Elizabeth
January 1588, 21-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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1931

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25-49

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'Elizabeth: January 1588, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4: January-June 1588 (1931), pp. 25-49. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76099 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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January 21–31

Jan. 21. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
Is more earnest than ever for his recall, as the garrison is to be reduced, and he does not believe it can be kept by nine companies, “being so weak, evil armed and worse paid.” And of the three companies that are to go, two are so indebted to divers poor men, “as namely Hynder and Wyngfyeld, the one for himself and his company and the other by reason that the late Earl of Leicester [sic] thrust him out of the Queen's pay into the Estates',” that he knows not how he can send them away, but will do his best, hoping to have order from her Majesty to go with them, otherwise he should be very ‘lofte’ to let them go.—Flushing, 21 January.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with note of contents. 2 pp. [Holland XX. f. 102.]
Jan. 23. Lord Willughby to Burghley.
“I have received the 22 of this instant my commission—with letters dated 23 of December—much abridged in many points of the large authority the other, taken from me, contained; and although neither afore nor yet now, I was worthy of so gracious a conceit of her Majesty, neither willing for mine own infirmities to have undertaken (in such a troubled state) so weighty a charge … yet am I much more far from it now, to see her Highness' favour straitened when I thought my toleration in extremities and hazards had not deserved less; and having framed my mind against mine own desires and necessities, I protest only to have her graciousness enlarged, not in any place of advancement, but only of good opinion, and for to make proof thereof (if it please her Majesty to license me) I will leave all authority and charge, and serve her Majesty here a private man of my own purse, which, though it be extreme lean, yet fits it better that I show my humble devotion in a beggarly state than in a formal and ‘tytelous’ [qy. titleless] show.
“Your lordship, I doubt not, hath perused both my Commission and Instructions. By the first I have authority to fight, but I have no men; for they be all in garrisons, which I am expressly forbidden to meddle with …
“And as for her Majesty's treasure, her Majesty, I doubt not, shall be throughly answered the disbursing thereof by them that are authorised thereunto, and I, having no commandment therein, shall (I hope) most happily be quit of so great a care and account; which I write both for that the treasurer's man hath already disposed thereof without my consent, or so much as once making me privy to it; as for that I have no special mention thereof in my Commission, nor order from your lordship.
“Touching my Instructions, I am discharged from taking any authority, limited to the office of General, from the States, by contract; which I assure your lordship I am most glad of for myself; yet this inconvenience may ensue; that it will add to their evil dispositions matters to nourish it.
“I am also by my Instructions directed under the States General of the field. How ill it agreeth that her Majesty's Lieutenant [is] to be ranged under them, I leave to judgment. If my unworthiness cause it, there is better choice; if their worthiness, let such a one be appointed by her Majesty. I protest and take this exception for her honour; for I shall willingly otherwise submit myself in any sort to any she shall ordain.
“I have troubled your good lordship with this discourse, not that I desire a large-shaped coat, for I am well-contented to be straitened, but to that end (if it were possible) I might be turned out of it and that some other, more worthy of it, had it; and in good faith, to succeed so honourable a person in such a time and state, there had need to be some special choice man, of great birth, honour, credit, place and experience.
“For my part, I desire to shape my garment homely, after my cloth; that of the better of my parish I might not be misliked for my sumptuousness, and so live quietly without great noise, my poor roof, low and near the ground, not subject to be overblown with unlooked for storms while the sun seems most shining.”
“Your lordship has so bound me to you that, forgetting myself, I trouble you, for which I crave your pardon.—The Haghe, 23 January, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. close writing. [Holland XX. f. 104.]
Jan. 23. Henry Kyllygrew to Walsingham.
From Mr. Herbert and Mr. Rogers, who lately passed this way, your honour will have learned how they left all matters here at their departure. Since then “the States General determining to establish some other form of regiment … which is not yet come to light, nor, I think, so ready as it was thought, came this afternoon to the Council of Estate, where Brederode, myself, Bardezius, Telinck and Dorre were (the Chancellor of Gueldres and Valke being sent to Utrecht) and desired them, notwithstanding their year expired within two days, to will on Thursday next to continue their places for some twenty or thirty days longer, whereunto they all generally made answer … they could no longer attend in that service, wherein they were used rather as ciphers than otherwise; with which answer those that came from the States General departed; which were one for each province and, namely Sylla, the pensionary of Amsterdam, who was the mouth of the rest. Now what other order they will take, time shall discover, but I suppose they will insist again to move these men to continue, until they may hear out of England…. I take them to be in hard case, and that at length they, which by their abuses have tired out so many governors, will find the like measure at their hands by whom they mean to serve their turns. I say no more till I see further, but were it not I hope God will continue his marvellous dealings for his church's sake, I think they would quail within very few years. For I can speak with no man of judgment among them but is weary of their manner of proceedings and sorry for his Excellency's departure, as if it were the entrance into their ruin. Some conceived hope in the good success of the King of Navarre; others that the King of Denmark, by yielding to give one of his daughters in marriage to Count Maurice might have produced means to uphold them. Howbeit, both these hopes are but vain, and their State in the meantime, for want of authority, doth ‘rent’ asunder, not only by the disunion of the provinces, but by the particular hatred grown between some of their best contributing cities; also by the great disorders likely to arise in all their garrisons for want of pay; whereof there hath already a taste been given at Huisden and Getruidenbergh, the soldiers of both which places are mutined; and Sonoye at Medemblick like to follow their dance for the same cause, Many ‘mo’ things than I can write are out of joint; especially the general devotion of the people, which see no sufficient authority to govern so ‘distract’ an estate.
As touching your letter to me for the stay of one bound to Muscovia, I have taken order to “lay wait for him” both at Amsterdam and Enchuysen, and shall not fail to perform your honour's commands.—The Haghe, 23 January, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XX. f. 106.]
Jan. 23. Adolf, Conte de Neuwenar to Walsingham.
Laments his not receiving some favourable resolution from the Queen. This has moved him once more humbly to address her, as also the Earl of Leicester; and he asks the Secretary's good offices to procure some consolation from her Majesty for sufferings for the religion in which he desires to live and die.
Remembers that Walsingham, a year ago, asked a gentleman of his for a memorial containing his pretensions. Asks credence for the bearer.—Utrecht, 23 January, 1588, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. French.
2 pp. [Ibid. f. 108.]
Jan. 24. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
I have received both your honour's last letters, and am much bound to you for them and for the good care you take to provide us with necessaries, beseeching you to continue the same.
Touching the 500l., I pray you to let “those disbursements of Sluyce” be received by some of your servants as satisfaction for part thereof, receiving as much more from the treasurer as will make up the sum.
I entreat your furtherance in procuring me the office of Master of the Ordnance, and also what we stand in need of for this place.
