LEICESTER to THE QUEEN.
After my dispatch of my former letter here arrived old Junius,
sent to your Majesty from Duke Casimir. His negotiation being
important, I haste him the more speedily.
Matters grow daily worse on the part of the States of Holland
towards your Majesty and me your officer, they seeking all means
to procure mislike. The only cause is the peace, to which some
are resolutely bent never to consent and have taken new oaths
that no consent shall be given without the agreement of the whole
assembled States. They are offended with all who give ear to
your motion ; and yet if you continue your first manner of
dealing, letting them know that their disability to continue their
war was the cause of your offer, and that you will not leave them
if they cannot have reasonable conditions granted. It is a great
matter to persuade them that you have done this upon their
necessity, "which the States would have otherwise conceived
by them : that your Majesty hath had long intention to make a
peace for yourself and useth all means now by these people to
bring it the better to pass and hereupon they ground their cause
of my mislike, and withstanding of your offer unto them, which
easily . . . you may otherwise conserve in them ; and no way
better than to send some one fully instructed from yourself,
either some new or your late counsellor here, Mr. Beale.
I beseech you to examine those ways which I have set down,
not to draw you from your resolution of peace, but to bring these
people to your desire "and pity so great a cause should be
hindered for lack of good handling.
"And I look for no other but a present garboil here in all places
and myself in good case, all your forces being discharged and upon
discharge that are here above the ordinary, and your ordinary
now little enough to keep your four places from the practice of
these men, who have procured a marvellous applause among
those people that favour not the peace and have all these country
soldiers at their whole commandment. The Count Morryce and
Hollock I mean, for they show themselves open champions against
all that will like of peace, giving it out that it is only a betraying
of these countries.
"Thus I must be troublesome to your Majesty . . . and,
humbly with pardon to beseech you that you forbear in your letter
to the States any hard words of reproach to them, and yet as
plainly as please you to show your mind ; for they be a crabbed,
proud, sullen kind of people, and intend to make this a popular
government without doubt.
"God bless you and defend you. Being ready to go toward
Medenblyck this Tuesday morning."—Horn, 11 October, 1587.
Postscript. "These men have already published their evil
liking of your constant, faithful servant Snoye. He is in utter
disgrace with the States now.
"I received even now word that there be certain ladies taken
going to Deventer by a Dutch captain, who they say are my Lady
Morley and another, the wife of one Morgan. I have sent in
haste to stay them, for that I hear they offer large ransoms for
their deliverance. Stanley dealeth yet most traitorously."
Holograph. Add. 2¼ pp. Two small seals. [Holland XVIII.
Notes of payment for the entertainment of the Earl of Essex,
as General of the horse and captain of a hundred lances.
As General of the cavalry, at 4l. per diem from 29
July to 11 October, 1587
As captain of 100 lances, from 12 October, 1586, to
11 June 1587, besides 50l. checked
Whereof is imprested, &c.
And so remaineth
Endd. by Burghley's clerk. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 265.]
Money due to the companies in Ostend, 11 October, 1587.
Due to 11 companies [captains named]
Whereof imprested, paid to creditors, &c.
And so remains
N.B. The cannoneers "have not been reckoned withal since
their first entrance into service in November 1585, whose pay
until the 12th of October 1587 will amount by estimation to 500l."
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 269.]
"Sums of money due to divers captains and companies serving
in the Low Countries" on this date.
Companies serving at Ostend
Other companies lately brought into Ostend
out of Bergen up Zome
One company serving at Bergen
Whereof paid to creditors
And so remains
Memo. "That on the discharge of the garrison of Ostend,
consideration be had for the disposing of the canoneers there
serving who (having no account made with them since the first
beginning of their service in November 1585) are behind for their
wages, 11 October 1587, by estimation the sum of 500l.
Endd. "Sums of money to be disbursed before the revoking
of the 2000 soldiers." 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 274.]
A true constat of Capt. Nicholas Errington's clerk for his footband
in garrison at the Ramikins, for the year ending 11 October
2 pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 128.]
A letter of News from the Low Countries.
The Prince of Parma is in Ghent, secretly making bridges,
chains, barrels, masts, &c., for a stockade to pass the water into
Tergoesland. He has taken up 3000 pioneers in Flanders, and
it is thought he will take in and fortify Romerswall, to cut off
the passage to Bergen up Zome. All the governors of his towns
must be at Gaunt on Monday, and the Lord Abbot and the
principals of the clergy next week. What the matter is I know
They are making great preparation for shipping at Dunkirk,
Newport, Sluse, Bridges, St. Thomas and Graveling ; have taken
thirty of the chiefest soldiers out of Dunkirk and twenty out of
Newport to make officers of bands.
The governor of Graveling and M. "Gurdon" governor of
Calais met privately last week at a farm house by Oye. Three
hundred French mariners are come hither to serve under the
Prince's licence. A great company of soldiers are come down
to go in the ships at Dunkirk and the rest of the places aforesaid.
Jacques Galina, the burgomaster of Vulshing has sent letters to
the Prince. A. B. being at the court with Monsieur C. D. his
son said that the Graves Van Hollock and Mœurs, and Justin the
Admiral, were joined all as one and pretended treason against
the Earl of Leicester ; and Monsieur C. D. his son said that they
had sent letters to the Prince. There was an Englishman of
Ostend that brought letters to the Prince in boor's apparel and
afterwards he was guarded by four or five horsemen until he
came to Ordingborough. Thus A. B. told me, and asked me
whether the governor of Ostend were a Catholic or no. And he
said "as he thought there was a notable piece of treason
towards. And in Antwerp they are making ready all the provision
that may be for the purposes afore rehearsed." All which I
assure your honour to be true.—12 October, 1587.
