April 1588, 26-30


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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: April 1588, 26-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4: January-June 1588 (1931), pp. 326-346. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76117 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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April 1588, 26–30

April 26. H. Killigrew to Burghley.
[Sending by Sir William Reed.]
I would to God her Majesty had more such. He hath here carried himself like himself. I would our younger sort would follow his pattern; we have captains of horse and footbands the which would be amended. The most part of our officers be in England … a thing to be amended, for by that means their men be ill-used and their bands weak, which will be found when they come to service; and my Lord Wyllughby hath now but one man to assist him for martial matters, the sergeant major, Mr. Willford; a thing to be thought of as occasion may serve; to which end only I write this.
“I know not by what means this man hath obtained leave of my lord to go over. It was his importunate suit, but never by my advice. He was to do good service at Berghes, where now Sir William Drury is placed. If you can spare Sir Thomas Morgan or Sir John Payton, my lord, if any service be, we shall have need of them.
“By the King of Denmark's death, which is here holden true, it is feared the Spanish shall have there a great party. The King is young, his chancellor Spanish, and Ranse is led that way, having 200,000 dollars in the burse at Antwerp.
“The King of Navarre's ambassador is well received here, both of the Count Maurice and those of Holland. A bruit there hath gone [about] during his being here that the French King should be dead, which hath not impaired his good usage among them. Taxis, a man of good account, was slain about Bon. The Duke of Parma hath cause to be sorry …
“Now for the state of this country. Since my lord of Leicester's resignation came, and there was appearance our commissioners should do no great good for the peace, these men have changed their copy. Now very obsequious to her Majesty … as your lordship will perceive by my lord Wyllughby's letters. The ships demanded they have agreed and more; the 1000 mariners also; but yet have they not resolved to send [any] to join with her Majesty's commissioners….” All the deputies are now here. They will take order for establishing the Council of State and other matters, and I think mean to advance Count Maurice, who now agrees very well with Lord Wyllughby, who so carries himself that he has credit with them all; “for such they like of, both to governor and assist [but so] as they may rule and not stand in awe of, as they did of my lord of Leicester, without cause. All their mutinies are compounded saving that in Gertruydenberg, which is the most; whither they employ my lord … to use her Majesty's credit and their own purse for the saving of that place, which might have been done sooner, if they had believed.
“What hath been done for the uniting of the provinces I refer to my lord's letters and to some report you shall have shortly by Stephen [le] Sieur. I find most difficulty in them of ‘Utrech,’ which must be reclaimed and I trust will, in time. In all these divisions since the taking of ‘Sluce,’ it is a wonder to see how God hath blinded the Duke of Parma; and now he shall be far from that he might apparently have won almost for nothing.
“The Count Morice goeth into Zeeland, where there will be some dealings for Camphire and Armue; the soldiers whereof are well paid by them of Zeeland … I mean to go thither how soon I may possibly, and to make some allotment between the Count and Sir William Russell, which I hope I shall do by Vyllers' help, who hath, upon Mr. Walsingham's letters, done of late very good offices.
“The Count of Hohenlo, by the mutinies of Huesden and Gertruydenbergh is fallen into great discredit with the States and I am secretly informed they will be rid of him. He is unlucky in all he taketh in hand, of great expenses and no secrecy. The Count himself, as I am told, would be quit of him, and now there is a constant speech that he goeth to Hamburgh to a meeting there of certain princes. Some other think it is to treat for a marriage for Count Maurice with one of the daughters of Denmark. He hath given away his horses to the number of twenty, and hath received of the States towards his journey 12,000 guilderns. Upon my lord of Leicester's resignation there hath been much quarrelling upon the acceptation thereof by them of Holland, Zeland and Frysland, the rest being absent, and the proclamation published thereupon, wherein those of Utrech showed them[selves] most grieved; but all this in hope that by his favour, her Majesty will have been persuaded to send more supply to defend their provinces; being most in danger of the enemy, and less able to defend themselves.
[Appeals again for ‘Guilpin.’] He was secretary, but in the new establishment I think he shall be left out … My lord Wyllughbye will advertise how necessary his service is.—From the Hague, 26 April, '88.
Add. Endd. 6 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 140.]
April 26. The Queen to Sir Thomas Shirley.
Warrant to pay Martin Blavoet an annuity of 3s. a day for his faithful good services, to begin from the Feast of the Nativity last past, and to continue during her pleasure.—Manor of Greenwich, April 26, 1588.
Copy. ½ p. [Holland XXIII. f. 144.]
April 26./May 6. Count Maurice to the Queen.
Some months ago he informed her Majesty that he had as prisoner one who said he was of the house of the Colonnas; and as he received no reply, he has kept him in custody until now; when Baron de Willughby has thought good to put him into the hands of Mr. Reede, to be taken into England. Has agreed to this, trusting that it will be for her service, which in all ways that he can, he desires to further.—The Hague, 6 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 146.]
April 26. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
Has nothing to tell his honour saving … “what fear and disquietude this action of peace bringeth amongst these people; as also unkindly and sorrowfully they generally of those towns which relied themselves upon her Majesty's service do like her Majesty's rejection of them into the Estates' hands. The town and captains of Camphere in like manner grow into great despair, not knowing how to dispose of themselves … seeing that the people find themselves to be at a desperate extremity; and for that also, for want of pay, our soldiers become discontented more and more.” Beseeches his honour to hasten away pay and all other necessary supplies, as he has so often importuned him, otherwise he fears it will befall to her Majesty's hurt and his own dishonour; he greatly wishing he were in some other place.
Recommends the bearer, Lieut. Christmas, for his painful service and sufficiency.—Vlisshing, 26 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 148.]
April 26. Sir James Croft to Burghley.
