Elizabeth
May 1588, 26-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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1931

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420-442

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'Elizabeth: May 1588, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4: January-June 1588 (1931), pp. 420-442. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76123 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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May 1588, 26–31

May 26. The Queen to the States of Utrecht.
Col. Bax has put before her the great expense he was at, both in the time of the Earl of Leicester and afterwards, as lieutenant-general of the horse in Utrecht, as also in raising, mounting and arming a company of lances, for which he has received no recompense; nor indeed, for several months, any ordinary pay. She has written to the States General to take order therein; and as it is a thing unworthy and unjust thus to treat a gentleman who has carried himself so honestly, she requires them to interpose their authority that Col. Bax may be paid. Would have had them take the charge of his pay on their province, but hearing from him of their great charges, will demand of them only to provide the pay of his entertainment as lieutenant of the horse, which is not a great sum. And as she understands that, for having shown itself very well-affected to her service, his company of foot has been cashiered, she has demanded of the States General to set it up again, wherein she prays them to lend their favour and aid.
Endd. Copy. French. ¾ p. [Holland XXIII. f. 344.]
May 26. Burghley to Sir John Conway, governor of Ostend.
A little bark sent over by Sir Walter Waller has been claimed by a Dutchman, who has caused it to be stayed; the which bark, I am informed, you seized as confiscate and sent over. Her Majesty being advertised and com[plained] unto by letter from the States and Count Maurice that you intermeddle in causes of the Admiralty, which in no wise belong to you; wherewith she is not well pleased, I write to pray you to advertise me speedily by what authority you have done it; and if you have not good matter to justify your doings, that you will cause repayment to be made to Sir Walter of such money as you had of him; and that the bark be restored to the Dutchman. But knowing not what warrant you had for the said confiscation, I have caused the bark to be sequestered until I have answer from you, which I pray may be with all convenient speed; as I am so moved and required by the Lady Waller, who follows the same in behalf of her husband.—Court at Greenwich, 26 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. 2/3 p. [Ibid. f. 348.]
May 27./June 6. Andrea de Loo to Burghley.
Good hopes of successful issue; but has suffered from the strokes of fortune. According to the Spanish proverb Que el hombre cuerdo y experimentado lo claro tiene por obscuro, lo cercano por remoto, lo junto por derramado y lo cierto por dubidoso. Now feels that inter sacrum et saxum pendeo. They have now come to the quick of the matter. Puts his confidence in the good disposition on both sides. Does not think himself deceived in the royal disposition of his Altesse from having dealt with him so much, with his principles of honour and of keeping his word, which he esteems above everything else. Experience will show. Mr. Controller gave him great satisfaction, and all the deputies here, the duke conceiving a very high opinion of him personally, and indeed such a presence adorns the embassy of so great a princess. He made an excellent impression on the whole court as a man of peace, which is very helpful to induce people, especially the prince, to what is reasonable. God grant a happy issue, the deputies having met to begin negotiations.
Begs leave to return to his home as his affairs will not suffer a longer absence. Has done what little he could and only wishes to work night and day to recover his losses.—Borbourgh, 6 June, 1588, stilo novo.
Postscript. Appeals for della Faglia; understands that Lord Willeby refuses to release him. He is ready to pay a very honest ransom, in spite of the appearance of peace.
Kept until the 7th. Grieved at seeing Mr. Controller so ill that he cannot leave his bed, to the regret of many. And worse is feared without the divine aid.
Signed. Add. Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Flanders III. f. 374.]
May 28./June 7. Count Maurice to Walsingham.
I have received what her Majesty has been pleased to write to me concerning the differences in these countries, and also your letters, to which I will not now reply at length, as we have not yet done much in regard to them; having only received them yesterday—Whitsun day, and Mr. Killigrew being absent.
However, after thanking you for your good offices, I desire to advertise you that by a gentleman whom I have sent to Calais, to M. de Gourdan, chiefly to get news of this trouble in France, I am advertised that he believes the fleet making ready by the Prince of Parma is for Scotland. For he has demanded whether we meant to prevent it from passing thither; to which the said gentleman replying that he believed we did, he said that the prince could get out by a wind which we could not hinder [sic]. But the other answered that he thought that the Spanish fleet was for France, seeing the great interest the League had in Brittany.
Simpel, the Scot who betrayed Lierre, returning from Spain, and going by Calais for Scotland, said that very shortly her Majesty would have the said army upon her hands; of which I wished to warn you, and I have also written to my Lord Seymour a letter of which I send you a copy praying you to let him have it. But as the reply may be long in coming and you know well the course which should be taken, I pray you to tell me, in a word, whether you still hold to the resolution that our ships should go to the Downs, or elsewhere. I send this bearer express, that I may have an answer by him, whereupon I will not fail to order him who has charge of our fleet to obey Mr. Seymour.—Middelborch, 7 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Seal of arms. French. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 350.]
May 28. [Walsingham to Lord Willoughby.]
After her Majesty had signed her letter in favour of Colonel Schenk, he offered certain other requests in a memorial hereinclosed, to which answer is made by way of apostiles; whereby we are to let you know that her Majesty would have you deal most earnestly with the States to yield him satisfaction so far forth as concerneth them; as tending to the advancement of their affairs. And whereas in the further letter it is said that she will give direction to your lordship to assign him the pay of 100 horse, she has been moved to this by the great decays of the horsebands whereof the States have so often complained; and as it would be a great charge to make up the said decays, it is though, they may with most ease be supplied by the said Colonel, and cannot be better employed than under a man of such action and valour. Therefore, after your Excellency has had a view taken of the said bands, you shall discharge one of the weakest; giving orders to the Treasurer to make such allowance to the said Colonel as the rest receive.