On the enemy's removing their forces to Sluys, intending to pretend something against this place or these islands, these people were very willing, with consent of the States, to receive two companies of horse (whereof one should be mine) but now I hear Count Hollock and others are greatly against it and hinder it, which makes me suspect “there is no good meaning, but rather some secret pretence amongst them.”—Vlisshing, 24 January, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 110.]
Jan. 24. Sir William Drury to Walsingham.
It has not been my custom to intermeddle with matters of state or government, they being above my reach, yet if love of my country and duty to her Majesty had me to do more than my profession can warrant, I beseech you to think that my sincere affection to these has emboldened me to do what otherwise reason might dissuade me from.
“So, finding here a broken and encumbered state, left under the government of a worthy young noble gentleman whom I find in every respect to do the uttermost of his power, quantum in se est,” both the state and the disposition of the people being best known to your honour, who are mutable and most apt to take any occasion to fall from their best friends. And as it has pleased her Majesty to enter thus far to assist them, “so do I wish, with a simple English heart, for that small acquaintance I have had with the people, whom generally I find more to depend on her than of all the rest; and some knowledge besides of the countries … do wish the rather all good correspondency held with this jealous nation, who be apt enough to become ill neighbours. And seeing it hath pleased her Highness to make choice of this honourable lord for her General here, that he may [be] by your honourable means, the rather upholden and cherished in this his beginning, to encourage him in well-doing, of whom I do verily believe, being honourably supported, thoroughly maintained, and countenanced by and from her Majesty, will prove a worthy nobleman for his country, and a notable subject, for to be employed as she shall hereafter please, not having many fellows of his coat at home, for his learning, wit and valour …; which if in this his beginning should be discomforted, would be a discouragement to such as shall follow in his place.”—The Hague this 24th January, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XX. f. 112.]
Jan. 24./Feb. 3. Captain Guillaume Suderman to Walsingham.
Has been wounded in the hand and so prevented from writing earlier, but wishes to thank him, and ask pardon for not having done so earlier. No need to write of the state of that place, as there are English officers of more experience than himself who can better judge if things go well or ill, and he does not wish to complain of any of the English nation, from whom alone, as their last refuge, they can expect the deliverance of their unhappy country.
(fn. 1) The soldiers of the garrison the day before yesterday brought in [some prisoners] and amongst them the bailly of Cassel. Knows not whether [the enemy] is not already watching before [the town] so must send his letters by way of Zeeland. They hear that the town of Ca[mphere] has ranged itself on the side of the [Earl of Leicester?] and that the Prince of Parma, wishing to go to beseige it, intended, to this [end to bring his fleet into] these quarters, although he spreads the report that it is in order to [attack] England; having had a great part of his munitions and biscuit brought to Dunkirk, [where there are] nineteen companies of Spaniards, and at Bailleu two regiments. The Germans [lie at] Warick and Commynes; the rest, with the Walloons, scattered here and there in the villages about Ypre and elsewhere as far as beyond the river Lys. At Oudenbourch and thereabouts are some ensigns of foot, and the regiment of Sir William Stanley is still at Torhout, about five leagues from this town.
The report runs amongst them that they are all … a country not far from St. Omer, called in Flemish Arckvelt.—Ostend, 3 February, stilo novo.
Postscript. The governor of this town (as I hear) some days ago made prisoners three English soldiers of this garrison; one having expressly by instigation of Sir William Stanley fled from his regiment and come hither, in order to practice some service in favour of the Prince of Parma, and won over the two others, one of Captain Thos. Knollys' company and the other of Captain Lambert's.
Moreover it is bruited that certain ambassadors and deputies are to come to this town from England, of whom your honour is to be one, to treat of peace with those of the King of Spain, but we give small credence to this, seeing that the news has not certainly come to us from Zeeland or elsewhere but only from the said governor of this town who says he has had letters from the Lord Treasurer of England by way of Oudenbourch.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 1 p., closely written. [Holland XX. f. 114.]
Jan. 25. Henry Kyllygrew to Burghley.
Concerning the deputation from the States General to the Council of State on the 23rd instant; the extremities to which the States are reduced; the mutinies at Gertruidenberg and Huisden etc. [to the same effect as in his letter of the 23rd to Walsingham].
Also on the mission of the Chancellor and Valck to Utrecht; the settlement between the Count Mœurs and that town; the bringing of “flat-bottoms” to Sluys, the launching of the “huge ship” at Antwerp, and Killigrew's earnest desire to be recalled, and recommendation of Gilpin to fill his place [as in his letter to Walsingham, below].
Signed. Add. Endd. pp. [Ibid. f. 116.]
Jan. 25. Henry Kyllygrew to Walsingham.
In my last of the 23rd, which is stayed for want of wind, I wrote of the mutinies at ‘Getruidenbergh’ and Huisden, “and that I feared Sonoy's companies at Medenblick would follow the same course; which since I hear is come to pass; wherein these men have obtained their purpose, who to that end, as I suppose, they might raise his soldiers to an uproar and mutiny, made stay of their payment. They were eager and violent against him … and were purposed to summon him, and in case he refused to appear, then to proceed against him as a rebel and traitor.” I did my utmost to impeach that course but seeing them throughly bent therein, delivered them a note “drawn out as part of the instructions given unto me,” to move them to a milder course; the copy whereof I send enclosed, beseeching you, if any question shall arise thereon to defend me, “as a thing whereunto I was driven, in regard of his Excellency's honour and reputation.” How they will appease these mutinies, I do not see, for they have not moneys to content the soldiers; and to raise an extraordinary taxation on the already over-burdened people would be dangerous.
The order they have taken with their men of war, you will see by what I have sent you, but what means they have to maintain the war, and bear out their show of courage, I cannot learn; “for surely they are bare and needy, which maketh them to shift off all payments, and to take exceptions, as I perceive they do daily, against all things not directly done according to the letter of the treaty.” Therefore the treasurer and mustermaster should discharge their offices as it requires, which they complain has not been done, for by the treaty, neither payments should be made nor musters passed without their privity.
The Chancellor of Gueldres and Mr. Valke are gone to appease matters at Utrecht, and establish Count Meurs in his government, but in the mean time, the Count and they are agreed, and both endeavour to prevent the devices of those of Holland.
Eight soldiers of Lochem, going out for booty, have slain the drossart of Linghen, “a man of great authority and wealth in those parts and a deadly enemy to the cause,” and also took four fair horses and money; “yet is there so small regard made of this garrison, which lieth most commodiously to annoy the enemy, as they are like shortly to perish for famine.” Also I am informed by the captain of Dort castle beside Deventer, that York, while hawking and hunting, was laid for by a squadron of his men, and wounded in the thigh.
We hear that part of the enemy's forces are gone towards Bonn, against Sir Martin Schenk, and that, on Flanders side, they have brought 150 flat bottoms to Sluce. The huge vessel built at Antwerp has been launched, but found unserviceable for the river and so carried again into the dock.