Has sent enclosed a letter to her Majesty touching Morris's negotiation, and given him instructions for some things to be made known to his lordship.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588, stilo anglico.
Add. Endd.
¼ p. [Flanders III. f. 213.]
April 26. Dr. Dale to Burghley.
I humbly thank your lordship for your letters of the 22nd inst. “If each side and every man on each side do collimari ad unum scopum, there maybe good done”; but we can do nothing without conference. If the place of Bergen up Zome had been held, as you proposed (at Richmond) things would have been well onward. “And so I would be bold to write to the Queen herself … if I were not one to be directed and not to give advice. The other expedient I wrote of in my last letters by Morris; that the Duke would send one to her Majesty to satisfy her, could not but do much good. For the two points your lordship writeth of, the question is resolved in Tullie: omne quod honestum est, idem etiam est utile. The last, for the assurance, I gather out of Virgile: longo fracti ac fessi bello dirum execrant bellum. Whereby they will be glad to live in quiet, and will be always desirous to seek her Majesty's favours, peradventure more than they be now.”
You may remember that we did not accept the Duke's commission, but received it only upon his promise of confirmation, and urged Garnier to confess it was inepta.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1⅓ pp. [Flanders III. f. 215.]
April 26. Dr. Dale to Walsingham.
We did not in any wise accept the commission from the duke but insisted that it must come from the king himself; and received their copy only upon promise to have it made sufficient according to our instructions. The words in the commission (ayant mesmes a ces fins presté … raisonables et honestes) are to be referred to his other capitulations made before this time, which he confesses to have been moved by himself. To this treaty he saith indifferently estants proposes devers moyens etc. so that the honour is of her Majesty's side … and they deal not well with her to stand so nicely upon every point, as though they were not desirous of peace, whatsoever they say. If they do not pass us more in dissimulation and finesse of devices and practices in actions than they shall in conference or treaty, I trust in God her Maj. shall have both honour and profit; but you remember what Philippe Comines saith: qui a le profit en cas de traitè a aussi l'honneur.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. f. 224.]
April 26. Lord Cobham to Burghley.
The present stay of our action consisteth in the point of the place of our meeting, which is to be either under the commandment of the King of Spain or in her Majesty's possession. The places under the King's commandment named are Antwerp, Ghent, Borborow, St. Omers, Wynokes Bergen, Bruges; all which places draw with them hostages, commission and cessation of arms. We do not believe the Duke will accord hostages, therefore do not prosecute the other two points in that division. If the place be in possession of her Majesty, those hitherto specified are Ostend and Bergen op Zoom. To the former the Duke will not be induced to go, but Bergen they have accepted; “whereby the point of hostages is excluded remaining only those of commission and cessation of arms.” What they have answered thereunto, the letters that Morris had this morning doth show. Grayner confessed that their commission was inempta (sic); being urged that they were to have a commission immediate from the King of Spain, for that her Majesty was a prince sovereign, as in our former letters it doth appear. Our oversight was that we followed that direction that we had in our Instructions. True it is that we received her Highness' letter on the 14th or 15th, dated the 13th which was the day of our meeting at Malingbeke, which since we have followed. We heartily pray that we may be revoked, “for I fear me that the Duke is too much bent otherwise; for at this present he is greatly occupied in preparation for some enterprises.” The pinnaces for lack of victual are returned, and we nearly destitute of any shipping—I will not say of victuals.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. by Burghley. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 219.]
April 26. Lord Derby to Walsingham.
By her Majesty's comfortable letters I perceive her good acceptation of my service. “The comfort I received by her extraordinary care … did so overpress me as I could not abstain from watering my plants a good time. How well I am sped of so dear a friend as yourself … I know well. I have escaped my fits these five days, and find myself in good state, but much better since the coming of this bearer….” Touching Mr. Deane of Rochester, the complaint made of him was altogether untrue, for since coming, fourteen days ago, he has not offered to stir.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588.
Postscript in his own hand. I entreat you to deliver my enclosed letters to her Majesty with my humble service; and in your next, to let me know of her acceptation of them. Again I am to thank you for your honourable favours to my son Strange.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 223.]
April 26. The Same to Burghley.
To the same effect, without the last paragraph and postscript.
Signed. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 217.]
April 27. Lord Cobham to Walsingham.
I acknowledge that her Majesty's acceptation [of our proceedings] proceeds by your friendship and favour. “As I was afore my coming, so have I always been since my being here [convinced] that our actions will be but vain; therefore the sooner her Majesty doth resolve to call us hence [the sooner] she shall be eased of her great charge, and we relieved.”
As she willed us to insist on hostages for our surety, so I hope that shall remain as a token and show to all the world of her care and favour towards us. For my own part, I will not willingly put myself into their hands, to shorten my days and overthrow my houses. His safe-conduct is of no validity, as President Rychardotto plainly said; and withal I pray forget not that nulla fides servanda hereticis; and how this holy league doth combine themselves. At Graynier last being here, there was some speeches of the King of Spain's death. Hereupon Richardotto showed letters signed with the King's hand to Morris. “If the King and the Duke were not of the Holy League, … I could persuade me that the King, in respect of his years, and having a son young and weak, would content himself with that he hath, and leave it in peace; but he is so linked and combined with the Holy Father, who payeth here 12,000; that (except God help) these United provinces will be an easy prey … Have regard to Scotland, for they give out that there is a ‘rebellern’ of a great faction stirred up. The Duke has been these two days at Slusse, hastening his preparations to the sea.” The two pinnaces you appointed to be here are gone to be victualled. I pray you take order for their return.—Ostend, 26 April, 1588.
Postscript. It would do good that the ships appointed to keep the narrow seas should sometimes look on this coast.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 221.]
