October 1587, 11-20


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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: October 1587, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 3: April-December 1587 (1929), pp. 362-380. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75372 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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October 1587, 11-20

After my dispatch of my former letter here arrived old Junius, sent to your Majesty from Duke Casimir. His negotiation being important, I haste him the more speedily. Matters grow daily worse on the part of the States of Holland towards your Majesty and me your officer, they seeking all means to procure mislike. The only cause is the peace, to which some are resolutely bent never to consent and have taken new oaths that no consent shall be given without the agreement of the whole assembled States. They are offended with all who give ear to your motion ; and yet if you continue your first manner of dealing, letting them know that their disability to continue their war was the cause of your offer, and that you will not leave them if they cannot have reasonable conditions granted. It is a great matter to persuade them that you have done this upon their necessity, "which the States would have otherwise conceived by them : that your Majesty hath had long intention to make a peace for yourself and useth all means now by these people to bring it the better to pass and hereupon they ground their cause of my mislike, and withstanding of your offer unto them, which easily . . . you may otherwise conserve in them ; and no way better than to send some one fully instructed from yourself, either some new or your late counsellor here, Mr. Beale. I beseech you to examine those ways which I have set down, not to draw you from your resolution of peace, but to bring these people to your desire "and pity so great a cause should be hindered for lack of good handling. "And I look for no other but a present garboil here in all places and myself in good case, all your forces being discharged and upon discharge that are here above the ordinary, and your ordinary now little enough to keep your four places from the practice of these men, who have procured a marvellous applause among those people that favour not the peace and have all these country soldiers at their whole commandment. The Count Morryce and Hollock I mean, for they show themselves open champions against all that will like of peace, giving it out that it is only a betraying of these countries. "Thus I must be troublesome to your Majesty . . . and, humbly with pardon to beseech you that you forbear in your letter to the States any hard words of reproach to them, and yet as plainly as please you to show your mind ; for they be a crabbed, proud, sullen kind of people, and intend to make this a popular government without doubt. "God bless you and defend you. Being ready to go toward Medenblyck this Tuesday morning."—Horn, 11 October, 1587. Postscript. "These men have already published their evil liking of your constant, faithful servant Snoye. He is in utter disgrace with the States now. "I received even now word that there be certain ladies taken going to Deventer by a Dutch captain, who they say are my Lady Morley and another, the wife of one Morgan. I have sent in haste to stay them, for that I hear they offer large ransoms for their deliverance. Stanley dealeth yet most traitorously." Holograph. Add. 2¼ pp. Two small seals. [Holland XVIII. f. 263.]
Oct. 11. Notes of payment for the entertainment of the Earl of Essex, as General of the horse and captain of a hundred lances.
As General of the cavalry, at 4l. per diem from 29 July to 11 October, 1587 300l. 0 0
As captain of 100 lances, from 12 October, 1586, to 11 June 1587, besides 50l. checked 2003 7 0
Whereof is imprested, &c. 1256 19 4
And so remaineth £746 7 8
Endd. by Burghley's clerk. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 265.]
Oct. 11. Money due to the companies in Ostend, 11 October, 1587.
Due to 11 companies [captains named] 4094 l. 7s. d.
Whereof imprested, paid to creditors, &c. 1152l. 12s. 6d.
And so remains 2941l. 14s. 11½d.
N.B. The cannoneers "have not been reckoned withal since their first entrance into service in November 1585, whose pay until the 12th of October 1587 will amount by estimation to 500l."
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 269.]
Oct. 11. "Sums of money due to divers captains and companies serving in the Low Countries" on this date.
Companies serving at Ostend 3321l. 7s. 1d.
Other companies lately brought into Ostend out of Bergen up Zome 2746l. 14s. 1d.
One company serving at Bergen 563l. 0s. d.
Sum total 6631l. 19d. ob.
Whereof paid to creditors 812l. 12s. 6d.
And so remains 5818l. 9s. 1d. ob.
Memo. "That on the discharge of the garrison of Ostend, consideration be had for the disposing of the canoneers there serving who (having no account made with them since the first beginning of their service in November 1585) are behind for their wages, 11 October 1587, by estimation the sum of 500l. Endd. "Sums of money to be disbursed before the revoking of the 2000 soldiers." 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 274.]
Oct. 11. A true constat of Capt. Nicholas Errington's clerk for his footband in garrison at the Ramikins, for the year ending 11 October 1587. 2 pp. [Ibid. XIV. f. 128.]
Oct. 12. A letter of News from the Low Countries.
The Prince of Parma is in Ghent, secretly making bridges, chains, barrels, masts, &c., for a stockade to pass the water into Tergoesland. He has taken up 3000 pioneers in Flanders, and it is thought he will take in and fortify Romerswall, to cut off the passage to Bergen up Zome. All the governors of his towns must be at Gaunt on Monday, and the Lord Abbot and the principals of the clergy next week. What the matter is I know not. They are making great preparation for shipping at Dunkirk, Newport, Sluse, Bridges, St. Thomas and Graveling ; have taken thirty of the chiefest soldiers out of Dunkirk and twenty out of Newport to make officers of bands. The governor of Graveling and M. "Gurdon" governor of Calais met privately last week at a farm house by Oye. Three hundred French mariners are come hither to serve under the Prince's licence. A great company of soldiers are come down to go in the ships at Dunkirk and the rest of the places aforesaid. Jacques Galina, the burgomaster of Vulshing has sent letters to the Prince. A. B. being at the court with Monsieur C. D. his son said that the Graves Van Hollock and Mœurs, and Justin the Admiral, were joined all as one and pretended treason against the Earl of Leicester ; and Monsieur C. D. his son said that they had sent letters to the Prince. There was an Englishman of Ostend that brought letters to the Prince in boor's apparel and afterwards he was guarded by four or five horsemen until he came to Ordingborough. Thus A. B. told me, and asked me whether the governor of Ostend were a Catholic or no. And he said "as he thought there was a notable piece of treason towards. And in Antwerp they are making ready all the provision that may be for the purposes afore rehearsed." All which I assure your honour to be true.—12 October, 1587. Copy. Endorsed by Burghley "A letter out of Zeeland of intelligence against the Earl of Leicester, &c. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. XVIII. 276.]
