Henry VIII
February 1535, 11-20


Institute of Historical Research



James Gairdner (editor)

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75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98


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'Henry VIII: February 1535, 11-20', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 8: January-July 1535 (1885), pp. 75-98. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=75525 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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February 1535, 11-20

11 Feb.194. Denizations.
See Grants in February, No. 17.
11 Feb.
R. O.
195. Roland Lee, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, to Cromwell.
By my servant Brown I received your letters, and thank you for my excuse of appearing in this assembly in London. I could not be absent at this time. As for surrendering the bulls of the bishop of Rome, and your promise in my behalf, I shall not only discharge you, but I promise you that whatever the bishops assembled do conclude I will fulfil when signified to me. For my part, I never intended to have such bulls, except at the King's pleasure. I have nothing to do with the churches of Coventry and Lichfield, as they are exempt from me, except that they shall receive me for their bishop, and they have their register themselves. As the dean of Lichfield (fn. 1) is with you in London, give him the monition, and send it also to the prior of Coventry, otherwise it cannot be substantially done. You need not doubt me. I am glad that my lover, Mr. Gregory, contents you. I shall order all other things by the advice of Mr. Englefield, as you write. He desires to be recommended to you. I have shown my mind to my servant concerning my brother's prebend. (fn. 2) Let Mr. Englefield have a placard for a crossbow. Hereford, 11 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add: Mr. Secretary. Endd.
11 Feb.
R. O.
196. Treasonable Words.
Confession of Margaret Chanseler, alias Ellys, of Senklers Bradfeld, Suffolk, spinster, before Sir Robt. Drury, on 11 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII., of the following words, spoken before Edm. Tyllet and Ant. Harward.
That the Queen had one child by the King, which was dead-born, and she prayed she might never have other. That the Queen was "a noughtty hoore," and the King ought not to marry within the realm. She said she was drunk, and the evil spirit caused her to speak them, for which she was penitent. Signed by Drury.
Tyllet and Harward deposed, before the abbot of Bury, the chief baron, and other justices, and the high sheriff, that she said that the Queen was "a goggyll yed hoore," and said "God save queen Katharine," for she was righteous Queen, and she trusted to see her Queen again.
Signed by John abbot of Bury, Ric. Lyster, Sir Humfrey Wingfield, Ric. Southwell, Thos. Tyrell, John Cornwaleys, Thos. Russhe, Geo. Colt, Wm. Cunyngsby and Chr. Jenney.
P. 1. Endd.
11 Feb.
R. O.
197. William Lok to [Henry VIII.]
The sale of cloths by your subjects has been good, but money is scarce. News of the Anabaptists, &c., as in his letter to Cromwell. Sends copy of a letter out of Italy. The commissioners of Barow that were in England have "opened" your goodness in showing them your riches and artillery, shown to them by your trusty councillor Mr. Secretary in person. Of late eight Frenchmen carried 60,000 crowns to the duke of Gueldres from the French king. They were arrested near Brussels on their return, and the duke of Gueldres' receipt, with a letter from him to the French king, found on them. The letters were taken to the lady Regent, and they suffered to depart home. This is truth; it was told me by one that heard it from my lord of Barow's own mouth. I trust I have done my best to provide such things as the Queen gave me commission for. Dated at head, Barow, 11 February 1534.
Hol., pp. 2. Endd.
11 Feb.
R. O.
198. Will. Lok to Cromwell.
I have written to the King as he desired at my departing; but if you hear of it make my excuse for writing so rudely. We have had a good mart for cloths, but ready money is scant, it is conveyed away so fast to England and France. My lord of Barow is made high commissioner of all this country touching the Anabaptists who have come hither out of Holland. He has been at Antwerp and taken some. Many have fled. The chief baptiser was a smith, who is fled. The rest who are taken shall suffer death by fire. All the lords of every town are ordered to make search for them, and put them to execution. They are in great fear of them in the Low Countries, as the town of Leeth (Liege?) is all of that set; and many men of war have been sent against it, to destroy that town first and then go to Mynster. I saw about 600 of the men of war come by Barow. I thought them but bare men to do any feats, as I have written to the King.
News has come this day that the Turk has defeated the Sophi, and that the bp. of Rome will remain neutral between the Emperor and the Venetians. Enclosed in my letter to the King is an Italian letter dated 20 Jan. of news in those parts. The commissioners of Barow that were in England have made a most honorable report of their reception by you. The King could not have had more honor if he had spent 10,000l. I have written to the King of eight Frenchmen that came from the French king to the duke of Gueldres with 60,000 g, cr., who were taken at Brussels on their return homewards with letters from him to France. Barow, 11 Feb. 1534.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
11 Feb.
R. O.
199. Carolus Capellius, Venetian Ambassador, to Cromwell.
Having yesterday had letters from the Senate, as I must visit the King, I desire first to speak with you. Pray let me know, by bearer, when I may see you; the sooner the better for me. London, 11 February.
Italian, p. 1. Hol. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
[12 Feb.]
Vienna Arehives.
200. Katharine of Arragon to Chapuys.
My physician has informed me partly of my daughter's illness, giving me hope of her improved health; but as I know her infirmity lasts so long, and I see he is slow to visit her (although for some days he could not, as I was so ill myself), I have great suspicion as to the cause. So because it appears to me that what I ask is just and for the service of God, I beg you will speak to his Highness, and desire him on my behalf to do such a charity as to send his daughter and mine where I am; because treating her with my own hands, and by the advice both of other physicians and of my own, if God please to take her from this world my heart will rest satisfied; otherwise in great pain. You shall say also to his Highness that there is no need of any other person but myself to nurse her; that I will put her in my own bed where I sleep, and will watch her when needful. I have recourse to you, knowing that there is no one in this kingdom who dare say to the King my lord that which I desire you to say; and I pray God reward you for the diligence that you will make. Kimbolton, the first Friday of Lent.
Sp. From a modern copy, p. 1.
12 Feb.201. Lord Darcy.
See Grants in February, No. 20.
12 Feb.202. Elizabeth Talbois.
See Grants in February, No. 21.
12 Feb.
R. O.
203. Sir William Eure to Cromwell.
Is extremely troubled by process against him for the accounts of the sheriffwick of Northumberland, which office he occupied but a year, to his great charge owing to the rebels Sir Will. Lyle and his adherents. Desires a special pardon, as the accounts have not been taken these many years. Norham, 12 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Master Secretary. Endd.
12 Feb.
R. O.
204. John Bunolt to Cromwell.
Has sent to his friend Rougecross pursuivant six bags of cordial powder to be presented to Cromwell "for a poor remembrance." Calais, 12 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Maister Secretary. Endd.
12 Feb.
R. O.
205. Margere Marres to Lady Lisle.
Hopes she and her children are in good health. A little before Christmas, at her request, Sir Richard Greynfyld wrote about her husband's land to Mr. Trogyn, who answered that he would be ordered by Sir Richard and Sir John Chamound. Sir Richard then promised to ride west to the Monte and speak to Trogyn, but subsequently refused to meddle. Asks for her help. 12 Feb. "Your dofter yn lawe."
Hol., p. 1. Add.
13 Feb.
Royal MS. 7 C. xvi. f. 48.
B. M.
206. Jewels.
Survey of precious stones, pearls and gold delivered by the King to Cornelis (Hayes), his goldsmith, 13 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII., taken by Rauf Sadleyr and Stephen Vaughan.
29 balasses, 54 sapphires, 4 graved cornelions, 11 jacinths, 9 rubies, 6 "parasines," 2 topazes, 1 jaspis green and graved, 1 crapault, 2 "camewse," 7 turqueses, 2 cats' eyes, 2 "amatistes," 16 garnets, 3 graved "sardous," 2 agates, 4 small diamonds. Total weight, 5 oz. less 3½ dwt. 60 great pearls of one sort, and 440 small and great of another sort, weighing 7½ oz. 4 dwt.
Gold, weighing before the melting, 74 oz., and after, 72 oz.
P. 1. Endd.
13 Feb.
R. O.
207. Norfolk to Cromwell.
In favor of his friend Gelgate, the bearer. Will be with him at the Court this day fortnight. Kenninghale, 13 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.. Secretary.
14 Feb.
R. O.
208. Corporation of London.
Petition to the lord mayor, aldermen and common council of London for diminution of the expenses of the shrievalty, setting forth that of late years divers aldermen and commoners have been reduced to extreme poverty after exercising the offices of sheriff and mayor, or even one of them; among whom mention is made of Sir Lawrence Aylmer and master Roger Acheley, mayors, and masters Danyell. Bronde, Doget, Nynes, Isaacke, Coote, Holdernes, Keme, Worley and Caunton, sheriffs; that divers citizens elected as aldermen and sheriffs have discharged themselves of the office on oath, by which they have been supposed to incur the guilt of perjury; that others, as, of aldermen, masters Inglisshe, Dakers, Symonds and Hardy, and of commoners, masters Tayllor, Withypoll, Traps, Callarde, Hynde and Rowlett, who are still alive; besides, among deceased persons, aldermen Tyndley, Welbecke, Fabyan. Twesylton, Browne, haberdasher, and Nic. Jenyns. and masters Will. Lambard. mercer, Acton and Nychells. have made suit to be discharged of these offices by patent or letters missive, or by payment of fines.
