SIR JOHN CONWAY to BURGHLEY.
According to your letter, I have put this place in as good
readiness as I may for the receipt of her Majesty's Commissioners
of State. All the captains and inferior commanders of this
garrison are conveniently lodged, time and place considered.
It will not seem strange to us to want of our lodgings for a month ;
"we shall hold the better guard, and their honours in the more
safety." Your letter came to me by strange hands, and by the
same I send this, and therefore write less than I would.
"Howsoever they treat a peace, they increase their forces upon
this place daily and by degrees come nearer and nearer, albeit all
their purposes cannot prevail. We are now sufficient strong, and
we are strengthened with many benefits of time. No force can
surprise us, being true within ourselves ; and as for cannon, it is
less to be feared."—Ostend, 21 December, 1587, stilo anglie.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 189.]
Dec. 22./Jan. 1.
Answer of the STATES GENERAL touching the equipping of
Upon request of Mr. Herbert, the Queen of England's
ambassador, to know whether the said States, will in accordance
with their treaty with her Majesty, have ready and will send to
sea the ships of war by them promised in that treaty, for
the aid of her Majesty :—the States General declare that they have
always held themselves bound, and still so hold themselves, to
carry out faithfully all and every point of the said treaty ; and
namely that touching the furnishing of ships.—Delft, 1 January,
Signed by Egmont, president, and Aerssens, greffier.
Endd. French. ½ pp. [Ibid. XIX. f. 193.]
LORD WILLUGHBY to BURGHLEY.
"As I conceived in my last letter, it falls out. Berghes is now
destitute of victuals and money, and Ostend hath the same wants,
besides the dying of their people and of a strong enemy near them.
We have here no hope of means but what may come from your
lordship. If their accounts and reckonings may not be had,
which my lord general signed and whereof no penny is yet paid,
yet I beseech your lordship so much money may be sent over as
may pay the poor wretches this winter season their weekly lendings
and that with all expedition ; otherwise it were much better to
call us all home than to suffer so many men of war to run into so
great extremities as they are like." Bruin estimated ten or
twelve days more victuals in the magazine than it now falls out,
which makes our case more desperate, for there is no money to
be got from the merchants, "and the States are half out of taste
with us till we may recover our credit," which I hope we may do,
as all parties protest to honour her Majesty.
There is no news but that Skinke has taken a town called
'Bone,' appertaining to the Electorate. "The difficulty to win
it was not so much as the pleasure this Elector with us receiveth
by it."—Dort, 23 December.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIX. f. 195.]
DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
I am most anxious to learn whether her Majesty is satisfied with
his Highness' answer, and that the deputies are embarked. Of
one thing I am very sure, that wherever they come, they will be
warmly welcomed, and that speedy order will be taken for their
assembling at such time and place as her Majesty shall have
appointed, although the best way would be to come here.
Touching hostilities (both here and in Spain), the Duke will
take means that all may go on happily, if the deputies come over
without delay and the treaty is set on foot, her Majesty trusting
the honesty of his assurances that the preparations both here and
in Spain are to no other end than (if the peace fails) for such
hostile use as war allows ; and not to let themselves be fed (as they
say) with more words, when his Highness (who is still in Antwerp)
would be forced in the first good opportunity to undertake some
enterprise, in order to give occupation to these great forces (if
the Commissioners are not hastened) who are awaited with good
will before arms are seized again. I enclose the reply from Ostend,
and pray for the good success of this pious affair.—Bruges,
24 December, 1587, stilo antico.
Add. Endd. by Burghley as "received Jan 4." Italian. 1 p.
[Flanders I. f. 384.]
Lord Willoughby's [second] commission or patent "to be
lieutenant and governor of her Majesty's forces in the Low
Copy. Endd. with date 17 December (but see copy below).
Latin. 4 sheets. [Holland XIX. f. 197.]
Another copy of the above, dated at Greenwich, 24 December,
Endd. Latin. 5½ pp. [Ibid. XIX. f. 205.]
"Articles of Instructions [from her Majesty] to be put in
execution by the Lord Willoughby."
Having chosen him to be Lieutenant of all her forces in the
Low Countries, she has thought meet to accompany the
commission which she now sends him with some instructions for
his better direction and carriage in the said charge.
First, considering in how dishonourable part the States have
used her cousin of Leicester, one to whom, besides the authority
conferred on him by virtue of the Treaty between her and them,
they had of their own choice yielded the absolute government of
those countries, she had thought good—although by virtue of
the said treaty her Lieut.-General is authorized to deal as a
principal in matters of government there—that he shall not
intermeddle with their government without her direction, but
only attend to the ruling of her forces there, "to be employed in
the defence of those countries under such a person as they shall
choose to be general of their forces."
Yet, when called into the field with the forces under him or any
part of them—or required to give them aid by such as shall have
the direction of their armies ; he shall then demand to be made
privy to the service intended, in order to "foresee" that they do
not employ her soldiers in desperate attempts, but only in service
which may carry likelihood of success ; "as also that they shall
adventure in all such enterprizes their own pay, as far forth as
they mean to hazard hers.
And as it has always been the custom with princes to appoint
some persons of judgment and experience as Counsellors of war
to assist the General, she has nominated for that purpose Sir
William Russell and Sir William Reade knights and Nicholas
Errington and Thomas Wilford esquires, whom, when required to
lead her subjects into the field he shall call unto him (or as many
of them as he conveniently may), "to make them privy to the
services intended, and to use their counsel and advice in the
execution of the same" ; as also at all other times, as the necessity
of her service shall require.
And whereas she has been informed of great abuses committed
by captains towards the men of their bands, as namely by granting
great numbers of passports to them (under colour of sickness) to
return into this realm "witholding their wages to their own
uses" ; he is to give order that no passport shall hereafter be
given by any private captain, but only by himself, under his
own hand, or the governors of the towns where her subjects
are appointed to remain.
And for all other things, as seeing the bands kept complete, the
soldiers duly paid by their captains, and that they shall behave
themselves orderly and civilly as well to each other as to the people
of the towns where they are in garrison, she doubts not but that
he will take such care as may be answerable to the trust reposed
Copy. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holland XIX. f. 209.]
