LEICESTER to THE QUEEN.
"As I was not careless or negligent of your Majesty's service
before the receipt of your letter by Atye, so have I not failed
since to endeavour myself by all the means I can devise to work
you satisfaction in the matter I am so much blamed for. And
as I had dealt, besides the General States, with divers towns
particularly . . . so do I not doubt but it shall in very few days
appear to your Majesty that I have done my full duty in bringing
your desire with your great honour and good liking of all these
people to pass. Albeit I must assure your Highness that there
hath been as subtle and lewd dealing by some of the States to
withdraw men's minds here from you and to seek other devices
than your advice or help for them as might be. But all will turn
to the best for your Majesty's purpose, for the States do plainly
find that their practices will not hold and the rest of the country
have discovered them too much, and therefore they mind now
to make show of very ready good-will to join with your Majesty
to treat for a peace. But how many fetches and devices they have
used to impeach it shall be manifestly known also unto you, and
yet to this hour they hold it disputable among them whether it
be better for them to join with your Majesty in treaty or to offer
to treat by themselves ; and very unhappy arguments have
they made to persuade men to think they shall speed better
without your company than with it. But the wiser and honester
sort do acknowledge that they are able neither to make good war
nor good peace without you ; and stand constantly in that
opinion, as I have had the testimony thereof of numbers of them
from their own mouth ; and therefore the States must now needs
yield speedily to give their answer. Among other their persuasions
to the people this is one, and of all doth work most,
and that is that your Majesty hath appointed certain commissioners . . .
to treat of that peace that be already much addicted
to the peace and hath been dealers in it already to further it.
The dispositions also of the parties be made worse than there is
cause. But some of these men will spare no device to hinder
this course of yours for peace. Albeit they be never so unable
to maintain their war. And though perhaps your Majesty may
think I would herein say somewhat for myself, yet neither for
myself nor for the world will I abuse you willingly. But this I
must say : that your Majesty hath won as great honour and
love among this people by the manner of your proceeding with
them as they can any way look for to get almost by the matter
you offer unto them ; for your manner of dealing they take most
kindly, and hath cut the throats of the contemptuous practicers,
for the people are all resolved to run your course absolutely both
for war or peace, and will commit into your hands themselves,
their goods and country. And albeit peace was an odious name
to them heretofore, yet coming from your Majesty as it doth,
you shall hear it will be very thankfully embraced, and none
more willing thereto than I find the protestants. Yet must I
tell your Majesty how the States have used this matter which I
proposed unto them touching your inclination and motion for a
peace, notwithstanding that I did write particular and special
letters to all the towns in every province . . . they did so handle
the matter as, but in some few special towns, the rest never came
to the knowledge of your declaration ; and yet . . . I caused
two thousand at least to be printed, that, if such a practice were
used, that by that means the people might know it, and but for
that they had not heard of it ; which way also they did as much
as was possible to prevent, for all towns had warning to intercept
and conceal all those printed letters. Yet were the States content
that a false and an untrue report should be published from place
to place against you, that your Majesty of yourself would have
a peace, and had contracted and agreed with the enemy without
acquainting these countries withal, so little regard had they of
your honour, although they had just cause to think the contrary.
And howsoever your Majesty had forgotten this manner, it
proceeded from yourself to me by all your instructions, as I trust
by this you are persuaded by Mr. Beale. If otherwise it had been
left to me, I would rather have wished never to have liked them
to see your Majesty's honour any way touched for want of so
just and reasonable a circumstance to be used as this was. And
I doubt not but since your Majesty may now proceed with the
good consent and liking of your friends here, it will please you to
take that honourable course every way which may not only
bring you quietness but assurance to continue for ever these
countries people at your devotion.
"I will not trouble your Majesty with the whole declaration of
the cause of these States thus dealing to keep the people in war,
more for their own profit and rule than any care of their country or
love to their commonwealth. Their late platform, laid by faction
and conspiracies, doth evidently show it, all which they maintain
and continue till this day ; which is only to stablish a popular
government, and are persuaded, if they might continue this trade
one ten months, they would bring it to pass, and no doubt would
have gone near it, if they had had the wit to consider sufficiently
of your goodness. But the words your Majesty did use to themselves
against that government hath caused them to draw into
some other course which faileth in that you fail sooner than they
looked for. The whole story of this, your Majesty must hear
at more length than I may here trouble you withal, but upon
this, your wisdom can conceive much of the rest, and Mr.
Beale cannot be ignorant of this platform and the foundation
they now lay. But your treaty and the joining of the people with
you doth greatly disappoint them. . . ." "From Utrecht, where
there hath been somewhat to do by the practice of the States."—
"Your most faithful and most obedient servant and eyes
[drawn]. R. Leicester."
Postscript. I am now informed "that there be some of the
States that secretly do all they may to make the people conceive
that their best peace must be without your Majesty, and that
they have already had some conference herein with the enemy ;
which I am promised shall be discovered and the doers known ;
but I think they will hardly bring it to pass, and I will lay good
watch for it. It is most certain that this question hath held
hard dispute among the States already, and not yet closed."
Holograph. Add. Endd. Seal with crest. 2¾ pp. closely
written. [Holland XVIII. f. 217.]
LEICESTER to the COUNCIL OF STATE.
