King of Spain's own commission, then it is to be liked ; but if ...
in the name of the Duke of Parma, being but the King's general,
and therein as a subject, then it will be some great hindrance,
considering the Queen's Majesty's commission shall be authorized
by herself. Of this last point I pray you with all speed advertise
me, although I do hope I do make more doubt than shall be
needful, for your speeches and writings always were that the
Duke had full authority, by the words of bastantissima, which
cannot be interpreted but in the King's own name."
Holograph. Endd : "Ult. Aug., 1587. A copy of my letter
to And. de Loo, by her Majesty's com[mand] this forenoon, at
Otlands." 3 pp. [Flanders I. f. 325.]
THE PRIVY COUNCIL to LEICESTER.
Her Majesty, being informed by Sir Thos. Shirley that such
companies of her subjects (being near 2000) as serve the States,
are for want of pay reduced to great penury, whereby some have
fallen away to the enemy, and others departed without passport
into this realm, has commanded us to signify to your lordship
that if the States do not yield them speedy relief, you are to take
order to discharge them and send them home, saving such as are
meet to fill up the decayed bands there in her Majesty's pay.
And if they are not sufficient to furnish the said bands, these are
to be supplied out of those last sent over, that the numbers agreed
on by the contract may be kept complete. For the rest of those
lately sent over, she doubts not but that you will deal effectually
with the States for their payment.
Copy. Endd. "1587, August." 1 p. [Holland XVII. f. 185.]
"Money extraordinarily disbursed by Sir Thos. Sherley knight
since the order was agreed upon for the issuing of the treasure
sent into the Low Country in May last.
Endd. by Burghley's clerk "August, 1587 ..." and by
Burghley "out of 30,000l. sent in May." ¾ p. [Ibid. XVII.
An estimate of the several rates and charges of her Majesty's
forces in the Low Countries, as well according to the rates set
down by her Highness' first establishment, as also according
to the rates and list of the Lord General there, with their
In tabulated form. Total yearly charge 133,183l. 5s. 4d.
Differences per annum exceeding the first establishment 7004l.
Endd. by Burghley "August, 1587, Mr. Hunt's book for the
differences between the Queen's first list and the Earl of Leicester.
¾ p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 234.]
"A brief estimate of the bestowing of the 30,000l. extraordinary ;
the precise certainty whereof cannot so suddenly
be set down" : i.e. for levy and imprests of the new bands, and
imprests to councillors and officers of the field ; weekly loans for
all the bands ; pay to certain English companies in their extreme
necessity, and for transportation, victuals, armour, munition
and other such necessary charges.
Total, 23,497l. 18s. 10d.
Endd. by Burghley's clerk with date etc., and by Burghley "from
my lord of Leicester." ¾ p. [Ibid. XVII. f. 236.]
"The names of the chief officers and captains serving her
Majesty in the Low Countries since 11 October 1586 till this
present day. Aug. 1587."
The Earl of Leicester, Lord General.
Dr. Clarke ; Henry Killigrew ; Thos. Wilkes. Assistants in
Richard Huddilston, Esq. ; Sir Thomas Sherley successive
Treasurers of the army.
Thomas Digges, muster-master.
Officers of Flushing.
Sir P. Sidney ; Sir Wm. Russell successive. Governors.
Nicholas Errington, marshal.
Wm. Burlacy, Henry Astley successive, general porters or
Ric. Gwynne, provost marshal.
Ge. Maddock and Ed. German successive, clerks of the munition.
Ed. Burnham, water bailiff.
Wm. Thomas and James Spence, master-gunners.
Officers of Brill.
Sir Thomas Cecil and the lord Burgh successive. Governors.
Thos. Bamburgh and — successive, marshals.
Ric. Paine and — successive, provost marshals.
Tho. Westrop and — successive, general porters or serjeant-majors.
Wm. Fosse, clerk of the munition.
Jo. Winter and Andrew Bassano successive, water-bailiffs.
Gregory Gibbes and — Thomas, master gunners.
The Lord Lieutenant-General (200) : Sir Wm. Pelham ; The
Earl of Essex ; Sir Wm. Russell ; Sir Thomas Cecil and Sir
Wm. Knollis successive ; Lord North ; Sir Jo. Norris ; Sir Ro.
Sidney, Sir P. Butler (each 100) ; Michael Dormer and Thos.
Shirley (each 50) till March 1 ; then Shirley 100.
The Lord General ; Sir P. Sidney and Sir Wm. Russell successive ;
Sir Thos. Cecil and Lord Burgh successive ; Sir Wm.