And whereas she has desired you to solicit the States to bestow upon him the government of Gertrudenberg, and to reserve the contributions of Brabant for payment of the garrisons in that and other places under his commandment; yet as those two requests may be an impediment one to the other, “we think meet” [sic] for you to forbear to move them in the matter of the contribution until they have yielded to give him the government of the town.
Endd. “28 May. M. to the Lord Willoughby.” Copy.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 352.]
May 28. Sir William Drury to Walsingham.
I received yours of the 2nd instant on the 15th, “whereat I cannot [but] be a little grieved to see the daily misfortunes that fall upon me, and now lastly to find her Majesty should be offended with my honourable friend the Lord General for affording me his favour in making choice of me to supply the place of governor here … which place, I do confess, requires a more able and sufficient person than myself … and yet hath it been held in a more dangerous time than this is by as mean a soldier and as slenderly experienced as myself; whereas it was not of the same strength it now is to defend the enemy. But this I must impute to my own unhappiness (that am not held worth any place of advancement amongst others) and having found this favour at the hands of strangers, should be commanded to yield it up with no small disgrace and utter overthrow of my credit, which I trust … hath deserved a better recompense. And further considering how others that have been as little trained and experimented in the wars as myself, have been put in trust with places of greater importance than this is, unto her Majesty made me the boldlier presume of their favours [that] it most concerned, and to seek my own preferment by such means as I could, when as I found so little regard had of me at home, after so many months spent upon mine own purse in her Majesty's service here, that I should be so lightly esteemed amongst others doth not a little trouble me; not doubting (by God's help) that if I may be assisted as the importance of the place requires, with men, munition, a sufficient magazine and other necessaries … to quit the place with credit to myself and honour to my nation; or otherwise to make a good testimony thereof by leaving my carcase in the dykes, not finding I can anyways withdraw myself from thence, seeing I have taken charge thereof, without most infinite disgrace unrecoverable, wherein I hope her Highness will stand more my gracious lady than to command me to do that which shall be to my utter ruin, considering I am no ways chargeable unto her by the place I hold; only her Majesty's loyal subject and faithful servant … having rather expected from your honour some letters of comfort and commendation from her Majesty and yourself, both unto the Lord General and the States … than this discomfortable advice of yours; humbly beseeching your honour to solicit her Highness in my behalf, that with her favour I may still hold the place, where otherwise I shall consume my life with intolerable grief, and be drawn to leave it with everlasting shame, not to show my face neither here or elsewhere where I am known. And therefore eftsoons, in tender consideration of the credit of a poor gentleman (as I am) most humbly … crave her Highness' gracious allowance of what is past, that the trust and credit which is reposed in me by the States here may not be brought in question, but ratified by her royal consent, which shall more content me than any worldly riches….”—Burgen up Zom, 28 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 closely written p. [Holland XXIII. f. 354.]
May 28. Sir James Croft to the Queen. (fn. 1)
Will obey her command to return to England but begs her to consider the utter undoing that will thereby fall to himself and family, which he would nothing esteem if it might do her service, but it will only bring his aged carcase to present decay. Begs that he may be allowed by remaining to repair his errors being so affected by her displeasure that his aged limbs have not force enough, without present death, to put in practice her command.—Burborowe, 28 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 376.]
May 28./June 7. M. de Champagny to Burghley.
At last after much waste of time they have met at this place, though somewhere more commodious might have been selected, but the commissioners would not agree or accept the entertainment which his Highness wished to offer them, and that very morning M. Cobham prevented him from paying him a visit. These things and a communication they received yesterday at the Earl of Derby's quarters might lead them to doubt of the sincere goodwill they expect from the queen's side. Informs him from his desire to serve her Majesty. They all have a high opinion of the earl's generosity, sincerity and ability, but he needs to be well supported without partiality or private passions of which they hear by letters from England, besides what they have noticed themselves. Has made no pretence about this with Mr. Croft, knowing him a faithful servant of her Majesty, but the good gentleman can do nothing single handed against such leagues. That is why he writes this letter, knowing Burghley's leaning to tranquillity and the re-establishment of friendship between their princes, assuring the treasurer of his desire for a good understanding between the two crowns. Having, from information received, good reason to suppose that the proceedings with some deputies of the queen near Ostend and at the general assembly have not been faithfully reported, he has suggested that henceforward they shall negotiate only by writing, to prevent abuse. He advised the same to Mr. Controller at Bruges to avoid disputes and bitterness and to come straight to the business without trifling over small details.—Bourbourg, 7 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 22/3 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 43.]
May 29. Sir William Russell to Burghley.
By his patent, he should have the disposing of the companies of this garrison, but the Lord General has granted a commission to one Arthur Savage for Captain Anthony Shirley's foot company; not having made him privy thereto; whereby he thinks himself greatly injured, “in respect of the virtue of the patent.” Wherefore he humbly prays for his lordship's favour, that he may not receive such a disgrace, to have one indirectly placed in this town, contrary to his liking and consent; whereby as some great inconvenience may fall out, he doubts not, by his lordship's good means, to keep the full authority of the place, so long as he remains there. Reiterates his old request to be allowed to come over for two months.—Vlisshing, 29 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 356.]