Counsellor Valcke has communicated what he had charge
to say to me upon my last, whereby I demanded that the States
should avow or disavow the actions of the Count of Hohenlo, viz.
that you had put off communicating my said letters to the States
for certain good reasons, and that you were not sure of the proof
of what was imported by them. I have since shown to the said
Counsellor what the Count is doing ; having called from Naerden,
Vianen and other places round about such soldiers as he pleased,
and given such orders as seemed good to him ; has sent patents
under his hand to the horse companies whom I had commanded
to go with Col. Schenck, upon which La Sale has gone to him
without giving me any notice, and urged other companies to go
with him. These others now demand to be paid like those who
serve in Brabant who, as they say, are paid three months more
than the rest, or to withdraw towards Brabant, where they may
be entertained and assured of their discounts.
Into Bommel they have put as much garrison as they pleased ;
at Hedel, have demanded much money, at Lillo, they refuse the
companies whom you have ordered thither. And in general, to
keep the companies in hand, they promise them their discounts
without further action ; of which things I am well informed, but
do not wish to speak at present. I should know very well how
to provide for all these things, but as it is the pleasure of the States
thus to let the service and repose of the country suffer, one must
let it alone.
I desire you to dispatch the provisions for Col. Schenck, for
although the soldiers have marched, it is upon my word that the
provisions should follow them.
The States General inform me that they remit whether Meppen
shall be held or not to my decision and yours ; wherefore I desire
your opinion as soon as possible.
I send you a note exhibited to me by the Count of Mœurs, for
payment of his charges in the journey to the reiters desiring you
to let me have your answer. Also a request from the widow of
the late commissary Heernkins, that you make what provision
for her you think fitting.
I have informed M. Valck that her Majesty—having seen the
delays of the States, and that they cannot be induced to make up
their minds as the needs of the country require, also seeing that
the Prince of Parma continued to solicit her to listen to some
agreement—desired to know what was to be hoped for from his
advances, and that to this end the States should join some
commissioners to hers, to enter into communication with those
of the Prince ; upon which I believe he would agree to this being
done in some town of the United Provinces, if the Estates so
desire ; her Majesty assuring them of her determination to treat
with as much sincerity and care for these provinces as for herself
and her people, and that if the peace cannot be made under good
and just conditions, she will not leave them without her aid and
defence. As this is an affair of consequence I have desired Counsellor
Valck to consult with you how best to put it before the
assembly of the States, requiring you to give him credence as to
myself, and send me your opinion therein with all the speed you
may.—Utrecht, 12 October, 1587.
Copy. French. 2¾ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 219.]
DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
Having answered your lordship's letters (the last of the 26th
ult.) I will now only say that yesterday, the secretary Cosimo
informed me that the Duke wished for copies of both your last
letters. He took them and asked me what news there was.
None (said I) save that the ordinary from London which reached
Antwerp on the 18th of September announced that the deputies
were getting ready. Then (said he) his Highness must go into the
field ; I remarked that I did not know what more I could do ;
he said, Some one will suffer for it. Without doubt he is ready
to set out any day, for a friend of mine, an Italian captain, has
told me that the Duke is urging all to get ready, without their
knowing whither they go. When his Highness has left here, I
intend (with permission) to return home, after nearly six months'
absence ; and to bring the matter up later since it appears that
God will not [now] favour further progress.—Brussels, 3 October,
1587, stilo antico.
Add. Endd. by Burghley as received on the 12th. Italian. 1 p.
[Flanders I. f. 349.]
"Money imprested and paid out of his Excellency's treasure
for the services in the Low Countries from 11th October 1586
till 4th October 1586 [sic] stil. Anglican, which is to be reimbursed
to his Excellency by the Estates accordingly."
"Imprests to divers and sundry captains and soldiers
in the Estates pay Sum total
Further list Sum total
"Secret services and intelligences.
"Carriage by land and water in these countries
"Entertainment and pay for 50 lances
Further statement of "Money imprested and paid out of his
Excellency's treasure from 4th October 1586, till 4th October
1587 stilo veteri, and to be reimbursed . . . accordingly."
"Imprested to divers and sundry captains, officers and soldiers
in the States' pay [not the same as above].
To divers and sundry servitors and soldiers out of
her Majesty's pay Sum total
Armour and other furniture delivered out of his
Excellency's armoury to those in the States pay
Charges by land and water in these countries.
Transportation of his Excellency
Secret service and intelligences
"Sum of all the payments [in both lists] as before
Endd. "Sums of money disbursed for the States." 3¼ pp. in
all. [Holland XVIII. f. 224.]
"Sums of money disbursed out of her Majesty's treasure to the
use of the States, anno 1585 and 1586.
Under the following headings :—
Money due by the States upon an account with Sir
Officers in garrison
Imprests made to the footbands
Imprests to horsebands
Levy and transportation
Pension (to Capt. Emanuel Luker)
Extraordinary charges "To Sir Philip Sidney for his
charges about the surprises of Axel and attempt
Sum total of all sums issued out of the Queen's
treasure anno 1585 and 1586
Money disbursed (as above) 1587.
Payments to divers English captains and their companies
of 150 men apiece
Imprests to divers English captains in the States'
Ditto to divers captains, strangers
Charges of coat, conduct and transportation
Charges of carriages
Payments to the cannoniers
Sum total of payments in 1587
Sum total of all the payments contained in this
book anno 1585, 1586, 1587
Endd. 4½ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 221.]
SIR JOHN CONWAY to WALSINGHAM.
Asks his help in the Rostwick case.