It is proposed that henceforth the mayor and sheriffs should keep one house and household, at an expense of not less than 1,600l. a year, over and above the charges of their feast on the day following St. Simon and Jude, of which as heretofore the mayor shall sustain one half and the two sheriffs the other. A number of other suggestions follow. Signed by Ric. Reynold, John Prest. Rob. Trappys. Edmond Kemp, Rob. Pakyngton, John Rychemond, John Rychards, Will. Broket, Edmund Shawe, Thos. Gale, John Fayren (?). Will. Ibgrave, John Sturgeon, John Margetson, Edw. Borlas, Thos. Perpount. Will. Jenyn. Henry Clytherowe. Will. Wilkynson.
14 Feb.
Royal MS. 7 F. xiv. 125.
B. M.
Camden Miscellany, iii.
209. Wardrobe of Katharine of Arragon.
A view taken by Sir Edw. Baynton, knt., 14 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII., by the commandment of his Highness and to his Grace's use, of all and singular wardrobe stuff remaining within Baynardes Castle, which late was the princess Dowager's.
Hangings of velvet figury.—Seven pieces paned red and green, embroidered with the arms of England and Spain and crowned with a crown imperial; bordered with roses, flower de lucis and pomegranates.
Hangings of tapestry.—The stories of Jason. Hercules, and the Newe Lawe and Olde, tapettis soortinge, window pieces, &c.
Hangings of veerdours, sore worn.—Green with small flowers, paned white and red with a large tree crowned in the middle, white and green wrought with falcons and fetterlocks and roses and suns, and one with a large tree crowned and the King's arms.
Bed.—A square bed of blue velvet embroidered with roses, letters, and crowns. 2 sparvers of damask gold, and yellow cloth of gold, and cloth of silver. Ceelour, tester and counterpoint of white damask. The same for a cradle of yellow cloth of gold and crimson velvet. A canopy of cloth of gold and green and blue velvet, with roses crowned with a crown imperial. A cloth of estate of crimson cloth of tissue, embroidered with the arms of England and Spain. Curtains of red cloth of gold, taffata, damask and silk chamlett.
5 cupboard cloths of velvet, 5 table carpets, 3 foot carpets, 1 cupboard carpet and 2 window carpets. 14 cushions, long and square, of cloth of gold, velvet, and needlework. 5 counterpoyntes, one of crimson cloth of gold late furred with powdered ermines. 3 paliottes of Brussels tick, one filled with bastard down, the others with feathers. 7 down pillows covered with fustian. 13½ pr. of sheets of Cameryke and Holland cloth, and a towel of Cameryke cloth. 14 pillowberes, of fine Holland cloth. 4 pair of fustian blankets. 4 iron chairs covered with crimson cloth of tissue, and another with yellow cloth of gold. 3 little stools covered with cloth of gold and velvet. 3 tables for a closet, representing the three kings of Cologne, Our Lady of Pity, and a queen making petition to Our Lady and St. Elizabeth. A trussing bedstead, a pair of "dowceemers," broken. A cork target covered with crimson satin, embroidered with the arms of England and Spain; the upper bodies of 36 coats of russet cloth and green velvet, embroidered on the breast and back with a rose or a sheaf of arrows, &c., much defaced; 32 Flanders halberts belonging to the same coats, and other articles.
ii. A view taken by Sir Edw. Baynton, 14 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII., of stuff at Baynardes Castle in the custody of Mr. Fraunceys Philippes, which late was the princess Dowager's.
Wardrobe stuff.—15 pair of sheets, 21 pillowberes wrought with silk and gold and some with golden buttons, 2 featherbeds, 3 mattresses, 2 counterpoyntes, 1 of veerdours with beasts and fowls wrought on it, 10 fustian and woollen blankets, 11 down pillows, 2 flock cushions, 6 window carpets, a ceilour and testour of red sarcenet for a cradle, a red sarcenet canopy, a broken steel glass with a silver gilt hook.
Napery for the Ewery.—2 Holland hand towels, wrought at both ends with Venice gold, and fringed with silk (delivered to the King). 3 long towels wrought with silk and gold.
Closet stuff.—Four needlework tables for altars, one having Our Lady and Child on one side and the arms of England and Spain on the other, and another having a picture of St. Francis; a pyxe cloth of copper cloth of gold; a vellum primer, covered with cloth of gold and silver-gilt clasps; a rich cloth of launde with the baptism of Christ wrought in gold with needlework (delivered to the King); 2 cipresse cloths; 13 "tables," ivory, painted and needlework, of St. John Baptist, the martyrdom of St. Katherine, the image of Christ, Our Lady and St. Anne, Joseph and Our Lady, Our Lady and her Son, St. Francis, and the King and princess Dowager. Three purple velvet cushions; 13 pairs of sheets; 9 pillow beres; a horn cup with a cover, garnished with antique works, with foot and knot of ivory (delivered to the Queen); 2 working stools of green and crimson velvet; two others of ivory, one within the other (delivered to the Queen); a little stool covered with red velvet; 2 ivory chess boards and men (delivered to the King); a pair of tables of pearl without men; a case covered with black leather containing 6 leaves of wainscot to play at "foxe," "chestys," and other games, whereof four have rings of silver to hang by; red and white ivory chessmen (delivered to the King); a black box of ivory chessmen; seven pair of Spanish slippers, corked and garnished with gold; a case of a dozen wood trenchers (delivered to the Queen); a large branch of coral broken; smocks and other things provided for the princess Dowager when in child bed; 2 looking glasses, 3 pincases, a brazier of Venice gold wrought with H. K., 20 books, a pair of balances, 2 hampers, a desk covered with black velvet, delivered to the King; a broken ivory coffer garnished with images; another covered with crimson velvet, having 4 tills (delivered to the Queen); a black Flanders chest, 5 standards, 7 tapers of virgin wax, and kitchen utensils.
Pp. 23. Endd.
14 Feb.
R O.
210. Richard Browne, Priest, to Cromwell.
Thanks him for his favor. As Cromwell has ordered him, has exercised his office, the see now being vacant. Cannot justify any process of law without a commission; which you willed me to leave with Mr. Popley, your faithful servant, to make out and get scaled. Whenever you give me knowledge to have any horse or gelding to do you service, I shall be glad to provide them every year so long as I continue in the commissary's office. Worcester, 14 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
14 Feb.
R. O.
211. John Graynfyld to Lord Lisle.
My cousin John Basset and all your friends here are marry. My lord Chancellor sends commendations. Has obtained an injunction to stay a visi prins against Chaundler for lands part profits of which he pays to master Waytes. Hopes to see him "within this xx. day." London, 14 Feb.
Trusts to find master Speke a good man of arms when he comes to Calais. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
14 Feb.
Add. MS. 8,715. f. 4.
B. M.
212. Ridolfo Pio, Bishop of Faenza, to Albany.
Thanks Albany for his letter, which he received from his man on his arrival at Niver. Expresses his willingness to serve him and his brother the Cardinal. The Pope is anxious for the French king to act against Barbarossa. Wishes to find Albany at the Court. to have his assistance in the matter. Sends the Pope's credentials by his servant, by which he will see that the Pope's good-will is infinite.
Ital., pp. 2. Copy. Headed: Da Niver. a di 14 ut supra [Feb. 1535]. Al Signor Duca d'Albania consignatali a un gentilhuomo di sua excellenza.
R. O.213. Thomas Starkey to [Cromwell].
As I see you always occupied with matters of weight when you give audience to such as sue to you for counsel. I write briefly my suit. that you may read it at leisure, desiring your pardon for my boldness in seeking your aid in such a cause, I being to you a stranger and almost unknown. Your gentleness is the cause, and the great goodness you declare to all men in all good and honest requests. I have spent many years in the study of letters, using my best diligence to obtain a knowledge of the laws of God and man. Our prince is set on the restitution of the true common weal, and I think I could in some part help thereunto if you will set forward my purpose.
Hol., pp. 2.
Harl. MS. 283. f. 129.
B. M.
214. Thomas Starkey to [Cromwell].
Much to the same effect as the preceding, but more specific.
Spent great part of his youth here in Oxford in the study of philosphy, Latin and Greek, and then passed over to Italy, where he so delighted in the contemplation of natural knowledge, wherein most of the lettered men there occupy themselves, that he often purposed to have spent the rest of his life in that study. At last applied himself to reading Holy Scripture. Intended to live in a politic life, and has studied the civil law for the last years, that he might form a better judgment of the politic order and customs used in our country.