"The Account of Sir Thomas Sherley knight, treasurer at wars
in the Low Countries....as well of all sums of money by him had
out of her Highness' receipt of Exchequer" from Feb. 1 anno 29
(the date of his letters patents) or for other defalcations to her
use, and for armour, munition and powder delivered from her
store before 12 October last ; as also of all payments to officers,
soldiers and ministers serving in the said Low Countries due for
wages and entertainments upon the reckonings of 11 October,
1586, left unpaid by Richard Huddilston, late treasurer. And
also for all payments and imprests made to captains, soldiers &c.
serving there since 11 October, 1586. And for all payments for
cost, conduct and transportation and defrayments of other
charges, as well ordinary as extraordinary, "as hereafter may more
particularly appear." Viz. in Holland, Zeeland, Brabant,
Flanders, Utrecht, Guelderland.
11 sheets, written on both sides. [Holland XIX. f. 211.]
Notes by Burghley of payments to Sir John Norreys, Rich.
'Hurleston,' Sir Thomas Sherley and the Earl of Leicester,
1585 to 1587 ; 294,900l. and 210,500l.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 222.]
Notes by Burghley, endorsed "Observations upon Hunt's book
of charges of the Low Countries." He reckons the charges from
11 Oct. 1586 to 12 Oct. 1587 at 1015l. a month.
2 pp. [Ibid. XIX. f. 223.]
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to WALSINGHAM.
Thanking him, on "old Captain Erington's" behalf, for
procuring him a place at Berwick, and renewing his prayers "that
this poor garrison may receive some pay, whose debts are great
and wants very many" ; "also that as the Prince still holdeth his
determination to attempt somewhat against this place or island,
having his forces lying in Flanders, over against Vere," he will
further the sending of two or three of the Queen's ships to lie there,
for safeguard of the town and security of passengers to and fro.
Reminds his honour of his suit for the office of lieutenant of the
Ordnance, and of his desire to get free of his place, or at any rate
to have two month's leave.—Vlishinge, 25 December, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 225.]
Passport and safe conduct from her Majesty, for the deputies of
the Catholic King, to go to Berghes or Ostend, in the provinces
of Brabant or Flanders (fn. 1) or some other place for the proposed
treaty ; viz : for Charles, Count d'Aremberg, prince of the Empire,
knight of the Golden Fleece, &c., &c., Frederick de Granvelle
Perrenot, Baron de Renaix, lord de Champagney, &c., governor
of Antwerp ; Dr. Johannes Richardot of the Council of State and
the Privy Council ; Dr. Johannes Maes, counsellor and Advocate
fiscal in the Council of Brabant, and Flaminius Garnier, secretary
to the Council of State and private secretary.
In Andrea de Loo's handwriting. Endd. by Burghley as sent
from him by Ed. [Morris]. Latin. 1¼ pp. [Flanders I. f. 386.]
Dec. 25./Jan. 4.
JOHN HERBERT to the DEPUTIES OF WESTERGOE.
Fearing that the delays of the States General in regard to her
Majesty's proposition of peace may do harm to the affairs of the
United Provinces, and consequently to their country, he wishes
to let them understand that her Majesty having, by her Council,
had careful examination made of the desolate state of the said
provinces, and the troubles which may result therefrom, has
resolved to enter into the said conference, as the only convenient
remedy for those ills which menace the total ruin of their countries.
But finding many so wedded to their opinions that they would
not listen to the voice of reason, he has resolved to return into
England to make report to her Majesty of what has passed, when
he will not fail to inform her of the good and loyal affection which
they [of Friesland] have shown to her service, and thereby to the
advancement of God's glory and the preservation of their countries
and liberties.—Delf, 4 January, 1588.
Draft by himself. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland
XIX. f. 227.]
Dec. 26./Jan. 5.
The ESTATES OF ZEELAND to ORTELL.
Understanding "that all ships going from hence for Spain are
by certain English ships of war detained at sea under colour of the
restraint of the trade upon Spain, being so brought in, and the
merchants against all reason endommaged : And forasmuch as
her Majesty hath as yet declared no open wars against Spain
(wherein no doubt the United Provinces would join) and that the
said navigation is not forbidden unto others, as French and
Esterlings, whereby the negotiation is and should be utterly
diverted from these countries and yielded unto strangers"; they
have charged their deputies to confer with the States General
effectually about it, desiring him in the meantime to make earnest
instance that all detained ships may be released, as also those
hereafter brought in (as ignorant of this resolution) ; and likewise
to bear in mind "all ways to reserve that this assistance and
rigging of our ships" be in no ways employed otherwise than to
the best service of these countries.
Extract. Endd. by Walsingham's clerk. ¾ p. [Ibid.
XIX. f. 229.]
Notes by Burghley, and endorsed by him "26 December, 1587.
The charges of the Low Countries in the charge of Richard
Hurleston and Sir Thos. Shyrley." With the charges of the
ships kept upon the narrow sea towards Flanders, from 10 Sept.
1586 to 12 Dec. 1587, amounting to 47695l. 18s., with 24761l.
13s. 4d. in addition to 26 Dec. 1587, paid to Hawkyns and Quarles.
1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 230.]
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to BURGHLEY.
Renewing his earnest requests that money may be speedily sent
over and two or three ships to guard the town and island.
Also prays for four or five months' victuals to rest there for
provision of the place, seeing most of these people's intentions to
Once more beseeches his lordship to further his coming over.
—Vlisshing, 26 December, 1587.
Signed. Endd. by Burghley's clerk with the three points of the
letter. 1 p. [Holland XIX. f. 232.]
THE SAME to WALSINGHAM.
I find the people of this town so greatly altered of late as I fear
Count Maurice and Hollock have no good meaning, who are both
at Middelburg with three or four thousand soldiers, minding, as
I hear, to attempt something against this place. "I rather
believe it for that they will not let the princess remain here, herself
being very desirous thereunto. And this afternoon, having
received a letter to that effect from Mr. Herbert and Mr. Killigrew,
doth in a manner make me assure myself there is such an intent."
therefore I pray that two or three ships may lie here for some
twenty days, and that the soldiers may have victuals for half a
year ; for if they should fall from her Majesty they might hinder
all victuals coming into Holland.
The enemy lies in Flanders with 25000 men and daily goes
forward with his shipping, which makes me the more wish for
some, having not two men of war in the town.
I have written to my lord of Leicester that the lack of pay will
make the burghers weary of us, but could not get from him 40l.
for a company. If her Majesty does not take better order, I fear
some great alteration, "myself being fully determined to yield her
no other account of the place than with the loss of my life ; being
told by some that it was greatly desired by the Count Hollock and
some of the States."—Flushing, 26 December.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XIX. f. 234.]