Copy. Endorsed by Burghley "A letter out of Zeeland of
intelligence against the Earl of Leicester, &c. 1¼ pp. [Ibid.
Due to Sir John Browgh for his horse and foot-bands till Oct.
12, 1587 - - - 800l. sterling.
He desires payment 330l. thereof speedily, for discharging a
bond to one Berblock, wherein his brother Read stands bound
Endd. ¼ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 278.]
A memorial for Mr. John Herbert, Master of Requests, sent
into the Low Countries.
Is to repair to the Earl of Leicester and impart to him his
Instructions. The scope of his negotiations is to induce the
States to consent to her Majesty's advice for treating of a peace
as offered by the King of Spain. Is to go to the States and with
Mr. Killigrew express her Majesty's grief at their unkind usage
of herself and the Earl of Leicester, taking the Earl's advice as
to the points to be chiefly complained of. Having so remonstrated,
and shown them how their own credit and safety have
suffered thereby, is to declare that in spite of all, she does not
wish them to fall into utter ruin, and although for a year past she
has had overtures from the Duke of Parma, she did not assent to
them, hoping that the States would "so advance their powers
against the enemy" that better conditions might have been
offered. But finding that by their great wants, disorders and
confusions their strength declined and that of the enemy increased,
and that there seemed no hope of amendment of their state, or
even long continuance from decay ; and being again solicited
by the Duke with assurances that the King of Spain had given
him full authority to treat, she could not refuse to listen, providing
that the provinces might be assured "both in their ancient
liberties and in the freedom for their conscience in the matter of
religion." And being answered by the Duke that this her desire
should be with honour and reason satisfied, she gave charge to the
Earl of Leicester, at his last return thither, if he should find them
no more able to maintain their defence than had appeared, to
acquaint them with the said offers and answers and move them
to assent thereto, so that there might be a cessation of arms before
worse things befel them, and by God's help they might come to a
stable peace ; but meanwhile taking better care to maintain their
frontier provinces and garrison towns and make all provision
for defence in case the enemy should refuse reasonable conditions,
wherein they should not lack her assistance as heretofore.
But now, monstrous reports having been spread that her
Majesty had not only treated of, but concluded a peace without
regard to them and that commissioners were on their way to
Brussels to confirm the treaty, which reports the said Earl hath
refuted :—He is to assure them, on the word of a prince, that
what the Earl has said of her honourable proceedings is most
true, and to use all good arguments to move them to consent to
the treaty, in which nothing shall be omitted to gain good conditions
for them, as they shall have proof by their own commissioners ;
desiring them to choose some persons of knowledge and
sincerity and giving them such ample authority as was granted
in like cases in the time of the late Prince of Orange ; at the same
time earnestly requiring them to maintain their towns and
garrisons, to stand firm in their common union, and not to hearken
to any enticement of the enemy, but, if reasonable terms be refused,
to persevere in their defence, with her further aid.
And, he may add that her Majesty has been pleased, of her good
opinion beyond his desert, to name him as one of the commissioners
fr the treaty, and offer them any service he can do for them. If
h perceives in them unwillingness or delay, he shall advertise
her Majesty as quickly as possible and await further directions,
but if they assent to the motion, he shall learn whether the Earl
of Derby and the other commissioners of her Majesty be arrived
on that side the seas, and if so, repair to them and prosecute this
service to the best of his power.
Finally, if the Earl of Leicester think meet, he shall declare to
them the unkind usage of her Majesty, that whereas the Earl
took over with him four or five thousand men only to serve the
States, make a camp for their defence, and relieve Sluys, they have
refused to pay the said soldiers, but desire the Earl to do so with
the money needed for her own army, or else to have them to be
ruined by famine, sickness and death, or to flee to the enemy,
which ingratitude cannot be expressed in words, but consideration
must be had for the reimbursement of the money.
Draft, corrected by Burghley. Endd. 8¾ pp. [Holland XVIII.
I. Additional Instructions,
He shall inform the Earl of Leicester that her Majesty is
advertised of a mighty army in preparation by the King of
Spain, to come presently to the seas, notwithstanding the approach
of winter. Some say it is for Alarache in Barbary ; some for
Scotland, "thereby to offend England, which is not unlikely,
but the most common report in Spain is that it should be for
England or Ireland, and thereof is most probability." Whereupon
her Majesty hath resolved to make ready a navy for the seas, and
also to put all the forces in her realm, specially on the sea coasts,
in all readiness for defence thereof. Therefore his Lordship is
to confer with the Council of State there, how they can make
ready a convenient strength by sea, either to join her navy or
go to the coasts of Spain, to do some good service, procuring as
great forces as possible to be speedily provided, without expence
to herself, for her charges are so great for her own army and navy
that she cannot be further burdened. But towards the charges
of that navy it may be declared that the prizes made upon the
Spaniards may well satisfy the same, as the English ships, licensed
to take prizes, have been this last year well answered for their
whole charges with advantage.
In Burghley's hand. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 284.]
II. An addition to a letter [from Burghley?] to Andrea de Loo,
As he was about to send away his letter, ended on the 9th, her
Majesty was moved to send Mr. Robert Beale instead of Mr. John
Herbert, and bade him alter the "course" accordingly. For divers
respects he misliked this, and especially "for that Mr. Beale
was not thought a furtherer of the peace but had an opinion that
it would never be beneficial nor yet would be kept," upon which
his opinion and Mr. Beale's unwillingness to deal in it, her Majesty
has this day ordered that Mr. Herbert shall continue the course,
and depart within two days, who will (he believes) do his
uttermost to further the action, whereunto, notwithstanding many
oppositions, her Majesty is firmly determined to continue, unless
the reports of the King of Spain's great preparations of a sea
army should prove true, in which case no man could allow of any
Prays him to deal inwardly with M. Champigny, who seems
naturally disposed to further this peace and to help to the conservation
Copy in the hand of Burghley's clerk. ½ p. [Holland XVIII.