Oct. 12. Due to Sir John Browgh for his horse and foot-bands till Oct. 12, 1587 - - - 800l. sterling.
He desires payment 330l. thereof speedily, for discharging a bond to one Berblock, wherein his brother Read stands bound with him. Endd. ¼ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 278.]
Oct. 12. A memorial for Mr. John Herbert, Master of Requests, sent into the Low Countries. Is to repair to the Earl of Leicester and impart to him his Instructions. The scope of his negotiations is to induce the States to consent to her Majesty's advice for treating of a peace as offered by the King of Spain. Is to go to the States and with Mr. Killigrew express her Majesty's grief at their unkind usage of herself and the Earl of Leicester, taking the Earl's advice as to the points to be chiefly complained of. Having so remonstrated, and shown them how their own credit and safety have suffered thereby, is to declare that in spite of all, she does not wish them to fall into utter ruin, and although for a year past she has had overtures from the Duke of Parma, she did not assent to them, hoping that the States would "so advance their powers against the enemy" that better conditions might have been offered. But finding that by their great wants, disorders and confusions their strength declined and that of the enemy increased, and that there seemed no hope of amendment of their state, or even long continuance from decay ; and being again solicited by the Duke with assurances that the King of Spain had given him full authority to treat, she could not refuse to listen, providing that the provinces might be assured "both in their ancient liberties and in the freedom for their conscience in the matter of religion." And being answered by the Duke that this her desire should be with honour and reason satisfied, she gave charge to the Earl of Leicester, at his last return thither, if he should find them no more able to maintain their defence than had appeared, to acquaint them with the said offers and answers and move them to assent thereto, so that there might be a cessation of arms before worse things befel them, and by God's help they might come to a stable peace ; but meanwhile taking better care to maintain their frontier provinces and garrison towns and make all provision for defence in case the enemy should refuse reasonable conditions, wherein they should not lack her assistance as heretofore. But now, monstrous reports having been spread that her Majesty had not only treated of, but concluded a peace without regard to them and that commissioners were on their way to Brussels to confirm the treaty, which reports the said Earl hath refuted :—He is to assure them, on the word of a prince, that what the Earl has said of her honourable proceedings is most true, and to use all good arguments to move them to consent to the treaty, in which nothing shall be omitted to gain good conditions for them, as they shall have proof by their own commissioners ; desiring them to choose some persons of knowledge and sincerity and giving them such ample authority as was granted in like cases in the time of the late Prince of Orange ; at the same time earnestly requiring them to maintain their towns and garrisons, to stand firm in their common union, and not to hearken to any enticement of the enemy, but, if reasonable terms be refused, to persevere in their defence, with her further aid. And, he may add that her Majesty has been pleased, of her good opinion beyond his desert, to name him as one of the commissioners fr the treaty, and offer them any service he can do for them. If h perceives in them unwillingness or delay, he shall advertise her Majesty as quickly as possible and await further directions, but if they assent to the motion, he shall learn whether the Earl of Derby and the other commissioners of her Majesty be arrived on that side the seas, and if so, repair to them and prosecute this service to the best of his power. Finally, if the Earl of Leicester think meet, he shall declare to them the unkind usage of her Majesty, that whereas the Earl took over with him four or five thousand men only to serve the States, make a camp for their defence, and relieve Sluys, they have refused to pay the said soldiers, but desire the Earl to do so with the money needed for her own army, or else to have them to be ruined by famine, sickness and death, or to flee to the enemy, which ingratitude cannot be expressed in words, but consideration must be had for the reimbursement of the money. Draft, corrected by Burghley. Endd. 8¾ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 279.]
I. Additional Instructions,
He shall inform the Earl of Leicester that her Majesty is advertised of a mighty army in preparation by the King of Spain, to come presently to the seas, notwithstanding the approach of winter. Some say it is for Alarache in Barbary ; some for Scotland, "thereby to offend England, which is not unlikely, but the most common report in Spain is that it should be for England or Ireland, and thereof is most probability." Whereupon her Majesty hath resolved to make ready a navy for the seas, and also to put all the forces in her realm, specially on the sea coasts, in all readiness for defence thereof. Therefore his Lordship is to confer with the Council of State there, how they can make ready a convenient strength by sea, either to join her navy or go to the coasts of Spain, to do some good service, procuring as great forces as possible to be speedily provided, without expence to herself, for her charges are so great for her own army and navy that she cannot be further burdened. But towards the charges of that navy it may be declared that the prizes made upon the Spaniards may well satisfy the same, as the English ships, licensed to take prizes, have been this last year well answered for their whole charges with advantage. In Burghley's hand. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 284.]