Whatever he has attained to will gladly apply by Cromwell's advice to the service of his prince.
Hol., pp. 3. Endd.
R. O.215. [Starkey to Cromwell.]
I hoped to have seen you these days past about the little oration I lately wrote, but you were so busy I feared to trouble you. Since you told me what you thought of the book, I have perused it again more diligently, and I confess the matter is as you have judged. "This mean is not put out at large, which you require." Your judgment differs from that of others to whom you exhibited the thing to read, who blamed it because I appeared to be over-vehement against the one extremity, "and to be of nother part, but betwixt both indifferent." But you have touched the string and knot of the matter. I only doubt if my wit be sufficient, "for this mean is a strong string, hard to strike upon and wisely to touch. For by this the harmony of this whole world is contained in his natural course and beauty; by this all civil order and policy is maintained in cities and towns with good civility; by this, man's mind, with all kinds of virtue garnished, is brought to his quietness and felicity; and by this here in our purpose all good and true religion, without impiety or superstition, is stablished to God's honor and glory among all Christian nations." Hopes the goodness of Him who has inspired the heart of our prince with this alteration of policy will enable him to find the most convenient mean to set it forward with a common quietness. My power will but serve me to pray for this result. "And yet, sir, this one thing I dare affirm and boldly say, that though in my oration I have not prosecuted at length this mean, whereof you spake most prudently, yet if there were any such power in my writing and probable persuasion, which might induce into the hearts of the people of the scrupulous sort such obedience as I have there touched, showing also the manner how they should thereto be induced, I would not doubt, I say, but that in concord and unity they should agree without scruple of conscience to all such things as here be decreed by common authority."
Hol., pp. 4.
R. O.216. [Starkey to Cromwell.]
The communication I had with you when you delivered me this book, declaring how you had formed your judgment by long experience and deep considerations of God, of nature and of other politic and worldly things, has convinced me of your good opinion of me. Such wisdom I have found in few men who have given their lives to the study of letters, whereof you never have made any great profession. You have bound me to your service more by these gifts of your nature than by any worldly promotions, for I have never esteemed such things so highly as to make myself a slave to them. At our communication you spoke of some things "whereof I have long fancied with myself," and I will briefly give you my opinion of them.
In man while on earth I see two polities, two manners of living, the one civil, politic and worldly, the other heavenly and spiritual.—Discourses at considerable length on the effect of these two principles.
Hol., pp. 4.
R. O.2. A treatise on policy, "after the sentence of Aristotle," with a prefatory epistle [to Cromwell?].
Epistle begins: "Sir, forasmuch as of late, after a communication of your singular gentleness institute with me."
Treatise begins: "For because I have long observed in you, good people, an honest and a natural desire of living together in good policy."
In Starkey's hand, pp. 11. Endd.
R. O.217. [Starkey] to Henry VIII.
Has studied in Italy, and, by comparison of the manners there with those used at home, has been led to write a little book of suggestions for the reform of the Commonwealth, an object which he perceives the King has much at heart. Has divided the book into three parts: the first devoted to the consideration of what constitutes a common weal; the second, to the exposition of the most notable abuses both in customs and in laws among ourselves; and the third, to the means by which these may be reformed. Presents this commentary to his Majesty, trusting that as Henry has had the wisdom to pluck up the root of all abuse,—"this outward power and intolerable tyranny of Rome,"—God will enable him to see the means for the extirpation of other like abuses. Has put the work in the form of a dialogue between two of the King's subjects, "of the which the one is departed to the service of Him, as I trust, to whom all Christian hearts religiously here serve in earth, Thomas Lupset;" the other still I trust in life, master Raynold Pole, "of whose virtue and goodness, if he could have seen that thing by his learning which your most notable clerks in your realm and many other hath approved, your Highness should have had before this certain and sure experience, of the which thing also yet I do not utterly despair."
Pp. 3.
R. O.2. Dialogue of Pole and Lupset. (fn. 3)
i. (fn. 4) Lupset is supposed to meet Pole at Bysham, where he hopes the memory of his ancestors will stir him to consider the wants of his country, which cries to him for help. Pole says he is willing to do his best to serve his country, but doubts whether he can serve her best by taking part in active life or by contemplation and study. He also doubts whether there be any means of judging what is "true politic and civil life"; the standard is so variable among different nations. These doubts Lupset answers at some length, when Pole again objects that it is dangerous to handle matters of the common weal without regard to time or place. This Lupset admits, but thinks there ought to be no hesitation now that we have so noble a prince, "whom we are sure to have nothing so printed in his breast as the cure of his common weal, both day and night remembering the same." No king ever had such love for the wealth of his subjects or greater zeal for justice. Pole on this admits he has no further excuse, and he accordingly proposes to discuss wherein the true common weal consists, to search out its disorders and devise a remedy.
ii. After much discussion regarding ignorance as the cause of vice, and similar subjects, Pole asserts that the happiness of a country, as of a man, arises principally from three things,—viz., the multitude of the people; their health; and their strength; this last being shown by each part discharging its functions efficiently. The heart is the king or ruler, from whom comes all order, law and justice. The under officers appointed by him are the head; craftsmen and warriors, the hands; ploughmen and tillers of the ground, the feet. The beauty of the body politic consists in the due proportion of the parts. Pole, in answer to Lupset, gives his view of the origin of civil order; says that is the best order which is for the benefit, not of a part, but of the whole, for which reason some judge elective monarchies the best.
iii. Pole goes on to inquire into the causes which hinder the prosperity of the Commonwealth, and the conversation turns on the decay of towns, the extent of ground lying untilled which had once been occupied, and the manners of the people, " as far distant from good and perfect civility as good from ill." Many villages which had nourished much good and Christian people are now inhabited only by wild beasts, and where once there had been houses and churches you find nothing but sheepcotes and stables. Yet the land only requires men to till it to be more productive. Lupset thinks this does not arise from the scarcity of people but from their idleness, and that we have too many people rather than too few. But Pole points out that the country was once more populous, and that it contrasts unfavorably in population with other countries, "which be by nature no more plentiful than this." He admits, however, that in no country are there so many idle people, and blames the idle rout kept by noblemen only to carry dishes to the table, and eat them when they have done. Bishops also spend on their retinues what they should distribute to the poor. A third part of the people live in idleness. Lupset dissents from this; thinks it unnecessary that all should labor, and that but for the yeomanry England would be "in shrewd case" in time of war. Pole, on the contrary, says, "In them standeth the beggary of England; by them is nourished the common theft therein." They are not even exercised in feats of arms, and in time of war it is necessary for our ploughmen and laborers to take weapons in hand. Then, the parts of the body politic do not agree; the temporalty grudge against the spiritualty, the commons against the nobles, and subjects against their rulers. There is also a disproportion among them; priests are too many, yet good clerks too few; monks, friars and canons are too many, but good religious men too few; proctors and brokers of both laws are too many, but good ministers of justice too few, &c. Then every man only seeks his own profit. Judges are swayed by lucre and affection. If ploughmen were as diligent as in other countries there would be less waste land. The people are more given to gluttony than any people in the world. The country, which was once rich, swarms with beggars more than any country in Christendom. All ranks cry they lack money, from ploughmen to princes. Pole, however, admits that other countries are poorer still. But cities and castles are not built so well as in France or Flanders; every gentleman flies into the country, and few inhabit cities. Lupset also complains that the country exports cattle, corn and other things, of which it has not too great abundance, and imports delicate wines, fine cloths and other things which it might well lack or be better without. Then there is too much sheep pasturing, and too little breeding of other cattle. Farms are engrossed, poor men cannot get a living, and the ground is the worse tilled, being in the hands of those who care little about it.
iv. Pole then proceeds to investigate the sources of disorder in the State, and says no country can be long well governed where the rule is in one man not elected but inheriting by succession. Lupset is alarmed at this remark, but Pole calls it one of our diseases to say that the king is above the laws. This principle may work well under a wise and virtuous prince, but as princes are not chosen of the worthiest, but only succeed by order, this is only a chance. The prince's prerogative is the destruction of law; for few statutes are passed but they are broken by placards and licences from the prince, just as the law of the Church is destroyed by Papal dispensations. This might be redressed without putting the prince in bondage, for reason is true liberty. The prerogative has often been very injurious to our country, and would be now if we had not a noble and wise prince, who is ever content to submit himself to the order of his Council. But though he of his goodness abuses it not at all, it is still a great fault that he may abuse it if he will. Yet the state of this country being what it is, Pole acknowledges it is better the prince should be taken by succession rather than be elected. Still, it is only the less of two evils under present circumstances, and we have to consider, not what is most convenient to our people as they now be, but what should be most convenient to them governed by civil order and reasonable life. A like fault is the custom of primogeniture. All the children of a family should share a patrimony. Allied to this is the evil of entails, which Lupset thinks might be restricted to the nobility. Pole then censures the custom of feudal wardships and various legal abuses; among others, the severity of the law against treason. In spiritual matters he finds it a great abuse that the Pope takes it upon him to dispense with all laws. Appeals to Rome are also "a great misorder," as if within our realm there were neither wisdom nor justice to examine such matters. Neither should first-fruits go to Rome to maintain the pomp and pride of the Pope and war among Christian princes The defence of the Church might be left to the Emperor and other princes. Abuses in the Court of Arches, and in persons taking orders, education of the clergy, non-residence, &c., are next touched on. Divine service should not be said in a strange tongue, and the Gospel should be translated into English. The privileges of the clergy should be abolished. Monasteries should not be exempt from episcopal jurisdiction. The privilege of sanctuary is mischievous.