LEICESTER to BURGHLEY.
I beseech you think of this matter of the peace as I of late
wrote to you, that there is no likelihood of any speedy resolution.
My earnest proceedings have only increased their former suspicions
especially upon letters they received out of England, assuring
"that her Majesty was at a full point already with the Prince of
Parma, and stayed but for a colour for their answer ; and hath
sent certain points already agreed upon, as they say ; among
others that Religion shall be very slenderly provided for."
Everywhere great diffidence arises, and there will be no better
course, in my poor opinion, than to send a special ambassador ;
for you may consider what service I can do where such jealousies
are conceived and the people will have none to govern but themselves,
to which end they take all advantages to discredit and be
rid of us, "only they could be content for awhile to have her
support of men paid by her, but rather her money. They are
bent . . . upon a popular government for ever, and think
Morryce and Hollock fit men to serve their turn. . . . Haste
some sufficient man over to be ambassador . . . there is no other
way to content and keep the better sort in heart. Assure yourself,
they never meant this twelve months to yield to have such a
governor as they first made me ; specially having the countenance
of her Majesty to bear it out. It is high time and more than time
this course were taken. I speak it not altogether to hasten my
return though never man had more cause to seek it ; and I trust
her Majesty will now yield to it, for I protest to God I have spent
already 7000l. sterling of my 'none,'" but the trouble of it grieves
me most, I being without assistance, and having all the practices
that the States, Morryce and Hollock can work against me.—
Medenblyck, 13 October.
Postscript. If her Majesty likes, she may have this town
and castle, put in her own people, and the governor M. Snoye
become her sworn man. "He is a Gueldres born, and a most
religious, true gentleman." The place surpasses Enchuysen,
Horn or Harlingford for keeping the sea and passage ; is strong
and well fortified. "He hath utterly lost the States and the two
Earls for his open affection to her Majesty. He kept them both
out the last year in my absence, when they would have come and
changed the garrison and sworn him." I pray you, hasten me
her Majesty's pleasure, for none know how they stand with her
now and if she do not receive him, he will retire to Embden.
"It is but his own entertainment as a colonel ; and two or
three companies of her Majesty's ordinaries will serve here."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 287.]
EDWARD BURNHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Since Mr. Beale's departure, nothing worthy of notice has fallen
out. My lord of Leicester is in North Holland and the States
await his return at Harlem. The dislike between them continues,
with small hope of reconciliation.
The bruit of commissioners coming to treat about peace has
made a deep impression on them, and they do all they can to
bring the common people to "dislike of our nation."
It is lamentable to see the misery of the poor men lately
"cast," who came here to take shipping ; mostly sick and without
a penny. Since Mr. Beale left, it has become daily worse, and if
our noble lord governor did not, to his great cost, daily relieve
them before his Gate-house with meat and drink "they might as
well perish all as some." When we get shipping for them, the hoys
that should transport them dare not go to sea for fear of the
Dunkirkers and those of Newport and Sluce ; "which daily lie
here before our noses and come and spoil our fishermen." Some
small ships should be sent to waft them over, but if her Majesty
would maintain here a couple of ships, it would do much good as
well to her merchants as her soldiers. The merchants have had
shipping laden this fortnight, and for lack of convoy dare not
The Princess of Orange is gone into Friesland to the marriage
of Count Maurice's sister to Count William of Nassau. At her
departure, I asked her if she would be willing for Jehan de Castillie
to be released for his ransom, considering the small hope there
is of M. de Teligni's liberty for him, as also that there is two
prisoners of better account in my lord Willoughby's hands, (fn. 1)
which he hath sent to my lord of Leicester to serve for the same
purpose ; alleging his [i.e. Castillio's] weakness and age. She
leaves it to your consideration, yet would fain he were stayed
until she hears from M. de la Noue. But in the mean time, the
man grows weaker daily, and if he die, you are in danger to lose
500l., and M. de Teligni never the nearer his liberty. I pray you
let me know your pleasure about it, as also whether I shall deal
further with my lord of Leicester about Sir Philip Sidney's allowance
for his diet, from his death to Sir William Russell's entry.
It is a very unseasonable time to deal with the States for what is
due from them to Sir Philip, but what you command, I will
"I find our lord governor beginneth to be weary of this wanton
and chargeable government. . . . I know no man in our land
so fit for these people's humour as himself ; whom they do both
love and fear ; but if he continue here, unless her Majesty deal
graciously with him, 'a' will cast himself greatly behind-hand.
He speaks of writing to ask you to sound my lord of Warwick,
whether he would be content to resign him his interest in his
lordship's office of Master of the Ordnance, as heretofore he did
to Sir Philip Sidney, not thinking it convenient that my lady
his sister should be the first motioner of it."
My lord is now at Horne, and it is said that they of Enchuysen
have refused to receive him. The Counts Maurice and Hollocq
are at the Hague ; and Dr. Doyley sits with the States in Council.
—Flussinge, 14 October, 1587.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 290.]
EDWARD BURNHAM to WALSINGHAM.
Since writing my other letter, I have received some news out of
Holland from Capt. Hinder, which I send you. By it you will
see what is fallen out at Leyden. "These sudden alterations are
likely to grow to greater mischief."