May 29. The Same to the Privy Council.
To the same effect as the preceding.—Vlisshing, 29 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 358.]
May 29. George Gilpin to Walsingham.
By a letter received in Mr. Killigrewe's packet of the 21st May, he understands of her Majesty's gracious goodness towards him. Expresses his gratitude and devotion.
The provision will stand his present need in singular stead; he having spent all his own, and run so far upon credit with his friends that there is not much left for himself. Whereof he has written more largely to Mr. Beale.
Mr. Killigrewe is departing into Zeeland, and will write from thence of all matters here, so he need trouble his honour no further.—The Haegh, 29 May, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 360.]
May 29. Sir William Russell to Walsingham.
Has received his honour's of the 25th. The cold course her Majesty has taken for Camphere and Armuye “doth so much grieve and dismay them and all the well-affected, that it will make them generally fall from her” and grow in hatred with the nation.
If her Highness leave the captains of those towns “in the danger which they are daily threatened to receive at the States' hands (in respect of her former promises)” he fears they will take some desperate course [so] that neither this town nor any part of this island may be defended.
Humbly thanks her Majesty for conceiving so well of his service, and is much bound to his honour for the means he uses to continue him in her favour. Finds the Lord General “greatly bent to yield unto the States, and thereby to be much withdrawn from the good course which might best further her Majesty's service;” and perceives that his lordship is inclined to cross him in things appertaining to his office of governor; for contrary to his patent, his lordship has appointed one Mr. Savage (a gentleman quite unknown to him) to have Captain Anthony Sherley's company, never requesting his own favour therein or making him first privy thereof.
Earnestly beseeches that he may not be crossed in any matter touching his government; otherwise he desires to be freed from this troublesome place, “which will be continually subject unto secret practices, and greatly hazarded through the cold course now taken.”
Prays for the hastening away of pay, the soldiers' wants and discontentments being so great that he can hardly keep order among them; and the burgesses also exclaiming for money.—Vlisshing, 29 May, 1588.
PS. in his own hand. Has also written a letter to the Lords of the Council, [sent] by the Lord General, which he prays his honour to have delivered.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 362.]
May 29. The Commissioners to the Privy Council.
Received the queen's letter of the 21st on the 24th. The next day the king's commissioners arrived, and paid their visit that afternoon, arranging to enter on the treaty on Monday morning, meeting at the Earl of Derby's lodging instead of at the town house, as expected. The duke's officers urged them to be defrayed by the duke, but they excused themselves. On the morning of the 27th they met as appointed. After some declaration of the diligence used by the queen's commissioners and slackness on their part and the queen's command to use all expedition, asked to proceed with the collation of the commissions. Richardot made some excuses and at length admitted he had not brought it. Asked to send for it he went to fetch it himself. On its being read exception was taken to the words Suivant les instructions qu'il en baillera as unusual. Their reply that the commissioners had instructions did not answer the point. A copy was asked for and a commission from the duke dated subsequently. They said it was not necessary as the king's commission ratified the duke's previous one. The point was not pressed if they would promise to procure a commission from the duke of later date and a copy of the king's commission. And so ended, not intending to proceed without the copy. At rising they all pressed the duke's offer to defray charges, being answered as before adding that no new example could be made without the queen's pleasure being known.
After dinner they brought the copy (enclosed) which was found to agree with the original. The question of the cessation was then discussed and reasons advanced why it should be general, pointing out that their own project made it general for themselves and showing the inequalities of that project. They could not deny it but persisted in refusing a general cessation for Spain, declaring it unnecessary and that the queen might do what she listed towards Spain, and they must send to the king which would breed longer delay than the treaty itself. They would agree to the cessation being during the treaty and 20 days after and pressed for entry upon the treaty of peace. The largeness of their commission being pointed out they asked, after long altercation, that the demand for a cessation should be put in writing. It was answered that theirs should be reduced to an equal and general form, which should be brought the next day. This proved difficult as the queen's letters seem sometimes to desire that the cessation shall be general and sometimes particular, as in those of the 13th May, and the last comprehend Spain and Scotland and that the duke should not join with the Spanish forces, though the letters of the 22 April comprise the 4 towns only. But the project was penned in the largest manner, pending the declaration of the queen's pleasure, to try what they would say thereto.
The 28th in the afternoon a declaration was made concerning the designs of the King of Spain and the duke against the queen and her realm, as of the dealings of Mendoza with Westmorland and other rebels, and the voyage of Symple into Scotland and that the king's navy was already departed from Lisbon to attempt something against England or Scotland and that thereupon her Majesty had put her navy and forces in readiness. She would like to know whom to trust and if invasion be intended she must direct her actions accordingly. The inequality of their project for a cessation had therefore been amended and it was made general for both sides and they were asked to answer plainly, as if they meant peace indeed they would have most benefit by the cessation, which would assure them from annoyance in all the king's dominions. Without it many incidents might happen to disturb the treaty and to annoy the king many ways. So if they would not gladly embrace a general cessation the queen must think the treaty was merely to breed in her a careless security whereby they might put in execution their designs against her. The enclosed project was therefore handed to them for an answer. After conferring among themselves secretly they gave different answers and then departed. After near three hours they sent to promise an answer next morning. At the time appointed they brought the enclosed writing with some protestation and instance to enter into the principal. After it was read they were asked to give their answer in Latin which was insisted upon since there are no laws so direct to determine French words as there are in the Civil Law for Latin in the title de verborum significationibus. So they agreed to bring it to-morrow afternoon in Latin.