Paper, entirely in Burghley's hand, headed : "Arguments upon
the matter of the offer to treat of a peace."
"Doubts for the part of the States."
1. That the King of Spain will never agree to let the people of
Holland, Zeeland and the provinces United have free exercise of
the Reformed Religion in their churches as they now have.
2. That he would let the native Catholics of the country have
the churches free for the exercise of their Religion.
3. That he will have all the abbeys, friaries and nunneries
restored for habitation of persons professed and the land that
did belong to them bestowed again.
4. That if the States will not assent to the two latter points,
the King will not assent to the first.
5. And if so, "what benefit shall they have that have adventured
their lives for to enjoy their religion.
"Particular doubts on the States' part for the form of proceeding."
1. If they will not agree to any treaty, then there can be no
cessation of arms.
2. If there be no cessation of arms on the States' side, the Duke
of Parma will continue hostilities against them, wherein will be
comprehended Flushing, Brill, Ostend and Berghes up Zoom,
where her Majesty's garrisons are ; and then there will be small
use of any cessation of arms between her Majesty and the Duke.
3. "If some of the particular provinces beside Holland and
Zeeland should assent to treat of a peace and to cease arms ; by
colour of them which will not assent, the enemy will use extremity
upon the others, upon pretence of the 'comixtion' of the people."
"Doubts of accord betwixt her Majesty and the States."
1. "If the States will not agree to treat, and that the Queen will
treat and conclude peace for herself, the States will protest that
they are not bound to defray the Queen's charges according to
2. And will allege the same, "except the two cautionary towns
may be restored to them, according to the contract."
3. And that they are not bound to pay, "but in certain years
after the peace be made, viz : [blank].
"Doubts betwixt the Queen and the King of Spain."
1. "If cessation of arms shall be concluded betwixt the commissioners,
how shall her Majesty be certainly assured that the
King of Spain will cease hostilities out of Spain.
2. "During the time of cessation of arms whether the Queen
shall continue her whole navy, both in the Narrow Seas under the
Lord Admiral, and in the west under Sir Francis Drake...the
Lord Admiral's charges being 8800l. a month, and Mr. Drake's
3. "If part of those two navies should be diminished, what
assurance may be that the enemy shall not take advantage thereof.
4. "By what good means may her Majesty be assured of her
money, and within what time may it be paid, seeing the towns
are not to be delivered before the money be paid ; considering it
is hard to have sufficient hostages."
Endd. by Burghley with date. 3 pp. [Holland XIX. f. 236.]
LORD WILLUGHBY to BURGHLEY.
"Our condition here grows every day worse and worse, as your
lordship may gather by the list I send, estimating that was left,
the time which it would serve for and the place it was destined
unto, namely Flushing, which garrison consists of ten companies,
and at the first it would hardly serve for a fortnight. We have
endured now above three weeks, wherein we have no reply nor
news of any hope or comfort that we have been once thought on.
The whole cavalry is in miserable state ; the 18d. a day will not
feed scarcely the man, much less the horse. Hay is here thirtysix
and forty shillings a small load, besides provender, the man's
diet, the shoeing of his horse, the maintaining and repairing of
his furniture, his losses and hazard, and lastly the extreme bad
payment [that] is made ; for they have neither their counts nor
reckonings, nor, since my lord general went, any weekly lendings.
It were better cheap and more secure for her Majesty to turn and
dismount them for foot-bands than to hold them. I have
proposed in open Council to the States to succour them with hay
and straw, as it hath been alleged some of their companies had.
They deny such succour to any of theirs, much less to any of ours.
"In this discontented time there is risen great suspicions that
the Counts Hollock and Maurice would have attempted something
on Flushing or the Briele. A ship of Enckhuisen with 200 men
offering to come in from the sea (as it is given out, weather-beaten)
for succours, the governor of Flushing suffered them not one whit
to stay. The like accident happened at the Briele. The Count
Maurice nevertheless protesteth his sincerity and serviceable
affection to her Majesty ; offereth to disprove with hazard of his
person whosoever would charge him with the contrary.
"The States of Utrecht and Overyssel are in no less fear of
mischief to light upon them than our cautionary towns, and have
written wonderful earnestly unto me to give them assistance of
defence to prevent it. But my authority is not discussed, they
as yet not having agreed to resolve of that which was left me by
his Excellency ; and truly unless some provision of better stay,
both for my private credit and the general forces of English may be
had, we shall deceive her Majesty and our friends and at length
a heavy blow will light upon us ; which I wish some more qualified
person than myself had the managing therof to divert it.
"There is advertisements come hither, which the Count
'Neunars' came to impart with me, that Count Charles Mansfeldt
should be risen with 6000 foot and 14 cornet of horse to besiege
'Bone,' lately taken in by Skinck....It bringeth fear to our
frontier places thereabouts lest so great a strength should attempt
them so slightly provided, which ours would fain 'renforce,' but
they have no means.
"While the sword hangs thus in a thread over our heads, it
is a world to hear the diversity of affections, some with peace,
some with war, some with their provinces particular, some with
the States General, and each in their passion very violent."
I am secretly informed that there is a purpose to cass the
Council of State by them of the States General. "They are all
looked for at this town presently. Count Maurice is already
arrived in this village, and keeps his sentinels at his gates all day
and his guards as though he lived in a garrison frontier, suspicious
of an enemy.
"To nourish this humorous people there is no want of bad
rumours sown by wicked persons, to make the nations odious
one to the other ; as that we would make our peace to the cutting
of their throats ; that we would deliver them to the enemy ; that
clean contrary to the nature of assistants, protestation of her
Majesty and profession of our Religion, my late Lord General
went about to surprise or win to his party Camphire and other
places, so that all things are full of diffidence, wavering and
uncertainty"; neither is there any hope unless some very honourable,
respected and entire person may be sent over furnished with
means, whose very presence and credit, upright, sweet and
indifferent proceeding might give trust to these waverings and
suspicions, assistance to the declining councils, and comfort to
the miserable men of war ; which, in my simple reach, such a one
might easily do, and yet not increase her Majesty's charge any
jot ; for if the accounts were once cleared it were an easy matter
for such a person, well countenanced from home, to content all
her Majesty's soldiers with the treasure she makes over, and hold
good correspondence with the States, who are most aptest only
to wrangle for privileges and money. If my Lord Stuart (fn. 2) might
be won into their opinion again, as I think he may easily, there
were not a more choice man to be found ; and truly a more unfit
than myself cannot be ; and therefore I wish to God it might seem
good to you at home I might return..."—The 'Hagh,' 29 December.