[Part II., i.] After hearing mass, Pole and Lupset take into consideration how to remedy the evils of the time, and first, for the increase of the population, to encourage marriage. Secular priests should be allowed to marry, though there should be abbeys for persons of proved chastity. Rewards should be given to those who marry, and bachelors should be taxed. Idleness should be counteracted by better training, craftsmen rewarded and idle persons banished. Laws required to regulate trade. Monasteries need reform, but this subject is deferred. The disagreement between different orders in the community, which was called a pestilence, might be remedied by every man minding his own business and not interfering with others'. The nobility should be exercised in arms. We must have a good prince to rule: this is the ground of all felicity in civil life. If we could have one commonly, he would remedy all other disorders. We have now a prince of so much wisdom that he need be subject to no law; but after his death Parliament should choose one who shall be always subject to the laws. If, however, we think the heir of the prince should always succeed, a council should be joined to him selected by Parliament. The Great Parliament should only be called at the election of the prince or some other great crisis; but there should be a permanent council at London to protect the liberties of the people. The Statute of Enclosures should be put in force; drunkards and gamblers should be punished.
Wool should not be exported, nor other things needed at home. Merchants now export lead and tin, and bring them back manufactured. Wines, velvet and silk might be imported, but the Statute of Apparel must be put in execution. Customs should be reduced. Rents, which have been lately raised, should be reduced to the old standard. Sick persons should be looked after as at Ypres in Flanders.
Gentlemen should live in towns, and the cities would be more beautiful.
ii. Further discussions concerning government, in which Venice is pointed at as an example. Where the prince's power is limited ambition is moderated. Wardships should be abolished, and schools established for the nobility. Some of the abbeys might be converted to that purpose, as there are too many of them now. Lawsuits should not be removed to London which the gentlemen of the shire can decide. Other legal reforms suggested. The Roman civil law should be adopted.
iii. The law of treason might be reformed. Faults of the spiritualty. The Pope usurps authority, "and dispenseth with all at his own liberty." It should be enacted that no cause should be sued out of the realm except causes of schism in the Faith. The realm should not pay Peterpence or aunates, except of the archbishops, "whom I wold schold be instytute by the Pope but electyd at home, and of them have a certayne." All other bishops should be instituted by the archbishops at home. Further reforms wanted in the clergy and the universities. A censor should be appointed in every great town to see that other officers do their duty.
After all, law cannot make man perfect; Christ only can do that. Christ used two means to establish His law,—example and exhortation. None should be made preachers except those whose life and doctrine is good. The advice of Erasmus should be followed in their instruction. His book on the "Instruction of a Christian Man" should be translated into English. The doctrine of Christ also should be put into the mother tongue, and all prayers, both private and common, in churches, should be in the vulgar tongue.
The conversation ends by Lupset urging Pole to use efforts to set forth this true Commonwealth, which Pole says he shall be ready to do when called upon by his prince, but till then he must tarry his time.
15 Feb.
Harl. MS. 283, f. 131.
B. M.
218. Thos. Starkey to [Pole].
I have been somewhat slow in writing since I arrived here, where I bear the air better than I did in Italy. Since our first acquaintance there have been many letters written between us, and much communication concerning the institution of our lives. I beg therefore that you will carefully consider these words, for they concern the whole order of your life to be led in this our country among your natural lovers and friends. Lately by the singular gentleness of master Secretary, for whose goodness to me and to you I consider myself bound to him next to the King, I have been set in the Court to the King's service, and owing to his commendations so graciously accepted, that shortly after his Highness called me to his presence and asked me about you, your studies, and your opinion in his causes lately defined here. I answered, as I have always thought convenient to answer to a prince, that is, plainly to affirm what I know to be true, and to rehearse only by conjecture what I stand in doubt of. I therefore boldly affirmed your desire to do his Grace true and faithful service, but as to your opinion in his causes of matrimony and concerning the authority of the Pope, as you have always been so prudent as not to disclose your opinion except in time and place, I could not affirm anything plainly; but I said that as far as your learning and judgment would extend, which were somewhat altered and increased touching the discerning between God's law and man's law, all the power, knowledge and learning which you have obtained by the goodness of God and his liberality you would gladly use to maintain what he had decreed by court of Parliament. The King was not satisfied with this, but desired to know your sentence therein plainly, and commanded me to write to you that you should, like a learned man, consider these things, disregarding all affections and leaving possible dangerous results to the King's wisdom and policy, and declare your sentence truly and plain without color or cloak of dissimulation, which his Grace most princely abhorreth. He does not wish for a great volume or book, but the most effectual reasons briefly and plainly set forth. Consider how princely a request this is, and then I am sure you will employ yourself with all diligence, and study to satisfy his desire, to which Mr. Secretary, whose loving goodness to you gives place to no man, also exhorts you. He desires you to use your accustomed plainness whatever your opinion may be, and says that, if your learning and judgment will stretch to the satisfying of the King's mind, that then your return hither will be greatly to the King's pleasure, your own comfort, and the profit of the rest of your friends. If your knowledge will not serve you to this purpose, he would still advise you to prepare yourself to come hither, doubting not that the King will use your service in other affairs. He is sorry that your virtues should be so utterly drowned, and vanish away among strangers without profit to your country. You may perceive the gentleness of his stomach and singular goodness to all men of honesty by his bearing such a mind to you, with whom he is almost unacquainted, only from the reports of your virtue. He wished me to assure you that in all things which might touch your preferment he would only give place to your mother and your brother. I am sure that if ever you have experience of him, you will have him in stable and reverent love, such is his wisdom, and, in matters of State, his high policy.
As there was little talk between us about these matters before our departure from our country, I will add these few words. Ponder well this Levitical law, and how it is rooted in the law of nature, and has been many times declared and authorised by General Councils, and further, the slenderness of this long usurped and abused authority of the Pope, which is grown to this intolerable iniquity by the patience of princes, the simplicity of the people and ambitious avarice of previous popes. I think you will see the plain truth and equity in these causes, but this I leave to your consideration and judgment, praying that you may see the truth, and set it forth, that it may be a comfort to our prince, and pleasure to yourself and all your friends here.
All the rumors which came to you in Italy from men of corrupt judgments, without discretion to judge between true religion and superstition, are utterly false, for although the King has withdrawn himself from the Pope's authority, he has in no point slid from the certain and sure grounds of Scripture, nor yet from the laws and ceremonies of the Church, which yet stand in full strength and authority; and so they shall, boldly I dare affirm, until the King and his Council think expedient to abrogate them and substitute by common assent others more agreeable to this time and the nature of our men, and more convenient to our whole country. Nothing is done here without due order and reasonable mean. Touching religion, nothing almost is altered but what was most necessary and what will be a foundation for civil order and true and right policy. If I had found the false reports there to be true, as that the King was slipt from the grounds of Scripture, the honor of the Sacraments and from all the common laws and wholesome ceremonies of the Church, I would never have sought to enter his service.
My long desire to serve the King was to serve God and my country in his service, for which purpose I will dedicate the rest of my life to him. This is my mind, and I am sure the same is yours. London, 15 Feb.
Hol., pp. 4. Endd.
Cleop. E. vi. 354.
B. M.
2. Draft of the preceding with some slight differences; among which he speaks of the rumor as having been received at the time when he departed from Pole, and was not sure whether he should return to his own country, that the King had not only withdrawn himself from the Pope's authority but slipt from the grounds of Scripture and the laws of Christ's Church.
Hol., pp. 4.
Cleop. E. vi. 361.
B. M.
Strype, Eccl. Mem. i. ii. 279.
219. [Starkey to Pole.]
You wrote before in our Prince's cause of your own motion, showing lovingly the dangers that might follow. "But the matter itself, as it is here by the King sharply judged, you did not almost touch. Wherefore now the King, as I have written, requireth your learned judgment; and that you should leave your prudent and witty policy till you be required." The points are these, which you will allow me to state a little after my mind:
1. "An matrimonium cum relicta fratris ab eo cognita sit jure divino licitum." In this, though the King wishes you to defer to no man's judg ment, I beg you to consider how this law is rooted in nature and supported by all laws written. Arguments to show that the Pope's dispensing power extends not thereto, and that it is dangerous for any one man to have authority to dispense with laws made by General Councils.