Ask their lordships to move the queen for her resolution for the cessation to specify how they shall proceed so that some resolute form of cessation may be set down in Latin, and know her pleasure if it is refused. Mr. Controller is so grieved, since the queen's last letters, that he doth languish and is not able to stir out of his chamber.—Bourborough, 29 May, 1588.
Signed by Derby, Cobham, Dale and Rogers. Marginal notes of contents by Burghley. Add. Endd. rec. 3rd by Spritrel. 4 pp. [Flanders III. f. 395.]
Draft for the same with corrections.
16 pp. [Ibid. f. 386.]
Notes out of the above letter, headed: “Considered ulto. Maii, 1588.” In Burghley's hand.
Endd.
1 p. [Ibid. f. 404.]
The project for cessation of arms drawn by her Majesty's commissioners, 28 May, 1588.
On the king's part, no attacks against the four towns nor against England or Scotland and no assistance to any enemies of the queen during the negotiations and 20 days after.
On the queen's part, no attacks on the king's dominions or subjects from the four towns or elsewhere, and no help to the king's enemies, with free navigation to the four towns for the same period, with power by common consent to admit Holland and Zeland and the other provinces to the cessation if they ask it.
Copy. Endd. Latin. 12/3 pp. [Treaty Papers V. f. 35].
Three other copies of the same.
The last dated by Burghley. Latin. [Ibid. ff. 37, 39, 41.]
Reply to the King's Commissioners touching the Cessation of Arms.
No cessation has ever been demanded by the king which cannot be of any use towards the recovery of the places which belong to him; but to show his good will it has been offered for the four towns, which is more than could rightfully be required, yet to show their sincerity to arrive at a good peace and to maintain equality, which cannot be done without considering his Majesty's affairs in relation to Holland and Zeeland, which will not conform to the queen's will, they declare again that there shall be no act of hostility against the four towns or others which may be at the queen's disposition in the Low Countries provided no hostile act is attempted against the places in the king's obedience, without prefixing a time, to be terminated by 6 days' notice on either side, it being understood that this term of six days will not touch the safety of the deputies of England who have their general safe-conduct. They do not know why Scotland is mentioned, but as touching the cessation of arms for Spain and England it would require a long time for notification, and celerity is required in the treaty. They therefore ask the queen's deputies to proceed to the principal matter of the treaty and set down in writing the points they wish to propose, upon which the king's deputies will be ready to answer, also in writing, so that the queen may be assured of their sincere intentions.
Copy. Endd. by Burghley, 29 May. French.pp. [Treaty Papers. f. 47.]
Another copy of the same.
French.pp. [Ibid. f. 49.]
Two copies of the above.
Latin. 3¼, 2 pp. [Ibid. ff. 51, 53.]
May 29. Dr. Dale to Walsingham.
Truly her Majesty must either conclude a peace or thoroughly stand to her defence, for these men cannot grant cessation of arms from Spain, although the commission be general. And how impertinent it is to hold our friends in suspense and yet to be in doubt hourly of Spain I am not able to judge. The care must be yours … We are so pressed that we must either enter into the principal or stand mute. We could spend time in expostulations of former things but that were but to multiply words and our instructions are … that we must not enter into the principal without cessation of arms. I pray you help us. I thank you very much for ridding me from the journey to the duke.—Bourborough, 29 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 378.]
May 29. The Same to Burghley.
We stand all upon conjectures. It may seem that these men do not know the determination of the King of Spain, otherwise than to be in a readiness when the king should … appoint them to their service, and that they may not conclude a general cessation without his knowledge; that they are sorry that is required of them which they cannot of themselves perform and that they do certainly fear some accident to break off all. But what these great preparations … do mean or what is to be done in the principal and what further course is to be taken I pray God to inspire her Majesty in time. We are so pressed that we must needs make them answer whether we will enter into the principal and therefore we must needs know her Majesty's full resolution, which now upon this answer and reply unto their project it will be the easier for to do.—Bourborough, 29 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 380.]
May 29. Lord Cobham to Burghley.
Since my last we have met three times with the king's commissioners. The first was on Monday when they came without the king's commission, but so urged that the President was forced to go for it. It was read and remarked that it was not no usual course to add the words suivant les instructions. They answered that although the words were not in our commission they were sure we had instructions. The afternoon we met again, the commission was collated and a copy delivered. At this time we spoke of the inequalities of their project of a cessation. They could not deny it and requested us to write one. It was answered that we would take theirs and bring it to œquum fœdus.
Yesterday we met again and delivered our writing. One said nous sommes bien loing de notre conte. We prayed them to consider of it. They were divided in opinions. Some would presently answer, some would ask time. In fine they resolved to go together to the Conte of Arenberg's lodging to confer and presently answer it in writing. After 3 hours Andrea de Loo brought us word that it was late and they would bring it to-morrow. Then came the Count of Arenberg and prayed us to have patience, and take us with him to supper. This morning we met when the President spoke of the King's desire for peace and prayed us not to insist on the cessation but go roundly to the principal and delivered a project whereof we have taken a copy to consider of it. [Asks that some project may be set down by the Queen and sent to them in Latin. Thinks small hope to have it general or particular for the four towns. Urged to come to the principal and desire to know the Queen's pleasure].