Postscript, in Herbert's hand. "The States have kept these
four days the commission my lord General left with me without
giving me any answer."
I am privately informed that they take exception to its validity
and if so, and I have no further commandment from her Majesty,
I know not what I should do here, and to be plain with your
lordship, I always held (unless for duty to her Majesty) no
authority from her [as] a flat revocation.
Holograph (except the postscript). Add. Endd. 3 pp.
[Holland XIX. f. 238.]
LORD BURGH to BURGHLEY.
"The departure of my lord of Leicester hath not yet occasioned
any change of the courses in these parts ; but some give out that
they mean to confer upon Count Maurice the general authority
over all the provinces," although my lord has not surrendered
his interest therein.
The ambassador has himself told you how he is delayed. They
have promised to despatch some presently to her Majesty whom
they seem to expect will dissuade her from the peace. The
most backward are they of Holland and Zeeland. The rest are
more tractable. They have published a book with many arguments
against the treaty...
My charge, I thank God, remaineth quiet to me, and shall be
in good safety during her Majesty's pleasure. The burghers are
hitherto very honest, and we live in good terms...The garrison
hath warrants but no money, and all things are grown to extreme
dearness. I beseech your good lordship, favour us as you find
reason ; at the 12th of January we shall be behind three months
of a new account.—Briell, 29 December.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Ibid. XIX.
LORD BURGH to WALSINGHAM.
Because her Majesty's ambassador to these parts hath not
received any direct answer," the States continue in consultation
touching the same. Their reply to his proposition is to be
delivered in England ; for which purpose they have deputed some
to her Majesty, and as I hear, the ambassador will go with them.
"We live quietly with them of this nation, but we will be sure
they shall take no advantage thereby," with any purpose to
wrest(?) the possession of the town from her Majesty. I hear of
divers practices but can gather no good ground ; I will always be
vigilant and able to warrant my trust.—Briell, 29 December.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIX. f. 241.]
Note, by Burghley's clerk, of the pay per diem of Principal
officers not contained in the contract.
Earl of Essex, colonel general of the cavalry ;
Sir William Pelham, Lord Marshal ; Sir John
Norris, colonel general of the infantry -
Sir Henry Norris, lieut. colonel of the infantry -
Sir Richard Bingham, Master of the Ordnance -
Thomas Wilford, sergeant-major ; Thomas
Morgan, camp-master - - -
James Spencer, provost marshal ; Edmund Hunt,
auditor ; Dr. William Clarke, judge marshal -
Thos. Digges, mustermaster, 12d. for every footband
and 20d. for every horseband, amounting
by estimate to - - - -
Arthur Champernon, quarter-master, 10s. ; his
clerk, 2s. ; and three men, 3s. - -
Six corporals of the field, and John Ricewick, trenchmaster,
"rewarded in gross out of the cheques."
Endd. with date. ½ p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 243.]
"A note of all such sums of money as hath been delivered
out of her Majesty's Receipt of Exchequer into the charge of
Richard Huddilstone esquire, late treasurer at wars in the Low
Countries, and Sir Thomas Shirley knight, now treasurer ; and
of the necessary charges to the forces there." The total charges
are greater than the treasurer received by 14143l. 18s. 10d.
[In schedule form, with many items interlined by Burghley.
Headed "Dec. 28," but endorsed by Burghley "Dec. 30."]
Two large sheets. [Ibid. XIX. f. 245.]
DE LOO to BURGHLEY.
Refers to letters of the 19th and 24th.
Hoping to hear that the deputies have started. Orders for
their reception. Reports interview with the Secretary Cosimo,
who asked if there was any good news to give to the Duke.
It would be well, he said, for commissioners to come, when they
could write to put a stop to the Armata preparing in Spain (and
which all affirm to be continually increasing) only because they
have so little faith in any desire for an agreement, in consequence of
the many delays. And yet, her Majesty may rest assured that
even yet, when the deputies arrive, she will have full satisfaction.
Urges that there be no more delay. Signor Cosimo says he knows
very well that France is doing ill offices, both with the Duke and
the Queen, to hinder the progress of the agreements ; but they did
not believe them, and believe that her Majesty thinks the same ;
this agreement being the most holy thing in the world, and a very
acceptable sacrifice to God.
The Duke is said to be now at Ghent, and means to stay there
for some days, so if the commissioners do not come very shortly,
the principal men here may all go away, because of the great
dearth of all things except corn, butter and cheese.—Bruges,
30 December, 1587, stilo antico.
Add. Endd. by Burghley as received Jan. 4. Italian. 1½ pp.
[Flanders I. f. 388.]
SIR WILLIAM RUSSELL to BURGHLEY.
I am forced to renew my old suits, beseeching your lordship to
send away money to pay this poor garrison.
It is said that the enemy "pretends to employ their great
preparation either into France, or to this place or island ; whose
forces lie very strongly on the other side of us in Flanders ; having
their shipping and all other necessaries long since ready. [Urges
sending of ships, as in previous letters.]
"Withal I have had some cause to mistrust of a secret practice
meant against us by the Count Hollock (who as yet stays at
Midelborough with three or four thousand men with him). . .that
under the colour of mariners, soldiers should in ships be conveyed
into this town." I cannot write it for certainty, but have some
presumption thereof, having already "sent out one boat, laden
with such people, who came in after that manner.
"I do daily perceive these people's affections to be withdrawn
from us, and would upon any advantage be willing to thrust us
out. And I do greatly fear that by the practice of the Estates
and others, Holland and Zeeland will shortly fall away from us.
[Asks for supply of victual, as before]. Vlisshinge, 31 December,
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIX. f. 247.]
THE PRIVY COUNCIL to SIR JOHN CONWAY.
Forasmuch as the "transportation of money out of this realm
in the proper kind," for payment of her Majesty's forces there, is
found very inconvenient, and the subjects of this realm are greatly
discontented therewith, it has pleased her Highness "to contract
with certain merchants to furnish her payments there by way of
exchange, and by transporting of other commodities, the which
the said merchants would not undertake unless it might be lawful
for them to transport and issue the said commodities of this realm
in part of payment thereof. Her Majesty therefore is pleased. . .
that from the 3rd of this present December, the weekly lendings
of every the footbands shall be augmented to the sum of 24l. 6s.
to every band of 150 ; whereof 16l. shall be paid there in ready
money. . .and the value of 8l. 6s. shall be delivered weekly in
victuals by the said merchants or their deputies at such rates and
prices as the soldier can be furnished there in the market with
his money. . .And there is also further order taken. . . that the
said footbands shall be furnished with competent and meet
apparel half yearly from time to time by the said merchants. . .