Mr. Bourne called him in hope of being backed by the lord
Chancellor, to answer a fraudulent deed against her Majesty.
Wishes both Mr. Bourne's daughters were free from husbands
of his blood, had rather part with both than one for many
Thinks it very strange to be bound in 4000l. to abide the Council's
order ; hopes that when they have well digested the cause,
they will think it a reasonable thing for him to enjoy the young
gentlewoman "unless by a friendly course she be sought at my
lady."—Ostend, 5 October, 1587.
Postscript. I have a man here, one Savell, a seminary priest
or a Jesuit, a very dangerous fellow. (fn. 1) I took him by a great
chance, going towards the enemy's camp. "He hath to carry
into France and these countries a great many of relics as he calls
them ; the bones, sinews, flesh dried and such like of traitors
which have lately suffered in England. He confesseth they should
be delivered to Charles Arundel, to the Lord Paget, to the Lord
Westmorland and others, and notes in writing. I have a little
moved him to tell me truth of such questions as I have propounded. . . .
He stands sworn to conceal their secrets which
have put him in trust and therefore desires to be excused to
answer to anything upon oath." His Excellency orders me to
send him to him and he will send him into England.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 229.]
SIR WILLIAM PELHAM to WALSINGHAM.
I thank your honour for your letter by Mr. Atye, and "am
the more pressed to follow my suit . . . when I see it is not my
hard fortune alone, but rather a common cross to all professing
war. For mine own retiring into some corner of the world . . .
my age may challenge that contented quiet, as one no further
profitable ; but for that worthy gentleman whose ability may
much advance the service of his country, I am more sorry than
[Concerning one Mr. Jorden, a young gentleman serving in his
company of horse and his reconciliation to his father, commending
his gentlemanlike carriage and good government of himself]. I
beseech you to continue your good disposition towards him.
His desire to see service and be made more able to follow his
country's wars has been constantly maintained so long as hope
to learn ought remained ; and now, he has obtained licence to
return.—Utrecht, 6 October, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 233.]
"Answer of the nobles, gentlemen and most towns of Holland
and West Friesland to the Declaration of his Excellency, made
to the States General at Dordrecht, the 7th of September (sic),
1587. (fn. 2) Imprinted at Delph etc."
MS. Copy in English. 22 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 235.]
SIR JOHN CONWAY to WALSINGHAM.
After closing my letters to my Lords of the Council I received
by a boor of Bridges and a drum, who came about prisoners, a letter
to me and one to Captain Brackenbury, which I thought good
to certify to your honour and to my lords. The letter I have
sent to his Excellency. It is to the following effect :
I understand that my letter of Sept. 29 could not be read,
therefore I now write the contents. What wanteth here you will
find in Capt. Brackenbury's letter.
There is a traitor here who by means of a boor that I well know
sends letters to La Mote and to the Prince ; the which boor,
according to promise has brought me a letter in French, with
certain marks thereby. I would I knew how to send it you,
though with danger of my life, for I doubt it is of some great
matters. "If it were in Flemish I would write it in this manner,
and to translate it as yet I find not the man which I dare trust.
"I writ you of the clerk of the Grave Barlemount's regiment,
how that I hope to work him to do us some good service, and how
that I received much news from him, and that I thought twenty
crowns would be well deserved . . . that Mr. Cofferer oweth
me." I received it by your messenger, with your letter. I also
wrote in the letter that could not be read "of a high Dutchman
that was governor of Axell when it was taken. His name is
Melshard van Shenochs. The Grave Barlemount and the Grave
of Arenborch do expect great service from him."
I wrote too of the great preparation of shipping, great and
small. All the ships' carpenters in these parts have gone to
Antwerp. More than 300 French mariners have arrived. Here
is baked much of biscuit and bread, and there is great store of
meal, and all manner of things and more than 2000 saddles and
bridles made ready. Every day there arrive fresh soldiers and
it is reported that the Roysters are coming with eight regiments
of High Dutches. All the Dutches and Walloons are drawn out
of the garrisons and Spaniards placed there through all Flanders.
Here is true news from France that all the horsemen sent by
the Prince are overthrown, and not three men escaped. The
lord of Maldynghame is slain, with divers other men of account.
I pray you make no doubt to sign the passport I send, "for I
know presently to confiscate his passport, his ships and goods, and
that by his own default." He is a traitor, but has saved my life
by disclosing to me the treachery, though more to safeguard
his debt than to do good. I have promised the boor 50 gulden
for his service, also his liberty if he should be taken with you, and
have given him the twenty crowns you sent me. Give me a few
days before you send, that I may bring you some certain knowledge
how they mean to proceed. Look well to your town, and
to such small boats as come to your 'key.' Stand upon strong
watch and guard.—In Bridges prison, 16 October, 1587, stilo
novo. Yours in true haste and service, Tho. Trent.
In Conway's writing throughout, and addressed by him. Endd.
"From Tho. Trent" [sic]. 2 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 231.]
LORD WILLOUGHBY to WALSINGHAM.
"By the last I sent you an advertisement of defiance that was
in terms betwixt the Marques and us of this garrison, and what
I conjectured the cause to be. Now, to convey from himself
the dishonour, he mistaketh the trumpet's message, and supposeth
it to be sent from us, which was never intended." For
Sir Richard Bingham, Sir William Drury, Mr. Chidley, Mr.