April 27. Lord Wyllughby to the Lords of the Council.
“I have been informed of some order of your lordships, that to ease her Majesty's charge, there should be eight men drawn from every company of 150, besides the dead pays. Whereof I could do no less but advertise [you], because it would fall out very offensive to the States, when the companies (especially at this time of the year, which requires them most strong) upon any service or muster shall appear so weak, and want so many besides, hurt, sick and absent. And those of this country, not best affected, would easily take occasion thereby to object breach of the treaty in wanting of that number accorded them in aid by her Majesty. And yet, in regard what small gains her Highness should reap thereby … it will breed more dislike to the country and more discontent to our soldiers than were now requisite; the season calling all men on, rather to encourage their minds to service.
“Likewise, the care of her Majesty's service and the performance of my duty, besides daily complaints from the States, constraineth me most earnestly to beseech your lordships to take some present order that either such captains as have their companies here be commanded to return unto their charges … or else that your lordships will appoint their companies to some other, who will be more careful. Here are sundry gentlemen of worth (who are known valiant) and have long remained here, unadvanced to companies: as Sir William Read, the bearer; the serjeant-major, whom I find careful in the service, Capt. Price (especially commended hither by her Majesty) and divers others that deserve favour and preferment.”
Has already recommended Mr. Gilpin to their favour, whose case is worse than before, for the new Council of State has cashiered him, and put one of this nation in his place as secretary. [Gives his special qualifications for the post, as in a former letter.] Is convinced that in regard of his sufficiency and modest carriage, no man were fitter for an assistant in Council, to ease Mr. Killigrew; who is aged and very subject to sickness. If he cannot be in her Majesty's service, he must depart, having but small means to live; which would be a great maim to the actions here.— Dort, 27 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 150.]
April 27. [Walsingham] to Sir William Russell.
I have received four several letters, wherein amongst other things you desire that Mr. Killigrew may deal with the States for payment of the garrisons of Camphere and Armue, and that they might be continued in their charges; “wherein Mr. Killigrew hath dealt very effectually with them for so much as belongeth to their payment; who have given him this answer: that they have no property nor dealing in the payment of any the garrisons of Zeeland, but doth particularly belong to the States of Zeeland … so as he hath sent his proposition in that behalf unto those of that province by Mr. Telinke, one of the counsellors of Estate there … and [hath] signified also thus much unto you that you might concur with him in soliciting them there; which I think meet you did, in case the captains make complaint, for which however I hope the new Estates will give them no cause; as they may evidently perceive that her Majesty never had any intention to draw the towns out of their hands; but only to preserve them from falling into desperate courses. But if you find that the Estates mean either to keep them without pay or to remove them from those places, you may assure them that her Majesty will not abandon them. “Yet you may advise the captains to consider … what infinite charges her Majesty is many ways cast into … by embracing the protection of those countries, so as it will hardly come to pass for her to be further charged,” and urge them to persuade the garrisons “to rest contented with such good means as she will work to procure them payment and good usage at the States' hands.”
I am glad to find how easily so good number of mariners may be procured from thence, but we find that now we shall not have so great need of them but that our shipping may be sufficiently furnished with our own people here at home; so as you may forbear to proceed any farther for their levy till you receive farther direction; for it is not meant that any captains or sea officers should be employed here; whose entertainment (as by a rate sent over) riseth very high, but only mariners, who should be dispensed amongst our men, some ten or twelve in a ship … I have dealt effectually with her Majesty for the satisfaction of the garrison there who seemeth now to be contented to make them a full pay till the 12th of October last, and an imprest of apparel upon their new entertainment; so as they shall have no cause to find themselves further prived.” Six of her ships are to repair thither with all speed, and order is given for their victualling; 2000l. being already given as imprest to one Cox, a merchant, for the victualling of that town and Ostend; who has undertaken to see them furnished with wholesome victuals at so cheap a rate as shall be to the great relief of the garrisons there. For the match and lead which you desire, her Majesty's provisions at home are so spent that she must make a fresh supply”; and says those stuffs can best be provided there, and that the soldier is to pay for it out of his entertainment, as it were.”—The court at Greenwich, 27 April, 1588.
Postscript. Since writing the above, we have had other letters from Mr. Killigrew, saying that he means to go himself into Zeeland, “at which time you shall do well to join with him to deal with the States there for devising such good means as you may, both for the contentment and payment of the garrison and the continuance of them in their places.”
Copy.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 152.]
April 27. The Commissioners to the Privy Council.
After writing our last, of the 25th, we received your lordships' of the 22nd, containing her Majesty's pleasure touching the cessation, commission, and the hostages. We have advertised you how far we have proceeded and of the answer from the Duke. Now, as he maketh difficulty to grant cessation for more than ten days, and that with such provisions as are contained in Morris's report, enclosed therein; that he liketh not of Bruges as our place of residence, nor will give any hostages for our assurance: it may please you to move her Majesty that we may know what we have to do in these cases. And touching the form of cessation to be agreed upon, for restraining the garrisons of each part from annoying each other; or how we shall move the Duke to promise that during the time of the treaty and twenty days (or some other reasonable time after) nothing shall be attempted against the towns in her Majesty's possession; or how we shall let him or his commissioners understand that she is willing that the treaty shall proceed provisionally, if within some reasonable time he will procure and show to us “from the King immediately, under his hand and great seal, either a sufficient commission to himself to depute commissioners, or else to the commissioners by him deputed or any other to be hereafter nominated by the said Duke to treat and conclude all matters depending between her Majesty and the said King for all their dominions, according to her Majesty's pleasure delivered unto us….
“We know not how to come to any conclusion, for that we have not any meeting together, nor any means of conference to treat or conclude therein, before we can have some place to meet in….”—Ostend, 27 April, 1588.