Affording them such good pennyworths as they can buy of any
others. Doubt not but that he will, in a cause grounded upon so
great reasons, take order that the same may be in all respects
duly observed and performed.—Court at Richmond, 31 December,
1587. Ten signatures.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XIX. f. 249.]
"Wants of victuals and money" in the garrison towns.
Berghen op Zoom. Bruin the victualler by letters of Dec. 5, 1587
certified that the store and magazine of victuals was spent, and
that there was not enough for above ten days ; which "fell out
not to serve so long time."
Ostend. Sir John Conway, governor there, by his letters of
17 and 21 Dec. 1587 certified that they have not victuals for above
five days after the date of his said letters (saving only a little
rye). And that the burghers for three months have been victualled
out of the Queen's store (now all spent), "having not traded any
way, both by the reason of the foul weather and dangerous
passage by sea.
Vlishing and Briel. At his Excellency's going over there was
no treasure save 1325l. 17s. 2d., destined for the weekly lendings
of these two garrisons (as appears by certificate of the Treasurer's
deputy) and this already all spent.
Also the States have confidently affirmed that although Berghen
or Ostend were besieged, they would send in no provision,
"because the English soldiers have consumed the store that was
there, having been forced thereunto upon these extreme wants
Endd. Dec. 8 (sic) by Burghley's clerk. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 191.]
Notes by Walsingham, endorsed "A way to satisfy the
garrisons of Camphire, Medenblicq and Armue. Dec. 1587."
The pay of a band of 1000 foot, per annum.
Their pay for 10 months - - -
Which sum deducted, there will remain -
The whole year's pay of 500 horse -
Which deducted from 13953l. 6s. 8d.,
there will remain - - -
Which, deducted from 3220l. there will
remain - - - -
"To be distributed to M. Sonoy ; M. Villiers ; Groningvild ;
M. de Medekerke ; Colonel Shinke."
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. f. 251.]
HER MAJESTY'S INSTRUCTIONS to THE COMMISSIONERS.
1. Whereas we had notice in winter now a year past that the
Prince of Parma, was desirous to know whether we could be content
to hear of a treaty for pacification of the troubles between the
King of Spain and us, in which case he would gladly offer himself
to be a dealer therein, knowing the King to be inclinable thereto.
And after means used by sundry persons, wrote himself, declaring
his earnest good will to make a perfect peace, and that he had
authority from his lord to conclude the same ; and after answer
made of our liking thereof, further offered that if we would depute
meet persons for such a purpose, he would do the like, directing
them to any place and at any time named by us in the Low
And whereas this purpose, by divers accidents, "hath been
drawn out to more length than the said Duke hath seemed to like
of" reiterating his desire for the sending of our Commissioners,
"with many words of hope that if we were as well inclined hereto
as he did know both the King and himself to be. . . there should
be a good and speedy success thereof."
Whereupon, though we had as good desire to live in peace with
that King and all other our neighbour Princes as they have, or
perchance better ; yet until further advertised by the Duke "that
his offer was made seriously and simply without dissimulation or
cunning, we did not fully consent to send any persons for this
But having many causes to hope of his sincerity, we at length
gave him to understand that we were content to send certain
noblemen and others of our Council to Berghen op Zoom "there
to be ready to meet with persons of like quality, having authority
from the King in some indifferent place near to the said town,"
to which the Duke did long time past assent, and about August
last sent hither "being unrequired a safe-conduct in due form,
under his own hand and the King's seal" naming such noblemen
and counsellors as he had heard by report that we purposed to
name, although in truth we had not signified to him the names of
any ; and it is to be noted that we have somewhat varied from the
same, naming some not before contained, "as you, Sir Amyas
Paulet and [blank] ; for which purpose another safe-conduct was
sent with the special names of the former, and a clause for us to
name any two or three others whom we would.
2. We have thought good to impart briefly the occasions of the
treaty, for your own knowledge of the circumstances and better
entry into the matter, "how the same had the beginning and
progress ; wherein you, Sir James Croft can more largely make
declaration if need shall be. . .considering you were one of the
first of our Council to whom this matter was notified by some of
your acquaintance appertaining to the said Duke.
3. "And now. . .we have propounded to the Duke another place
for you to repair unto, which is Ostend in Flanders, being in our
possession, near to which there may be places convenient for you
and the commissioners opposite to meet, or rather, if it may be
so accorded. . .the town of Bruges, where ye may be better
lodged, and where a commodious place may be for your
4. On your arrival, you shall first send to have a sight of their
commission, requiring to have a true copy and shall offer the same
on your part, and if you find any imperfection in theirs, shall
procure the reformation thereof, and in the meantime may proceed
to agree upon the place and times of your meeting ; requiring and
offering all reasonable conditions and assurances.
5. You are to understand that the King of Denmark sent, a
year ago, both to the King of Spain and to us to offer his mediation,
and revived the same motion to the Duke of Parma this last
winter, where, though the Duke accepted his motion in good
part, yet his messengers were evil used near Berghes op Zoom for
the which the said King was offended. Yet such is his honourable
mind to be a mediator that he has lately send to know our mind,
whereto we have answered that we accepted his offers very
thankfully ; that the place of meeting should be Bergen op Zoom ;
that we thought the time would be before Michaelmas, and that we
would send a safe-conduct for his ambassadors to Embden to come
through the Provinces United. And that we had signified our
doing to the Duke of Parma, that he might also send a like
safe-conduct to Embden.