There is here this day a proclamation that all victuallers do repair to Dyxmouth where the rendezvous is. I send your lordship a project of a cessation delivered to Dr. Dale at Bruges and a detection of the inequalities contained in the same.—Burborow, 29 May, 1588.
Postscript. The Duke made earnest request to defray our charges. We yielded great thanks but answered it was not our custom, especially in time of treaties.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Flanders III. f. 382.]
Enclosure. Cessation on part of:—
King of Spain to Queen.
Unequal: No act of hostility against Ostend, Flushing Berghes, Briel.
Queen to King of Spain.
The garrisons of the said towns and of all in the queen's obedience shall remain quietly at home, not attempting any raids or acts of hostility against the country and peoples where the king has authority, or assisting directly or indirectly other enemies of his Majesty.
Equal:
Without time being prefixed but six days' notice only. Both parties promising free navigation to go and come freely without disturbance.
French with note in English. All this was shown them to detect the inequality of their project of their cessation and that the rather to induce them to the general cessation by her Majesty specified not as any allowance of their power.
pp. Endd. At Bruges to Dr. Dale. [Spain III. f. 11.]
The same without the note in English.
Endd. A project of the cessation of arms delivered by the Commissioners to Dr. Dale at Bruges and a detection of the inequalities contained in the same. 29 May, 1588. ¾ p. [Treaty Papers V. f. 55.]
May 29. The Earl of Derby to Burghley.
The letters to the Council record all their proceedings but must acknowledge his many favours. Will learn their answer to the Duke's offer to defray their charges. They are daily pressed and for that purpose some officers continue in the town, but they hold to their resolution. Asks to receive now and then some lines of advice touching the service in hand.—Bourborough, 29 May, 1588.
Note by Burghley. Doubts to be answered to the Commissioners.
Signed. Add. Endd. 2/3 p. [Flanders III. f. 384.]
May 29./June 8. Andrea de Loo to Burghley.
Writes to enclose note from Champagney. In connection with this it seems that the Controller is going to England and may not return soon, which would be to the detriment of the business; Champagny would have referred to it in the note but it was already sealed; he openly expressed dissatisfaction with some of the Queen's deputies, and they would rather some other should go away, at the same time expressing the great respect of his Altesse for her Majesty. To return to the first point, if the Controller is away the good desired on both sides cannot be done, as more confidence is felt in him than in the others as one who sincerely desires the peace. Regrets that it is not hastened, to escape the evils which delay may cause, as the Duke has often said.—Bourburgh, 8 June, 1588, stilo novo.
Postscript. Experience may judge of his Altesse's good intentions as he has adopted the excellent method of only treating by writing, as more clear and concise.
After closing the packet I met President Richardot who told me plainly that he finds Lord Cobham is minded to do nothing about concluding the peace, but to disturb the business, and that it is necessary to remedy this to arrive at a good accord. Time will enlighten us and her Majesty will know where the fault lies when Truth displays her forces. I cannot disguise from myself and say paucis verbis quod opus est hic viris.
Signed. Add. Endd. Italian. 2 pp. [Ibid. f. 398.]
Enclosing:
Champagney to de Loo.
Asks him to write frankly to the Lord Treasurer that if Mr. Croft withdraws from these peace conversations, he must consider what pertains to the Queen's service owing to the confidence felt in him (Croft), which they are far from feeling with the others.
Holograph. Italian. ½ sheet. [Flanders III. f. 400.]
May 30. The Queen to the States General. (fn. 2)
Colonel Schenk having been here some days, has put before her certain matters wherein he thinks he has reason to complain of them, both as not having kept the bargain made with them for his own entertainment, and an assignation of 4000 florins promised him as a reward; as also that during three years spent in their pay, he has received only three months' payment for the men under him, in regard of which he had desired to quit their service ever since the time of Lord Leicester's arrival, had it not been that by his lordship's authority he was detained and put in hopes that by her recommendation and the mediation of the Earl, means might be found to give him satisfaction; which not having happened according to his hopes, and finding himself more enfeebled by remaining in their service than pleased him; he has come to implore her favour and aid in obtaining from them the payment of what is due to him, both for himself and his men; which she could not refuse him, seeing that her own honour was somewhat involved, as also that she thinks his request so just and reasonable that she could not refuse to countenance him in his demand for what, by so long services, toils and frequent risk of his life he has deserved; seeing moreover that his services have tended greatly to the good and advancement of their affairs. Finally, it is to be feared that others, seeing a person of such merit treated so ill, may conceive an aversion to their service, and so they may find themselves unfurnished in case of need. Whereof as she makes no doubt they will have such consideration as is needful; and also to the end that they should not think that she has granted these her letters thoughtlessly, she has given express order to the Baron de Willughby to accompany them by his verbal solicitation, as being a matter which she desires as greatly as any other which she could ask of them, and a matter well worthy of their consideration.
Draft. French.pp. Endd. "30 May, memo, for Col. Schenk." [Holland XXIII. f. 371.]