II. An addition to a letter [from Burghley?] to Andrea de Loo, Oct. 11.
As he was about to send away his letter, ended on the 9th, her Majesty was moved to send Mr. Robert Beale instead of Mr. John Herbert, and bade him alter the "course" accordingly. For divers respects he misliked this, and especially "for that Mr. Beale was not thought a furtherer of the peace but had an opinion that it would never be beneficial nor yet would be kept," upon which his opinion and Mr. Beale's unwillingness to deal in it, her Majesty has this day ordered that Mr. Herbert shall continue the course, and depart within two days, who will (he believes) do his uttermost to further the action, whereunto, notwithstanding many oppositions, her Majesty is firmly determined to continue, unless the reports of the King of Spain's great preparations of a sea army should prove true, in which case no man could allow of any treaty. Prays him to deal inwardly with M. Champigny, who seems naturally disposed to further this peace and to help to the conservation thereof. Copy in the hand of Burghley's clerk. ½ p. [Holland XVIII. f. 285.]
I beseech you think of this matter of the peace as I of late wrote to you, that there is no likelihood of any speedy resolution. My earnest proceedings have only increased their former suspicions especially upon letters they received out of England, assuring "that her Majesty was at a full point already with the Prince of Parma, and stayed but for a colour for their answer ; and hath sent certain points already agreed upon, as they say ; among others that Religion shall be very slenderly provided for." Everywhere great diffidence arises, and there will be no better course, in my poor opinion, than to send a special ambassador ; for you may consider what service I can do where such jealousies are conceived and the people will have none to govern but themselves, to which end they take all advantages to discredit and be rid of us, "only they could be content for awhile to have her support of men paid by her, but rather her money. They are bent . . . upon a popular government for ever, and think Morryce and Hollock fit men to serve their turn. . . . Haste some sufficient man over to be ambassador . . . there is no other way to content and keep the better sort in heart. Assure yourself, they never meant this twelve months to yield to have such a governor as they first made me ; specially having the countenance of her Majesty to bear it out. It is high time and more than time this course were taken. I speak it not altogether to hasten my return though never man had more cause to seek it ; and I trust her Majesty will now yield to it, for I protest to God I have spent already 7000l. sterling of my 'none,'" but the trouble of it grieves me most, I being without assistance, and having all the practices that the States, Morryce and Hollock can work against me.— Medenblyck, 13 October. Postscript. If her Majesty likes, she may have this town and castle, put in her own people, and the governor M. Snoye become her sworn man. "He is a Gueldres born, and a most religious, true gentleman." The place surpasses Enchuysen, Horn or Harlingford for keeping the sea and passage ; is strong and well fortified. "He hath utterly lost the States and the two Earls for his open affection to her Majesty. He kept them both out the last year in my absence, when they would have come and changed the garrison and sworn him." I pray you, hasten me her Majesty's pleasure, for none know how they stand with her now and if she do not receive him, he will retire to Embden. "It is but his own entertainment as a colonel ; and two or three companies of her Majesty's ordinaries will serve here." Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 287.]
Since Mr. Beale's departure, nothing worthy of notice has fallen out. My lord of Leicester is in North Holland and the States await his return at Harlem. The dislike between them continues, with small hope of reconciliation. The bruit of commissioners coming to treat about peace has made a deep impression on them, and they do all they can to bring the common people to "dislike of our nation." It is lamentable to see the misery of the poor men lately "cast," who came here to take shipping ; mostly sick and without a penny. Since Mr. Beale left, it has become daily worse, and if our noble lord governor did not, to his great cost, daily relieve them before his Gate-house with meat and drink "they might as well perish all as some." When we get shipping for them, the hoys that should transport them dare not go to sea for fear of the Dunkirkers and those of Newport and Sluce ; "which daily lie here before our noses and come and spoil our fishermen." Some small ships should be sent to waft them over, but if her Majesty would maintain here a couple of ships, it would do much good as well to her merchants as her soldiers. The merchants have had shipping laden this fortnight, and for lack of convoy dare not go out. The Princess of Orange is gone into Friesland to the marriage of Count Maurice's sister to Count William of Nassau. At her departure, I asked her if she would be willing for Jehan de Castillie to be released for his ransom, considering the small hope there is of M. de Teligni's liberty for him, as also that there is two prisoners of better account in my lord Willoughby's hands, (fn. 1) which he hath sent to my lord of Leicester to serve for the same purpose ; alleging his [i.e. Castillio's] weakness and age. She leaves it to your consideration, yet would fain he were stayed until she hears from M. de la Noue. But in the mean time, the man grows weaker daily, and if he die, you are in danger to lose 500l., and M. de Teligni never the nearer his liberty. I pray you let me know your pleasure about it, as also whether I shall deal further with my lord of Leicester about Sir Philip Sidney's allowance for his diet, from his death to Sir William Russell's entry. It is a very unseasonable time to deal with the States for what is due from them to Sir Philip, but what you command, I will do. "I find our lord governor beginneth to be weary of this wanton and chargeable government. . . . I know no man in our land so fit for these people's humour as himself ; whom they do both love and fear ; but if he continue here, unless her Majesty deal graciously with him, 'a' will cast himself greatly behind-hand. He speaks of writing to ask you to sound my lord of Warwick, whether he would be content to resign him his interest in his lordship's office of Master of the Ordnance, as heretofore he did to Sir Philip Sidney, not thinking it convenient that my lady his sister should be the first motioner of it." My lord is now at Horne, and it is said that they of Enchuysen have refused to receive him. The Counts Maurice and Hollocq are at the Hague ; and Dr. Doyley sits with the States in Council. —Flussinge, 14 October, 1587. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 290.]