Signed by all the commissioners. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 226.]
Draft of the above.
Endd. June, 1588, M. to the E. of Derby (sic). 6 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 189.]
Probably sent with the above.
Since writing their letters of yesterday, Mr. Controller is this day (of his own voluntary will) gone to the Duke of Parma.—Ostend, 27 April, 1588.
Signed by all but Croft. Add. Endd.p. [Flanders III. f. 228.]
April 28. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
Although there now seems more likelihood of the enemy's going to other places than coming into this island, the States have sent down into this river a hundred sail which lie here daily, and mean presently to send great forces into this island. And as these people, by some evil persuasions, are generally discontented with the peace; “giving forth, if it take effect, they will by no means consent thereunto,” I suspect that “their shipping and forces are rather sent to make some hurly-burly amongst us in this town” than to defend it from the enemy. Wherefore … I beseech your lordship to send away some store of victuals hither out of hand … and to hasten over their pay, lest, when need shall require, we shall not be assured of them …” —Vlisshing, 28 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 153.]
April 28. “Collection of such delays as have been used by the Duke of Parma; whereby the treaty hath received hindrance.”
Endd. with date. 2 pp. [Flanders III. f. 230.]
April 29. The Earl of Derby to Burghley.
Mr. Controller being with the Duke at Bruges (where he has been very honourably entreated) has this evening sent a gentleman of mine (whom I appointed to attend him) with a message containing the sum of his conferences with the Duke, which I send enclosed “even as the party himself … set it down; resting, for mine own particular, no less ready than willing to put in present execution what service soever on her Majesty's behalf, you shall require at my hands….”—Ostend, 29 April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. ½ p. [Ibid. f. 232.]
“Upon Mr. Controller's private conference with the Duke at three several times, and afterwards with every of his commissioners severally, yesterday and this day in the afternoon, he willed me to signify unto your lordship:—
“That after he had made relation unto the Duke and his commissioners of her Majesty's sincere meaning and gracious inclination to peace; whereof although both the Duke and his commissioners already seemed to be well persuaded, yet both he and they took therein so great liking as their several answers were, that her Majesty should be satisfied in whatsoever she would reasonably demand; so as Mr. Controller conceiveth great hope of happy success to ensue; and for further audience, he was commanded to attend this afternoon. Concerning the place for treaty and cessation of arms, he willed me to signify that he would labour to have the treaty to be at Bruges, as a place most convenient for both parties; but if it were not so thought by the Duke, he would not stand precisely therein. And for cessation of arms, that the Duke was contented to continue the same for certain days, and so from time to time as occasion should serve.”
½ p. [Flanders III. f. 236.]
April 29. Sir Edward Norreys to Walsingham.
Fearing again to miss the assembly of their nobility and captains, has asked the Governor's leave to go with Ms. Controller to Bruges; hopes he will approve, especially as may hear somewhat which may serve perhaps more for her Majesty's service than this peaceable zeal of Mr. Controller's … and would not go but by the allowance of the Lords. Thanks him for the letter by Mr. Burnham; hopes to increase his good opinion….—Ostend, 29 April, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 155.]
April 29. The Queen to Lord Willughby. (fn. 1)
“Finding by your late letters to our Council with what care and diligence you have travailed in such matters as were by our own letters given you in charge; as namely for the compounding of the difference between the Count Maurice and Col. Sonoy about the town of Medemblick and the renewing of his commission; for drawing the States General to take a settled course for the government of the provinces united upon the dissolving of the Council of Estate, and for the appeasing of the mutinies of certain towns; as Narden and Gertrudenbergh, against the said States; and that for the first … your travail hath had very good success greatly to our honour and contentment. And for that we understand that the Count Maurice showed himself very conformable therein, we think meet you let him know how thankfully we accept thereof.
“And for the second … you had also, by your industry and well handling of the matter, drawn the States General to assemble to consult about the erecting of a Council of Estate, and that the particular Estates of Frizeland and Utrecht, by the persuasion of one sent by you unto them for that purpose, were content to concur with the other provinces of Holland and Zeeland therein; being before, as we have been informed, inclined to have made a breach from the rest … And lastly that for the appeasing of the said mutinies of the towns of Naerden and Gertrudenbergh, you were repaired to Dort, meaning there to enter into treaty with the said towns, to reduce them to conformity with the general States: the good success of your labours in these special matters falling out greatly to our contentment, we have thought good to testify unto you by our own letters for you comfort, the good liking we have thereof. And whereas we perceive by other letters of yours to our Council, that upon a motion made by you unto the States by virtue of our letters directed unto you for the pressing of said States to see the towns of Ostend and Bergen op Zoom furnished with victuals, munition, and all other manner of necessaries fit to withstand a siege, or else to resume them into their own hands: that you are of opinion that the said States will be glad to accept of the said offer: we are therefore to let you understand that we could be very well content to perform the same, so as the said towns might be by them sufficiently furnished with men, munition and victual; whereby they may be able to withstand the danger they presently are subject unto; the enemy being so strong and so near unto them; whereby it is greatly to be doubted (in case the present treaty for peace do not take place) the enemy will employ his forces against one of the said two towns. And therefore if the said States can make it probable unto you that they will provide those places of sufficient defence when our garrisons shall be drawn out of the said towns; we can then be content to deliver them into their hands again; wherein we desire to know with all convenient speed their answer.
But in case you shall find that they shall not be able so to furnish the said towns as may carry probability of sufficient defence, then shall you press them out of hand to see the said towns furnished of munitions and victuals; especially the town of Ostend with munition.