Vavasour and myself, accompanied with some eighty lances . . .
sortied four English miles without thinking of anything but to
entertain fight with them till our foot came to us ; about 300,
led by the Serjeant-Major General.
As such a matter cannot but be published, I write this to give
you full satisfaction, and send you a true copy of the Marques's
letter and the trumpet's protestation.
Here are no other intelligences worthy of telling you. "His
Excellency is gone into North Holland, the States are yet far
off and untoward, and our wars grow cold with the season of the
year." To-day the Duke of Parma musters his camp at Turnhout ;
likewise his mariners at Antwerp. It is thought they will
rise presently after.
"What may concern peace or wars is best known to you, from
whence we here must look for either, but it is high time for some
thorough resolution, because delay may give advantage to break
off with great danger that which yet seems easy to be treated of."
—Berghen op Zoom, 7 October, 1587.
Postscript. Sends "such mean advertisements as are brought
him by one of his espials.
Holograph. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 248.]
(1) THE MARQUES DEL GUASTO to LORD WILLOUGHBY. (fn. 3)
Acknowledges his of the 4th instant. The trumpet told him
of Willoughby's coming out with 50 horsemen, to signify that he
did not wish to fight then as the Marquis's people were more than
his, but had presented himself with 50 horsemen, to break a lance
with an equal number. Told the trumpet his deep regret at not
having known this desire with which would most willingly have
complied ; and may add that he will take all possible means to
gratify their inclinations, when he could act, as then, without
leave of his General. Can say the like for many other knights
and soldiers. Thanks him warmly for the dogs being sent, and
will send in exchange something from his own country.
—Turnhout, 5 October [n.s.] 1587.
Copy. Italian. ¾ p. [Holland XVIII. f. 249.]
(2) "The protestation of John Baxter, trumpet to Lord
Being sent to the camp at Turnhout for the ransoming of some
prisoners taken the day before by the Marques of Guasta, marching
with 1500 horse towards Bergen, he was asked by the said Marques
why neither his lordship or any of the garrison would sally when
he presented before the town. Who answered that his lordship,
with 50 other gentlemen of quality sortied after them four or five
English miles, and marvelled much that the Marques, being so
many in number would not abide their coming, for they desired
nothing more than that he would do them the honour to encounter
The Marques then demanded if he thought his lordship with
some company of horse would meet him in equal number half
way between Turnhout and Bergen. Unto which he replied he
was assured of it, and that his lordship would give a hundred
crowns reward to him that should bring news of it. "Nay,
said the Marques, wilt thou be contented to abide here while in
the mean time I send my own trumpet to make the offer, and if
they will accept thereof, thou shalt have two hundred crowns, and
if not, fifty jerks with a rod." "Whereunto the trumpet answered
that he durst adventure his life for the acceptance thereof . . .
and therefore desires that he might be dispatched away, promising
forthwith to return with answer."
Whereupon the Marques willed him to let his lordship know
that they "did earnestly desire the accomplishment of this offer,
and would be ready to perform it in any number that should be
desired, from two hundred to thirty, without any ambuscadoes
or other policies or entrappings to be used on either side."
All these speeches were interpreted by a Dutchman, whom the
trumpet understood very well.
The trumpet having reported these things, was immediately
sent back with answer in writing "that the offer was accepted
for the number of fifty, and therefore required that the Marques
would confirm that under his hand which he had made offer of
by word, and withal to appoint the time, place and manner for
the performance thereof.
"Upon receipt whereof, the Marques flying from his former
offer, pretended to mistake the trumpet before and supposed a
message intended to be sent first unto him in that behalf, as by
his letter appeareth, and by that means seeketh to convey from
him the dishonour thereof, whereupon the said trumpet protesteth
that he never declared any such speeches as the Marques
by his said letter supposeth, but that the truth of the same was
in manner as before was declared.
Signed. John Baxter. 1½ pp.
General endorsement on the covering sheet : "From the Lord
Willoughby, touching a challenge between him and the Marquez
of Guasto." [Holland XVIII. f. 250.]
DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
Copy of his letter of Oct. 3.
The above is a copy of my last, sent by an express as also is this.
I find myself more and more out of countenance because nothing
is heard about the deputies coming, and I have no heart to
commit ourselves further, fearing to be flouted by all. Thus
I labour in vain to my great loss and the benefit of no one, losing
my reputation by saying so many things and no result following.
Whereupon I pray to be pardoned for resolving to take my way
homeward on Monday next, believing that there is no more hope
of any good ; it being in every one's mouth that her Majesty will
determine according to the issue of affairs in France, which being
still uncertain, it seems to me better to withdraw for the time, in
order not to land myself in further difficulties, by letting my house
and affairs go to utter ruin, while I am pointed at by malicious
persons as if ambition or reward had drawn me into this,
whereas on the contrary it would have been much more to my
advantage to have attended to my own affairs.—Brussels, 7
October, 15 October, stilo antico.
Add. Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Flanders I. f. 351.]
THE QUEEN to the STATES GENERAL.
Credentials for Sir John Herbert, one of the Masters of Requests,
whom she is sending over to communicate certain matters which
she believes to be for the good of their common affairs.
Copy. Endd. "8 October, 1587." French. ¾ p. [Holland
XVIII. f. 262.]
SIR JOHN NORREYS to LORD [BURGHLEY?].