Capt. Udall is like to lose his company (unless you stand his
favourable master) for killing in fight one Whetstone, my lord
of Leicester's man or brother to one of his men. It was Whetstone's
own seeking and Udall was cleared by the Council of War.
"A more honester captain, and that keepeth his soldiers in better
order, is there not in this land." I understand that when he was
cleared some nobleman [Margin : L. North] said he was a good
husband and had money, meaning to make a commodity that
way of him.—Flussinge, 14 October, 1587.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 292.]
SIR THOMAS SHERLEY to BURGHLEY.
At my coming from England, you expected I should find and
receive in the hands of Mr. Atye 7000l. at least of the money
brought over by his lordship, but I have not received one penny,
neither has he, as he says, any left in his hands. So that I have
had to make the weekly loans as well to the new companies as the
old, and also "to lay out the whole charge of the satisfaction and
cashiering of the new companies which now I have in hand, perceiving
. . . that so was her Majesty's pleasure, if the States
would not do it," who are very far from that, as I think you
understand. These and other payments have consumed much
of the treasure which I brought over, the poor remainder not
being above a thousand pounds.
"The wants and discontentment of the old companies is
wonderful, having received no full pay in twelve months ; their
exclamations . . . maketh me weary of my life here. Our
soldiers are full of sickness and die for want ; the captains,
beggarly both in money and credit, are no way able to help them."
I am unwilling to say anything of money, having found it so
unpleasant to speak of, yet must discharge my duty.—The Hague,
14 October, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1¾ pp. [Ibid.
XVIII. f. 294.]
SIR THOMAS SHERLEY to WALSINGHAM.
"The proposition of peace hath wonderfully offended these
people, and made our nation odious unto them. They are ready
to shut us out of all their towns, and fall into plain suspicion of
us. His Excellency is now in North Holland ; I do not hear of
any great welcome that he hath there. I am busy here in the
paying and dispatch of the thirty new companies, which doth
consume much of the treasure.
"The wants and discontentments of the old companies . . .
maketh me not only weary of my place but almost of my life. . . ."
I beseech you to think of our misery here."—The Hague, 4
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 296.]
THE COUNCIL OF STATE to the STATES GENERAL.
Acknowledging their letter of October [12-]22, with other
documents, copies of letters, &c., received from them and shown
to his Excellency, who is well inclined to smooth all misunderstandings,
and desires nothing more than a good correspondence
with the States, and to do all that may tend to the good and
conservation of the countries.
And as all know the confusion and sadness due to the long war
and intestine dissensions, they have come to urge their Excellencies,
to enter into closer communication, the better to understand
each other, and defend the country from ruin.
It is no new thing—as the States represented to his Excellency
at Middelburg—for a change of government to give rise to many
things not conformable to the privileges and rights of a state, and
the more so in these afflicted countries, which, from their many
disturbances and the long continued war, are fallen into great
distractions and confusions ; but as experience may discover
the causes, so remedies may be found ; putting away what is
unfitting in order with better knowledge to direct all things, as
they firmly believe his Excellency, by God's aid, will do ; so that,
having heard their griefs, he may, in the future, enjoy their good
opinion and confidence, and that you, having heard his griefs,
will do the like and thus go on in good correspondence together,
and oppose the great force of the enemy, and the ruin of the
[On the aid given by her Majesty, the good qualities and
importance of his Excellency, and the evils resulting from their
contentions with him. Enumerate the points of difference, as
regards the authority to be exercised by each.]
And as they hope that his Excellency will give satisfaction
to the States on the points and articles brought forward by them,
so is it reasonable that the States on their side will maintain
his Excellency in the possession of the authority conferred
upon him, that all things may be brought into a happy
Copy. French. 7½ pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 298.]
RICHARD LLOYD to WALSINGHAM.
Since the bruit of a peace, all things have grown worse and worse
and the Counts Maurice, Hohenlo, William, Philip, Salme,
Overstein and others of that faction have not only made
firm the neuters to their side, but have bred fear and slackness
against those inclined to her Majesty. And whatever her Lieutenant
may say, they think he is only temporizing, "to work
the safety of England and their danger," saying that he had been
called back long since but for this peace, and as soon as it is
accorded will be revoked, and then such as have served him and
honoured her Majesty "shall be no less hated of his neighbour
than of the Spaniard. And yet I dare say . . . that if they [the
generality], were assured of her Majesty's favour and protection,
they would in small time either unite the States and the people
or else reform their monstrous abuses." Wherefore I hope you
will either call his lordship home with honour or procure him
means to do good service.
When he was persuaded to go to Utrecht and the other provinces,
where only his presence could prevent or appease a revolt,
he left things in good terms in Holland and Zeeland ; but his
back was no sooner turned than Counts Maurice and Hohenlo
and their faction "practised a division in Leyden," whereupon
some of the burgers and captains were imprisoned, and others
put out of the town. In Utrecht there was great controversy
for the choice of new magistrates and his Excellency had to come
back to Amsterdam to appease the multitude and, with great
difficulty, obtained men of good religion and honesty to be burgomasters.
He was received at Amsterdam with great solemnity
and show of love, duty and faithfulness towards her Majesty.