(fn. 2) “Which if they shall refuse to do, as it is likely they will (being ready always to cast any charge upon us, without any regard had how many ways we stand charged for their safety) you shall let them plainly know that we will abandon the said towns rather than we will hazard the loss of them to our dishonour for lack of necessary supply of their present wants. And if they shall upon this protestation either refuse or delay the furnishing of the said wants, and shall allege that they shall not be able to furnish the said towns with sufficient numbers of soldiers, unless some of the bands now serving in the said towns shall be left there; you shall then on our behalf make offer unto them to have any of the said bands that by them shall be thought meet placed in the said towns, so as you shall see order taken beforehand by them for the furnishing of the magazines with victuals and ammunition as appertains.
“And whereas we have been also informed that you have removed Sir William Read, knight, from the government of Bergen-op-Zoom, and placed therein Sir William Drury, we cannot but let you understand how greatly we do mislike thereof, considering that yourselves have often signified unto us the doubt you had that the enemy meant to attempt the said town; as in all likelihood it is so to be thought, in respect he hath of late, as you write, drawn down some of his forces that way; as also of the great annoyance which the country thereabouts receiveth by the garrison of the said town; which might have given you cause to place the sufficientest person and best experienced captains we have, there, to take charge of that place now in this time of danger, than a gent. of so small continuence and experience in martial matters as Drury is; (fn. 3) whom otherwise we do favour. (fn. 3)
“And therefore we do look that hereafter, in the disposing of the governments of towns of like importance, you shall make us privy to the choice of the persons before you establish them in their government.
(fn. 4) “And as touching the Count Morryce sending over of Colonna, the Italian prisoner, we refer you herein to such direction as you shall receive from the secretary.” (fn. 4)
Endd. 1588, 29 April. 3 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 157.]
A fair copy of the above without the clause “whom otherwise we do favour.”
Endd. with date 3 May, 1588. 2¼ pp. [Ibid. f. 179.]
April 29. Guillaume Suderman to Walsingham.
Sending by Mr. Peyn to ask his favour to obtain 60l. which he understands the Treasurer at war has orders to pay to each captain of this garrison, by way of prest, which has for the most part of them been already done. He sent for it to Zeeland where the substitute of the Treasurer named Kinnel, dwelling at Middelburg, replied that he could not oblige in this matter without express order from his master, Sir Thos. Shirley, now in England.—Ostend, 29 April, 1588, style of England.
Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 159.]
April 30. Thomas, Lord Burgh to Burghley.
“Common report hath brought unto me that it is endeavoured to compass for her Majesty's assurance the island of Walcheren, and that the town of Brill should be again surrendered and new conditions accordingly undertaken with the States. I am not advertised hereof by any certain hand, but being generally spread; so is it brought to my ears … Give me leave to say, as I may well prove, the original hereof is in no sort profitable to her Majesty, for the town of Brill possesseth in commandment an island of as much commodity as Walcheren. It standeth to as much purpose for the use of the river of Mose as any town in that other island doth for any passage where any ships or hoys have trade. Only Flushing itself hath a more certain haven; but Brill is sufficient and navigable for any vessel and is much frequented. Then, as I take it, the special consideration of her Majesty's assurance … consisteth in the seat of the place; not only as the islands be rich, but how they stand to enjoin the States (if they would stray from her Majesty's pleasures) to be answerable unto her; to which the town of Brill hath good means of service; for no ships or freights … can follow this traffic if her Majesty shall be disposed by this place to impeach them, being that they must pass within musket shot of the town and forts; and there cannot be a more surety for her Majesty to contain the States in a good course than that she hath this power over them. To have more towns in Walcheren availeth nothing, for Flushing hath alone what good may be to this purpose by the rest; for the channels of the rest have no vent; besides, they be many towns and must have several garrisons … and to have footing in that island, Flushing alone yieldeth sufficient commodity….
“I have of late desired to know the depth of the haven, and how her Majesty's ships might come in. At every ordinary flood, the channel will bear a ship which draweth 18 foot water, and at a spring tide, two and twenty …”
The channel is not very straight, … but there be many good pilots in England that can take the right course. There is a deeper haven comes in on the backside of the island, and a very safe entrance … I shall inform your lordship, as occasion is offered, of good services many ways by the commodity of this town, to the knowledge of which I will endeavour my studies …—Brill, 30 April,
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 161.]
April 30. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
Takes this opportunity to remember his duty to his lordship by the bearer, Sir William Reade, who is going over with one taken by the States, who, so far as he can gather, is not of that quality or account that he is reputed to be; for he is reported to be a Marquis. Has had some conversation with him, and he seems to be acquainted with weighty matters, but believes this is dissimulation and that he is sent by the enemy for some other purpose….—Vlisshing, last of April, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 163.]
[April 30.] Sir James Croft to Burghley.
“The articles by me propounded (the copy whereof your lordship doth receive in this packet, are accepted and allowed by the Duke as things more largely to be considered of at our coming together. And so in that sort sent into Spain, for testimonial whereof, M. Champagny was commanded by the Duke to certify so much by his letters to your lordship, and that in the hearing of me, Andreas de Loo and my servant, John Crosse. Which Andreas de Loo was present at the writing hereof also.”
Endd. by Burghley's clerk: “Mr. Comptroller. Touching his 12 articles.” 7 lines. [Flanders I. f. 390.]
April 30. “Articles which Sir James Croft hath thought good to propound to the Duke of Parma.
1. A sight of his Highness commission from the King.
2. Cessation of arms.
3. Consideration of ancient treaties with the House of Burgundy, and their posterity restored to their former estate, together with all other territories under the government of the Duke of Parma, including Holland and Zeeland, or at least such as will enjoy the benefit of the treaty.