Reade (cassed Nov. 12, 1586) ; Sir Wm. Pelham and Capt.
Hill, ab. 11 Nov. 1586, "to supply Sir Wm. Reade's cassed
band" ; Henry Isley and Ed Cromwell, usque 12 Nov., 1586 ;
Oliver Lambert and Maurice Dennys, ab 11 Nov., 1586 ; Rowland
Yorke and Ric. Wingfeld successive.
Sir John Burgh ; Sir Henry Norris ; Sir Ed. Norris ; Avery
Randall ; Ric. Huddilston and Sir Tho. Shirley successive ;
Charles Blunt, Sir Wm. Waller ; Sir Ro. Sidney ; Col. Morgan ;
Tho. Knollis ; Francis Darcy ; Tho. Vavasor ; Jo. Scott ; Tho.
Maria Wingfeld ; Nicholas Errington ; Arthur Brett ; —
Holmes ; Sir Wm. Knollis and Sir John Conway successive ; Sir
Roger Williams ; Tho. Baskervile ; Turvile and Vere successive ;
[Edm.] Bannester ; Hart ; Ant. Wingfeld ; Roberts and Ant.
Shirley successive ; Degory Hender ; Dl. Powell ; Ed. Uvedall ;
Kersey and Francis Littleton successive ; Wilson ; Price ; Ed.
Huntley and Sir John Wingfeld successive.
Endd. by Burghley's Clerk "Aug., 1587." 3½ pp. [Holland
XV. f. 191.]
"Discourse by Sir John Norreys to the Queen.
Although it may seem overbold in a subject to advise a princess
of her Majesty's wisdom and experience, and with a Council of
so rare skill ; yet he ventures to offer her his ill-digested opinions,
remitting them always to the censure of her "far more perfecter
It is suspected by many that she is so troubled by the backward
proceedings in the Low Countries that she wishes to withdraw
from them altogether, in respect of the small success and her great
expence in the two years of her assistance, from 10 January, 1585,
"to the 10 of this present August, 1587" ; her whole charge for
this time having been 812,000l. ; whereby most of the countries
have been defended, yet there has been lost by siege and treason
seven strong towns, besides forts and castles. The greatness of
the charge might well amaze a prince of no small magnanimity ;
yet when she considers the state of her own kingdoms, the nature
of her enemies, the diversity of humours in her subjects and the
small hope to secure herself by pacification, she will find that it
behoves her decide which course to take—peace or war. The
way of peace is most agreeable to her nature and fittest for the
state of her countries and people because their wealth comes from
trade, the interruption whereof may impoverish her subjects,
and "draw on some dangerous inconvenience" to her estate.
If then she resolves upon peace, she must consider how and with
what security it may be had. It is not to be doubted but that
the King of Spain will yield her any reasonable conditions, if
she severs herself from the United Provinces. It is most assured
also that the Prince of Parma "will most willingly embrace the
proposition of the treaty as a high way to the disunion of the
provinces, and whereby he hath of late time greatly prevailed.
For the like proposition by the Emperor a few years past was the
cause of separation of Artois and Hainault, and undoubtedly a
new treaty will hazard the division of Guelderland and Friesland,
by reason that these weaker provinces will not willingly depend
upon the peace of Holland, lest (by experience it is daily seen)
they [i.e. Holland] should have greater respect to their own
private commodity than to the general profit of their neighbours."
But how she may do it with honour and safety must be considered.
For her honour will be brought in question if she forsakes those
whom she has bound herself by treaty, on the word of a prince,
to uphold, and if she do forsake them, the Spaniard will in a very
short time become lord of them. And they making their peace
to their ruin and overthrow, how her Majesty's safety may be
promised, every man of judgment who has seen the offences
ministered to the Spanish King and his subjects by her Majesty
and her nation will easily conjecture.
"The King of Spain is a Prince most lift up with pride of any
prince of Europe, assisted by a Council most sufficient in policy
and experience .... himself a man that constantly or rather
obstinately doth hold his purposes and resolutions, and one
who long ago had promised to himself the monarchy of the world
if the wars of the Low Countries had not restrained him." Prays
to call to mind his practices for invasion of her kingdoms and
corrupting of her subjects ; the instruments he has used, as
Mendoza, his ambassador ; Antonio 'Gurra' [i.e. de Guaras]
and Pietro Cubiera ; also to bethink her of the Holy League,
of which that King is the head, and of the malice of the Pope,
whose thirst for her ruin will never be satiated.
And in her own countries, asks her to look at the numbers
of ill-affected Papists, Atheists and malcontents, and the impoverishment
of the common people, "whose living hath only
depended upon the working of wools and making of cloths."