2. "An superioritas, quam multis in seculis Romanus pontifex sibi vindicarit, sit ex jure divino." Suggests that there is no warrant for it in Scripture, but much may be said against it.
The King does not ask your judgment on the policy of either of these matters, "and of bringing them to effect (which his Grace hath now done), whether it will be well done or evil," as you have no great experience in such things yet,—"As whether it be convenient that there should be one Head of the Church, and that to be the bishop of Rome. Set these aside." Also, whether what he has done in the case of matrimony be profitable to the realm. Only show whether you would approve his first marriage, if it were to make, and why not. Thus weigh the thing in itself and fearlessly state your opinion. So you will honor God's truth and satisfy the King, who lately said to me, "He would rather you were buried there than you should for any worldly promotion or profit to yourself dissemble with him in these great and weighty causes."
Thinks Pole need fear no charge of inconsistency if he complies; "for, as far as I can conjecture, you did affirm (fn. 5) nothing in the cause, but only put before his eyes the dangers that hanged upon worldly policy." So I think, but am not sure, for I only read your book once; when I thought you wrote so well that it put me in fear of danger, too. But I trust the wisdom of our prince will avert such calamities.
Consult, if you think proper, master Gaspero, (fn. 6) the bishop of Chieti and other learned men.
Hol., draft.
Cleop. E. vi. 357.
B. M.
220. [Cromwell to Pole.] (fn. 7)
Desires him to use his learning and understanding to answer the things contained in Starkey's letter to him, which is written by the King's express commandment. London.
P. 1. Copy in Starkey's hand. Add.: To my singular friend, Mr. Edw. Herwel, merchant, at Venice.
15 Feb.
R. O.
221. [Cromwell] to the Mayor and Aldermen of London.
Asks them to grant the next vacation of one of the four clerks of their court to Rob. Backster, one of the clerks writers with John Joyner, the King's preignetory of the Common Bench at Westminster. Will undertake that he will at all times behave like an honest officer. The Rolls, 15 Feb.
P. 1. Add.
15 Feb.
R. O.
St. P. ii. 224.
222. Wm. Brabazon to Cromwell.
The Deputy has been sore sick, but is now better, and intends to besiege Mynouth on Tuesday, in the second week in Lent. Sir Rice Maunxell, Leonard Skeffington and Mr. Eglionby are at Trym, 20 miles from Dublin, with about 500 men. Sir Wm. Brereton, Mr. Salisbury, with their own retinue and that of Dacres and Musgrave, are at Newcastell and other towns six miles from Dublin. Sir John Seyntlow and his retinue are at Waterford, Kilkenny and in co. Wasshford, where Ossory, who has done good service, has assigned them. The captains do their duties since leaving Dublin, but the traitor still does much harm in burning and robbing. Purcell, Brode and other pirates have been hanged, drawn and quartered. Has put Bathe, the learned man, to the castle, for his account of the under treasurer. Does not think it advisable that head offenders should have the King's pardon, and advises the King to be careful in granting possessions or wards.
Many of the Irish write to the Deputy of their good minds, but O'Coner, O'Raillie and others have plundered the country since our landing. They will all take their advantage when they see their time, but they now withdraw themselves from the traitor, so that he is of little power. Doubts not that Cromwell has sent the money to the seaside. If it were in Ireland, it would comfort many a soldier who now wants money. Some of the Northern men have deserted. Has received but little from the bishop of Dublin's lands. The King's revenues in Ireland are small, except the Customs, but sundry merchants have obtained letters for the farms of them, which Brabazon stays. Dublin, 15 Feb.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.: Brabson's letter out of Ireland, with the copy of the earl of Osere's letter to the Deputy.
15 Feb.
R. O.
223. Hercules Duke of Febrara to Cromwell.
Desires credence for master Benedetto da Gondola, touching his complaint against one Jacopo, master of a ship, who robbed the Duke's agents of 300 ducats. Ferrara, 15 Feb. 1535. Signed.
Ital., p. 1. Add. Endd.
R. O.2. Latin translation of the preceding.
In Vannes' hand, p. 1. Endd.: A copie of a lettre from Ferrare.
16 Feb.
R. O.
224. Launceston Priory.
Examination taken at Launceston, 16 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII., by Sir John Chamond. in the presence of Sir Stephen Lampre, chaplain.
John Perys, 71 years of age, deposes that he knew nothing of any money given by Sir John Schere, now prior of Launceston, to be made prior, for there was no talk of it in the town, and he knew not that he would be prior till he heard the bells ring at his election. Afterwards, when Sir William Curttney departed out of the town, it was commonly reported that he had given money, but he does not remember how much. Never lent the prior money. Heard that the prior that now is was sworn to his ordinary to fulfil certain covenants to the old prior, which he did not fulfil. The prior that now is "occupied" 60l. or more belonging to Sir Jas. Gentyll, provost of Penryn, which was left in the house in gage for the pension of John Corke, and has since given him a golden chalice of 30 oz. in gage for the repayment. The old prior said the present prior had got a discharge of his oath from the King and archbishop of Canterbury, so that he feared he should lose part of his living. Signed by Chamond and Lampray.
Memorandum signed by the bishop of Exeter, that the examination of this witness was committed to them at the desire of Wm. Kendall.
P. 1. Large paper.
R. O.2. The Convent of St. Stephen's Launceston to Henry VIII.
Sir John Baker, late prior, had in 13 years brought the monastery out of debt, which was at least 1,000l., new roofed the church to the value of 300 marks, and garnished it with copes, vestments, &c. to the value of 400l., when he was deposed at the instance of Sir Wm. Courtenay, and the chancellor of Exeter granted them free election, on which they agreed upon an able person; but the Chancellor, finding he was to receive no brise, would not agree to it, and forced upon them as prior Sir John Shere, canon, who, not three years before, was chamberlain to the said Baker. Since his advancement, which is not half a year, he has brought the house 1,000 marks into debt, pledged all its principal jewels, and continually sells the woods, whereby he has committed simony. Begs the King, as Supreme Head of the Church, to grant them free election or else appoint them a prior of their religion. Desire credence for Wm. Kendall.
Broad sheet. P. 1. Endd.
16 Feb.
R. O.
225. Sir Robt. Wingfield to Cromwell.
My last letter was written on the 3rd, and signed by such of my brethren the aldermen as were then present: and other writings were joined with it. Rob. Fowler, the King's vice-treasurer. has brought your message touching the Meane Broke. which I have of the King's gift by patent to me and to my heirs for ever. that if I would submit to the King's pleasure you doubt not I shall receive a recompense more to my profit than if I enjoyed it myself. Nothing the King ordains shall displease me; for though I have been sworn of his Council above 20 years and of his Privy Council above 14 years, I will never argue why I have been put to such hindrance and extreme loss and shame as I have been since Michaelmas. But if it has only arisen from the untrue surmise of the water bailly, whose words are least to be esteemed of any man's I know, I have the more cause to lament. I trust my demeanor hitherto has been such that I need not fear any good man; and as for shrews, God has done so much for me that my enemies have been more grievously punished than I desired. To conclude, I submit myself wholly to the King, and desire your help to punish such as have hindered me of malice. Calais, 16 Feb.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.. Secretary and Vice-Chancellor. Endd.
16 Feb.
Lamb. MS. 616, f. 53.
St. P. ii. 226.
226. John Alen to Cromwell.
The King's affairs are in the same state since he last wrote by Edw. Beeke. The Deputy has been kept to the house by sickness for 12 or 13 weeks, and meantime the rebel has burnt much of the country. The King will never be well served unless a marshal is appointed and the army prohibited from resorting to Dublin; and the Deputy desires so much his own glory that he would no man should make an enterprise unless he were at it. The army should be restrained from robbing anyone without orders. It is not meet that every soldier should make every man a traitor to have his goods. The King may have them by another mean. They will now hardly go forth to defend the country unless they know they will have gain.
The King should write to all the captains, especially Brereton and Salisburie; for if they do their duty others will. If so, the King will have his purpose against those miscreant wretches unless the army of Spain come. Another cause of the hindrance is lack of money. Cannot have Sir John Seyntlow here, for lack of wages. Brabazon made all the shift possible for the last pay day, and they should have been paid again on Friday last. Brabazon's wages are not sufficient, considering his charges. The army wants bows, &c. The livery from the Tower was only for the Deputy and 150 men. The bows from Ludlow Castle were naught. This term Broode, the traitor's admiral, and Purcell, who stole the ship out of the Thames, have been executed. Some of the great "cobbes" must be served likewise. Dame Jenet Ewstace, Sir Walter Delahide's wife, Kildare's aunt and the traitor's foster mother, is in Dublin Castle. The Delahides here, her two sons, James and John, and Thos. Ewstace, uphold the rebellion. When the traitor was "scomfited," he fled to her at Balyna Castle. Rose Ewstace, who waited on the lady of Kildare and fled with the Earl's daughter, the Redd Bath, and Edw. Fitzgerald, are also in ward.