And now I am to crave your honour's aid for myself, that the Council being dissolved, I may be discharged, and “at last look homewards.” I am a suspected man, and to avoid my knowledge, they commonly speak in their own language, which I cannot understand; but if you will procure Mr. Gilpin to supply my place, “I doubt not he will discharge the service both painfully and sufficiently. He knoweth the country and manners of the people, it is able to deal with them in their own language; … and having now a long time practised himself in the office of secretary, he is acquainted with their whole proceedings; besides that some less entertainment will content him than it pleaseth her Majesty to give me.” I have craved his Excellency's help, and pray your honour to further it with all good means you may.—The Haghe, 25 January, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XX. f. 118.]
Enclosing:
Mr. Killigrew's motion for Col. Sonoy.

Sends them, as they yesterday desired, set down in writing, the article of her Majesty's Instructions, signed on June 21 last, ordering him what to say in the matter of the Sieur de Sonoy; and prays them so to treat with him that her Majesty may be satisfied with their proceedings.
Underwritten:
Copy of the Article above-mentioned.
They have wished to force some of the governors of towns, whom they know to be well-affected to her Majesty's service and to the Earl of Leicester, to renew their patents, and when they would not agree thereto, have sought to deprive them of their governments; although they were men of good judgment and patriots, and there was no just occasion for taking away their governments; in which indeed they would have confirmed them, had they consented to renew their patents and take oath to obey them [the States General]. Moreover they would also have exacted a new oath from all the captains and men of war in pay of the States, although they had already taken it, both to the said States and to the Earl of Leicester, in the name of her Majesty; showing clearly (although the government was established under the authority of the said Earl, all the placards in his absence being to that day published in his name) that they desire unworthily to deprive his Excellency of his government.
Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XX. f. 120.]
Jan. 25. “Motions upon the later Instructions” to the commissioners.
“Pleaseth it your lordship, the draft of the Instructions is as full and as plainly expressed as possibly may be.
It may please you to give direction “whether it be not convenient to send to the States of Holland and Zeeland with speed to know whether they will have a cessation of arms during the treaty, even if they did not enter into it, as they have had in former treaties.
If the matter come to Articles of conclusion, whether her Majesty should enter into “the same terms of Articles for Portugal that are specified in the former treaties, generally made for Portugal as one of the King's dominions or name it by name; because at that time Portugal was not under the King of Spain, and so not concluded in the former treaties.” Or whether articles should be devised for Portugal alone.
Have long been of opinion, as a scholar, that the treaty Arctioris amicitice extends to free traffic in the West Indies (then in the dominion of the Emperor) as well as to Antwerp or Seville, because the Emperor writes himself lord of that country, and in that quality, gives full liberty to the English to traffic per terram, mare et aquas dulces through all his dominions as freely as the Queen gives them liberty to traffic in Ireland.
Mr. Controller wishes to show his reasons “why her Majesty should rather be contented to have Inducias than cessation of arms for herself and her dominions; both to set her people on work and to maintain traffic,” believing that the people cannot well endure without them, and that it is likely the better to draw on a peace. And indeed truces have many times been concluded, sometimes for ten years or more, when peace could not be concluded; “because princes may better endure for their honour to forbear for a time than wholly to conclude themselves by a peace.
“Mr. Controller thinketh there is a difference to be made touching the point of restitutions, between those things that have been taken or arrested, and those things which were due by the King to her Majesty's subjects before the arrests by contract as mere debt for cordage, tackling and such like.
In Croft's hand. Request for a copy of these motions.
Endd. with date by Burghley. 3 pp. [Flanders II. f. 11.]
Jan. 26. Dr. Junius de Junius to Walsingham.
The shortness of time prevents my writing to you so fully as to the Earl of Leicester. I have been rejoiced to hear of Ambassador Rogers' good health and success of the negotiation with the King of Denmark, but on the other hand, very sorry that for lack of commission from her Majesty, he could not be joined with those whom the said King is sending to the Princes of the Empire; especially in the preparing the way for an affair of so much importance as that of which you spoke to me so seriously at our last conference, to which I will cordially lend a helping hand on my return into Germany, seeing that nineteen years ago I was employed in the matter, both in England and at Erfurt (‘Erford’) in Germany. Now as Mr. Rogers is endowed with a rare zeal for the good and repose of the Christian republic, and is known to and liked by the aforesaid Princes; I hope her Majesty will have as little regard to the fact that he is newly married, and that he has laboured much in this embassy to Denmark, as Duke Casimir has had in this my legation to her Majesty of my old age, to whom repose would be as fitting as it is to Mr. Rogers to embrace and kiss his bride. In short, in the present time of need there is no excuse either for old age or for youth; nor even for monarch or prince, not to employ themselves against those who have conspired against God and his Christ, our lord and Saviour, and have resolved never to desist until they have rooted out his churches and the pure invocation of his most holy name.
I hope also that so far from what has happened in France as to the Reiters discouraging her Majesty, she will on the contrary take so much the more heroic courage, with a firm determination not to abandon the King of Navarre in his great need, or the churches of Christ, of which she is rightly called the foster-mother, as also of those of the Low Countries.
I pray you, in these matters, to employ the great credit and authority which God has given you with her Majesty, and for which she has so rightly honoured you.—Delft, 26 January, 1588, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. as 26 Jan., 1587.
pp. [Holland XX. f. 125.]
Jan. 26./Feb. 5. Act of the States General—That for the conservation and defence of the United Provinces and maintenance of the Treaty with her Majesty, they shall be governed by the Council of State which, with the governor-general of her Majesty's forces and the two Counsellors of the English nation shall use the power and authority given them by her said treaty, till by common advice it be ordained otherwise.—The Hage, 5 February, 1588. (fn. 2)
Endd. by L. Tomson “Copy of the States' Act for confirmation of the Council. 1 p. [Holland XX. f. 127.]
Jan. 26. “Offer for the furnishing of apparel for the soldiers in the Low Countries.“
It may seem necessary to his honour that her Majesty's forces in the Low Countries should be paid and maintained, and yet the money kept within the realm.
Their chief needs are victual and apparel. The one has hitherto been supplied by weekly lendings; the other by credit taken from the merchants, who may be induced to take so much treasure by way of exchange as will furnish the weekly imprests, amounting to about 60,000l.
The captains have often been compelled to take up cloth etc. at extreme prices but if it may please the lords of the Council to appoint certain men to furnish the soldiers with apparel and furniture, the said parties will be content to take 30,000l., after the same rate that the Merchant Adventurers do,—whereof they will pay the Treasurer of Wars in ready money 10,000l., the rest to be employed in cloth and other things, to be delivered to the soldiers at much reasonable prices as their lordships shall determine. Whereby the writer assures his honour “that in lieu of trumpery and deceitful things” which the captains take up from the merchants, they shall have true cloth and other things and yet save a tenth part in the price. The consideration whereof moved the King of Spain's officers in the Low Countries to appoint certain skilful merchants to provide all things necessary; as Jaques Scot to furnish cloth, and Jerome Scorsa silks, linens etc.