My lord Willoughby inveighs against my leaving any companies
in evil state. As I have answered both the matter and almost
the same words, charged by my lord of Leicester and the mustermaster,
I need not trouble you with repetition ; yet "I cannot
but marvel why my Lord Willoughby doth object that since he
had my companies, he hath furnished them with arms, money and
meat, for if they wanted, it had been a very hard part for him to
have denied it, and appertained to him to do it ; and whatsoever
he hath lent them, I doubt not but he will see himself well repaid."
If he had so furnished them in my time, "then had the soldiers
been beholding unto him and I to be blamed" ; but it may be
doubted whether my lord will imprest 2000l. of his own amongst
them as I have done, since already he so exclaimeth of his spoil
and ruin for having disbursed some trifle.
"As for my lord's demands, I think he is so well acquainted
with the course of martial affairs as he will not look to receive
the pay of my companies before he had them, or at the least had
order to have them, and notice given thereof, either to me or to
the officers ; from which time I neither seek to hinder his lordship
nor ask it for myself, and for him to claim it before were an unjust
demand, for at my coming away, neither had he commission to
receive any of my companies nor I had order to deliver them, else
I would have delivered them up myself in such sort as they were ;
whereas afterward either for want of government or using authority,
they were suffered to disband."
It is without question that he may claim his entertainment
from the date of his commission if the words so bear it ; otherwise
it is at the discretion of the giver when it shall begin, but neither
of these can prejudice my being paid until my coming away, and
the matter is of small moment as the double pay of colonel and
his lieutenant will not exceed 180l.
For what pretendeth her Majesty's service, his lordship might
have thought more advisedly before charging me "with either
want of will or sufficiency to perform her Highness' service as
far as himself, whereof I trust I have made so good proof as I shall
not need to say any more, his lordship not being here to reply. . . .
If it be examined how other companies were left the last winter
and how mine were maintained, it shall then appear who had most
care of the service."
If there be anything else you desire me to answer, I shall be
very ready to do it, but rather by mouth than by writing.—
Mortlake, 8 October, 1587.
Holograph. Endd. 1¾ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 252.]
LANCELOT PARASIS to WILKES.
[Apologises for not writing before.] I have been mostly
abroad, either for the raising and mustering of the reiters, (of
whom we have not yet a single horse), and yet we ran great risk
of all being massacred, for on returning, the enemy had cut off
and closed all the passages, and followed us closely with 1500
horse and 2000 foot, while we were only about 900 horse, having
left our foot (about 1000) with a cornet of horse at Meppen, a little
town in Munster, which we had surprised in passing. It is of
importance, as it furnished all the victuals (being the receptacle
for all the 'Lordendrayers' of Bremen, Hamburg and Emden) for
those of Grüningen, Coewarden, Lingen, Zutphen, Deventer and
other towns of the enemy. Secondly, I have not dared to do so,
for reasons which you can better judge than I can write. However,
I have done all I could in your defence both here and by
letters to the Sieur Ortel and also to Dr. Joseph Michaeli, that
he should tell M. Walsingham (whose familiar he is) that I and
two hundred with me will testify the good services you have
rendered for the defence and honour of his Excellency against
their letter full of calumnies of February 4, of which I now send
a copy. Nevertheless, I hear that her Majesty is entirely satisfied
as to all that has passed, for which I am very glad, and the
more so that I learn by your letters that you are shortly to return
hither, when I shall not fail, according to your desire to put
my son again into your service together with all else that is in my
power. [Thanks on his behalf.]
Never since the beginning of the troubles have we been in
such piteous state or in such perplexity as now ; by the divisions
and dissensions both between his Excellency and the States, and
between the latter and the nobles, so that I fear, if they do not
shortly give him better satisfaction, he will depart sooner than
we wish. Count Hohenlo will not be appeased, and has not yet
spoken to his Excellency, which grieves us much, for their dissensions
prevent our doing anything at all, and for consolation we
have only the grace of God and the good success of the King of
Navarre, to whom we pray God to give prosperity and victory,
that he may force his enemies to such a peace (which the King
and the Queen mother are now practising according to the letters
of M. de la Prée, the agent in France, of the 26 of September,
n.s.), as he shall find fitting for his own safety, the quiet of all
the faithful and the maintenance of the word of God and the
true Christian religion. His Excellency has also (by the Sieur
Killegrew, on the 10th of October) proposed a peace, on the part
of her Majesty, whereby all have been much amazed, seeing that
by his letters to Junius of Zeeland and those of Sept. 9 from
Dordrecht to the several towns, he protests the contrary. Nevertheless,
the States of Holland have withdrawn to Haarlem and
the others each to their own place to resolve thereupon.
I pray God to enlighten them to take such resolution that we
may live peacefully with liberty of conscience and free exercise
of the Reformed Religion.
But I fear, and am indeed assured, that the King of Spain will
never grant this, especially as fortune is now favouring him,
wherefore we may beat our brains in vain, and should do better
to use our utmost endeavours to make good war against him, in
order that we may obtain much better terms than now, when
we are under his feet.—The Hague, 18 October, 1587, stilo novo.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1¾ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 254.]
LEICESTER to THE QUEEN.
After dispatching my last from Utrecht, I came to Horne where,
notwithstanding some ill offices, I was honourably received and
found the people devoted to your Majesty. This I must impute
in great part to the faithful service of the governor Snoye. I
have said and written so much to you of this that I leave him to
your princely remembrance, for it is not common in these days
to find such a man.