But as the Spanish King can only attack her by sea, so can he
not in all Europe get ships and mariners enough for his great
forces so long as her Majesty can hold him from the possession
of Holland and Zeeland, which he may attain either by peace
or conquest ; and although her Majesty may promise much for
her defence by reason of the greatness of her Navy and the warlike
shipping of her subjects, yet with the addition of but one of these
provinces (which alone are able to furnish more ships and mariners
than all the realm of England) her Majesty will be in danger "of
two notable inconveniences," the one to be overmatched at sea
and the other, to have the trade of her subjects utterly overthrown
in all places. For from Holland and Zeeland, he can not only
cut off the traffic of her merchants with Embden, but impeach
them from trading with Hamburg, Bremen, Elbing and the rest
of the Hanse towns, all of which fear to offend him, and are not
unwilling to assent to what may hinder the trade of her merchants
in those parts, while the States themselves have refused access
to her said merchants and trade into their own towns and have
practised with the Emperor and princes of Germany to 'seclande'
them from traffic in the Empire.
"It is also to be noted how, in this late dear time, the States,
by force of their shipping gave leave to the most part of Europe
for transportation of grain from Dantzic ... insomuch as the
French, Hamburgers, Bremers and Emdeners were fain by
submissive ambassadors to entreat permission of traffic, and
content to pay for convoy of such corn as they should licence to
come to them, whereby it may be observed ... what subjection
they will hold their neighbours in when they shall be countenanced
with the greatness of Spain."
If her Majesty should secure herself either by retaining
the towns of Flushing and Brill for answering of the moneys due
to her, or should make a peace apart, she must first "forsee"
what the charge will be of manning the garrisons and maintaining
a navy to keep the seas for their defence, which will be, in effect
as much as the whole charge of her succours, while how dangerous
it would be thus to leave the countries to the mercy of their
enemies is shown by the reasons already alleged.
It is often said that the French King and princes of Germany
would not suffer the Spanish King to grow so great ; but whosoever
looks into the state of France and sees the insufficiency
of that King, the party the Spaniard has there by the Duke of
Guise and his faction, and the divisions in the country from the
civil wars, will not find that any of them could stop Spain's
growing greatness ; "and as for the princes of Germany, how
cold and careless they are thereof is sufficiently known to all
[Further arguments as to the difficulty of securing a good
peace ; as the present strength of the enemy and the state of
feeling in the Low Countries.] Assurance is made that the King of
Spain will withdraw his forces to the frontier towns ; but from
thence, he can at any time draw them again into the countries ;
he will assent to the maintenance of the ancient privileges, but
there be many which he will never allow and especially the point
of religion, without which her Majesty may rest assured the
States and people of the Religion will never stoop to a peace.
[Discussion of the difficulties which would arise on all sides when
the terms came to be settled, and the hatred which will grow up
in the provinces against herself.] And there is no small hazard
that the States would prefer to make their peace without her,
leaving her to incur the resulting perils alone, which she "may
not think but that the Spaniard would be glad and ready" to do.
Earnestly prays her further to weigh the matter. God has
blessed her with a people valiant, wealthy and powerful. The
loss of Sluys is not of such importance that it should discourage
her from proceeding in the defence of those countries ; it is
recoverable, or at any rate may be made useless to the enemy
by building a fort upon the 'every' of the haven. Begs her to
measure the necessity of her preservation with the weight of
her purse and the wealth of her subjects. The yearly charge is
little when divided amongst them, who will be glad to buy their
security at so easy a rate. She has still the liberty of the sea
for her trade to Hamburg, Emden and elsewhere, who if they
see her resolute in defence of herself and the Low Countries will
yield to any reasonable demand for the establishing of the trade
of her subjects within their countries, whereas now they fear to
offend the King of Spain, being out of hope to be defended by
Holland and Zeeland were never so rich as now, and might
easily be induced to a further contribution, to which may be
added the brandtschatz of Brabant, Frise, Flanders, etc., all which
would pay sufficient garrisons for defence of the towns as well
as a force for the field.
The dissensions among the provinces, grown by lack of common
justice, infringing of their privileges etc., or maintaining of
factions, will vanish when the cause is removed, which must be
either by her Majesty or by the wisdom of a governor grateful
to them, for so long as they either fear or hate their governor
there will be no hope of agreement either with him or among
Fears he has been both too long and too plain in this discourse,
yet the necessity of her Majesty's estate and the duty he bears
to her have moved him thereto and the benignity of her nature
leads him to hope for her gracious acceptance and pardon.
15½ pp. [Holland XIX. f. 288.]