The magistrates being settled at Utrecht, he went on Oct. 4
towards Naerden ; "whither the Count Hohenlo [had gone],
who had, since his Excellency's departure from the Hague,
placed garrison at Delft and Maesland Escluse ; and sent also
one Captain Read, a Scotsman, with a band of footmen, to lie
there . . . but the town would not receive them because they
came not with warrant from her Majesty's lieutenant. This
night the governor of North Holland, Mr. Sonoy, caused the said
Captain Read to be apprehended at Maybergen, for that he was
one of his regiment, and followed the Count of Hohenlo without
his leave, yea, albeit his Excellency had written to the
"The next day he came from thence to Hoorn in North Holland,
where he was received with all the honour that could be ;
all their ensigns bearing the arms of England and upon the top
of their highest steeple a flag set up with the red cross, with
all other ceremonies that might show their duty to her
From thence he meant to go to Enchuysen, which town had
most solicited his coming to North Holland, but the case was
suddenly altered, for the magistrates wrote praying him to defer
it until they had worked things to a good end, as they were in
some faction, and he could not go with safety. The practiser
of this is Doctor Francis, whom her Majesty used with great
favour in England. They are still in arms in this town, being
mostly mariners and fishermen, "who say they will have her
Majesty's lieutenant into the town, or else they will die for it,"
but all English are kept out and such as come hither are hardly
used, examined, and men appointed to see whither they go and
what they do.
The governor, Monsieur Sonoy, has one company of foot and
the States another. Sonoy's company is allowed to watch and
ward, joined with others, but their lieutenant is ordered to keep
his house, which is straitly guarded.
The magistrates of Enchuysen, hearing that Count Maurice
would come that way, going into Friesland to Count William's
marriage with his sister, wrote to say that they could not receive
him, or he come thither with safety.
Wednesday, Oct. 11, the lord General came to Medenblick,
a place of great strength upon that sea. Here the Governor
makes his special abode. The people of this country are very
obedient, most loving to the English and faithful to her Majesty,
and will hear of no governor "but of her Highness' lieutenant."
From thence his Excellency meant to go into Friesland (being
solicited by the President and others) ; but for some sudden
occasion he came to Alcmaer on the 14th, where he was received
with great show of affection. The day before he heard from the
Hague that Count Hohenlo had been there in Council with the
States, and that the States went to Delft to confer with Counts
Maurice, Hohenlo, Meurs, Philip, Salme, Overstaine and others ;
"for the Count Meurs, finding his credit to fail him at Utrecht,
came thither to comfort himself amongst his friends. And the
town (as I am informed) desiring his room more than his company,
and fearing his practice, have sent after him a fair discharge of his
authority and government there, for that province is wholly her
On the 12th, news came from Lochem, beyond Zutphen, "of
certain prisoners the garrisons there had taken, going towards
Deventer ; amongst which it is reported that the Lady Morley
is one, and one Mrs. Morgan, which is guessed to be the arch
traitor's wife that is in France ; Mr. Crispe, that was Sir Philip
Sidney's lieutenant of his cornet, &c."
It is said that Sir William Stanley has gone from Deventer towards
France, with four companies of foot, to serve the King, and
that Count Vander Bergen, Count Maurice's cousin german, is
absolutely governor there for the Spanish King. "It is bruited
that Stanley was now lately become lunatic . . . and had kept
Monsieur Taxis, governor of Zutphen out of Deventer two or
three days. ... If this be true, as he was known for a traitor,
so he may be noted for a fool." The Duke of Parma is still at
Brussels, preparing for fitter opportunity, for it is held for certain
that the King of Spain means to work wonders this next year,
"and to the end he may effect it the better, they say that he
buyeth his peace with purse. . . . I think that all will fall to
wrack here unless her Majesty put in faster footing ; and all such
as continue faithful to her will fare the worse for it."—Alcmaer,
15 October, 1587.
Add. Endd. 3 closely written pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 302.]
LORD BURGH to WALSINGHAM.
The occurences which come to me are : "First, the establishment
of the 'magistrate' in Utrecht with some difficulty, his
Excellency being there then present ; the tumult at Leyden and
imprisonment of one Dutch captain and some of the town, through
suspicion that a surprise was intended to innovate the policy
observed there ; and lastly the peace propounded by Mr. Killigrew
at Hague, with utter mislike of the Estates" ; but as these
are already fully delivered to you, I pass them over.
His Excellency went into North Holland, and purposed into
Frise, but it is said he is returned to Utrecht. Since he left the
Hague, the Counts Maurice and Hohenlo repaired thither and
yet remain, guarded with some hundred musketeers. They
have put garrison into Mazelandsluce, a fort of very special
importance over against Briell. Count William, governor of
Friesland, is shortly to marry Count Maurice's sister, whereby
they will more assure themselves together. There is likelihood
of great confusion in these parts, for discontentments are general
and diverse, which, whether they grow from the treaty of peace
or in other sort, I must remember my charge, being assured it
is one of the chief restraints to the Hollanders. The inhabitants
profess all faith, whatsoever be practised elsewhere, but I do not
trust them, for they are all followers of one course. Whatsoever
shall happen, my life shall pledge my faith to her Majesty, but I
beg to have means to make the town more guardable than it is.
There is next to no powder, no iron bullets, match, lead, hand
weapons or munition ; only seven pieces of artillery on the walls,
some not good, and no platforms for any of them. "The round
[i.e. circuit] two mile and a half, and but four companies in the
garrison. These defects are known to his Excellency . . . but I
am not supplied ; so as in any occasion I am tied to my fingers,
which shall not be sufficient. . . . If I doubted besieging, I
should demand many other provisions but I only mistrust
attempts by surprise, which our overmuch weakness through
these wants may encourage."
I envy not that twelve cannons and thirty lasts of powder were
sent to Flushing and none here, notwithstanding my demands,
but think this town may deserve more regard than is yet allowed.
—Briell, 15 October, stilo veteri.
Holograph. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 305.]
LEICESTER to THE QUEEN.