4. That the ancient amity and correspondence for mutual traffic etc. be restored, with a special article for Portugal.
5. How her Majesty's subjects, travelling into the king's dominions should be used, as to religion.
6. Perpetual oblivion on both sides, of all things done in the past within the king's dominions.
7. A perfect concurrence to be put in action concerning Holland and Zeeland, by what means to bring them to the obedience of the King of Spain.
8. That the king shall grant pardon of all offences in the Low Countries, with licence for all to return there (“minding to reconcile themselves”) or otherwise to give the charge of their goods to their Catholic friends, and receive the rents and profits thereof. Or to sell and alienate the said goods.
9. For religion, that the king shall grant such toleration for Holland and Zeeland and the rest of the towns and provinces now united, as he may with safe conscience and honour; and not at any time to introduce the Inquisition of Spain.
10. And that upon rendering up of the cautionary towns, her Majesty shall be repaid such moneys as she has disbursed for the States and the keeping of the said towns.
11. For the harm taken by arrests, on one side and the other, consideration shall be had as the causes shall require.
12. For the inclusion of the Walloon provinces in the agreement.
13. The king will attempt nothing against the queen's person and state; and strangers shall depart out of the Low Countries, and that all governors and officers in those countries shall be natives of the same. The States shall be summoned before the terms of the treaty are put in execution, and shall guarantee the treaty to the queen and her successors.
These things being agreed her Majesty will restore to the king all the places which belong to him which are in his power.
Endd.pp. [Flanders III. f. 234.]
April 30. Dr. Valentine Dale to Burghley.
Finds that the dilucidatio arctioris amicitiae was made wholly without commission, upon promise of both sides, by the ambassadors, of ratification. Prays his lordship to see and consider it; and also to send him the copy of the ratification of the dilucidatio, as he has never seen it. Mr. Controller sends him word from Bruges that the duke will send one to the Queen.—Ostend, 30 April, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd ½ p. [Ibid. f. 237.]
April 30. Sir John Conway to Burghley.
“The treaty goeth slowly on, and this town standeth in great danger. We have not six days' victuals and our companies are few and weak. The duke intends with resolution to come upon England, and by the way he assures himself of this place within five days, so as he may have his havens and this town clear for his retreat. Our state and wants are as well known to him as to ourselves. I humbly beseech your lordship be a mean that her Majesty may presently supply us with men and victuals. That being done, I doubt not but to defend … [torn].
“To think upon any present charge to be employed to strengthen it against the enemy or to defend it against the sea is in vain. The time is too short; and upon further consideration after the event of things in hand her Majesty shall have better inducements to resolve the best. Burnam, a gentleman of Mr. Secretary's, was lately here; who took a perfect plot and view of all our present wants and dangers to be foreseen.
“If the duke set down his forces before we have our supply of more companies, we shall not be able to receive aid when we would, nor to hold the place any time against his forces … they will be so strong over ours, and his provisions are so great and apt for the exploit that he will, with his number of sacks filled with earth, the first day dam all our flankers and make easy passage over our ditches, which be more than half filled with sand by the sea already.
“Then resteth nothing but the trial of hearts and hands wherein for number of hands we shall be far too weak, as our present state is, without a good supply all the companies here will not mean little more than half both the towns singly. We may assure ourselves they will come with great force … (fn. 5) against this a few may do their good will … (fn. 5) can be no assurance of a … (fn. 5) relief of victuals and a good supply of munitions]… (fn. 5) Compliments.—Ostend, last of April, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Flanders III. f. 238.]
April 30. The Queen to the Commissioners.
“Having of late seen a report by one Morris of answers received from President Richardot to three points, we find just cause to mislike of all the said answers … and to suspect … that they have not now that forward disposition to proceed in the treaty … as was pretended before the sending over of you, our commissioners; for first, we find it strange, considering the duke referred the choice and naming of the place to us, that Bruges should be now refused; and that there should be some more care had to content our fugitives by denying our request … that they might be ordered not to repair to the said town during the time of the treaty and your abode there; under pretence that they should have cause to resort unto the Pagadores and other officers than in satisfying us in so reasonable a request; as though ‘Gaunt’ or some other place near thereabouts could not have been appointed for that purpose. And therefore we have reason to think that either the said denial proceedeth out of some weightier cause than was alleged, or else do look that the duke should yield unto us in the choice of the said place.
“Secondarily, touching the cessation of arms, we have also cause to mislike of the niceness and difficulty made by the duke therein; in yielding only that the same should be for ten days, and so to be prolonged accordingly as shall be agreed on between the said commissioners; and denying the term by us required to have continuance during the treaty, and twenty days after, which we think reasonable and meet to be by you insisted upon.
“And as touching the Commission, whereas Richardott did avow upon the honour of a counsellor, that the duke … had special commission by letters from the king to enter into this treaty; which letters, he said, contained other causes touching the State and might not therefore be showed, we find it strange that there should be such delay in yielding us satisfaction in that behalf considering how greatly it importeth us in honour to see those sufficiently authorized that should enter into treaty with us upon matters of so great weight … which cannot be determined by any general authority granted to the said duke … nor yet by directions contained in particular letters, a matter well known … to some of the duke's counsellors, who cannot be ignorant that all commissioners employed in treaties are always furnished with commissions under the great seals of the princes by whom they were employed.
And in this behalf, the duke is to consider how greatly it importeth him in honour, both in respect of the assurance given unto us before your going over that he had commission viz: bastantissima as also that by the commission showed at your meeting he avoweth the having sufficient authority from the king to proceed in the treaty, to satisfy us therein, that the same, being not showed, may give us cause either to think that there is no such authority given; which we would be sorry should fall out in respect of the good opinion we have conceived of the duke's sincerity, or that the same is so qualified and limited as we cannot in reason rest satisfied withal.