May [30]. The Queen to the States General. (fn. 3)
Very urgently recommends Col Bax's requests. He has served them long in charges of importance, both of horse and foot, and in the government which they assigned to him, viz: Muyden, Naerden and Wesop. He was honoured by the Earl of Leicester with the office of Lieut.-General of the cavalry in those countries, with a company of lances, which he raised at his own expense. And he now finding himself without a crown having been paid of what is due to him; not even the assignments made to him by the Earl of Leicester upon the government of Brabant: she prays them very emphatically to have regard to his qualities and merit, and to give him satisfaction without delay for his entertainment as Lieut.-General of the said cavalry, or at least of what is due to him for the time of the Earl of Leicester's government; remitting the rest to their better convenience. And she also prays them to replace him in his government of Muyden, Naerden and Wesop; which doing, as she will be greatly obliged to them, so also they will keep in their service a gentleman of good deportment, and of much experience in affairs which concern the State. “Chateau” of Greenwich, — May, 1588.
Copy. French. 2/3 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 346.]
May 30. The Queen to Lord Willoughby.
A formal letter (signed by the Queen at the top) concerning Sir Martin Schenck, knight, his griefs against the States, and her letter to them on his behalf, with instructions to Willoughby to solicit the States in the matter by word of mouth with all care and diligence, as a matter wherein she greatly desires to receive satisfaction. And he is also to solicit them on behalf of Colonel Bacx showing them that at this time they should not alienate men of sufficiency and fidelity, and that therefore she cannot but advise them to yield contentment to the said Bacx in his resonable demands.—Manor of Greenwich, 30 May, 1588.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. close and fine writing. [Ibid. f. 364.]
May 30. Lord Wyllughby to the Privy Council.
On receiving her Majesty's letters of May 21, he sent to Mr. Killigrew at the Hague to hasten to Midelbrough, that, according to her commands, they might jointly deal “for those matters of Camphere, the reconcilement of the Count and the governor of Vlushing, the disposing the regiment of Zeland and changing of Count Solmes.” And meanwhile, he did what he might to prepare to the best disposition. Is put in good hope that her Majesty shall have all things concerning the town compounded honourably, and “the Count himself seemeth so much devoted to her Majesty's service as he maketh nothing hard that may stand with his reputation, which he is an humble suitor to her Majesty may be recommended to her.” As for the difference between the Count and Sir William Russell; wishes he were as fit to do all good offices as he is willing. Some things have fallen out—which the bearer, if their lordships will give him credit, shall report to them—which make him doubt that his [own] credit is not so good as his deserts and affection in her Majesty's service hath invited of him. Humbly prays that the authority he has under her Majesty's signature and seal may be maintained with the reputation due to it, or else he deported, for he would be loth his unworthmess “should prejudice and make void the ancient estimation and privileges which her Majesty's hand hath in such causes carried.”
For the journey he has now taken to Ostend; the answer for the ships the States should furnish, and the state of Gertrudenberg, he refers them to his servant Colman's report.—Aboard her Majesty's ship Antelope, 30 May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents. ¾ p. close writing. [Holland XXIII. f. 366.]
May 30. Lord Wyllughby to Burghley.
Values his favour and worthy counsels as the chief ‘maintain’ of his fortume.
“Your lordship conceiveth so rightly of the state of this country as I wish I had my whole address unto you for it. The States of Zeeland are conformable; the Count Maurice is very tractable, whatsoever may be said, if others put not fire unto the good delay which her Majesty's last dispatch made, there is hope things will go on well and temperately.
“It is now (too late) urged by some to continue a course of greater expense and hazard for their private humour; that her Majesty hath disbursed much money for Camphere. I could have wished, in my simple judgment, it had been in another nature, by way of an honourable exchange and satisfaction: for that, with some other conditions of towns resigned, would have assured the other. But now, Sir, if we will by force or indirectly go to work, we are liker to engage her Majesty further than save it; and we may win a better bargain by good dealing than by thwart means; yet I know even from hence also it will be otherwise moyenned. I will labour, as your lordship wishes me, for Gertruydenbergh, for I suppose it and Berghes would bring us Walcheren. For other advertisements, having so fit a messenger as my servant Coleman,” I refer your lordship to him.—Aboard the Antelope, before Blankenbergh, 30 May.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 368.]
May 30./June 9. Guillaume de Blois, dit Treslong to Walsingham.
Has already advertised his honour of the state in which he presently finds himself: destitute of all means by which to maintain himself, unless he be employed in some place answerable to his quality; and that the Earl of Leicester, before his departure was pleased to promise him some honourable preferment, and to get her Majesty's confirmation and commission therefor so soon as he reached England; yet so far no effect has followed, by reason of the treaty of peace and other hindrances.
Thus he finds himself here, in disgrace with the States (who are more inclined to his ruin than to his advancement) and not knowing what to do, if occasion do not offer itself for him to be employed in the service of her Majesty; to whom he is sensible of being so deeply obliged that he lives only to devote himself to her service; trusting to her benevolence and his honour's affection Humbly prays him to use his place, and the influence he has with her Majesty; for if opportunity do not offer for employment by her he must seek service elsewhere; viz: with the King of Navarre, which, however, he should not do without first obtaining her Majesty's consent.—Flushing, 9 June, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Holland XXIII. f. 369.]
May 30./June 9. Marie de Brimeu, [Princesse de Chimay] to Walsingham.