I wrote last to your Majesty from Horne, by my servant
Heydon and old Junius. From thence I went to Medenblick ;
"the place your Majesty hath heretofore made reckoning of as a
fit place to be at your commandment, which is now to be disposed
as shall please you. I have written to my lord Treasurer to
know your Majesty's pleasure therein. The place is of greater
importance for the service than Enchusen, Horn or Harlinghen
and the man that governs it is as worthy to be cherished and
esteemed by your Majesty as any stranger that ever served you.
He hath now lost all the great folks here . . . for that he will not
falsify his faith and oath once given to your Majesty by me."
You will do well to take care of him.
From Medenblick I came yesterday to "Awlkmere," where I
have been exceedingly well received. It is a fair strong town. I
came the rather as the States of Holland are assembled at Harlem,
about ten miles off, and I desire to be near them to hasten their
resolution and see what course they take, "upon their late
liberal giving out of your Majesty's dealings in the peace, to
their utter undoing." In every place they have their lewd
instruments to abuse the people and draw them from you if
they can ; but I think they shall have much ado, especially if
you send an ambassador or agent here, to answer their false
objections, and affirm to them what you think meet. This will
be both very profitable for your service and honourable for you,
for by their late doings they have touched your honour, which I
trust you will not bear. If you please to take a right course, you
may yet overrule them all. But it must not be foreslowed (?). I
mean, that you may bring the better sort to join with you for the
treaty, "for your Majesty will hereafter miss them if you make a
peace without them ; and a little patience with some good handling,
no 'doubts' will yield you what you will . . . but it must be a
special man from you that must work it." For myself, they
oppose me by all the devices they can, albeit I do my uttermost
to impugn their sinister practices and bring your wishes to take
effect ; whereof there is no doubt, if matters be dealt in as they
ought to be ; for I assure you "it is as honourably conceived and
liked of many, as it is princely and godly intended by you ;
only the advantage these men take to hinder it is to make the
people believe that you have already concluded a secret peace,
leaving them to all misery and revenge of the enemy, and that
you seek their joining with you but for a colour, and to make
your own the better ; which . . . hath bred a wonderful murmur
among the common sort." What I have done and do to satisfy
their minds I leave to the reports of all who serve here, yet the
States do their utmost to discredit me. But thank God I still
keep some credit among them.
[Writes further concerning the sending of an envoy, and what
he is to say, viz. to explain the true cause of her desire for peace,
expostulate with them for their ingratitude, and threaten to
withdraw her forces, save from her cautionary towns.]
This is an easy and honourable course, "for if you break
abruptly . . . nor show some regard for the cause you took here
in hand, viz. the church of God and preservation of so many
thousands of people, it will greatly concern you in honour through
all the world, where, having so just cause as you now may take,
the fault shall be cast upon themselves, and your honour every
way preserved.—Alkmere, 15 October.
Postscript. The King of Denmark's agent is not yet at Embden
but his passport and letters are left safely for him there. Prays
God that she may hold strict amity with that King, who is the
fittest for her of all others. No man must persuade her otherwise,
and she must use him kindly.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. closely written. 2 small seals.
[Holland XVIII. f. 307.]
"The Receipt" from 7 to 15 October, 1587.
Stanley, [Richard], Teller of the Exchequer.
Weekly remain and receipts - - -
Payments to Lord Hunsdon, captain of the
gentlemen Pensioners, by the hands of Robert
Horseman, for wages and board ; wages due to
the Band, and allowed to himself for divers
payments made - - - - -
Remaining - - - - - -
Killigrew [Henry, Treasurer and paymaster of the Ordnance.]
Weekly remain and receipts - - -
Payments to John Hawkins esquire, Treasurer
of the Admiralty, Capt. Nicholas Meryman,
and divers persons for fees, &c., - -
Remaining - - - - - -
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 309.]
BURGHLEY, CROFT and WALSINGHAM to ANDREA DE LOO.
"After the Treasurer's second letter of the 15th [sic. should be
10th] of this month, which now I send, her Majesty not disallowing
thereof, commanded that we two, the Controller and the Secretary
should be also acquainted with her mind ; and so we all three
require you to assure the Duke that the delay of the sending of
her Majesty's commissioners hath been greatly displeasing to
her, and only occasioned by the evil disposition of the States
to hearken to any treaty of peace, for the doubt they have in the
obtaining and diffidence in keeping thereof. And we assure you
that the suggestions to stain her Majesty's sincerity are mere
untruths, as the end may declare if the Duke shall assent to this
"And if you had not signified that the Duke meant speedily
to go to the field ; without any further expectation of the treaty,
her Majesty's commissioners, without tarrying for any further
answer from the States, had at this present taken their journey
towards those parts. But now, finding that yourself would
depart from thence, as despairing of any treaty at this time, she
also is entered into doubt that if her Commissioners should now
come thither, the Duke would rather follow his intended actions
of hostility than admit any treaty of peace ; with pretences that
he had advertised the King of the delays past, as though her
Majesty had not sincerely intended the treaty ; and so her
Majesty, in sending of her Commissioners, should find the same to
serve to no purpose, but rather to her great dishonour ; for which
cause, being in this doubt, and yet continuing in a full purpose to
send them, her pleasure is that you should with all speed make
your repair to the Duke, and to inform him of this her Majesty's
doubt, and require him to resolve her of the same ; which, if it
may be with his own hand, should greatly satisfy her, that is,
if her Commissioners shall presently come without any delay,
then he will assent that the treaty shall proceed ; and that there
shall be a cessation of arms concluded during the treaty, as was
meant before this time. And if the Duke shall be thus content,
then we do assure you there shall be no one day of delay for their
coming. But and if the Duke shall not assent hereunto, then her
Majesty would have you in her name to require him as a prince
of honour to deliver his mind frankly to you, to be imparted to
her Majesty ; which we require you with all speed possible to
advertise by this bearer. . . .