Since writing my other letter, I have received some news out of Holland from Capt. Hinder, which I send you. By it you will see what is fallen out at Leyden. "These sudden alterations are likely to grow to greater mischief." Capt. Udall is like to lose his company (unless you stand his favourable master) for killing in fight one Whetstone, my lord of Leicester's man or brother to one of his men. It was Whetstone's own seeking and Udall was cleared by the Council of War. "A more honester captain, and that keepeth his soldiers in better order, is there not in this land." I understand that when he was cleared some nobleman [Margin : L. North] said he was a good husband and had money, meaning to make a commodity that way of him.—Flussinge, 14 October, 1587. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 292.]
At my coming from England, you expected I should find and receive in the hands of Mr. Atye 7000l. at least of the money brought over by his lordship, but I have not received one penny, neither has he, as he says, any left in his hands. So that I have had to make the weekly loans as well to the new companies as the old, and also "to lay out the whole charge of the satisfaction and cashiering of the new companies which now I have in hand, perceiving . . . that so was her Majesty's pleasure, if the States would not do it," who are very far from that, as I think you understand. These and other payments have consumed much of the treasure which I brought over, the poor remainder not being above a thousand pounds. "The wants and discontentment of the old companies is wonderful, having received no full pay in twelve months ; their exclamations . . . maketh me weary of my life here. Our soldiers are full of sickness and die for want ; the captains, beggarly both in money and credit, are no way able to help them." I am unwilling to say anything of money, having found it so unpleasant to speak of, yet must discharge my duty.—The Hague, 14 October, 1587. Holograph. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1¾ pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 294.]
"The proposition of peace hath wonderfully offended these people, and made our nation odious unto them. They are ready to shut us out of all their towns, and fall into plain suspicion of us. His Excellency is now in North Holland ; I do not hear of any great welcome that he hath there. I am busy here in the paying and dispatch of the thirty new companies, which doth consume much of the treasure. "The wants and discontentments of the old companies . . . maketh me not only weary of my place but almost of my life. . . ." I beseech you to think of our misery here."—The Hague, 4 October, 1587. Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 296.]
Acknowledging their letter of October [12-]22, with other documents, copies of letters, &c., received from them and shown to his Excellency, who is well inclined to smooth all misunderstandings, and desires nothing more than a good correspondence with the States, and to do all that may tend to the good and conservation of the countries. And as all know the confusion and sadness due to the long war and intestine dissensions, they have come to urge their Excellencies, to enter into closer communication, the better to understand each other, and defend the country from ruin. It is no new thing—as the States represented to his Excellency at Middelburg—for a change of government to give rise to many things not conformable to the privileges and rights of a state, and the more so in these afflicted countries, which, from their many disturbances and the long continued war, are fallen into great distractions and confusions ; but as experience may discover the causes, so remedies may be found ; putting away what is unfitting in order with better knowledge to direct all things, as they firmly believe his Excellency, by God's aid, will do ; so that, having heard their griefs, he may, in the future, enjoy their good opinion and confidence, and that you, having heard his griefs, will do the like and thus go on in good correspondence together, and oppose the great force of the enemy, and the ruin of the common cause. [On the aid given by her Majesty, the good qualities and importance of his Excellency, and the evils resulting from their contentions with him. Enumerate the points of difference, as regards the authority to be exercised by each.] And as they hope that his Excellency will give satisfaction to the States on the points and articles brought forward by them, so is it reasonable that the States on their side will maintain his Excellency in the possession of the authority conferred upon him, that all things may be brought into a happy union. Copy. French. 7½ pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 298.]
Since the bruit of a peace, all things have grown worse and worse and the Counts Maurice, Hohenlo, William, Philip, Salme, Overstein and others of that faction have not only made firm the neuters to their side, but have bred fear and slackness against those inclined to her Majesty. And whatever her Lieutenant may say, they think he is only temporizing, "to work the safety of England and their danger," saying that he had been called back long since but for this peace, and as soon as it is accorded will be revoked, and then such as have served him and honoured her Majesty "shall be no less hated of his neighbour than of the Spaniard. And yet I dare say . . . that if they [the generality], were assured of her Majesty's favour and protection, they would in small time either unite the States and the people or else reform their monstrous abuses." Wherefore I hope you will either call his lordship home with honour or procure him means to do good service. When he was persuaded to go to Utrecht and the other provinces, where only his presence could prevent or appease a revolt, he left things in good terms in Holland and Zeeland ; but his back was no sooner turned than Counts Maurice and Hohenlo and their faction "practised a division in Leyden," whereupon some of the burgers and captains were imprisoned, and others put out of the town. In Utrecht there was great controversy for the choice of new magistrates and his Excellency had to come back to Amsterdam to appease the multitude and, with great difficulty, obtained men of good religion and honesty to be burgomasters. He was received at Amsterdam with great solemnity and show of love, duty and faithfulness towards her Majesty. The magistrates being settled at Utrecht, he went on Oct. 4 towards Naerden ; "whither the Count Hohenlo [had gone], who had, since his Excellency's departure from the Hague, placed garrison at Delft and