I have remained here three days, to confirm the people in their
duties to your Majesty, and to withstand "the lewd and ungrateful
practices used to the rest of the towns hereabout, specially
Enchuysen, a town your Majesty hath often talked with [me]
of, and very desirous always to have had assured for you." I
have so far prevailed as to have their promises, by some of their
chiefest burghers to be wholly at your commandment ; "but the
States have been jumbling with them ever since they gave first
out your dealings for peace with the Duke of Parma . . . to draw
their good liking away, knowing that there was no one thing in
the world that would so soon do it." Yet upon the Declaration
set forth of the true manner of your dealing, they were well
satisfied again. Now just before my coming, they had a copy
sent them of my last earnest calling upon them to join with you
in treaty of peace "giving the people warning withal that I was
to come to them very speedily to abuse them and to surprise that
town for your Majesty through their governor's means, who was
wholly yours, . . . and having this town and some others in
these parts at your devotion that then your Majesty might compel
them and all the rest, with your cautionary towns already had,
to come to what peace you would."
On this they shut up all their gates but one and wrote praying
me not to come to their town, as they heard my coming was
to take their town and alter their garrisons. The day after I
came hither, they sent two of their officers to make the like request,
"whom I told that I was not so greedy to come to those
that were so light of credit, and that had offered such wrong to
me, being your Majesty's officer as I was, and yet their governor
also" ; and then declared how graciously you had dealt with
them hitherto and what causes moved you to hearken to an offer
of peace ; that you would deal for them as for yourself, and not
leave them destitute of help if they broke off for lack of good and
reasonable conditions. I also put them in mind of their great
necessities, which both your soldiers and their own felt to their
great smart, letting them understand how much you had spent
above all contracts and promises, and that to deal thus unthankfully
must cause less regard to be had of them. It was to be
marvelled at, I said, how they, to whom you had given so many
favours, could suspect you or your officers of surprizing a town
"when they would forcibly almost fasten their whole dominions
upon you and become subjects or what you would." But these
suspicions, I told them, could not touch your Majesty but were
their own most harm ; I was here at a place as good as their
town, and these people with many more content to put themselves
under your protection, either for war or peace and so sent them
away. A little later they desired to be heard again, praying that
I would forbear to give you knowledge thereof till they had been
at home and sent to me again. This was Saturday. To-day,
Monday, a trusty friend tells me they are all in arms in the town
and great division among them for showing such causeless distrust
of your Majesty, "saying that there is no cause to mislike with
your motion, for it is to prove whether a good peace may be
had or no . . . and to have a good peace they should be most
happy and next God bound to your Majesty for it." Within
two days we shall see the result. In the mean time I will go to
Medemblick, the next town to Enchyusen, which, with its governor
is at your Majesty's devotion, and do my best to recover Enchuysen
before I depart thence. Then, "having Flushing, Brill and
Utrecht (as you have) and these, you shall be able to bring the
Prince to better conditions and bridle these States of Holland at
your pleasure.... Your Majesty will still blame me for want of
their resolute answer but I protest to God I cannot bring them
faster on if my life lay upon it ; neither can I assure you to have
any certain answer this good while. They are full of shifts and
yet such for this matter as may ask toleration at their [sic. qy.
your] hands, for how hateful a matter peace hath been to the
generality almost of all these countries is well known to all persons,
and how lothsome a thing yet it is to all but to such as for love
and trust in your Majesty will conform themselves, I can sufficiently
testify. . . . For it doth concern them and their posterity
both in their lives and liberties, and therefore to be borne withal
if they take deliberation. . . . Every province and every
particular town's assent and advice must be had in this case, and
your Majesty can conceive how hard it will be for so many men's
minds . . . to be had in a short time. I am credibly informed
that the treaty in the Prince of Orange's time was seven weeks
after it was propounded before he could get their assents certified,
and I cannot tell how many weeks more before they could agree
upon the articles. . . . If it stood but upon holding up of hands
on the general resolution of some private towns, I could get
quickly hands and seals simply and wholly to commit men's
lives, liberties, lands and all into your Majesty's hands, as
Utrecht, Overyssel . . . these three or four good towns under
Snoye, and one whole province in Friesland called Oestergoe.
These, whether the States agree to join with your Majesty or no,
I know will take that course you do . . . and the town of Dort
I hear will do the like, for since my being there . . . they have
disjoined themselves from the rest of Holland and cometh no
more at their Assemblies. They made an open protestation
against the States for the slanderous reports against your Majesty ;
they have refused Count Hollock also to come into the town and
took in Sir Edmund Carie with his whole band, and doth entreat
them exceeding well. . . ."
I have sent to every province and great town to send me their
resolution apart, giving them all the reasons to induce them to
join with your Majesty that I could set down, and I know it
troubles the chief practisers among them, for they are not yet
agreed whether it be better to treat apart or join with you, there
is much cunning used to persuade men against trusting to your
Majesty, "and as many towns as they can bring to that mind
no doubts but they will."
I have troubled your Majesty overlong, but thought it my duty
to let you understand how things pass here and upon the first
next occasion will send an express messenger over. "In the
meanwhile, I will recommend my poor self to your wonted gracious
goodness, and to trust I am not worn out of your remembrance
altogether . . . whose hands and feet I humbly kiss."—Horn in
North Holland, Monday [blank] of October.
Holograph. Add. 3 very closely written pp. 2 small seals.