"And so, considering the sincerity of her Majesty's mind
towards a good peace, as we do testify it of our knowledge, and
that there shall not now be any default on her part . . . we that
are her counsellors shall be comforted with expectation of God's
favour for the event of anything that shall follow. So fare you
well."—From the Court at Richemond, 15 October, 1587.
In the handwriting of Burghley's clerk. Endd. "M[inute] of
a letter written to Andreas de Loo, by the Lord Treasurer, Mr.
Controller and Mr. Secretary Walsingham." 2 pp. [Flanders
I. f. 357.]
LEICESTER to THE QUEEN.
Recommending the bearer as an honest gentleman who "hath
sought all means to employ himself in service since he came over,
as well in Ostend as Berges-up-Some," but their own controversies
have much impeached the service that way, being increased by
the lewd disposition of those who are willing to bring these
countries to ruin, as without her Majesty's wisdom and commiseration
no doubt they will. Prays that this gentleman may
taste her gracious favour, as he has shown himself forward and of
a good spirit.
Would to God that what she hears from him, with what he
has himself written of his manner of life there, to her little honour
or service, might persuade her to think it more than time to call
him home.—Alkmere, 16 October.
"Here Mr. Harry Noell hath also remained most desirous and
ready to have done any service upon all occasions. He meaneth
to go into France to the King of Navarre."
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 311.]
STEPHEN LE SIEUR to WALSINGHAM.
I hope Mr. Neidam reported what I declared to him of my last
voyage to Antwerp, and in what terms I stood here with his
Excellency ; who since then has often conferred with me "upon
the entertaining him that was my pledge in Antwerp, for that by
his means great matters are to be discoursed, as already he hath
begun," but I fear if he receive only writings from me, he will not
be very forward to proceed. If his necessity (which is great) were
supplied, I am persuaded he would give good intelligence, for he
has both will and power to do so.
In my last letters I wrote that God having called to him my
master [Sir Philip Sydney] I desire to dedicate my services to
your honour. I follow his Excellency, but with no allowance,
maintaining myself with the little I have, which will soon be consumed,
therefore beseech you to advise me what course I can take
to do you service.
His Excellency is as yet in North Holland. "The proposition
made by Mr. Killigrew unto the States in his Excellency's name
doth not work in the minds of this people the effects that were
expected ; for of late in Leyden they have put out of the town
one Capt. Mansart with his company ; committed in prison
certain of the principal townsmen, suspecting the captain and
said burgesses to be too much affected to his Excellency, and by
consequent, easy to be made yield to a peace, of the which . . .
no man must be so stout as to speak."
As I passed through Dort, I visited the Scout [Escoutette]
M. de Muis, who was greatly astonished that his Excellency had
caused it to be propounded, and will, I see, do all he can to hinder
it, being appointed by the town to go to the assembly of the States
at Harlem, they having left the Hague for fear some should have
been apprehended by his Excellency, an opinion which, I believe
nothing can take out of their heads.
"Many here hold for certain that her Majesty will shortly
send her commissioners hither, to repair to the Duke of Parma. . .
The answer that they shall have here . . . is already framed,
which is in effect that if her Majesty will treat they cannot hinder
her, but it shall be without the consent of these United Provinces ;
and therefore they give already order to their affairs and to overthrow
the said 'treatise.' These things and more I know of
one whose counsel and advice is much followed (not unknown to
If I could do the said commissioners any service either here or
with the Duke of Parma, and it would please you to employ
me, I would with all fidelity and care discharge my duty ; "for
to live here longer thus idly and with an uncertain estate, I do
not find it in myself 'conceillable.' "—Middelbourg, 16 October,
1587, stilo Anglo.
Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 313.]
LEICESTER to SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL.
Being informed that Jehan de Castilla is very sick, and desires
for change of air to go to Middelborough, to the house of the
Portugal merchant there, is very willing he should do so, if the
said merchant give assurance for the payment of the 10,000
gilders due for his ransom, whether he live or die.—Alcmaer,
16 October, 1587.
Postscript. "It is not my meaning that the party should be
at liberty if he live ; for albeit I would have his ransom paid if
he should die, yet I would have his body forthcoming if he live,
until you receive further order from me."
Copy. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XVIII. f. 315.]
CAPTAIN HARRY WHYTE to WALSINGHAM.
Is now, among the rest, quit of the charge which his honour
procured for him. Is not ignorant what base reports ill-minded
men give out of their captains, but if any such come of him, he
refers himself to the report of this bearer, his lieutenant. Hopes
they have no just cause to complain, for, as he would be loath to
crack his credit, so would he be very sorry his honour should
hear of any abuse done by him. Prays favour for the bearer
who, while with him, has always acquitted himself like a gentleman
and a dutiful soldier.—Rotterdam, 17 October, 1587.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 316.]
JOHN GYLLES to WALSINGHAM.
My last to you was of the 29th of last month, I being then
come from Antwerp. Since then I have been all the time with
his Excellency at Amsterdam and Utrecht, soliciting the release
of Signor Marten "Laffali" [La Faille], but can get little favour.
I delivered your letters both to his Excellency and to Lord
Willoughby, but their answer both to me and to "Lafale's"
brother was that the safe conduct was only for his free traffic and
abode in England, and had no effect here. On the contrary, he
has been these three weeks in a cellar, fitter for a beast than a
man. No merchant was ever so dealt with since these troubles
began, and I am sorry that the English are the first to do so, "for
money and not for treason." The demand is for 5000l., which
will never be given by him. "I think his sins have deserved more,
but am sorry that we must do the execution ; wherefore in the
name of John de 'lafilli,' his brother and the eldest son, a good
protestant and honest man," I pray your favour that his brother
may be used as a merchant of his calling and years ought to be.