“For the drawing therefore of this cause to some speedy conclusion, we think it very meet that you should … signify unto the said duke how much we rest unsatisfied … with his manner of dealing; and with the answers lately given by Richardot in his name … and therefore do require at his hands that some one of you may see so much of the said letters as concerneth the authority the duke pretendeth to have to appoint commissioners to proceed in the said treaty. “Whereunto our pleasure is that if he shall yield that, then you, Dr. Dale, shall repair unto him to see so much of the said letter as concerneth the authority given to the duke, and shall require a copy thereof; … signed both by the duke and the commissioners”; and finding the same sufficient, shall let him know that you will repair to Bruges and there proceed in the treaty, so as he shall promise to procure from the king a sufficient commission for ratifying such things as are agreed upon; and shall also yield to cessation of arms, as propounded by former direction from us. And as, by some of their speeches, they would impute to us the delay used since your going over, we would have you deal very roundly both with the duke and the commissioners in discharging our honour in that point.
Postscript. Let not the duke think that we would so long time endure these many frivolous and unkindly dealings but that we desire all the world to know our desire of a kingly peace; and that we will endure no more the like nor any, but will return you from such charge.”
The postscript noted as written [in the original] in her Majesty's own hand.
Copy. Endd. with date.pp. [Flanders III. f. 240.]
Rough draft for the above letter, corrected by Walsingham. 6¼ pp. [Ibid. f. 242.]
April. The Queen to the town of Camphire.
Since our last letter of the 14th of February, we have seen an Instruction which you gave to your deputy together with the articles and requests which, in virtue thereof he has presented to us, from which we have learned how well affected you are to our service, or rather to the service of the Low Countries. And have been the more satisfied, in that we see that your affections from your assurance of our sincere desire to employ our means only for the defence of the said countries, with their privileges and liberties, against the common enemy. But although from the great affairs in our realm, we cannot as yet resolve upon the said articles, yet having learned the great perplexity in which you find yourselves, we desire to assure you of our good affection towards you and that we are resolved to hold you in our protection and service. Exhorting you ever to continue in your virtuous designs and above all to have at heart the welfare, defence and tranquillity of the said countries as we entirely trust you to do; and not to obey any patents save those coming from ourselves, so long as we are in communication with the Estates; holding all good correspondence with Mr. Russell, our governor of Flushing, to whom we have also written to hold the like reciprocity with you. Advertising you that on the earliest opportunity, we will not fail to send you our resolution upon the rest of the articles. —[—] April, 1588.
Copy. French. ½ p. Endd. “Memo of letter from her Majesty to them of Camphire. [Holland XXIII. f. 1.]
Document endorsed by Walsingham's clerk: “April, 1588. Answer on the behalf of Colonel Sonoy to Count Maurice's charge against him.” And by Laurence Tompson: “Matter wherewith the Count of Nassau doth charge Sonoy.”
At the end of the document is a memorandum that this writing is imperfect, and not corresponding to the Flemish, and that much of it is wanting.
Also, after par. 7 is a marginal note that whole pages are wanting, containing the matter to which apostilles 8–10 relate; and after par. 13 a like note, in regard of apostile 14.
French. 11½ pp. [Holland XXII. f. 191.]
Short reply by apostilles to the writing published in Holland against Colonel Sonoy.
Endd. by Tompson: “Sonoy's answer to the Count's charge.” French.pp. [Ibid. f. 197.]
April. “List of horse and foot bands in her Majesty's pay in the Low Countries, April 1588.”
Foot companies.
Utrecht. Lord Willoughby, 250; Captain Champernon, 150.
The Vere. Colonel Morgan, 200.
Flushing. Sir William Russell, 200; Sir Thos. Sherley, 150. Captains Anthony Sherley, Thos. Wingefield, Dennis, Richard Wingefield, Darsie, Hart, Hendar, Littleton, Randall, Browne; each 150.
Ramekins. Capt. Errington, 150.
Brill. The Lord Burgh, 200. Sir John Burrough, Sir Henry Norris, Captains Vavasour, Hull, Brett; each 150.
Ostend. Sir John Conwaie, Sir Edward Norris, Sir Edmond Carie, Sir Charles Blunt, Sir Walter Waller, Captains Thomas Knowlis, Lambert, Hoddie, Sothermen; each 150.
Bergues. The Lord Audleie, Sir John Wingefield, Captains Veare, Bannister, Baskerville, Scott, Salisbury, Anthonie Wingefield, Powell, Udall; each 150.
Total 6400.
Bergues. Lord Willoughbie, 200; Sir William Russell, Captain Parker, 100.
Utrecht. Captains Blunt, Anthonie Shurlie, Thomas Knollis, each 100.
Doesburg. Sir Robert Sidneie, 100.
Amersford. Sir John Burgh, 100.
Rhenen and Wagenen. Captain Bourchier, 100.
Total 1000.
Endd. as in head-line.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 167.]
April. “A note of defalcations made upon Sir Edward Norreys' account.” [Items given in detail.]
Due to Sir Edward, 2208l. 12s. 4d. Sum defalked, 2283l. 14s. 7d. Overpaid, 75l. 2s. 3d. Signed, Edm. Hunt.
2 pp. Endd. as in headline. [Ibid. f. 169.]
[April.] “A memorial upon view of the letters out of the Low Countries.”
“To look what direction Mr. Killigrew had to deal for the payment of those of Camphire, and what directions were given to the Lord Willoughby.
Also “The compounding differences between the States and the frontier towns: The establishing of some good form of government; the joining with her Majesty in the treating of peace; the furnishing of Ostend and Bergen with necessaries or else to deliver the said towns into the States' hands; the soliciting of the setting out of certain ships; the compounding of the differences between Sonoy and the States; and the sending over of mariners.