Whereby also some benefit may grow to the English people, by making of apparel, which now mostly goes to strangers, “who do it much more unhandsomely” and yet at more charge.
Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. f. 129.]
Jan. 27. Henry Kyllygrew to Walsingham.
In my former I told you of the request of the States General to the Council of Estate to continue their office for a time, and what answer was returned. The States have since then by this Act (whereof I send you a copy enclosed) confirmed their authority to them again. I think it is only to gain time till they hear out of England, and so accordingly dispose of their Estate, wherein, as I can conjecture by their dealings, they would willingly shut out his Excellency, as their cold mention of him in this Act doth somewhat discover their meaning. The Counsellors are yet in doubt whether to accept this confirmation or no, unless they may have the managing of the money, whereby to content and satisfy men, and may be acquainted according to what instructions they are to bear themselves in the office. The States are now in hand with the entertainment of the higher officers, to reduce it to a proportion agreeable with their contributions.
“The Counts Maurice and Hohenlo never came into the Council of Estate since his Excellency's departure, save only when the state of war (whereof in my last I sent your honour a copy) was resolved on and established.
“By this enclosed, containing the oath taken by the now elected King of Poland, your honour may perceive how straightly they have bound him to their privileges.”—The Haghe, 27 January, '88.
Postscript. Upon my motion for them to stay their precipitate proceedings against Colonel Sonoy, “they have written earnestly to their commissioners as [sic] to touch me that I had overreached my commission.” Pray signify so much to his Excellency and remind him to undertake my defence; also may it please you to afford me your favour in the same. You see how they are ever against those they know to be affectionate to his Excellency, “in which respect I perceive myself not to be the best welcome among them … and therefore as matters stand at this time, no man more unfit to deal with them, nor less able to further her Majesty's service among them; for because I do not shrink to tell them that for his Excellency's sake they deal sharply with his well-willers, they conceive displeasure against me.”
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XX. f. 131.]
Jan. 28. Thomas Brune to Burghley.
It has pleased Sir William Russell to confer with me concerning the victuals to be laid up in this town for three months, sufficient to feed twelve companies of 150 men. Also whether this provision were to be made in England or in these parts, and in what place. My opinion is that bread corn, cheese, butter and fish are to be had here “better cheap,” and will be kept with less loss. So that it may be done with avoiding of much loss and waste, and the risks at sea will be shunned. But salt beef and malt or barley (instead of malt) may be provided in England, where they are better cheap than here, although, all things considered, the evil dealing that may be used, and the waste by sending out more than will serve the turn, it may be got here “as good cheap within a very small difference.”
I dare undertake to make the provision and lay it up at Flushing upon ten days warning, if I may have commission and means to do it withal; and will “keep the said proportion or store, from three months time to three months without any loss to her Majesty, and yet be bound to deliver the same to the soldier … at as reasonable a price as he shall be able to but it with his penny at the burgers' hands.” And of all if committed to my charge, I will render good accounts and full satisfaction, as I am likewise ready to do of the 2000l. which I received of Sir Thomas Sherley, and bestowed in victuals laid up in Bergen and Ostend; issuing them forth and receiving bills from the captains which amounted to the full sum of the said 2000l. besides wastes, for which I demand no allowance.
The governor willed me to certify to your honour “both where this provision were to be made and where it is best to be had to serve in this place, wherein I trust I have hereby satisfied your honour.”
I pray your preferement herein, and the rather as I have done her Majesty already the like service and been at great charges for the making of brewhouse, bakehouse, and other large rooms to hold victuals for 200 men for a year.
Besides, I have on my own credit relieved the garrisons in Bergen, Ostend and other places, when they lacked victuals, credit and money; “whereby I have forborne my money long time and yet do, for above 5000l., to my very great hindrance and much discredit; of which 5000l., the States owe me 2000l. for victuals delivered unto English companies (upon commandment) in their pay,” for which they have promised to give me bills of captains in her Majesty's pay, who they say were “like wise” victualled by their officers. If they do this, I trust to find payment out of the captains' entertainments at the Treasurer's hands, wherein I crave your honour's favour and aid.—Myddelbroughe, 28 January, 1587.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holland XX. f. 133.]
Jan. 28. The same, to Walsingham.
To the like effect.
Signed. Add. Endd. “From Bruyn.” 1½ pp. [Ibid. f. 141.]
Jan. 28. Edmond Bannaster to Walsingham.
“Since my last letter, we sent out a party of soldiers from Bergen, and by surprise they took the town of Neuehoven in Flanders, not far from ‘Gent’; and brought all the principal burgesses prisoners, and sacked the best part of the town.
On the 20th we intercepted letters which gave us to understand that the Prince of Parma is presently to depart into Italy, because his father is dead;—but other letters specify that the only cause is that he will not treat of peace with her Majesty—and that in his place the Count Charles (fn. 3) shall command.
Last summer I wrote to ask you to help my wife to 30l., and you wrote that you had given order for the same; “but your honour was abused therein, for my wife never had it; so that she was driven to lay all her plate and jewels to pawn; which hath lain ever since,” as we never received any pay. I humbly desire you to be so good as to give orders to the bearer for 50l. to redeem them, and so soon as any treasure comes over, I will repay it.—Bergen-op-Zom, 28 January, 1587.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 135.]
Jan. 28. Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council.
On the 27th instant he received their letters, appointing him “to have care for the disposing of the treasure for weekly lendings to the best advancement of her Majesty's service.” Before its coming, he had so determined to order it as it might have served for a longer time than he doubts it will; but it no sooner arrived than the treasurer's man (by what authority he knows not) disposed of it without his consent, or even making him privy thereto. At first hearing thereof, he sent letters to the governors of Ostend and Berghes to keep the money in their hands “and deliver it weekly to the captains, taking notice of the soldiers' complaints, if their lendings should be any way abridged,” and to charge the officers to see that the soldiers did not consume it at play, or other bad uses. But he has heard since that they have had their month's lendings beforehand, and if so, there will be but a little left within very few days, and their necessities will be as great as ever.—The Haghe, 28 January, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XX. f. 137.]
Jan. 28. William Browne to his master, Sir Fras. Walsingham.
Asks approval for his marriage in those parts, to a Frenchwoman of small substance, and no great lineage, being forced to it by constraint of commanding accidents.—Flushing, 28 January, 1588.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 139.]
Jan. 29. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
Again informs his lordship that some time ago he was given to understand by the company of merchants in Middelbourg that the prest moneys for the garrison of this town, as well as of others would fail before any more was sent from England. In which strait he applied to the magistrates of the town, praying them (in case the prests should be delayed by the wind or any other case) to assist him with their aid until the money should arrive. Whereupon, the burgomaster, Jacques Gelee said that he had some money in England which he would willingly have employed in this matter, if it could be brought hither under his [Russell's] name. This he granted, seeing it was for the service of her Majesty's garrison, and the burgomaster wrote to a servant of his in England to send him 200 angelots, addressed to the governor.