The Sieur de Schoonewalle has assured her that her Majesty and Walsingham will remember her. Asks him to befriend her.
Her friends in Hainault tell her that whether the treaty goes forward or not, she should seek her Majesty's intercession to the Duke of Parma whereby she may be re-instated in her property; otherwise can have no redress unless she makes profession of the Catholic religion.
They also tell her what she ought to do in regard to the private difference between the Prince and herself, contained in the petition which she asks him to look at, together with the justification attached. His Excellency when here offered to arrange with her to send a gent, in her behalf to the D. of P.; H.M. will not refuse it for it must be done through her or never, and it is the only way without offending God to relieve her estate Asks him to hear thereupon the Sieur de la Barre the bearer, one of her council.—Delft, 9 June, '88.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Ibid. f. 373.]
May 30. “Postiles to Col. Schenk's memorial” exhibited on this date.
1. “For his debts. 2. For soliciting the States in furtherance of his requests.
These two articles are satisfied by her Majesty's letters to the States General, save for the restitution of victuals and provisions of war there mentioned; as to which, her Majesty will give order by express commandment to Lord Willoughby to solicit the Estates in her name.
3, 4. “Those two are for the employment of the contributions of Brabant.
Her Majesty agrees thereupon to give like commandment both to Lord Willoughby and Mr. Killigrew, her counsellor; to urge this upon the said Estates.
5. For an act for discharge of his oath.
Her Majesty is of opinion that the said act should be granted by the Earl of Leicester, to whom the oath had been given as Governor of the Low Countries.
6. For a company of horse.
She will also give order to her lieutenant, that when the said Colonel shall have agreed with the Estates for the government of Geertruydenbergh, he shall have him enrolled at once, in her pay, as captain of two companies of lances.
Endd. as in headline, and with date. French. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 375.]
May 31. Another document to the same effect, but the Colonel's demands set forth at much greater length, and the Queen's apostiles given in the margin.
Endd. with above date. French.pp. [Ibid. f. 377.]
[Undated.] Reply made by the Lords of the Council to the memorial exhibited by Col. Schenk.
Note of the despatches desired by the said Colonel.
1. An act ordaining that no one shall “execute” the contributions of Brabant save by order of the Receiver on behalf of her Majesty and Col. Schenk.
Apostile. It is not in her Majesty's power to appoint a receiver, seeing that she did not wish to take the sovereignty of the United Provinces; but she will desire Lord Willoughby and Mr. Killigrew to work with the States to appoint who will be agreeable to the said Colonel.
2. That no ordinances shall be given on the said receipts for [payment of] old debts, or otherwise, but that they shall be employed for the pay of the soldiers by order of the said Receiver and Col. Schenck.
Apostile. And likewise that the contributions of Brabant shall only be used for pay of the soldiers under the command of the said Colonel; either in places under the obedience of the United Provinces or in the town of Bonne, which it imports greatly to keep against the enemy.
3. That Col. Iselstein and Capt Sevenbergh shall be paid by those of Holland, and not to meddle with the said contributions.
Apostile. And further, that the said States shall be required, in regard to Col. Iselstein and the men under his command, to provide themselves with other means of payment (than the said contributions; that there may be entirely employed to satisfy the garrisons of Geertruydenbergh.
4. That her Majesty will be pleased to give the said Colonel commissions for the company of horse and of foot.
Apostile. Her Majesty will write to Lord Willoughby that it is her pleasure that there be assigned to the said Colonel the pay of the two companies of lances (which shall be of the number of 2000), that she is bound to furnish by the contract; to be received by him from the treasurer in the same manner as that of the regiments in her own pay; and that of the first vacancies in the foot companies, two shall be reserved for the said Colonel.
5. That she will be pleased to appoint a Receiver-General, to receive and activate the contributions on the side of Cologne and the adjoining countries.
It is neither reasonable nor honourable for her Majesty to meddle in the affairs of the Empire; being bound only to aid the provinces of the Low Countries.
6. That she will be pleased to write very seriously to the Estates, the Council of State, and the chief commanders to the end that the murders, acts of violence, ravishments and other extraordinary disorders committed by the soldiers in garrison at Dousberg, Dottecum, Lochem, Iselort and places round about, upon those of Wesel, Monster and other neighbouring countries may be punished, and cease from henceforth; seeing that when the princes and lords have put their grievances before the Estates, they have answered that they could do nothing, seeing that the said garrisons belonged to her Majesty.
The proposition is reasonable, and her Majesty will write to the States as desired. And although she believes that they have wrongfully cast upon her subjects the blame for the said outrages; she will not fail to desire Lord Willoughby to take care, not only that those of them who are sojourning in those parts shall not do the like, but also that he shall bethink himself how to get commission to punish the authors. And in order the better to get these insolencies corrected, it is needful that information thereof should be given him from hand to hand.
7. That the horsemen may have some means of re-mounting themselves and their companies, that they may be ready to do service when called upon.
Letters shall be sent to the desired effect, both to Lord Willoughby and to Mr. Killigrew.
Endd. as in headline. French.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 379.]
May 31. H. Kyllygrewe to Walsingham.
Has received his honour's of May 21, with certain occurants, and the copy of the Lord Admiral's letter, for all which he thanks him.
The matters of Camphere and Armue have called him again into this island; understanding both from Lord Willughbie and the Council of Zeeland that it had pleased her Majesty to give direction to his lordship and himself to compound that controversy. But arriving but yesterday, and finding Lord Willughby gone to Ostend, he has nothing material whereof to advertise his honour.