Maesland Escluse ; and sent also one Captain Read, a Scotsman, with a band of footmen, to lie there . . . but the town would not receive them because they came not with warrant from her Majesty's lieutenant. This night the governor of North Holland, Mr. Sonoy, caused the said Captain Read to be apprehended at Maybergen, for that he was one of his regiment, and followed the Count of Hohenlo without his leave, yea, albeit his Excellency had written to the contrary. "The next day he came from thence to Hoorn in North Holland, where he was received with all the honour that could be ; all their ensigns bearing the arms of England and upon the top of their highest steeple a flag set up with the red cross, with all other ceremonies that might show their duty to her Majesty." From thence he meant to go to Enchuysen, which town had most solicited his coming to North Holland, but the case was suddenly altered, for the magistrates wrote praying him to defer it until they had worked things to a good end, as they were in some faction, and he could not go with safety. The practiser of this is Doctor Francis, whom her Majesty used with great favour in England. They are still in arms in this town, being mostly mariners and fishermen, "who say they will have her Majesty's lieutenant into the town, or else they will die for it," but all English are kept out and such as come hither are hardly used, examined, and men appointed to see whither they go and what they do. The governor, Monsieur Sonoy, has one company of foot and the States another. Sonoy's company is allowed to watch and ward, joined with others, but their lieutenant is ordered to keep his house, which is straitly guarded. The magistrates of Enchuysen, hearing that Count Maurice would come that way, going into Friesland to Count William's marriage with his sister, wrote to say that they could not receive him, or he come thither with safety. Wednesday, Oct. 11, the lord General came to Medenblick, a place of great strength upon that sea. Here the Governor makes his special abode. The people of this country are very obedient, most loving to the English and faithful to her Majesty, and will hear of no governor "but of her Highness' lieutenant." From thence his Excellency meant to go into Friesland (being solicited by the President and others) ; but for some sudden occasion he came to Alcmaer on the 14th, where he was received with great show of affection. The day before he heard from the Hague that Count Hohenlo had been there in Council with the States, and that the States went to Delft to confer with Counts Maurice, Hohenlo, Meurs, Philip, Salme, Overstaine and others ; "for the Count Meurs, finding his credit to fail him at Utrecht, came thither to comfort himself amongst his friends. And the town (as I am informed) desiring his room more than his company, and fearing his practice, have sent after him a fair discharge of his authority and government there, for that province is wholly her Majesty's." On the 12th, news came from Lochem, beyond Zutphen, "of certain prisoners the garrisons there had taken, going towards Deventer ; amongst which it is reported that the Lady Morley is one, and one Mrs. Morgan, which is guessed to be the arch traitor's wife that is in France ; Mr. Crispe, that was Sir Philip Sidney's lieutenant of his cornet, &c." It is said that Sir William Stanley has gone from Deventer towards France, with four companies of foot, to serve the King, and that Count Vander Bergen, Count Maurice's cousin german, is absolutely governor there for the Spanish King. "It is bruited that Stanley was now lately become lunatic . . . and had kept Monsieur Taxis, governor of Zutphen out of Deventer two or three days. ... If this be true, as he was known for a traitor, so he may be noted for a fool." The Duke of Parma is still at Brussels, preparing for fitter opportunity, for it is held for certain that the King of Spain means to work wonders this next year, "and to the end he may effect it the better, they say that he buyeth his peace with purse. . . . I think that all will fall to wrack here unless her Majesty put in faster footing ; and all such as continue faithful to her will fare the worse for it."—Alcmaer, 15 October, 1587. Add. Endd. 3 closely written pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 302.]
The occurences which come to me are : "First, the establishment of the 'magistrate' in Utrecht with some difficulty, his Excellency being there then present ; the tumult at Leyden and imprisonment of one Dutch captain and some of the town, through suspicion that a surprise was intended to innovate the policy observed there ; and lastly the peace propounded by Mr. Killigrew at Hague, with utter mislike of the Estates" ; but as these are already fully delivered to you, I pass them over. His Excellency went into North Holland, and purposed into Frise, but it is said he is returned to Utrecht. Since he left the Hague, the Counts Maurice and Hohenlo repaired thither and yet remain, guarded with some hundred musketeers. They have put garrison into Mazelandsluce, a fort of very special importance over against Briell. Count William, governor of Friesland, is shortly to marry Count Maurice's sister, whereby they will more assure themselves together. There is likelihood of great confusion in these parts, for discontentments are general and diverse, which, whether they grow from the treaty of peace or in other sort, I must remember my charge, being assured it is one of the chief restraints to the Hollanders. The inhabitants profess all faith, whatsoever be practised elsewhere, but I do not trust them, for they are all followers of one course. Whatsoever shall happen, my life shall pledge my faith to her Majesty, but I beg to have means to make the town more guardable than it is. There is next to no powder, no iron bullets, match, lead, hand weapons or munition ; only seven pieces of artillery on the walls, some not good, and no platforms for any of them. "The round [i.e. circuit] two mile and a half, and but four companies in the garrison. These defects are known to his Excellency . . . but I am not supplied ; so as in any occasion I am tied to my fingers, which shall not be sufficient. . . . If I doubted besieging, I should demand many other provisions but I only mistrust attempts by surprise, which our overmuch weakness through these wants may encourage." I envy not that twelve cannons and thirty lasts of powder were sent to Flushing and none here, notwithstanding my demands, but think this town may deserve more regard than is yet allowed. —Briell, 15 October, stilo veteri. Holograph. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 305.]