The latter is brother to Burnell the traitor, who is openly kept by some of the captains. Advises that the captains should be ordered to attack this March Maynoth, Portlester, Rathangan, Cartlagh, Lye and the bridge of Athie. If the Spaniards came, they could not then maintain the traitor in Kildare. Most of his substance and ordnance is at Lye. Will besiege Maynoth on St. Mathie's Day, if the money and bows come. Encloses the copy of an examination (fn. 8) against Ric. Delahide, late justice, and the copy of a letter from the earl of Ossory. (fn. 9) Reminds him of the exchange of Cartlagh and Waxford for the King.
John Teling, who took the archbp. of Dublin, has died of leprosy at Maynooth, and Waffer, his companion, is stricken with the French pox and the falling evil.
Advises him not always to believe what the Deputy writes to his own praise; and to write to him to show the King's letters and commissions to Brabazon and Alen.
He keeps secret the printed books which were made by the King and his Council for the order of this land. Asks that 200 or 300 copies may be sent to Brabazon and himself. Desires that what he writes may not be disclosed, and advises him to write to the Deputy that none of us take any bribes or rewards. Dublin, 16 Feb.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.. Secretary and M. R. Endd.
16 Feb.
R. O.
227. The Prior of La Reolle to Cromwell.
In consequence of an attack of fever intends to leave on Monday for Guienne, to see if the air of the country will do him good. On account of the badness of the vintage they will not export any wines this year to England. Paris. 16 Feb.
Hol., Fr., p. 1. Add.: Secretayre.
17 Feb.
R. O.
228. Henry VIII. to Will. Skinner, Vicar of St. Martin's-inthe Fields and the Churchwardens there.
Directs them to notify to the inhabitants of the precincts from the new gate of Westminster Hall, who were formerly parishioners of St. Margaret's. that they are now of the parish of St. Martin's, according to the King's letter to the abbot of Westminster, dated Westminster, 12 Nov. 26 Hen. VIII.
Modern copy. p. 1.
17 Feb.
R. O.
229. Sir Geo. Throkmarton to Cromwell.
I hear from Worcestershire that Mr. Roger Wynter is like to die. (fn. 10) Articles of marriage have been drawn up between us for his son and heir and one of my daughters. which will be void if he die. as his son is within age and his land is holden of the King in capite. I have delayed the matter two years, as he has been sick five or six years, and if he die I beg that I may have the preferment of the child for my money. I hear also that Litilton. a countryman of mine. is departed. Please write a letter to Thos. Hunks. the father of the widow, in favor of my son Kenelm. I am the bolder to write as you promised to be good master to me in all suits. I find although you wrote in favour of the bearer the receiver will not let him occupy his farm, as his son-in-law has a copy of parcel thereof; but I assure you it cannot pass by copy, as it is parcel of the lord's demesles. Weston. 17 Feb. Signed.
I hear Sir Ant. Hungerford will labor for the child.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
17 Feb.
R. O.
230. Eliz. Rede. Abbess of West Mallyng, to Cromwell.
I have received your letters for the office of high steward of our house to be given to your nephew Ric. Cromwell, with the profits thereto belonging. I have already given it half a year ago to Sir Thos. Willoughby's son. Please obtain it of Sir Thos. Willoughby, and you shall have your desire. Westmallyng, 17 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.. Secretary. Endd.
17 Feb.
R. O.
231. John Husee to Lord Lisle.
Has written by Sir Oliver and Tison, stating that Sir Edw. Saymer had not then taken. as he now has, the award. Though Mr. Secretary has promised to conclude it to your contentation, I have no doubt you will be pleased, although it is nothing to your profit. Cannot get Boyes' bill signed. You must write again to the King touching the toll of Mark and Oye, as what has hitherto been written is forgotten. I send the horns by Fyssher. Paid for the making 4s. Will bring your satin cap. The pewterer will deliver the vessel if you send a warrant; if not he must have ready money. You know what Hastings has done with my lord Chancellor. Within these three days Sir Adrian Fortescue has been committed to the Tower, and to lose his head. London, 17 Feb. 1534.
The King removes tomorrow to Hampton Court.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Endd.
17 Feb.
R. O.
232. John Husee to Lady Lisle.
I have this day received your letter and token by Edmund Russell, and these days past I received the 3l. and your letter, when I was wholly out of money. I delivered Mr. Basset your ladyship's letter, and he was very glad, especially to hear that you are merry; and so was Mr. Skerne, his chamber-fellow. Now Mr. Basset has his chamber in quiet, but with much ado, for there were two gentlemen in it who would not gladly have gone out, "had it not been by compulsion and friendship. Howbeit he is now well, were the two pieces of say come for to perform his chamber." "Your ladyship may be glad that ever ye bare Mr. Basset, for he proveth the towardest and quickest witted young gentleman that ever I knew; and bold enough, which I doubted most in him; but I now dare let him slip to all the house, young and old. He is as well acquainted in that inn as if he had been there continuer these seven years, and he is beloved of young and old, and nothing too hard for him in learning. I doubt not, if God spare him life, but he shall prove the diamant of Devonshire, for he is active universally to all things that appertaineth to a young gentleman." Cannot write the towardness that is in him, but I hope, ere I be eight days older, to leave him in good order. I know well Mr. Say[mer's] award is not agreeable to you. I think Smythe has written of it at large. It is not the best bargain that ever my Lord made. I have got with much difficulty the piece of kersey from the keeper of the bp. of Exeter's place, for he would in no wise deliver it without money, but at last accepted a bill of my hand for it, to be paid at Lady day or the cloth redelivered. It is 11¼ yds. at 5s., very fine but not very white. Mr. Taylor likes it, but till this day could not find the Queen at leisure, to present it. I hope tomorrow to see it despatched and tell you how she likes it. Mr. Taylor would like an answer from Mr. Gaynsford to his last letter. Mr. Lovell, I think, will leave for Calais in eight days. London, 17 Feb. 1534.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.
17 Feb.
Vit. B. xiv. 166.
B. M.
233. News from Rome.
Extracts by Vannes of [Gregory Casale's] letters of ... and 17 Feb.:—
"Nil aliud hic ag ...................... jactantque Cesa ....................... universam Afr[icam] ..... [Constanti]nopolim usque vel ............ Pontifex, Rex .............
"Octo millia Germanorum jam .................. prudenter rebus suis prosp ....., c ............ occupabunt, quæ civitas pro bello ge[rendo] ...... munitissima, hæc si in eorum manus se .......... non est quod Galli posthac amplius spe[m] ...... Mediolanum recuperare, in dictaque civita[te] ........ mas practicas agunt Cesariani, quæ ............. satis cognitæ sint, hiis tamen neutiquam obstat, .......... fixum habere, ut sub hac neutralitatis ........... tione, omnibus satisfaciat, quum hoc illi s ........... difficile, multa præterea inopia rerumque ........... tate urgetur.
"Putat prothonotarium Casalium jam esse in itin[ere] .......... versus, intelligitque Regis Johannis successu[s esse ......] prosperos, multisque locis potitus est, ...... prius in suam devotionem acceperat, s ......... ut practice omnes cum Rege Ferdinand[o] .......... tur.
"Ex literis, xvij. Febr. Rom ............ —De hac nova classe intelligitur quod Dorie ........... triremes, numero erunt xxx. pontificis ........... sexdecim mittuntur, duodecim vero contri[buunt] ......... Siculi, et Rhodiani. Ex Portugallia ............ xx. subtiliores naviculæ militibus .............. quam optime instrutte. Sexdecim s ............[ex] Hispania expectantur * * *
" ............. [ex]ercitum quatuordecim millium ............ [Mar]chio Guasti, primoque tractu ............... Tunisii adjungent, qui habe ............... equites Arabes, cum quo dicunt ............... intelligentiam, facileque se confi[dit posse exp]ugnare Tunisium, quum hæc civitas ..... po[rtum h]abeat, in quem Barbaroza recipere queat [suam] classem, post modum Algierum proficiscentur [civ]itatem Barbaroze, ut eam si possint, demoliantur. [Ma]ior pars otto millium Germanorum constituetur ad [tu]telam Mediolani. Ceteri in hanc expeditionem pro[fi]ciscentur."
Touching the affairs of the duke of Urbino, the Pope says he will not deny justice to those who ask it. A certain Mattias claims the duchy of Camerino, and the duke of Urbino will act against him if he wishes to stop this judgment. The Venetians will send 2,000 foot to help him.