But it chances that this money has been taken by the captains of her Majesty's ships, believing it to be good prize, who have delivered it to the Admiral.
As it is not well to use such harshness to friends who wish to lend their aid, and he knows how much power his lordship has in such a matter, he prays him to lend a helping hand, to the end that the said burgomaster may obtain restitution of his 200 angelots, and not suffer so great a loss for his good offices to her Majesty instead of gratitude and recompense.—Vlisching, 29 January, 1588, stil ancien, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 2 pp. [Ibid. f. 143.]
Jan. 29. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
To the same effect as the preceding.
Signed. Add. Endd. French.pp. [Ibid. XX. f. 145.]
Jan. 29. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
In favour of the bearer, Mr. Fulford, his lieutenant, “a very honest, forwardly man, and desirous to follow the wars.”—Vlisshing, 29 January, 1587.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland XX. f. 147.]
Jan. 29. G. de Prounincq to Walsingham.
I hope that the little news I have been able to send since his Excellency's departure has been communicated to you. Truly, our estate is very poor and miserable. We do our utmost to maintain our garrisons in the service of God, devotion to her Majesty and obedience to his Excellency.
At Medenblicq, where Colonel Sonoy commands, the chief magistrates, through the practices of the Estates, have done the contrary, but thank God in vain, for the mutiny they plotted has failed. At Worcum and Heusden all is in arms, and as we hear, the garrisons will acknowledge none save her Majesty, and his Excellency as her Lieutenant-General. The garrisons of Naerden stand fast upon the assurance we give them. But there is not a seigneur here who supports them. They look to us alone; yet all want to fall upon us, either by false rumours and lies (a useful anchor), by threats (weapon of the clumsy) or by pretences of a friendly composition (cunning, the most to be feared).
They have curtailed Lord WiUoughby's powers, even over the English, by resolution of the Council of State; which already confesses by its ordinances, bearing the name and title of his Excellency, that to his Excellency Count Maurice (for thus they write) as governor general of Holland, Zeeland and Frize, it belongs, from ancient times, to provide for the garrisons of his government. This same Council moreover desires within ten or twelve days, to dissolve, as at the end of its term.
Imagine then, my lord, what that lord may do, without any other command, either for those of Naerden, Heusden, Medenblicq or others. Notwithstanding this, I have represented to M. de Wilfort, a gentleman sent to me by the Lord Willoughby, that those of Naerden having had orders from his Excellency to admit no other garrison save by ordinance from himself as Governor General, my lord must not abandon them in their need, as I hope he will not. Moreover they again bring into play a certain Instruction of her Majesty which they boast of having discovered, charging his Excellency to bring about the parley for peace whether they will or no, if there is no other way. But God is punishing them with what they had prepared for his Excellency, at the very time when they had made ready their forces against us, and those of Medenblicq and Nerden.
Now, the States of Holland have made three complaints against us to the States General, viz.: of the sovereignty offered by us to her Majesty; the separation of the government of Utrecht from that of Holland, and the wrong done to certain individuals of the Estates in this city (concerning which the Chancellor of Gueldres and Counsellor Falcq are here for an adjustment. As we discover that they have only some private charge on the third point, the ground of the misunderstandings proceeding from the general quarrels relating to Holland, I tell them that a good surgeon cures the most dangerous wounds by cleaning them out thoroughly. If then they have but a superficial charge on the third point, we shall take care not to be piped to sleep; but if they have orders to purge it to the bottom, we are prepared to endure it rather than hinder the cure. Otherwise, I bethink myself of their ordinary practice, of which his Excellency has thrice made proof, viz.: that they count upon publishing the agreements made or to be made in order to appease the mutinous people or those ready to mutiny. Your lordship will understand with half a word what prejudice our simplicity would cause to those who remain constant and loyal. However, we keep our people in heart and promise them aid from her Majesty and his Excellency, and if this fails us after all the words, letters and assurances they have given us, behold us denounced as wicked, fated to be for ever miserable, and these poor men piteously deceived. Wherefore I beseech you, as holding after his Excellency the first place of honour, to take to heart the cause of these poor, unhappy ones and to favour me with so happy a response that neither I nor those who put their trust in her Majesty and his Excellency may build upon a quick-sand. I look for your honour's kind reply to this, which you will not omit to impart to his Excellency.—Utrecht, 29 January, 1588, stilo antiquo.
Postscript. I pray to be humbly commended to my lord High Treasurer, the Admiral, Baron North and General Norreys.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. of small, close writing. [Holland XX. f. 149.]
Jan. 29. Extracts of letters written out of the Low Countries.
M. Valcke, 13 Jan., 1587.—Acknowledging himself greatly beholding “to me” and hoping that I will still continue my favour to those afflicted countries, notwithstanding the troubles raging there, which he hopes time will dissolve.
The Elector of Cologne, 22 Jan., 1587.—“Hath great cause to rejoice for the recovery of his town of Bonne, for the defence whereof he shall greatly need the help of his good friends, and therefore prayeth to be assisted therein by her Majesty's means. Hath committed the declaring of his request in this behalf to Mr. Rogers, to whose report he referreth me.”
The Count Newenar, 23 Jan., 1587. (fn. 4)
M. Deventer, 29 Jan., 1587. (fn. 5)
In the handwriting of Walsingham's clerk. Endd.January 1587.” 2 pp. [Ibid. f. 109 b.]
Jan. 29./Feb. 8. The Burgomasters etc. of Flushing to Burghley.
As the payment of the garrisons of Flushing, Ostend and Bergen is sometimes retarded by contrary winds, preventing the coming of the money from England, and in order to keep all things in good order, Sir William Russell desired them to aid him with a sum of money in the meantime. They did not wish to fail in doing their duty so far as the small power God has given them will allow, and the Sieur Jacques Gellee, chief burgomaster, offered the governor to send for some money which he had in London, provided it might come in his [the governor's] name; to which Sir W. Russell agreed; whereupon Gellee wrote to his servant then in London to give into the hands of a ship's master named Christopher “Davensson,” an Englishman, two small packets containing two hundred [angels] English, marked with Gellee's mark, as given in the margin of this, and stated to be for the account of Sir William Russel, governor of Flushing. Which ship being near Margate (Marigat) there came on board Captain Wart, captain of her Majesty's ship named Tremontan; who being now in this town tells them that he delivered the packet to the Admiral. Humbly pray his lordship to aid the said Gellee to obtain restitution of his money.