I wrote last to your Majesty from Horne, by my servant Heydon and old Junius. From thence I went to Medenblick ; "the place your Majesty hath heretofore made reckoning of as a fit place to be at your commandment, which is now to be disposed as shall please you. I have written to my lord Treasurer to know your Majesty's pleasure therein. The place is of greater importance for the service than Enchusen, Horn or Harlinghen and the man that governs it is as worthy to be cherished and esteemed by your Majesty as any stranger that ever served you. He hath now lost all the great folks here . . . for that he will not falsify his faith and oath once given to your Majesty by me." You will do well to take care of him. From Medenblick I came yesterday to "Awlkmere," where I have been exceedingly well received. It is a fair strong town. I came the rather as the States of Holland are assembled at Harlem, about ten miles off, and I desire to be near them to hasten their resolution and see what course they take, "upon their late liberal giving out of your Majesty's dealings in the peace, to their utter undoing." In every place they have their lewd instruments to abuse the people and draw them from you if they can ; but I think they shall have much ado, especially if you send an ambassador or agent here, to answer their false objections, and affirm to them what you think meet. This will be both very profitable for your service and honourable for you, for by their late doings they have touched your honour, which I trust you will not bear. If you please to take a right course, you may yet overrule them all. But it must not be foreslowed (?). I mean, that you may bring the better sort to join with you for the treaty, "for your Majesty will hereafter miss them if you make a peace without them ; and a little patience with some good handling, no 'doubts' will yield you what you will . . . but it must be a special man from you that must work it." For myself, they oppose me by all the devices they can, albeit I do my uttermost to impugn their sinister practices and bring your wishes to take effect ; whereof there is no doubt, if matters be dealt in as they ought to be ; for I assure you "it is as honourably conceived and liked of many, as it is princely and godly intended by you ; only the advantage these men take to hinder it is to make the people believe that you have already concluded a secret peace, leaving them to all misery and revenge of the enemy, and that you seek their joining with you but for a colour, and to make your own the better ; which . . . hath bred a wonderful murmur among the common sort." What I have done and do to satisfy their minds I leave to the reports of all who serve here, yet the States do their utmost to discredit me. But thank God I still keep some credit among them. [Writes further concerning the sending of an envoy, and what he is to say, viz. to explain the true cause of her desire for peace, expostulate with them for their ingratitude, and threaten to withdraw her forces, save from her cautionary towns.] This is an easy and honourable course, "for if you break abruptly . . . nor show some regard for the cause you took here in hand, viz. the church of God and preservation of so many thousands of people, it will greatly concern you in honour through all the world, where, having so just cause as you now may take, the fault shall be cast upon themselves, and your honour every way preserved.—Alkmere, 15 October. Postscript. The King of Denmark's agent is not yet at Embden but his passport and letters are left safely for him there. Prays God that she may hold strict amity with that King, who is the fittest for her of all others. No man must persuade her otherwise, and she must use him kindly. Holograph. Add. Endd. 3 pp. closely written. 2 small seals. [Holland XVIII. f. 307.]
Oct. 15. "The Receipt" from 7 to 15 October, 1587.
Stanley, [Richard], Teller of the Exchequer.
Weekly remain and receipts - - -
2596l. 12s. d.
Payments to Lord Hunsdon, captain of the gentlemen Pensioners, by the hands of Robert Horseman, for wages and board ; wages due to the Band, and allowed to himself for divers payments made - - - - - 2021l. 7s. 1d.
Remaining - - - - - - 575l. 5s. d.
Killigrew [Henry, Treasurer and paymaster of the Ordnance.] Weekly remain and receipts - - - 3725l. 18s. d.
Payments to John Hawkins esquire, Treasurer of the Admiralty, Capt. Nicholas Meryman, and divers persons for fees, &c., - - 1600l.
Remaining - - - - - - 2125l. 18s. d.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 309.]
"After the Treasurer's second letter of the 15th [sic. should be 10th] of this month, which now I send, her Majesty not disallowing thereof, commanded that we two, the Controller and the Secretary should be also acquainted with her mind ; and so we all three require you to assure the Duke that the delay of the sending of her Majesty's commissioners hath been greatly displeasing to her, and only occasioned by the evil disposition of the States to hearken to any treaty of peace, for the doubt they have in the obtaining and diffidence in keeping thereof. And we assure you that the suggestions to stain her Majesty's sincerity are mere untruths, as the end may declare if the Duke shall assent to this treaty. "And if you had not signified that the Duke meant speedily to go to the field ; without any further expectation of the treaty, her Majesty's commissioners, without tarrying for any further answer from the States, had at this present taken their journey towards those parts. But now, finding that yourself would depart from thence, as despairing of any treaty at this time, she also is entered into doubt that if her Commissioners should now come thither, the Duke would rather follow his intended actions of hostility than admit any treaty of peace ; with pretences that he had advertised the King of the delays past, as though her Majesty had not sincerely intended the treaty ; and so her Majesty, in sending of her Commissioners, should find the same to serve to no purpose, but rather to her great dishonour ; for which cause, being in this doubt, and yet continuing in a full purpose to send them, her pleasure is that you should with all speed make your repair to the Duke, and to inform him of this her Majesty's doubt, and require him to resolve her of the same ; which, if it may be with his own hand, should greatly satisfy her, that is, if her Commissioners shall presently come without any delay, then he will assent that the treaty shall proceed ; and that there shall be a cessation of arms concluded during the treaty, as was meant before this time. And if the Duke shall be thus content, then we do assure you there shall be no one day of delay for their coming. But and if the Duke shall not assent hereunto, then her Majesty would have you in her name to require him as a prince of honour to deliver his mind frankly to you, to be imparted to her Majesty ; which we require you with all speed possible to advertise by this bearer. . . . "And so, considering the sincerity of her Majesty's mind towards a good peace, as we do testify it of our knowledge, and that there shall not now be any default on her part . . . we that are her counsellors shall be comforted with expectation of God's favour for the event of anything that shall follow. So fare you well."—From the Court at Richemond, 15 October, 1587. In the handwriting of Burghley's clerk. Endd. "M[inute] of a letter written to Andreas de Loo, by the Lord Treasurer, Mr. Controller and Mr. Secretary Walsingham." 2 pp. [Flanders I. f. 357.]