In Perugia, the bp. of Como, the governor, has been expelled, it is believed by the help of the duke of Urbino.
A certain "dominus Paulus" has been sent to Rome by the French king to procure the cardinalate for the bp. of Paris (episcopo ... risien').
It will be managed with difficulty.
Lat., pp. 2. Mutilated. In Vannes' hand.
18 Feb.
R. O.
234. Carlo Capello.
Passport for Curolus Capellus, the Venetian ambassador, returning to his country, with 21 horses and two mares, bag and baggage. Westminster, 18 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII. [See Grants in February, No. 37.]
Copy, p. 1. Subscribed by Capello himself.
Endorsement on the original: "Passed by virtue hereof the last day of February the year of our Sovereign lord within written, 13 horses or geldings, in Thomas Barbour's ship of Dover called The Anne Fortune."
18 Feb.
R. O.
235. Edw. Archbishop of York to Cromwell.
You have twice written for speedy process to be made against those who yet retain the King's money in their hands. On sight of your first letters I wrote to the collectors, charging them to bring up the money they had with all speed; and I trust within three or four days to hear from them all. If not, process shall go forth. We can make process only against the collectors, unless they signify the names of those who withhold it. The bps. of Durham and Carlisle must answer for themselves, as the Act of Convocation empowers them to appoint collectors in their own dioceses. I thank you for your goodness to Teshe, reported by Mr. Gostwike. Thorpe, 18 Feb. 1534. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
18 Feb.
R. O.
236. Will. Abbot of York to Cromwell.
Whereas the King marvels that I make no quicker expedition in gathering his subsidy, this duty belongs to the collectors, who have power to make process against every man, and I only receive the money from them. I have at present 2,000l., since I wrote last, which I am ready to send. The advowson of Kirkby on the Hill, for which you write, has been already given away. York, 18 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
18 Feb.
R. O.
237. Henry Earl of Essex to Cromwell.
According to your command, I send you "one of the greateste dyssembalers of this worlde." I thank you for "my power chapleyn." Staunstede, 18 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: "Secretary." Endd.
18 Feb.
R. O.
238. Sir William Fitzwilliam to Lord Lisle.
Has sent into France by the bearer a couple of geldings for two of the writer's friends there. Requests a pass for them. Westminster, 18 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
19 Feb.
R. O.
239. Cromwell to Henry Burton.
Complaint has been made to the King on behalf of lady Carewe, that Burton has wrongfully entered a free chapel and little close ground granted to her by the King for life, with remainder to Francis Carew her son, and to his heirs male. As the King thus has the reversion of the fee simple, he commands Burton to suffer lady Carew to enjoy the premises, to restore what he has wrongfully taken, and to cease the suit commenced against her till their titles are further examined by learned counsel. London, 19 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
19 Feb.
R. O.
240. Roland [Lee], Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, to Cromwell.
Pray send for the executor of my predecessor, and arrange with him for the house of Lichfield, otherwise I can do nothing touching the dilapidations. I gave you the house, and you gave it to him, why I cannot tell; but you made me thereupon promise it to him. Herforde, 19 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary.
19 Feb.
R. O.
241. Eliz. Peche to Cromwell.
I have received your letters desiring to have me bound to Mr. Hart, which I should be loth to do, as he is my enemy. Trusting to your goodness to me, and that I shall not be hindered by such bonds, I am content to do so for your sake. If you knew how good I have been to him you would think he has handled me very unkindly. He will seek all the means he can to undo me, and I shall be loth to have any further ado with him in any matter in my old age. He once said, if I sold all that ever were in the house before his face, he would not grudge at it. Now I find it otherwise. I once gave him 20 marks a year, and I trust I shall not henceforth be bound to him for the same. Luddyngston, 19 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
19 Feb.
R. O.
242. James Hawkyssworthe to Lord Lisle.
Has received his letter. Has at Farum (Fareham) 10,000 wood in readiness, and will have more at Midsummer. There lies much timber on the water, and "Hold Golly" is making a new ship thereof; and this March you shall have 10,000 more made in Fayrram park. Has arranged with Thos. Henslowe. Thinks Lewkenor would buy back the patent Lisle has of him, if Lisle would write to Edw. Russell to deliver it. Master Wyndsor has written to you about Rayfe. I wish "yow hayd macched (?) master Wodall awder with Sir Gefferay Poulle or elles with master Brunne." Can see no kindness in Thos. Wodull. 19 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Vycount Leysley, lord Deputy of Calais. Sealed.
19 Feb.
R. O.
243. Ralph Broke to Lord Lisle.
Understands by his kinsman, Rob. Broke, that Lisle has his black gelding, of which he is very glad, though in mere money it would be worth 20l. to him here. The bearer, John Dounsterfelde, says his Lordship would like a Welsh gelding. Requests to know whether it is to amble or trot. Begs his lordship will remove Sanders, whom he had placed in wages under Broke, to some other man's service, as he has a right to appoint his own men, and had promised to let Thos. Foular fill up the post. Dondertoun, 19 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Lord Lisle, &c., deputy of Calais.
19 Feb.
R. O.
244. Ralph Broke to Lady Lisle.
I send by my servant, John Donsterfylde, two cheeses. I have written to my Lord your husband desiring him to change a man of mine, and that Mr. Thomas Fouler may have the bestowal of the room. Dondertoun, 19 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
19 Feb.
R. O.
245. Margaret Barnabe to Lady Lisle.
Thanks for former kindness. Her husband (fn. 11) is in trouble in consequence of suretyship with certain Frenchmen. His protection is expired, and he is in great danger of a cruel Easterling. Begs her to intercede with lord Lisle that her husband may have a new warrant of protection. Her husband "shall consider it, with some pretty thing that shall come from Paris," and her brother also. London, 19 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: In Calais.
19 Feb.
Add. MS. 8,715, f. 5.
B. M.
246. The Bishop of Faenza to N. Raince, Secretary.
Account of his arrival in France and his audience of the King. A secretary of the Admiral's is expected from England, and then perhaps the truth about the interview will be known, which now is uncertain.
Ital., pp. 13. Copy. Headed: Da San Germano in Laga, alli 19 ut supra, mandata in compagnia della seguente de 22 per un corriere della corte, date a Mons. de Villandoy ritenute fino alli 23. II corriere parti poi alli 24.
Dirizzata in Roma al Sig. Segrio, N. Raince.
20 Feb.
Shrewsb. MS. A. f. 57.
Coll. of Arms.
Lodge, 1. 38.
247. Thomas Cromwell to the Earl of Shrewsbury.
Sends him a letter from the King in answer to the Earl's credence declared by master Buttes. His Lordship may depend upon having a more full and satisfactory answer when he comes up. Has been in hand with his servant for the farm of which the Earl wrote, but perceives he will not leave it except for fear of Cromwell's displeasure, and he does Cromwell such good service that he should not like to press him. The Rolls, 20 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: The earl of Shrewsbury, steward of the King's household.
20 Feb.
R. O.
248. Lancelot Colyns to [Cromwell].
Have not yet executed your commission in taking the resignation of the prior of Gisburne. I beg you to write to the prior and convent in favor of Sir Nicholas Pacok, canon and "bowser" there. This will satisfy your mastership. I beg your favor, and that they may have three years to pay the first-fruits, which will amount to 1,000 marks. Send someone here to take inventories of religious houses, after the effect of your commission. I beg credence for Sir Geo. Lawson, knt. York, 20 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Begins: "My most honourable and singular good master."
20 Feb.
R. O.
249. Eliz. Rede, Abbess of Malling, to Thos. Wyat, Esq.
I have received the King's letter for you to be high steward of our house. Half a year ago I promised it to Sir Thos. Willoughby for his son, after the death of master Fisher. I have also received a letter from Mr. Secretary for a kinsman of his, (fn. 12) and have informed him of my promise, and also that if Sir Thos. Willoughby is contented to absolve me, Mr. Secretary shall have it. Sir Thos. Nevill has also written to me to have the said office for himself, and I have promised that if he can obtain the favor of master Secretary and Mr. Willoughby, he shall have it. If I had known the King's pleasure before, you should have had it. Westmallyng, 20 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
20 Feb.
R. O.
250. John Darcy to Cromwell.
Apologises for not having written since the King's army came to Ireland. Has been far off on the Borders of the Irishmen. Asks Cromwell to write to Wm. Brabston to be good master to him. Dewlyng, 20 Feb. Signed.
"Plesset yowr goodyns to wet that, and yf ye do well ye sall awe Engles gowges (have English judges?) in the pore land of Erland, and than do you well."
Add.: Secretary. Endd.
20 Feb.
Vit. B. xiv. 162.
B. M.
251. [Gregory Casale (fn. 13) to Henry VIII.]