And “to seek out what direction was given to the Lord Willoughby touching Ostend and Bergen.”
½ p. No endorsement. [Holland XXIII. f. 165.]
“Collection of such directions as have been given to the Lord Willoughby, Sir William Russell and Mr. Killigrew, to deal with the States in certain principal points “in February and March; [all of which will be found in the letters calendared under dates].
Endorsed with note of the said “principal points.
1. “Solicit payment for the garrisons of Camphire and Armuy.
2. “Compound the dissensions between them and certain frontier towns. Compound difference [with] Sonoy.
3. “For the establishing of some good form of government.
4. “To join with her Majesty in the treaty.
5. “For the furnishing of Ostend and Bergues.
6. “For the setting forth of shipping.
7. “For the sending over of mariners.”
3 pp. [Ibid. f. 63.]
[April?] Memorial from Killigrew for Walsingham.
That Lord Buckhurst may be dealt with to send such acts as he had here from the States General; divers things being done in the governor's absence by provision only as when he showed Lord Buckhurst her Majesty's signed instructions for the restoring of the regiment of Zeeland to Sir William Russell, but where, without the Lord Governor's knowledge, they had placed Count Solmes, his lordship answered “that it was but by provision until his Excellency did return, and then the power was in him to place whom he thought good.” Mr. Beale was present, but in some respects he is not fit to solicit the matter with his lordship.
I would gladly have his lordship's assertion, “for that those of Camphere would not be commanded by the Count Solms, but by the Governor of Flushing; which I am of opinion will never be yielded unto by the Council of this province nor by the Count Maurice, so hard an opinion have they as yet of him, although the gentleman be honourable and of good value; yet handling here to end some jars I find thus much. (fn. 6) Not that I can lay any fault to him, but must confess that he doth go most carefully to discharge his great burden. (fn. 6) But no good amity can be made until the matters of Camphere and Armu be fully ended.
“For my part, I think all will yield in the end to the Count Maurice, for besides that the treaty of peace and my lord of Leicester's resignation have wonderfully diminished our credits, the best both of Camphere and Armu flock about the Count Maurice and rely on him. Therefore advise you whether it be not better to deal with the head, who, as Viliers saith, you may have and all with him, or with the monster of many heads, than which nothing is more wavering.” To turn the horsemen into foot, as you have directed, will be hard and long adoing, and I believe neither Camphere nor Armu will receive our nation to be overmatched by them. This case is out of the treaty, and I pray that I may be no dealer therein “for I can do no good service, and would be loth to be an instrument of evil. [Added in his own hand] Newhaven makes me to say this much.”
For my proposal to have them join with our commissioners in the treaty, they still delay, but keep one in hope that I shall be shortly satisfied, whereby you may see “how hardly they will be brought to agree to any speech of peace, as the way to their utter ruin…. Let them therefore hold out against their enemies (as they term them) so long as they will. In the mean time we shall have leisure to bethink us what is best for us to do. I can neither accuse the Count nor the States since your later course came to my Lord Willughbie; but that they have used all correspondence … but when there is any likely rumour of peace, then begin they to swerve from us and suspect us; as though we would leave them, and deliver our cautionary towns into the enemy's hands….
“For the point above mentioned I leave it to your consideration of what importance it is that the Count Maurice, governor of Holland and Zeeland, should be at variance with the governor of her Majesty's principal cautionary town.
“We are advertised here that, in Lorraine, the house of Guise and their allies have celebrated the funerals of the Queen of Scots with great solemnity, and afterwards, at a banquet, have protested they will seek revenge; which consideration, joined with their taking of “Base Bullen” I leave to your honour.
[I pray] “that in this treaty of peace, those of Deventer, who are in misery for our sakes, may be remembered to my Lords Commissioners with some favourable recommendation from her Majesty; especially those which are exiled out of the town.”
Signed. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 171.]
April. [? Walsingham] to A.B.
Her Majesty being given to understand by A. B. and others that you would be glad to employ your credit with the Catholic king in compounding the late differences between her and him, she hath willed me to render you her most hearty thanks and to let you understand that hearing of your present repair into Spain where some apt opportunity may be offered to advance the present treaty between her commissioners and certain deputed by the Duke of Parma, you cannot better further that work than by removing from the king a distrust he hath conceived of her sincerity, which she imputeth not so much to the king's own disposition … as to the passions of his servants … grounded upon ambition…. If the king had admitted Mr. Waad … he might have yielded him satisfaction touching the false and malicious informations given against her Majesty and there had not fallen out that unkindness that hath since happened.
But as things past cannot be called back and the compounding of the differences between their Majesties importeth all Europe, it should be a work worthy of a man of your wisdom and reputation … It will stand principally upon two points (1) removing the diffidence between the said princes; (2) in disposing the king to yield to such articles as the necessity of the time requireth, having regard to the decayed state of his body and the young years of his son, and not to stand upon such points as have made all former treaties fruitless … but knowing you to be well acquainted with the state of Europe … I refer the well handling of the matter to your dexterity and wisdom. And although I know that I am reputed a principal nourisher of the discord between their Majesties, yet I pray you assure yourself that no counsellor the queen hath doth more desire a peace than myself, so far forth as may stand with her Majesty's honour and justice.
4 pp. Endd. April, 1588. M. of a letter to A.B. sent from Florence into Spain. [Spain III. f. 6.]


1 Portions of this letter printed in Bertie; Five Generations of a Loyal House, pp. 183–6.
2 This next paragraph is scribbled by Walsingham in the margin.
3 *A line is drawn round these words, perhaps for deletion, though that is usually expressed by a line drawn under such words.
4 †Added in Walsingham's hand.
5 Torn.
6 Margin. In Killigrew's own hand.