Recommending the bearer as an honest gentleman who "hath sought all means to employ himself in service since he came over, as well in Ostend as Berges-up-Some," but their own controversies have much impeached the service that way, being increased by the lewd disposition of those who are willing to bring these countries to ruin, as without her Majesty's wisdom and commiseration no doubt they will. Prays that this gentleman may taste her gracious favour, as he has shown himself forward and of a good spirit. Would to God that what she hears from him, with what he has himself written of his manner of life there, to her little honour or service, might persuade her to think it more than time to call him home.—Alkmere, 16 October. "Here Mr. Harry Noell hath also remained most desirous and ready to have done any service upon all occasions. He meaneth to go into France to the King of Navarre." Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XVIII. f. 311.]
I hope Mr. Neidam reported what I declared to him of my last voyage to Antwerp, and in what terms I stood here with his Excellency ; who since then has often conferred with me "upon the entertaining him that was my pledge in Antwerp, for that by his means great matters are to be discoursed, as already he hath begun," but I fear if he receive only writings from me, he will not be very forward to proceed. If his necessity (which is great) were supplied, I am persuaded he would give good intelligence, for he has both will and power to do so. In my last letters I wrote that God having called to him my master [Sir Philip Sydney] I desire to dedicate my services to your honour. I follow his Excellency, but with no allowance, maintaining myself with the little I have, which will soon be consumed, therefore beseech you to advise me what course I can take to do you service. His Excellency is as yet in North Holland. "The proposition made by Mr. Killigrew unto the States in his Excellency's name doth not work in the minds of this people the effects that were expected ; for of late in Leyden they have put out of the town one Capt. Mansart with his company ; committed in prison certain of the principal townsmen, suspecting the captain and said burgesses to be too much affected to his Excellency, and by consequent, easy to be made yield to a peace, of the which . . . no man must be so stout as to speak." As I passed through Dort, I visited the Scout [Escoutette] M. de Muis, who was greatly astonished that his Excellency had caused it to be propounded, and will, I see, do all he can to hinder it, being appointed by the town to go to the assembly of the States at Harlem, they having left the Hague for fear some should have been apprehended by his Excellency, an opinion which, I believe nothing can take out of their heads. "Many here hold for certain that her Majesty will shortly send her commissioners hither, to repair to the Duke of Parma. . . The answer that they shall have here . . . is already framed, which is in effect that if her Majesty will treat they cannot hinder her, but it shall be without the consent of these United Provinces ; and therefore they give already order to their affairs and to overthrow the said 'treatise.' These things and more I know of one whose counsel and advice is much followed (not unknown to your honour)." If I could do the said commissioners any service either here or with the Duke of Parma, and it would please you to employ me, I would with all fidelity and care discharge my duty ; "for to live here longer thus idly and with an uncertain estate, I do not find it in myself 'conceillable.' "—Middelbourg, 16 October, 1587, stilo Anglo. Add. Endd. 2¼ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 313.]
Being informed that Jehan de Castilla is very sick, and desires for change of air to go to Middelborough, to the house of the Portugal merchant there, is very willing he should do so, if the said merchant give assurance for the payment of the 10,000 gilders due for his ransom, whether he live or die.—Alcmaer, 16 October, 1587. Postscript. "It is not my meaning that the party should be at liberty if he live ; for albeit I would have his ransom paid if he should die, yet I would have his body forthcoming if he live, until you receive further order from me." Copy. Endd. ¾ p. [Holland XVIII. f. 315.]
Is now, among the rest, quit of the charge which his honour procured for him. Is not ignorant what base reports ill-minded men give out of their captains, but if any such come of him, he refers himself to the report of this bearer, his lieutenant. Hopes they have no just cause to complain, for, as he would be loath to crack his credit, so would he be very sorry his honour should hear of any abuse done by him. Prays favour for the bearer who, while with him, has always acquitted himself like a gentleman and a dutiful soldier.—Rotterdam, 17 October, 1587. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 316.]