[Holland XVIII. f. 256.]
BURGHLEY to DE LOO.
As in my last of the 13th of last month I wrote that as soon as
we should hear from my lord of Leicester of his dealing with the
States for their consent to the intended treaty, you should know
her Majesty's further resolution, which has only been delayed
from lack of knowledge how the States were contented with her
intervention ;—you shall understand that Mr. Robert Beale,
sent from my lord at the Hague about the 21st of last month
only arrived on the 4th inst., being stayed at Flushing for lack
of wind. And now the Earl writes that he could only propound
her Majesty's intention to the States on Aug. 22 and then found
them so far from hearkening thereto "as they began of new to
give credit to former false rumours of her Majesty's conclusion
already past secretly with the Duke of Parma for the Peace.
Nevertheless, his L. did so far persuade with them as they
seemed to think better of her Majesty[s] intention, (fn. 4) but yet in no
wise they could absolutely allow of any reasons used by his Lordship
to them ; persisting fastly upon an old rooted opinion, which
was that whatsoever conditions of peace might be granted to (fn. 5)
them, the same would never be performed nor long continued,
whereof for proof they delivered many particular examples
passed of the violations of former promises by such as have governed
for the King in the times of (fn. 6) former treaties, wherewith the Earl of
Leicester was somewhat troubled, as he saith, how to answer the
same, not being perfectly acquainted how things had passed
before ; but insisted only upon the assurance of her Majesty's
Christian and princely resolution to move them to like of none
conditions but such as should manifestly maintain their surety,
whereunto they might give more credit because her Majesty
would be as ready to maintain hereafterwards in such state for
their freedom and liberty which (fn. 7) should be granted unto them by
the King of Spain at this Treaty as she hath been to defend them
from former violences offered unto them by the Spaniards. In
this sort of dealing with the States, his lordship spent five or six
days, and in the end, about the 15th of September, won of them thus
much, as that they would send to the towns and countries from
whence they were authorized to intimate this motion of her
Majesty, and the reasons used by the Earl of Leicester on her
Majesty's behalf to the furtherance thereof. And so his lordship
conceived some hope that as soon as time could serve for answers
to be brought from the several places, he should receive some
uniform answer from the States, agreeable to her Majesty's
motion. And for furtherance hereof, his lordship hath written
his own particular letters to a great number of the towns, both
of such as he thought would be induced hereunto, and to some
others whom he thought would be very obstinate or hard therein.
And since that time, as Mr. Beale doth inform us, his lordship
hath received answers from divers of them, expressing their
inclination, (fn. 8) with the condition of the assurance of her Majesty's
honourable constancy in procuring the performance and observation
of all such things as it should please the King to grant unto
them by her Majesty's means. And one particular thing I think
good to impart unto you ; that very many of good reputation
in those Low Countries make not their doubts for the observance
of the conditions that shall be granted unto them during the time
the Duke of Parma should have any principal rule in those
countries, but they do more doubt of their principal ministers,
whom the King may use hereafter in those countries ; such is
the good opinion conceived of the Duke for his own nature and
worthiness in all places, that he is a prince of honour in keeping
his promise, without respect of any glory or benefit. And to tell
you true, it is the only foundation which her Majesty maketh to
proceed in this treaty, against the opinion of very many, and also
an opinion that she hath (though he be a great man of war) that
he is Christianly disposed rather to maintain peace than to raise
war ; whereof her Majesty looketh to make proof and experience
by this treaty and the consequence thereof."
My lord of Leicester hath moved her Majesty very earnestly—as
he did a fortnight past, though then not granted—to send some
special person of credit to the States to renew this motion, whereby
he hoped her Majesty might be fully satisfied ; for which purpose
she is sending Mr. John Herbert Esquire, one of her masters of
Requests ordinary, largely instructed and specially authorized,
not only to exhort and require, but to charge and command the
States, as they will have regard of her Majesty's favours past and
to come, to delay no more time, but to make choice of commissioners
on their behalf, "to be sent to meet those of her Majesty
at Berghes," for whose departure, in Mr. Secretary's absence, I
am ordered to make all things ready. "About which matters,
even this day conferring with some of them, being learned and
that have had experience in like former treaties, perusing that
which hath been accounted for a 'salveconduct' from the Duke
of Parma, and was sent by you hither for the commissioners'
surety to come thither, is not of such force as were requisite for
their persons and for so great a matter ; being indeed but in
form of a common passport ; for so also the title of the latter
writing sent hither by you, bearing date the 21st of September,
doth declare, being in the upper part entitled with these words :—
'Duplicat de pasport pour les Deputez d'Angleterre,' "wherefore
they and we here think requisite that it should be reformed to a
more princely manner of grant, for the honour both of the cause
and the persons. Therefore a form has been devised under the
Queen's hand and seal as a safeconduct for those named, on the
Duke's part ; the copy whereof I send that the like may be granted
by the Duke, in the King's name and under his seal ; adding the
names, titles and dignities of our commissioners to be inserted
therein, and praying you to hasten the same with all speed possible.
The original of that under the Queen's hand shall be sent
you to deliver to the Duke ; and our commissioners will not stay
their journey, "upon assured hope that the Duke will not deny
nor delay this reasonable request. . . .