6. If the King of Denmark's ambassadors shall not be come
when you arrive, you shall not stay for them, "but use that
expedition which shall seem requisite." And shall advertise them
of your change of place and use your best means for their safe
And being agreed of the place and times of meetings, and
sufficiency of your commissioners, "ye shall motion the cessation
of arms, whereof the Duke of Parma hath often made offer as
soon as you should meet together, as you, Sir James, do well
know ;" the contract to be made between our lieutenant, being
Governor of the States, or in his absence by such as shall be
General of our forces, and by the States also on the one part, and
the Duke of Parma on the other ; for which purpose our cousin of
Leicester had authority from us and he being now come from
thence, the same is to be supplied by such as shall be General of
"And this being obtained, ye shall, at your entry to treat,
declare the cause of our sending of you thither, agreeable to the
form and manner above mentioned, so as it may manifestly appear
how the same hath proceeded from the Duke and also from others
the King's ministers, as namely from M. de 'Champigny' whereunto
ye may add in our name how unwilling we have always
been to be at any difference or controversy with the King of
Spain, whereof our many ambassadors may make good profit
from the first beginning of our reign until our messengers were of
late years rejected ; requiring always observation of the former
treaties...betwixt our fathers the Emperor Charles the Fifth and
King Henry the Eighth" for amity and intercourse between our
"And in that mind we have always continued, having never
willingly attempted anything to the contrary, but that which we
have done hath been only for the defence of our own countries
and people. And ye may add hereto, that of this our purpose,
and of all other our actions that have concurred herewith, namely
for the relief of the people of those Low Countries, who were of
long time sought by foreign forces to be extirped and conquered,"
you must refer to our protestation published when we sent our
forces to aid those countries ; thinking (you may say) that it will
be more meet to enter into a treaty to restore our crowns to their
ancient amity "than to fall into alterations...for things past on
both sides which cannot be revoked ; whereby, leaving those
debates, ye shall say that ye may with more speed determine how
all occasions both present and future of any breach or disorder
may be utterly removed," and the miseries of these wars be
7. But if they still enter into any expostulation against our aid
to the people of those countries, or our actions in Spain and the
Indies, "we doubt not but ye may and will show sufficient matter
to answer the same for our honour."
8. For which purpose you shall have delivered to you sufficient
arguments to show that all the troubles in these past years began
from the King of Spain and his ministers and that all our actions
have proceeded from injuries and indignities attempted and
committed against us, our realms and subjects.
9. You may then declare "that the causes now to be treated
upon concern on the one part personally the King of Spain and
us" ; that the former leagues and intercourse may be revived and
our dominions and people be again as they were before any arrests
were made of their persons and goods on either side, which chiefly
began in the time of the Duke of Alva. And on the other hand
it is to be specially considered how to establish the Low Countries
in peace and lawful government by natural born subjects as in
former times, without oppression by Spaniards and strangers,
by whose hostile actions has been overthrown all good intercourse
of the subjects and liberty for merchants ; wherefore it is to be
certainly provided that all the provinces be restored to their
ancient liberty and privileges "wherein they lived before the
persecutions and oppressions begun by the Duke of Alva."
10. And for the first, you may say that if we continue in our
good intention to live in peace, the effects may be easily attained,
for it will suffice to confirm and establish the treaties between our
fathers, with such explanations of the clauses as shall have been
found to be obscure. And upon their assent thereto, you may
say that you think there will be no great difficulty herein, so as
the other part concerning the restitution of these provinces to
peace and to their former liberties, and deliverance from hostile
governments and oppressions of war [be obtained] wherefore it
is necessary to treat thereof speedily, as a thing without which
being first well cleared, neither good amity between the King and
us nor intercourse between our subjects can have any safety to
And to that end you may require that those authorized by the
States of the Provinces United may be admitted, to show their
griefs, make their requests and obtain from the King such favours
as shall be meet, expedient and requisite ; offering to move them
"to make their requests such as shall be convenient to be obtained
of the King with his honour for the relief of their oppressions...
with yielding also towards the King, as to their sovereign lord all
duties and services which of right did heretofore to him
11. And if you can and shall think meet, it will be well to deal
with this great matter before any treaty for our own causes ;
wherein we think the ambassadors of the King of Denmark (if
they be come) will join with you. Whereby we think both parties
may be moved "to resort to the former demands and treaties of
accord that were propounded and assented to by the King and his
commissioners at sundry times in the life of the Prince of Orange,
and namely at 'Gaunt and at Collen,' whereof ye, our commissions
may easily have good knowledge."
12. And if the evil executing of those accords have taught the
States how with more security their effect may be enjoyed, you
may advise their commissioners to impart to you their opinions,
and as you and the King of Denmark's ambassador (if any be
come) shall think them reasonable, you may further them, but
so as not to seem to prescribe anything to the Spanish King's
commissioners with any show of direction but with a friendly
advice as being good both for King and people, whereby he
may be assured of obedience and they of merciful government,
that they may not need to abandon their countries for lack of
needful liberties. Wherein your parts shall be to learn from those
authorized by the States what is necessary to be sought for them
from the King, and then employ all your powers to procure the
same, that they may be restored to live in peace "and namely to
enjoy their liberty of their profession and exercise of Christian
religion, without which ye may truly affirm that all such as have
hitherto enjoyed the same...being the greatest numbers inhabiting
in sundry provinces shall never have any fruit of this peace, but
shall account themselves in most horrible bondage and servitude,
and shall rather be moved to hazard their lives in persisting
therein than for any worldly pretence lose their souls, and so
their bodies also perpetually damned. In which weighty cause,
we doubt not but every of you will extend all your understandings
to maintain the necessary reasons for attaining of this special
grace above all others, in respect of the universal weal that shall
thereof follow, and specially for that hereby the King shall enjoy
his dominions to his great comfort and benefit ; both which he
hath, by these civil wars, long time lacked. And though the Duke
of Parma hath showed himself in some speeches very loth to hear
of this matter of Religion, for any public exercise to be granted,
but rather to yield to a toleration for certain years, yet being by
some on our part pressed thereto, he (though he refused to answer
affirmatively thereto) yet always required that the treaty hereof
might be referred to the meeting of Commissioners. So as we
have not been void of hope to obtain some good order for this
principal point ; for otherwise we would not have proceeded thus
far as we have done. And so ye may truly declare our minds to
be, and to that end we most earnestly require you to persist herein,
as a matter both for God's honour and the benefit of the country,
so necessary as without it the people were better to sustain the
war as they have done, to the hazard of their lives, for thereby
they shall but spend their goods and venture their lives, with
safety of their souls, and without it they shall percase spend both
their goods and their lives, but surely they shall venture the
perdition of their souls. In this part, concerning Religion, let
it appear that we mean in no wise to require any favour to any
Anabaptists, Libertins and other persons of such impious
13. And this there resteth to be remembered for us in your
treaty : how we shall be answered such sums of money as are and
will be due by the force of the contract made with us here in
England by the Commissioners of the States General ... for the
payment whereof, by the said contract, we have the possession
of the two towns, Flushing and Briel, and have just title to keep
them for the due answering to us of all our charges from the
beginning of the contract until the conclusion of a peace. And
we doubt not but that the King's Commissioners will think it
just and reasonable that (according to the contract) we shall and
may keep those two towns until we have full satisfaction. And
for maintenance therof, ye are so to persist as without such
satisfaction, we cannot accept of any other accord. And we
doubt not also but the people of the countries whom we have, upon
their lamentable requests, aided both with our men and money,
by which it is well known how many years we preserved the
whole countries from the subjection thereof to the crown of
France—as we are sure that some of them which shall be in
commission for the King of Spain doth well know it—shall think
it both reasonable and profitable for them to assent that with the
King's liking there may be such collections made in the Provinces
as we may be answered our charges, and so also the towns in our
possession may be restored to their ancient liberty, for the King's
benefit and the weal of the countries. And we doubt not but
that ye, the Commissioners will herein employ your labours both
stoutly and wisely to obtain this our just demand, without which
we can neither allow any conditions of peace nor yet to have the
possession of those towns.