My last to you was of the 29th of last month, I being then come from Antwerp. Since then I have been all the time with his Excellency at Amsterdam and Utrecht, soliciting the release of Signor Marten "Laffali" [La Faille], but can get little favour. I delivered your letters both to his Excellency and to Lord Willoughby, but their answer both to me and to "Lafale's" brother was that the safe conduct was only for his free traffic and abode in England, and had no effect here. On the contrary, he has been these three weeks in a cellar, fitter for a beast than a man. No merchant was ever so dealt with since these troubles began, and I am sorry that the English are the first to do so, "for money and not for treason." The demand is for 5000l., which will never be given by him. "I think his sins have deserved more, but am sorry that we must do the execution ; wherefore in the name of John de 'lafilli,' his brother and the eldest son, a good protestant and honest man," I pray your favour that his brother may be used as a merchant of his calling and years ought to be. It is said here that Turks would not deal so hardly, but my Lord Willoughby is led away by two or three. To-day a friend of mine is come from Antwerp (who dwells with me in the English house) and brings news that the Prince of Parma makes great preparations at "Macklen," Gaunt, Brussels and Antwerp both for the field and by water, "and hath not sent such forces for France as the report goes, but looks for fresh replies, and takes out all the garrisons that may be spared." Further he says that some great attempt will be made upon Barrow [Bergen], and doubts not of friends in it. I dare not say what I would, for our martial men make these matters too far known. I think the country was never at such a stay, one town, ready to rise against another. Utrecht and Amsterdam bear some good affection to his Excellency, but no great assurance. Harlem, Leyden and Delft are wholly out of love with our nation. At Leyden, I saw an ancient [i.e. ensign] of soldiers put out of the town for their supposed affection for his Excellency, and because some matter was pretended against the magistrates, though the captain declared it was without his Excellency's knowledge. The like dislike is grown up amongst the mariners and Admiralty, and since the loss of Sluce the Vice-Admiral Joyes [i.e. Joos] de Moore and Adrien Corneleson are removed from Flushing to Tervere. Corneleson is known to be a godly and honest man. The mariners run daily to the enemy, which never was seen before ; and as I told his Excellency, they are the strength of these countries. I saw in the Vloot the small esteem our Nation is in ; all which comes by the States, who first brought his Excellency over. "They will not hear of any peace for fear their kingdom should not last, and yet will they be governors of all princes if they could. God grant a good peace or none ; for in this order the States' merchants wax rich, for every day here goes three or four ships with goods laden to Antwerp . . . as freely as ever went ; and now I understand that a list shall go out for passing of butter and cheese and all other victuals. This is the time for the state but not for the commons. The indirect dealing is to be lamented, and the strengthening of the enemy still more so. There is news from Spain that divers ships are gone out of Andalusia to Lisbon to take in lading for the army ; there are small tokens of peace on the enemy's side. I hope to be at Antwerp in two or three days, and would be glad to have your letter in behalf of Martin Lafalli there. I hear that you wish to have some crystal glasses made. The crystal is much clearer at Antwerp than other places, and if I can stand you in stead for anything, I am at your commandment. —[Dated at the top] Middelborrowe, 27 October, still. novo, 1587. Add. Endd. 2 closely written pages. [Holland XVIII. f. 318.]
The enemy slacks no occasion that may be advantageous to him. He has drawn troops out of West Frise, with the governor, to his camp at Turnhout, and from Flanders, the forces that were before Sluys ; has made new levies in Artois, Heanigoe [Hainault] and the country of Liege, arming the peasants as well as the soldiers, and has also collected great quantity of tools &c., for mining and pioneering ; all manner of engines for a siege, and powder and artillery ready to march. "It is hourly expected when their camp will rise, having bruited that their journey is for France ; but how unlike it is that they would carry provision for a siege thitherward your lordship may well conceive. "My intelligence assureth me that it is for this place, where at this present we are but eight companies of foot, and of those also many die daily with a contagion of a hot, burning fever ; and our magazine both of all kind of munition and of victuals no greater than it should be. . . . Yet we attend them with as great devotion as we were better furnished, both with the one and the other."—Bergen op Zom, 18 October, 1587. Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 320.]
I can assure your honour that the best affected to our nation are greatly altered by the motion of this unfortunate peace. Our burgomaster here, with divers others, is so greatly to be suspected that if her Majesty do not keep a garrison of twelve companies at least, she will hazard the place and our lives. The practices are such, both by the enemy and by Count Maurice and the States of Zeeland, that I pray you to desire the Lord General to put three other companies here, in the place of those discharged, for otherwise I greatly fear for the place and for my honour (which is much more to me than my life) if it should be lost, though through no fault of mine. It were not amiss for two or three of her Majesty's ships to lie here till we see what the Prince will do, but that I fear some will say I am too fearful. Yet I think he will attempt something against us shortly. It may be the Lord General would have more care of the place if I were away, and if so, I pray you let me be rid of it, a thing I greatly desire, both in respect of its many dangers and my great charges. If her Majesty will not remove me, I must needs be an importunate beggar that she will have some consideration of my poor estate, "the which is greatly impoverished by her service, and not by any foolish humour of my own. "The party you willed Mr. Neddam to deal with me about is one that I greatly love and no way suspect, yet seeing the time to be most dangerous, I could wish if it might stand with your honour's liking to write for him to come over [to England] for a month or two ; myself not minding by God's grace to go out of the town till I hear further of the Prince and his proceedings."— Flushing, 20 October. Holograph. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland XVIII. f. 322.]
Oct. 20. A brief note of disbursements for her Majesty's army in the Low Countries from August 2 to October 20.
For Imprests, coat and conduct money, transportation, &c. Together with 6000l.
"sent over to my deputy to pay the companies there" Total -
10970l. 4s. 11d.
Which being deducted out of 17000l. there remains - - - - - 6029l. 15s. 1d.
Memorandum that out of this remainder there is to be answered the 2000l. taken by Gen. Leicester at Middleborough by way of exchange ; the defray of the soldiers levied in Essex, and of such soldiers as were appointed to Plymouth or Falmouth.
Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. XVIII. f. 324.]


1 The Baron de Torrèze and Grimaldi, Secretary of State for Flanders. See Report on Ancaster MSS., pp. 65, 69.