"Most nobl[e] .............................. and felicite ..................................... pretermitted no occas[ion] ............................ which I esteemed to be .............................. that Paule the bishop co[n]fy[d]yng proceedeth ................ to perform such things as he promised before .................. willing to advertise your Majesty by these my [letters that the said] Bishop, to the intent he would perceive what mak[eth] ........ his cause hath not only sent for a certain lawyer .......... in whom he hath great confidence, as by my for[mer letters] unto Mr. Secretary I have written, to the intent [he may know] his mind therein, and him still keepeth with him, a ...... writeth thus for conclusion that the Bishop ought [not only to] declare upon the invalidity of the first marriage [but also] allow the second matrimony, but also hath call[ed to him] one Reynold Petrutius, of the country of Sen[e, a man] verily of great authority amongst such as be to ..... and which before time, jointly with De[cius, hath] written concerning your Majesty his cause. Deciu[s], who was an old man most specially used, this man his .. the Bishop intendeth to make either auditor of t .... open reader in his school, which he hath appoin[ted] ...... which Reynold, moved by the Bishop, sayeth that ....... that the Bishop ought of office and duty allow this pret ........ although it depended upon the validity of [the dispensation] made by Julius. I have spoken often time .......... things. The Bishop hath .......... and hath showed it to learned men .............. the Bishop was very willing .............. d in many words went about to .... [as though he] desired nothing more than to invent some means [to gratify] your Majesty. He told me that he would ask the advice of divers learned men of the said cause, meaning those whom I write of. I, speaking generally, told him only that if he shall so do, he shall do as it becometh a good bishop to do, and consult for his wealth and the profit of this Church; nor I letted not to speak and show your Majesty his puissance, force and strength, and the stability of your own matters, and of your friends confederat, which things I know to be true. And in the said matter I intend to speak nor answer none other thing unto such time as I shall have answer from your Majesty. Truly I will in no wise err. What time the duke of Urban demanded of the Venetians whether they would aid him or not, and his son, duke of Cameryn, if they should perchance have war with the bishop of Rome, the Venetians have exhorted the Bishop that he should take a good way with the duke of Urban, declaring that there must not any such fire be kindled in Italy, when specially they by their pacts and promises ben bound to aid the duke of Urbyn. Notwithstanding, the Bishop abateth not his courage, but thinketh verily that he must needs enterprise such wars. Mons. Latinus Juvenalis hath been in Venice for another purpose, but he had in commission that he should search diligently whether the Venetians will do in deed as they say concerning the not forsaking of the Duke, if they should fortune to have war in the ........... brother the ................. the same that ............... and sayings will .................... the Bishop should not ............... Venetians, which if he will .......... compelled to join with the most Chris[tian king] ...... desire your Majesty confederate and his fre[nds] ....Majesty will desire to be done in your cause ....... or if your Majesty will have nothing more from ...... although your Majesty intendeth not to have an[y further] meddling with the Bishop and with his authority ........ yet, notwithstanding I think it may be broug[ht about that] the Bishop shall enter into some treaty with the most Ch[ristian] king and with your Majesty against the Emperor, yet [the Bishop] is of such nature that he would not be seen to b ........ with any war, except he were compelled to mov[e war with] the duke of Urbyn; which enterprise, if the F[rench king] do with such policy as is necessary, the Bishop shall be [brought] to the point that I write of. Wherein I would [rejoice] not a little. Your Majesty may trust unto this, [that if the] Bishop would make this war, the Emperor would [aid the duke] of Urbyn, and specially if the Frenchmen wo[uld help the] Bishop in any part, or would seem to be ready ......... unto your Majesty, that if it shall please you, ye ...... it unto the French king, and to promise him as [seemeth you] best. Your Majesty shall know what news he[re are, by my] letters sent unto Mr. Secretary. To whom w ......... I most humble recommend me, desiring the same [to remember] that I am your most faithful servant and most de[voted to your] service. I pray God send your Majesty wel [to fare]. Rome, the xxth day of February."
Translation. Mutilated.
20 Feb.
R. O.
252. [Lord Lisle to Cromwell.]
We lately received from you the commission of sewers directed to us and others. We have taken a survey and examined the Act of Parliament, 23 Hen. VIII., touching the powers of the commissioners. As all the lands within the Marches here are, with few exceptions, the King's own lands, let out by patents, by which the King's rents have been largely augmented within a few years (for in Henry VI.'s time the profits of Marke and Oye were not above 300l. a year, and are now 1,500l.), we can charge the King's tenants no further than they are charged already, viz., to keep the ground they have in farm sufficiently dyked, and at ordinary times to cleanse all sewers and water-gangs, made at the King's cost, "for winning of the country." We therefore must wait to know the King's pleasure.
Moreover, the said Act of Parliament does not extend to Calais, and no commission of such form has ever been directed hither without a clause referring to the customs of the Marches.
Dickelond stands in greatest peril of the sea, especially from the tides in March; and if anything should be lost, though the tenants would be undone, the King's loss would be principal. Please to move the King for a warrant to the vice-treasurer or other officers here how the money shall be paid for any charges laid upon lands by virtue of a commission hereafter. "For certainly there is yet undelven of that which was assigned to the King's charge, by virtue of his other last commissions of sewers, as much as amounteth to the sum of 40l. st. or above, of which the country has taken marvellous great harm." Calais, 20 Feb.
Pp. 2. Draft.
R. O.2. A remembrance for Mr. Treasurer, to be showed unto Mr. Cromwell at his coming to the Court.
[If] the said dyke and banks at Dykeland are not repaired on the south side, it will be to the utter undoing of the low ground on the west pale and half the east pale, which has been won by sea banks, dykes and watergangs from the value of 400l. a year to 1,300l.
All these banks have been made at the King's cost, except the Freemen's bank, and were devised in the days of the King's father for the amendment of the haven. Considering the abundance of water which floweth up thither, it has amended it well since the breaking of the sluice and the surrounding of the ground on the north side. If it were not for the amendment of the haven, the gap and the banks on the south side would neither be to the King's charge nor the tenants', for the land was all drained before, with conveyance of the fresh water out by a spoye, as appears by the verdict sent to you. Considering that the country was charged with making the said dyke and banks, the inhabitants think it will be to their utter undoing, and they cannot do it, considering their losses. A provision must be found to maintain the sea banks without further charging the country. We advise the sending of a commission, to be forced or ordered as we shall think good. Whatever may be raised or levied from the tenants, the King must first disburse the money. Signed: Arthur Lyssle, k,—Sir Ric. Whettehyll,—Edward Ryngeley.
Pp. 2. Endd.: My master's remembrances. A remembrance of Mr. Treasurer for my master.
20 Feb.
Vit. B. xiv. 127.
B. M.
253. Ri[chard Clotton] to Mr. Fowler.
"The true copy.—Mr. Fowler, in .................... and to good ....................... late written ................................ of his most ...................... trust is al .................... may please you to ................. him unto you praying .................... 500 ells of hasilborow ........ please you to send the same ... in to m .......... that may be, etc.
"To advertise you of news; Doctor Latymer hath turned [over the leaf, for] on Wednesday last passed he preached before the King's hi[ghness, knowle]ging the Pope's authority to be the highest [authority upon] earth, and if he shall misuse himself he ought to [be reformed] by a general council, and none otherwise. He also [confessed our Lady] and holy saints most necessary to be honored and pr[ayed unto. and] that pilgrimages is very acceptable unto Almighty God, and] profitable for the wealth of man's soul, with m[any other] things which would ask too long time for to be ex[pressed here]."
Yesterday the King went hence to ...... but how long he will stay is uncertain. London, 20 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII. Signed Ri .....
Add.: To the right worshipful Mr. Thomas [Fo]w[ler], gentleman usher to the K[ing's highness].
Mutilated. The name of the writer and some of the lost portions havé been supplied from a modern copy in Add. MS. 29,547, f. 7.


1 Sampson.
2 Apparently a promised prebend. George Lee, LL.B., was admitted to the prebend of Bishopshill in Lichfield, 7 May 1537.
3 Printed by J. M. Cowper for the Early Engl. Text Soc., under the title "England in the Reign of Henry VIII."
4 These numbers refer to the chapters into which the work has been divided by the editor, though there is no such division in the MS.
5 Strype misreads the word "affirm" as "offer me," which makes nonsense.
6 Gaspar Contarenus, afterwards cardinal.
7 Although this letter is in Starkey's hand, and bears on the outside an address to Harvel at Venice, I believe it to be a copy of one addressed by Cromwell to Pole, and transcribed by Starkey on the inside of the cover of a letter to Harvel. See Harvel's letter to Starkey of the 12th April following.
8 Deposition of Wm. Lynche, 21 Jan.
9 17 Jan.
10 He died 6 March 1535.
11 Qu. Thomas Barnaby? See VII. 797, 1672.
12 Ric. Cromwell. See 17 Feb.
13 Marginal note made before the Fire: "1535, 20 Feb. Rome. Gregory Casale's letter translated."