"And though the sums of money expended out of our own
treasure may seem to be very great to be demanded, you shall in
no wise desist from the demand, nor assent to any accord without
surety how to have the same paid, considering both by accord
with the States and Provinces, the same is justly due." And ye
may truly avow that besides those sums expended for maintenance
of the succours sent thither, and for the guard of the two
towns, there has been as much, or rather double so much more,
spent by our subjects within our realm for preparation of those
forces, and privately by the great multitude of noblemen and
gentlemen that have served there ; whereto may be added further
great sums for our ships kept upon the seas betwixt our realm
and those Low Countries. Thus you may truly allege that when
repaid the sums answerable by the contract, we and our people
shall be found to have sustained greater loss "than for the like
space hath been in times of the greatest wars that have been
either with France or Scotland" and therefore, having enough
matter to maintain your demand, you shall in no wise yield to
any full accord without it. (fn. 3)
"And because it is likely that you shall be moved to accord by
some special article that we shall not give aid to Don Antonio...
upon pretence for the kingdom of Portingale, ye may at the first
answer : That by general words in former treaties, such cases of
giving aid to the King's enemies are provided for, as in truth
they are. And so...we could be content to have no express
article made against the said Don Antonio. But yet if by reason
of our former aids, which they will allege have been manifestly
given unto him, they will not be otherwise satisfied...then ye
may agree that we shall covenant not to give the said Don Antonio
any aid of men, money or shipping ; to make any war against
the King of Spain. Only we would not be bound but that in case
of his lack for the sustentation of his own person and his family
here with him, whilst he should abide in our realm, we might
without offence, if he shall have need, relieve him with some
gratuity of money for that purpose. And therewith we hope the
King of Spain would be content...in respect of the blood of the
said Don Antonio by his father, being a son of the Kings of
Portingale, and so consequently diversely of kindred in the blood
royal, both to the King of Spain and us, and to both our two
crowns, of England and Castile. And if the Commissioners
shall make any scruple of this exception, we are so well assured
of the princely good nature of the Duke of Parma, being also near
of blood to the said Don Antonio, as we dare remit the consideration
hereof to him, and so we require you to do.
15. It is likely also that some special article will be required
to forbid all traffic of our people into the Indies, both of the
West, belonging to the crown of Castile, and to the East also,
now in the King of Spain's possession by reason of Portugal.
To this it may be also said that we shall be content to observe
such orders as were in any force in the time of the Emperor
Charles, being possessed of the West Indies. And as for the East
Indies, we are content to covenant to observe also all such orders
as were at any time accorded and used in the time of the King
Sebastian. And if these general answers shall not content them,
then ye shall require of them what other special article they would
reasonably desire, for that you are not warranted otherwise to
yield to them. But yet our meaning is ye shall, as of yourselves,
reason with them, as it may appear that there is no reason to bar
our subjects to use trade of merchandise in the Indies, where the
French are daily suffered so to do, so as the same be with the good
will of the inhabitants of the countries, and only for lawful trade
"And likewise, it is no reason, by a large naming of the Indies,
to bar our merchants to trade in any places discovered, or to be
discovered by our own people ; being places where neither in the
time of the Emperor Charles nor of the King that now is, any
Spaniard, Portingale or any other Christian people have had any
habitation, residence or resort. And to those provisions
mentioned (as of yourself) to be annexed to the general prohibitions,
if they will condescend, ye may say, ye will send to know our
opinion, what we like thereof, and what other conditions we will
require to be excepted out of the general prohibition for our
subjects, to sail into the Indies.
16. In the argument hereof, ye may allege that the chief
reasons why the Emperor Charles and the King of Portingale,
in their times, did seek to prohibit all others than their own
subjects to trade into those Indies discovered by their people,
was...that the profit of the riches discovered might recompense
the first discoverers and their heirs. A matter agreeable to
reason, but not so to be extended as by the large titles and
nomination of the Indies...all parts of the world, in the west or
in the east, that were not or should not be discovered by the
subjects of the said Emperor, or by the Kings of Portingale,
should still so remain undiscovered, and not to be by any other
Christians in their labours sought out and discovered and brought
to the knowledge of God and of Christ, the Saviour of the world ;
for that were against all Christian charity and against all human
reason, and directly against that general proposition in the Holy
Scripture, Cœlum cœli Domino Terram dedit filiis hominum.
17. "And as they shall press you to yield to these two points
aforesaid, so shall ye show unto them the great inhumanity offered
to our people trading only merchandise in Spain, and now in
Portugal," in that every person indisposed to them or seeking to
make profit of their goods, doth use to give information to the
house of the Inquisition and, without just cause, procure the
seizure of themselves, and their ships and goods, and so "our
subjects are taken, imprisoned, tortured and in the end put to
death by imprisonment and famine, and no just cause at all
alleged nor proved," while many others, though not taken by
reason of their absence, have lost their ships and goods, because
accused persons have been found in their ships, though not
belonging to the same.