"And because you may beforehand understand all manner of
obstacles that might impeach the good course of this action now
ready to be entered into, you shall understand that of very late
even since Mr. Beale arrived here, we have intelligence by many
ways out of Spain that there are mighty preparations of a navy
and army to the seas . . . and [the] most common reports be
that this army is presently to come to invade some part of the
Queen's dominions ; whereby we are in some sort brought to an
alarm, and I think her Majesty will be compelled to prepare
forces both by sea and land to withstand the same ; a matter
very impertinent at this time to the furtherance of a peace by
Therefore, I think when our commissioners come, if these
reports still continue, the Duke must be required, of his honour,
to promise her Majesty, either that he knows that the preparations
shall not be used against her, or that he will with all expedition
send to the King to know his meaning and to stay all such occasions
of doubt, considering his promise, " (fn. 9) that immediately upon
the meeting of the commissioners there should be a cessation of
arms ; whereof there will be little use, if it be not general, but
that their arms should cease, and wars really made upon England
[is] a matter not to be any wise allowed in time of treaty for a
peace ; whereof I pray you earnestly inform the Duke, and namely
Monsieur 'Champigny,' who is one of the principals named to be
in commission for the treaty. And if you can possibly, I require
you to obtain of the Duke presently in writing under his hand, an
assurance either of his knowledge that these preparations are not
nor shall be meant against any of her Majesty's dominions ; or
otherwise, if he be not able to assure the same, then at the least
that he will by his writing assure her Majesty that he will upon
his honour with all expedition send to the King his advice to stay
all hostile actions, or to have the King's answer, like a prince of
honour, whether he mindeth or no to employ those forces against
her Majesty ; which though in some construction may seem hard
to require of a King intending hostility, yet as the case is, when
her Majesty yieldeth to a cessation of arms and to a treaty of peace
with the said King, it is a request both reasonable for her Majesty
to make, and honourable for the King to grant it. And whilst
I am writing of this sentence, I am commanded by her Majesty
to write expressly to you to hasten an answer from the Duke to
this last point ; for even now, since I began my letter, her Majesty
is advised to be more sure hereof before her commissioners shall
cross the seas ; such are the frequent reports out of Spain of
these preparations ; and yet her Majesty will stand to the Duke's
answer if the army shall not be known to be actually prepared
against England ; which, if it should be, no man will think it
meet that her commissioners should come."
Below are written the names of the earl of Derby and Lord
Cobham with their titles, in Latin.
Endd. by Burghley : "10 Octobris, 1587. Copy of my letter
to Andreas de Loo from Rychmont." 8 pp.
Enclosed in the joint letter of the ministers, Oct. 15. See below,
under that date. [Flanders I. f. 353.]
LEICESTER to WALSINGHAM.
I only send you salutations, having directed my letters as you
willed me. "I am sorry for the cause of your absence, and still
more sorry for my abode here, because it toucheth myself, else
your case is as dear to me as any friend I have living.
"These countries are in a desperate case, and I cast into a
desperate action by the last dispatch by Atye, whose letters to
the States could not be delivered, for that they were all spoiled
and marred ; otherwise it may be, upon the unkindness I conceived,
I had delivered them. Which if I had, had undone the
whole service of her Majesty here ; so little care, I see, is had
there of the matters that concerns you so now. But I will learn
to do as I am bidden and commit all to God, who knoweth my
care and is witness of my loyal discharge of my duty, for at his
hands only I must look for any reward. The course I took is
misliked and condemned, and therefore to dispraise the other
will breed neither credit to me nor the cause ; but if her Majesty
had given me more credit, or not so hastily to have fallen into this
later form of peace, I doubt not but she had reaped greater honour
and more security than she is like to do. Yet will I with the
hazard of my life deal to preserve her honour, and uphold the
honest hearts I see here bent toward her.
"The Colonel Snoy is worth his weight of gold. He hath left
all the States and the Count Morryce, and openly declareth himself
for her Majesty. And yet there is not such another in all
these countries for true zeal to religion. He is now almost proscribed
by the States of Holland, who are the men that hinder
with hatred all things that appertain to her Majesty and disgrace
all men in every place where they can, that do love and affect
her. The end is they seek a popular government, which will never
be had here, and this last motion to hasten the peace hath enthroned
[?] Counts Morryce and Hollock in highest degree of
favour with all those that mislike her Majesty's course for peace ;
and daily they win more and more to them."
Her Majesty must send some one to make her mind plain, and
to let it appear (as I have now written to her) that the only cause
of her motion was that she saw these countries could not continue
the war ; and so was moved by compassion to propose what she
thought honourable and fit for a prince to yield unto, and yet
for the glory of God and their surety.
"For my 'none' part I will not now say what labyrinths you
have brought me into, and no man will I blame so much as yourself,
that so hastened me hither, where I am now in worse case
than ever, for this diffidence between H.M. and the States hath
wrought me quite out of credit with them. . . . Counts Morryce
and Hollock are canonized for their open contempt against the
peace, and her Majesty's dealing therein, and myself crossed,
to my great danger, in every place by them.—Horn, 10 October.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 258.]
THE QUEEN to the STATES GENERAL.
In commendation of the Sieur Ortel whom she has requested
to go over with [Sir John Herbert] to assist him in the negotiation
which she has committed to his care, to obtain a good and speedy
resolution, as the necessity and importance of the matter requires,
praising his careful and dexterous discharge of his office
in her realm and his efforts to remove or soften the bitterness
and misunderstandings which have at times arisen.
Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson. French. 1½ pp. [Ibid. XVIII.