It is said here that Turks would not deal so hardly, but my Lord
Willoughby is led away by two or three.
To-day a friend of mine is come from Antwerp (who dwells
with me in the English house) and brings news that the Prince of
Parma makes great preparations at "Macklen," Gaunt, Brussels
and Antwerp both for the field and by water, "and hath not sent
such forces for France as the report goes, but looks for fresh
replies, and takes out all the garrisons that may be spared."
Further he says that some great attempt will be made upon
Barrow [Bergen], and doubts not of friends in it. I dare not say
what I would, for our martial men make these matters too far
known. I think the country was never at such a stay, one town,
ready to rise against another. Utrecht and Amsterdam bear
some good affection to his Excellency, but no great assurance.
Harlem, Leyden and Delft are wholly out of love with our nation.
At Leyden, I saw an ancient [i.e. ensign] of soldiers put out of the
town for their supposed affection for his Excellency, and because
some matter was pretended against the magistrates, though the
captain declared it was without his Excellency's knowledge.
The like dislike is grown up amongst the mariners and Admiralty,
and since the loss of Sluce the Vice-Admiral Joyes [i.e. Joos]
de Moore and Adrien Corneleson are removed from Flushing to
Tervere. Corneleson is known to be a godly and honest man.
The mariners run daily to the enemy, which never was seen
before ; and as I told his Excellency, they are the strength of
I saw in the Vloot the small esteem our Nation is in ; all which
comes by the States, who first brought his Excellency over.
"They will not hear of any peace for fear their kingdom should
not last, and yet will they be governors of all princes if they could.
God grant a good peace or none ; for in this order the States'
merchants wax rich, for every day here goes three or four ships
with goods laden to Antwerp . . . as freely as ever went ; and
now I understand that a list shall go out for passing of butter and
cheese and all other victuals. This is the time for the state but
not for the commons. The indirect dealing is to be lamented,
and the strengthening of the enemy still more so. There is news
from Spain that divers ships are gone out of Andalusia to Lisbon
to take in lading for the army ; there are small tokens of peace on
the enemy's side. I hope to be at Antwerp in two or three days,
and would be glad to have your letter in behalf of Martin Lafalli
there. I hear that you wish to have some crystal glasses made.
The crystal is much clearer at Antwerp than other places, and if
I can stand you in stead for anything, I am at your commandment.
—[Dated at the top] Middelborrowe, 27 October, still. novo,
Add. Endd. 2 closely written pages. [Holland XVIII. f. 318.]
LORD WILLOUGHBY to WALSINGHAM.
The enemy slacks no occasion that may be advantageous
to him. He has drawn troops out of West Frise, with the
governor, to his camp at Turnhout, and from Flanders, the forces
that were before Sluys ; has made new levies in Artois, Heanigoe
[Hainault] and the country of Liege, arming the peasants as well
as the soldiers, and has also collected great quantity of tools &c.,
for mining and pioneering ; all manner of engines for a siege, and
powder and artillery ready to march.
"It is hourly expected when their camp will rise, having
bruited that their journey is for France ; but how unlike it is
that they would carry provision for a siege thitherward your
lordship may well conceive.
"My intelligence assureth me that it is for this place, where
at this present we are but eight companies of foot, and of those
also many die daily with a contagion of a hot, burning fever ; and
our magazine both of all kind of munition and of victuals no
greater than it should be. . . . Yet we attend them with as
great devotion as we were better furnished, both with the one
and the other."—Bergen op Zom, 18 October, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 320.]
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to WALSINGHAM.
I can assure your honour that the best affected to our nation
are greatly altered by the motion of this unfortunate peace.
Our burgomaster here, with divers others, is so greatly to be suspected
that if her Majesty do not keep a garrison of twelve companies
at least, she will hazard the place and our lives. The
practices are such, both by the enemy and by Count Maurice
and the States of Zeeland, that I pray you to desire the Lord
General to put three other companies here, in the place of those
discharged, for otherwise I greatly fear for the place and for my
honour (which is much more to me than my life) if it should be
lost, though through no fault of mine.
It were not amiss for two or three of her Majesty's ships to lie
here till we see what the Prince will do, but that I fear some will
say I am too fearful. Yet I think he will attempt something
against us shortly.
It may be the Lord General would have more care of the place
if I were away, and if so, I pray you let me be rid of it, a thing I
greatly desire, both in respect of its many dangers and my great
charges. If her Majesty will not remove me, I must needs be
an importunate beggar that she will have some consideration of
my poor estate, "the which is greatly impoverished by her
service, and not by any foolish humour of my own.
"The party you willed Mr. Neddam to deal with me about is
one that I greatly love and no way suspect, yet seeing the time
to be most dangerous, I could wish if it might stand with your
honour's liking to write for him to come over [to England] for
a month or two ; myself not minding by God's grace to go out of
the town till I hear further of the Prince and his proceedings."—
Flushing, 20 October.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 322.]
A brief note of disbursements for her Majesty's army in the
Low Countries from August 2 to October 20.
For Imprests, coat and conduct money,
transportation, &c. Together with 6000l.
"sent over to my deputy to pay the companies
there" Total -
Which being deducted out of 17000l. there
remains - - - - -
Memorandum that out of this remainder there is to be answered
the 2000l. taken by Gen. Leicester at Middleborough by way of
exchange ; the defray of the soldiers levied in Essex, and of such
soldiers as were appointed to Plymouth or Falmouth.
Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 324.]