Moreover, one of their burghers named Cornelle Leynssen Leest, master of the Robin of Flushing, who has made a voyage to Brazil, and on his return was taken at sea by some English ships and carried into Plymouth (Pleymuen) on the west coast, humbly prays his lordship to have the said ship and goods set at liberty, seeing that they belong to the said Leest and his partners, all burghers of this city of Flushing, and humble subjects of her Majesty.—Flissingues, 8 February, 1588.
Signed, A Villarts. Add. Endd. French.pp. [Holland XXI. f. 72.]
Jan. 30. The English Commissioners to Andrea de Loo.
Immediately upon the arrival of Henry Pyne, gent, her Majesty ordered us to put ourselves in a readiness to pass the seas and repair unto Ostend, there to proceed in the treaty of peace with the King of Spain's commissioners, chosen and deputed by the Duke of Parma; for the accomplishment whereof we prepare ourselves with as much speed as we may, and hope to be at Dover the 11th of this month [sic] and there to embark for Ostend. We would have you make this known to the Duke, that he may take order for the repair of his commissioners against the same time, either to Bruges or Newport, that there be no time lost after our arrival at Ostend. And if this town be found unfit for the treaty, we may then advise among ourselves of some more convenient place for our further proceeding.
“And for that you have showed you a good instrument in the furtherance of this treaty, as a man devoted to her Majesty and to this realm, we are to pray you to make your repair to Ostend so as you may be there at the time of our arrival, for that we would confer with you about many particularities that may concern the advancement of the said treaty.
Draft, in the handwriting of Walsingham's clerk, and endorsed by him with above date. Corrected by Walsingham and the last paragraph added by him. 1 p. [Flanders II. f. 15.]
Jan. 31./Feb. 10. Jacques Gellee, burgomaster of Flushing, to Walsingham.
When last in London he received so much kindness from his honour, that he feels sure he will not fail to help him. [Concerning the 200 angels taken from him, as above.]
Prays him to speak to the Lord Treasurer and the Admiral that he may have the money restored; to whom also the governor has sent by Mr. Ortel. Moreover Mr. “Habart,” the ambassador there, has promised to do all he can.—Flushing, 10 February, 1588.
Add. Endd. French. 2 pp. [Holland XXI. f. 94.]
Jan. Paper headed “Means to entertain certain extraordinary officers without increase of her Majesty's charges,” but being merely a note of pay to certain such officers.
Add.pp. [Ibid. f. 155.]
Jan. “A note of the debt owing to divers persons of the Low Countries,” from Oct., 1586, to Oct., 1587; giving amounts due, to be paid and to remain; probably mostly for victuals etc. furnished, as Joice Anderson, baker, and Anthony Barte, victualler, both of Flushing, are amongst the creditors. The only entry, otherwise than to individuals, is to the Burgers of Brill, to whom was due 248l. odd, of which half was to be paid.
Endd. with date. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 157.]
Jan. “Estat de la guerre.” Those who as occasion requires may be drawn from their garrisons and employed on exploits in the field.
Troops in the quarters of the Veluwe, Zutphen, Overyssel, Friesland, Utrecht, Holland and West Frise, Zeeland; towns and forts in Brabant and Flanders, and towns and places in Gueldres.
Total numbers 21,850. Of these, taken 5150 [rectius 5450]. Horsemen, 2050.
Endd. French. 5 pp. [Ibid. f. 159.]
Copy of the above, in Flemish.
Endd. “February, 1588.” 5½ pp. [Ibid. f. 163.]
Jan. “The conditions of a peace to be made for the Low Countries.”
Oblivion for all offences, injuries, crimes etc. and generally everything done by reason of the wars, changes and tumults.
Ratification of the treaty of Ghent, 8 November, 1566.
Acceptance of all that was done and negotiated by the Archduke Mathias, the late Duke of Anjou, the Council of State and the Estates.
Ratification of all rights, privileges and ancient customs.
Withdrawal of all foreigners not to return, unless for foreign war or the needs of the Low Countries, acknowledged and approved by the States General.
After which, all the foreign soldiers in the service of the United Provinces shall withdraw; and the garrison shall be natives of the Low Countries, upon advice of the States General.
Release of prisoners on both sides without ransom unless otherwise agreed before this peace.
Release of Philippe-Guillaume of Nassau, son of the late Prince of Orange, within three months.
That in all the provinces of the Low Countries only the Catholic Roman religion be observed, save that in the provinces of Gueldres, Holland, Zeeland, Frize, Utrecht, and the towns and places of Brabant and Flanders, being united, there shall remain the free and sole exercise of the Reformed Religion as at present: but that throughout the Low Countries, all shall live in liberty of conscience.
All inquisition, search, torture or criminal execution for matters of religion shall cease.
The restitution of all estates, rents, moveable goods etc., if sold or alienated since the Pacification of Ghent; to apply to Burgundy, Luxembourg, Holland, Zeeland and other places where the Pacification of Ghent did not take effect.
Provided that in the provinces, towns etc. where there is exercise of the Reformed Religion, the disposition and administration of eccleiastical goods shall remain as now.
All natives of the Low Countries may freely return thither, on condition of taking oath of fidelity to the King, their country; the Estates General and those of the province to which they return; and of observing all the articles of this peace; all of whom shall be comprised in this treaty and enjoy all the articles thereof, whether they return or dwell in other countries.
And by virtue of the general oblivion, they shall be discharged of all debts, actions etc. which might be demanded by reason of “quotisations et tauxes,” although they be withdrawn from the countries.
And all goods, jewels etc. withheld from the inhabitants and soldiers of Sluys, contrary to the agreement made with them, shall be fully restored.
All governors, councillors, officers or magistrates in the provinces and places where the Reformed Religion is freely exercised shall be of the same, and as their places become vacant, others of the same religion shall be substituted.
The King shall not appoint any Governor-General to the Low Countries for three years after the publication of this treaty, except one agreeable to the Estates of the said countries.
The Governor-General, governors, chiefs and captains of towns, castles and forts; presidents, councellors, officers and justiciaries shall be natives of the said countries; from which posts shall nowise be excluded those who have taken the side of the Estates and make profession of the Reformed Religion; all to take solemn oath to maintain and cause to be maintained and observed this present treaty, and to swear, if they see any who prejudice the same, to advertise the Estates thereof, on pain of being held guilty of perjury.
The Queen of England shall for certain years keep the Briell, Flissingues, Castle of Rammekins, Bergen op Zoom and Ostend as security for this treaty.
The King declares and gives licence by this treaty, that if he or his successors infringe this treaty, the Queen of England, the Kings of Denmark and Navarre and the Reformed Churches of France, together with the states and towns of these countries and their adherents, may, after due warning, oppose themselves thereto by force of arms, without being held to be rebels; all of whom shall also be comprised in this treaty, and shall swear to observe the same.
The provinces of Burgundy and Luxembourg shall also approve the treaty, swearing to permit no passage through their countries to stranger men of war, in order to make or continue civil war in the Low Countries.