"Of these miserable cruelties, our subjects have of long time
grievously complained, and we have sought by many messages
to the King to have had redress thereof, which hath been in some
sort promised, but never performed. And if this cruel usage...
should continue it were to no purpose to have any accord for any
intercourse betwixt Spain and us, as you may with many good
reasons make it apparent to them ; for if we should, by colour of a
like Inquisition, suffer the merchants of Spain or of any other the
King of Spain's countries to be so molested, we are sure few or
none of these the King's countries would resort to our countries,
and so all intercourse should stay, and then the benefit of our
mutual amity should be utterly made frustrate. For this
purpose...we would also have you inform yourselves by our
merchants trading Spain, of some special examples of these
18. We require you to inform the Commissioners hereof, and to
move them for remedy in time coming, and "if they will not
admit anything to inhibit the authority of the House of Inquisition
"as an authority which they will allege is above the King's authority,
yet ye may well allege that by treaty betwixt the King and us,
being monarchs absolute, it ought to be provided that all persons
coming into our countries for trade of merchandize ought to be,
for their lives and goods, in the several protections of us
respectively." Therefore it should be covenanted "that no
such person" should by any other authority be impeached of
their lives or for their goods but by the ordinary justice of our
countries. But in case the King will permit to the House of the
Inquisition in his countries such a particular authority as they
claim, then nevertheless it were reason that the King will covenant
that none of our subjects shall be arrested, imprisoned, nor
deprived of their lives by colour of the jurisdiction of the said
House of Inquisition, but that the King's civil magistrate of the
place where our subjects shall be so arrested, may be first acquainted
with the cause, and according to the truth of the crimes 'imposed,'
may, according to his conscience, use means of reformation of
such extremity, as shall to him appear.
19. "And furthermore, if it so shall happen that any of our
subjects shall for lack of discretion, by any open action, or by
any speeches advisedly uttered, or by writing give just cause to be
arrested and adjudged by the said House of Inquisition, we desire
that it may be covenanted that the offence of any one so offending
be not punished in the person or the goods of any other not
offending, which, accordeth with the law of nature, that will not
have any bear the burden of the offence of another ; according to
that unusquisque portabit onus suum.
20. "And though we do not admit any such foreign authority
in our realm above our own, yet we can be content to yield to a
reciproque covenant, that for any offence in Religion, no man
being any wise a subject to the King of Spain shall be molested
but such as shall by open action, speech or writing expressly give
offence to our laws, nor that any others than the offenders themselves
shall receive punishment or detriment in their persons or
21. "At the time of making of these Instructions, we have not
any certain knowledge what answer John Herbert, one of the
Masters of our Requests, hath had of the States of the Low
Countries, whom we did send purposely to make us resolute
answer to our former motions delivered to them. . .to induce them
to assent to accept of reasonable conditions of peace ; so as. . .we
cannot in these writings inform you how to proceed therein.
But yet we think it meet that ye should not stay from your
journey, considering that the Duke of Parma hath entered into
a conceit, or rather a doubt, that we have not a mind to come to
any treaty. And as soon as we shall hear from Herbert, we will
thereupon consider what course shall be meet to be taken, for the
which we will send you new instructions for your direction.
Endd. by Burghley. "Dec. 1587. For the Commissioners
sent to Ostend." 12 pp. very close writing. [Flanders I.
Draft for the above Instructions.
Corrected by Burghley, and endorsed by him : "Instructions for
the Commissioners sent to Ostend ; the first copy, 1587. 12¼ pp.
[Flanders. I. f. 404.]
Certain points to be considered of concerning the treaty of
That the state of the country ought not to be esteemed
desperate, in regard to the ability and goodwill in bringing up the
contributions needful for the common defence.
Seeing that in the two years of his Excellency's government,
the said countries have furnished "only to the running charges
of war" more than 80,000,000 gilders.
And being well-governed will be able not only to continue the
like but to bring greater, so that it is to be doubted if any heretofore
taking arms for the defence of the true religion and their liberties
had better means ; "besides that after judgment of men is not
to be doubted of a good issue of their cause."
For strengths, they have yet more than sixty, "as well towns as
forts," so that in this respect their state cannot be esteemed
And the less as their dissensions may be extinguished "by
cessation of the Treaty of peace, and open declaration of her
Majesty's intention to the maintenance of these countries, with
sending a person of quality. . .to conduct all matters. . .maintaining
each one in his right office and authority, which hitherto hath
not been done." The treaty of peace "shall bring with it a
desperation of the maintenance of Religion and the common
cause, and abandoning of the countries, yea of the most truest,
and consequently of all good Christians ; and amongst them that
are not well-instructed, it shall breed a misdoubt and affection
from Religion and the common cause."
Those of the popish religion shall thereby be strengthened
from day to day.
Many of the true Religion and good protestants will straight
make difficulty to contribute any further, with intending to avoid
the countries with their most readiest.
And those of the popish religion will resist and hinder the
contributions, for by these means to drive the peace the better
Whereby all governors, officers and men serving by land or
water shall be worse paid, and shall mistrust that by the peace,
smaller regard will be had for them ; and therefore incline to
seditions and treasons, and in time to insinuate themselves in
the good favour of the enemy, "to the manifest loss of several
frontier towns and forts."
The provincial towns which of old have been in strife with one
another, will by instigation of the enemy endeavour so to deal as
"to prevent one the other, notwithstanding all promises to the
The disorders caused among the soldiers by the above points
will bring the common people into disobedience ; "and the
matters of the countries in points that her Majesty, wishing the
foresaid treaty to cease, shall not be able to bring it to pass. . .
insomuch that the enemy will make his conditions at pleasure."
And though the peace were concluded on the fairest conditions,
half of those best resolved in Religion will leave the countries.
The other half would openly or secretly forsake the Religion.
"The King of Spain, being once acknowledged for sovereign,
will be in the three first months being the most part of the officers
and towns to his devotion, yea, make them to do and execute all
things to his own pleasure.
"The chiefest of the Estates of Holland shall be the Count of
Egmont, the Count of Arenberch as lord of Naelwycke [Naaldwyk],
the Count of Ligny as lord of Wassinaer and many such
others, holding with the enemy.
These and other like with them will draw the other nobility
on their side and make the magistrates of the towns depend of
them as of old. . .
"In the first three months, hundred occasions will be given to
revenge them of matters past, as well upon the inhabitants of
these countries as upon her Majesty and her subjects ; to the
manifest disturbance of the Religion" both here and in England.
Whereas the wars continuing, France may be assured in the
point of religion ; the King of Spain may die, and after his death,
a surer peace be made.
"So that in the maintenance of this just cause, men ought
above all things to consider God's help and mercy, as a matter
touching his honour, glory and godly word. The rather because
God's help and grace hath during these wars so oftentimes been
felt amongst us most effectually."
No signature, date or endorsement. 3 p. [Holland XIX. f. 119].