And this present treaty shall be solemnly published and authentically registered and kept in all the provinces, parliaments, provincial councils, chambers of accounts and chief towns of the said provinces.
Endorsed by Walsingham's clerk. French. 6 pp. [Holland XX. f. 151.]
“Instructions by her Majesty given to the right honourable Henry, Earl of Derby, and William, Lord Cobham; Sir James Croftes; Sir Amice Pawlett; Dr. Dale; commissioners for her Majesty authorised to treat of a peace betwixt her Majesty and the King of Spain.”
Having been informed by her Majesty of “the occasion offered to her from the Duke of Parma in the name of the King of Spain to give ear to some treaty of peace; and how also the King of Denmark hath used means [to all parties] to move such a peace; and has agreed to send an ambassador on his part to the place of meeting, there needs no repetition of the same; but for instructions in matters of more substance she would have you observe—so far as conveniently you may, these things following; not binding you in every particular for order, place or time, but that observing her Majesty's meaning, you may use your discretion in the ordering thereof” as shall, with regard of her honour tend most speedily … to the conclusion of a good and sound peace.
After you are come near to the Commissioners for Spain you shall inform them where you are. (fn. 6)
And if it appears to you that their commission is not sufficient to bind the King to the treaty, you shall require it to be amended; but shall not wait therefor. (fn. 6)
And when you be come together, you shall briefly declare to them that the overture for this treaty came from the Duke of Parma, and has been delayed, not from lack of the same disposition in her Majesty, but by the continual preparations for war in Spain and the Low Countries, making her diffident of the King's intentions, and moving her not to neglect preparations for her defence, and to send new forces to the seas. And you may add hereto that the great increase of force brought from Italy, Germany etc. into those countries by the Duke has occasioned her Majesty to make no small preparations by sea both towards Flanders and Spain; besides putting in readiness the forces in her own realm; not being ignorant of the boasting, both in Spain and the Low Countries against her realm.
Wherefore she thinks it convenient that the causes for these diffidences shall cease, and that both they and you should proceed without delay to the treating and concluding thereof …
It should, by way of preface be considered how a cessation of arms might be accorded, whereof they may truly say “that such speech was used to Andreas do Loo by M. Champigny and the President Ricardott, now there present with you.”
As regards which cessation, though the Duke and her Majesty should agree to it, for the Narrow Seas and the Low Countries, yet, unless the King of Spain's forces etc. be stayed from coming by sea towards her countries, she must maintain her forces on the seas towards Spain; therefore unless the Duke have warrant to assure the same he should with all speed get assurance and promise therefrom for her from that King; for until she has good proof thereof by his withdrawing his navy, she cannot tell what hers may do.
If it is to be general, the cessation of arms must be agreed to by the States of the Low Countries, for if not it is doubtful how it may be beneficial to her party in her two cautionary towns, and in Berghen and Ostend, or any other places where her forces have commandment. But if you find that the Commissioners make any great difficulty about this, … then she can be content that the town of Ostend only be comprehended.
And if, by advice of her Majesty's Governor and General there, with assent of those who have charge of her two cautionary towns you shall find it profitable to all parties, (as there is no probable argument but that it shall be), you shall then proceed thereto, covenanting for it to continue either during the time of your treaty or for a month or more, with a clause for it to continue longer, as shall afterwards by you be accorded.
As to the substance of the negotiations, after the cessation of arms be duly concluded, you shall declare to the Commissioners how necessary it is to avoid all delays in this colloquy, the purpose whereof is, to make an end of the war, and stablish a good peace; and that therefore it be considered without offence or unkindness on either side as to the occasions of the breach of the good peace that was between her Majesty and the King of Spain, and how the like occasions may not be renewed; so that there would follow a stablishing of the treaties and conventions made in former times betwixt their Majesties' fathers, King Henry the VIIIth and the Emperor Charles; “which being now confirmed by both their Majesties, should be a happy direction to them both to live in princely love and bring a great blessing and happiness to their countries and people.
And if this be allowed of, you shall proceed to make a short recital of what may be thought to have been the greatest causes of the breaches of this amity, and of the free intercourse and traffic between the two peoples, and the evil accidents that have followed thereupon; praying them not to interpret this rectial as meant for any sort of expostulation, but only to show the grounds of former unkindnesses, and advise how to avoid them hereafter; and adding thereto that you will only note some few very notorious points that cannot be denied. (fn. 7)
“And if the Commissioners shall seek to interrupt this … and shall contrariwise say that the Queen's Majesty's proceedings hath been more injurious to the King of Spain than his towards her; you shall then say, if they think it meet to enter into the particular discourse thereof—which you thought better to be forborne, both for sparing of time and to avoid contention—that [you] must needs follow enough yourselves in defence of both your sovereigns than you will yield thereto; protesting that it is against your will to stir up old quarrels if they should not provoke you; and thereupon, if so you shall be provoked, that you have a collection made ready for you in writing, containing very particularly a great number of unkind and unfriendly actions of the King of Spain and his ministers; with a note also of her Majesty's friendly parts and actions to have stayed the King from such injuries.
And so you shall by that writing, which is not inserted here because of the length, inform yourselves; and declaring of the same make it manifest that the King of Spain and his ministers gave the first occasions of the breach of the ancient amity, and how also her Majesty did many times seek means to have the same reformed; and whatsoever she hath otherwise done, hath been only for her own defence. But if you shall not be provoked to enter into this course … then you shall continue the other … by recital only of the three points which follow.”
Draft, with some insertions, and many corrections in Burghley's hand. 26 pp. [Flanders II. f. 19.]
Certain notes upon the Instructions; being passages for insertion at the places indicated in the preceding document. 3½ pp. (fn. 8) [Ibid. f. 39.]
Further directions, in Burghley's hand. (fn. 9)
Endd. “Instructions, imperfect.” In Burghley's own hand, closely written, with many additional insertions. 6 pp. [Ibid. f. 44.]
Jan. “Certain doubts to be resolved on, for the meetings of the Commissioners.”
If the Commissioners on the other side refuse to repair each time to Ostend, but are content to come thither and ours to go to Oldenbourg, Newport or ‘Bridges’ alternis vicibus?—
What fit place for a meeting is there in Ostend without danger to the town by practice of some of the Spanish train.
Whether it shall not be good to limit the number to attend upon the Commissioners, there being five of them, to fifteen or twenty and to yield to the like on our side; as otherwise they will only treat in the towns of their possession.
What is meet to be done if the States will not assent to the treaty, or send any to give their reasons for it. Whether our commissioners shall propound to those of the King such things as have been—at Breda, Gaunt, Brussels and Colleyn—demanded for their sureties.
And in the rehearsal of these, as the grant of freedom of religion seems to give most surety for those professing the same, whether the reason for it shall not be earnestly prosecuted by our commissioners as the foundation of the surety of the people.
In the treaty for renewing the ancient leagues, there is an article that neither party shall receive rebels or fugitives.
It will be meet to show how many such are maintained by the King and his ministers, in Spain, Italy and the Low Countries. ”And of them to make these differences”; that some have been in open rebellion in England, and condemned by the laws; others have fled, upon their conspiracies discovered, and they also condemned. Some others, upon colour of religion have departed the realm, and yet join in conspiracies with the open rebels.
“Of all these it is requisite that the execution of the article be observed, on both sides, and upon the conclusion of the Peace, that proclamation may be made” in both countries. “There are some others that being fled for colour of religion, and do not percase join in conspiracies, but do only live privately in the profession of their religion. For these it were to be considered, in respect that many of the King of Spain's subjects, being no rebels nor conspirators, but live here only for freedom of religion; whether it may not be provided that a toleration may be made mutually of such, to continue in quiet sort, so as they shall yearly make their oath is public sort that they never mean to join themselves to any rebels or conspirators, against their natural prince and country. And that they do acknowledge their princes respectively to be the lawful sovereigns of their countries. And so it may appear that her Majesty hath no mind to constrain men's consciences … so as they will acknowledge their duties to her Majesty as their sovereign, and not to conspire or practise any thing to the trouble of their native country.
In Burghley's hand. Dated in endorsement “Jan. 1587.” 3 pp. [Flanders II. f. 17.]
Jan. “Substance of the Memorials delivered unto M. Ortel by the Council of State. Jan., 1587. Postilled by Mr. Secretary.”
1. “That the imprests made weekly of 20l. for a footband and 25l. for a horseband, being so small as can hardly relieve the soldiers, he should move her Majesty and the lords that it may be enlarged to 30l. for a footband and so answerable for the horsemen, for that the Captains for the most part reap the benefit of the latter payments.
[Margin.] “That her Majesty will take such order therein as shall appertain.
2. “That the soldiers of Bergen and Ostend have, for want of pay, consumed the magazines of victuals of the provinces in those places. They desire her Majesty would furnish them with so much again in specie, for that their means will not supply it, and yet most necessary that the frontier towns should not be unfurnished.
[Margin.] “Answered before in the postiles to the States Memorial.
3. “That her Majesty would also continue the like pay unto all her men, so as they may not be burdenous to the country.
[Margin.] “That such order shall be taken therein as they shall have no cause to complain.
4. “That the captains and governors of towns may be commanded to forbear in any sort to intermeddle with the policy or matters of private government, or in the matters of navigation, for that the country is thereby endamaged.
[Margin.] “Order shall be given accordingly.
5. That the captains and soldiers may duly pay the impositions and ‘accises’; and to order themselves according to the provision in the treaty.
[Margin.] “The dearth increaseth so in that country, as without some extraordinary favour that way the soldier shall not be able to live of his entertainment.
6. “That no part of the general assistance be placed in the cautionary towns, and that the garrisons there be reduced to a competent number.
[Margin.] “That when the necessities of the service shall require that they may be otherwise employed, there shall be order given for the disposing of them accordingly.
7. “That the pays to be made to her Majesty's ordinary assistance may be made with the privity of their officers, according to the contract, and as by the apostiles upon the treasurer's, Mr. Hurleston's, account may appear.
[Margin.] “There shall be order given to the effect required.
8. That no ship of war may be set forth out of those countries, nor limited to pass into or out of the parts of Holland and Zeeland, but such only as shall be licensed by the Admiral General and those of the Admiralty, for that these late setting forth to seas have proved very prejudicial to these Countries.
[Margin.] “The Governors of the Cautionary towns and others of her Majesty's subjects serving there shall be ordered not to set out any ships but with the privity of the Admiralty there.”
Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXI. f. 141.]
[Jan.] Another copy of the above.
Endd. “Points of the Memorial … Jan. 1587. “For the service there according to the Treaty.” 1¼ pp. [Ibid. f. 143.]
[Jan.] Copy of the Apostiles only.
Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 145.]
[Jan.?] Paper in Walsingham's hand, headed “the Q[ueen]s Memorial.”
“1. The examination of the soldiers.
“2. A letter to be written to Mr. Herbert.
“3. The stay [of] proceeding in the West country.
“4. To consider what course of government is to be held in the Low Countries.
“5. What answer were fit to be made to the captains of Camphyre and to Snoye.
“6. An instrument for the discharge of the Lord Steward's government, and by whom it shall be delivered.
What course to be held in the treaty of peace.
“1. A peace with Spain to the contentment of her Majesty and the States.
“2. A peace without the States, between Spain and her Majesty.
“3. Or else her Majesty to continue her assistance to the States.
“Whether the commissioners go before answer from Mr. Herbert.
“The disposition of the King of Spain towards her Majesty in respect of religion.
“The offences done to the King of Spain. Send force Hol. Inde. Attempt Callis [Cadiz].
“Whether there be change in the King's disposition sithence the first entry into the action.
“Whether not perilous that Fryseland should disjoin from Holland.
“How the Queen able to continue the warrants if no peace can be made.
“Whether write to the States: 1 Hasten answer; 2 Resignation Governor; 3 Setting out ships.
Endd. Undated. 2 pp. [Holland XX. f. 167.]
[Jan.] “Substance of the Memorials of the States of Zeeland.
“That the country may be freed from paying the service money to any further number in the garrisons of Flushing than the 600 in the contract; and for any larger number, the charges to be borne by her Majesty.
[Apostile in margin.] “Referred for answer to the several points of this memorial to the Apostiles made to the memorials of the States General and Council of State.”
2. “That no part of the ordinary assistance may be put in garrisons in the cautionary towns.
3. “That the Mr. Governor of Flushing and Mr. Captain [of] Ramekins [do not] any way intermeddle with the matters of civil policy, by giving of passports, safeguards, forbidding and allowing licences, which is very prejudicial to the whole province and to that town in particular.
4. “That due payment may be made for men in Berghen and Ostend, who only for want thereof have seized upon their magazines and unprofitably consumed them; which would have sufficed to have found the town against the forces of the enemy many months.
5. “That her Majesty would procure that the numbers agreed of in the Treaty may be complete, and duly mustered and paid; for that otherwise, they will be more burdenous than any way helpful to the country.”
Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXI. f. 147.]

Footnotes

1 From this point the letter is injured by damp, and the words in brackets are conjectured.
2 The Dutch text printed in Japikse: Resolutien der Staten Generaal, Vol. vi., p. 214.
3 Count Charles Mansfeld, son of the old Count, Peter Ernest, and one of Parma's chief generals.
4 At page 28 above.
5 At page 38 above.
6 Place marked for insertion.
7 Place marked for insertion.
8 Printed Hist. MSS. Comm., Salisbury MSS., Vol. iii., pp. 305–6.
9 These are identical with Articles 14 to 20 of the Instructions to the Commissioners, printed in Part III of this Volume, pp. 478–80.