At coming from the Haghe, he moved the States for their answer to his proposal, but as yet hears of none. Those of Friseland have not sent their resolution, but now hold their ‘land-day’ therefore it is looked for shortly. He perceives no willingness in them to hearken to the treaty.
Has brought to Lord Willughby from the States “an act touching the shipping her Majesty requireth at their hands, which they are preparing; and also touching the change of horse into foot; which they say cannot be done without the general consent of the Provinces; desiring that if her Majesty's horse be not complete, they may be filled with some of theirs, which they mean to cast.
Thanks his honour for his care to further his revocation, and prays him to continue therein; for in the Council of State they speak and write everything in Dutch, wherein Mr. Gilpin's help is required; wherefore he prays his honour to procure for the said Mr. Gilpin a warrant of 20s. per day; that he may be secretary of the Council but at her Majesty's charge; for he sees “they are content to continue him in the office, but not to give him entertainment …—Midleburgh, last of May, '88.
Postscript in his own hand. This morning he received the enclosed [wanting] from Count Morice, and there being none of her Majesty's ships here, sends them to his honour, from whence they may be directed to Lord Harry Seymer. The King of Navarre's ambassador thinks that the French King shall in two months come to an agree[ment] with the Guyses, and become a chief patron of the League. You may consider what sequel that may bring with it. I cannot write to Mr. Beale “for haste of the tide”; but refer [him] to Mr. Gilpin's letters.
Add. Endd. with not of contents. 2 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 381.]
May 31. Sir William Russell to [Walsingham].
It troubleth me not a little to see how coldly her Majesty proceedeth with them of Camphyer and Armu; who at this present desireth no other entertainment than that now they enjoy; the which they might have had world without end if they had not shown themselves to be affected toward her service and our nation. Their estate is most desperate, and greatly to be pitied, that, for their good mind toward her service must either lose their lives or their country; complaining greatly of my lord of Leicester, whose hand they have to show that presently they should be put into the Queen's pay, with many other good words.
“I am very sorry that her Majesty went so far in this action with them as to write to them and the burgers, and also to send them presents; for that these people that are well-affected toward her service believe her hand as an article of their faith; assuring themselves that they had done great service in it to the Crown of England; and so I believe it will be found in the end, if it be well thought of.
“The reasons of all Count Morrice's hatred towards me are two; the one, in respect he thinketh me an instrument for my lord of Leyster; the other for the advertising her Majesty about the surprise of this place … but thus much I will say of him and my masters, the Estates; that if they know any in this town that are affected toward our nation, they will not make them bourger master nor bailiff, nor put them in any authority. For proof, the last bailiff,—being well affected towards her Majesty, and something great with me,—they have displaced; and put in his room a very dangerous, practising fellow, who is thought to have some intelligence with the enemy. But I must not say so, nor dare not displease him, although my heart be great against all those that hate our nation.
“Sir, I protest unto your honour that I think this place in so great danger, as if they of Camphyer and Armu become enemies to our nation: as I do desire nothing more than honestly to be rid of this troublesome place; knowing more than I dare write.
“If it might stand with her Majesty's good liking and yours to appoint the Lord Willoughby to remain here, and myself to come over; it might be I would tell her Majesty and the rest of my lords so profitable a tale as they would give me thanks if things might but remain in this Island as they do; being at this present marvellously well affected toward her Majesty; the which, I fear me, will not long continue, but will turn into hatred.
“I think your honour hath heard how the Papists in North Holland do oppose themselves against Soneye; and in what miserable estate the poor gentleman liveth; and all for being too much affected toward our nation and her Majesty's service.
“But because your honour should not think that all this doth proceed of malice; I thought good to send your honour this little piece of paper; wherein you may see what Mr. ‘Killygry’ hath heard of this man; and yet is here a great man with Count “Monies” and the Estates.
“Also they of Midelbourgh begin to show themselves; whom in heart are Spanish, and so will prove whensoever the opportunity shall be offered them, being most of them papists; and such as daily serve the enemy's turn, and make no reckoning at all of her Majesty. But they and all the evil-affected of Holland might have been bridled, if it had pleased her Majesty to have taken the towns of Camphere and Armue into her protection; and now God save her town of Flushing whilst I am in it, which neither hath friends in the island nor her own soldiers and captains the best content. What money there will be given them on both sides I have to write, fearing lest your honour would think I did hearken unto their offers myself; not being at this present the best warrant; and the more to discontent me, the Lord General hath given Mr. Savage a company of Mr. Antony ‘Shryllyee’ in despite of me, who would never vouchsafe to speak to me for them; so as by this means, I shall have captains here to brave me, notwithstanding I have her Majesty's letters patents to the contrary; but all this is done to please the Estates. But I beseech your lordship, let not me be disgraced by the Lord Willoughby; myself refusing to be commanded by him.—Flushing, May the last.
Add. Endd. 4 pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 383.]
Enclosing. The scrap of a letter from Killigrew, alluded to above.
“I have had more wooing of the new bailiff; whereof you may do well to look to his doings; for I hear that he is a sly fellow, and evil affected to our nation.—From the Haghe, 22 May, '88.
Holograph.p. [Ibid. f. 385.]
May 31. The Queen to Lord Willoughby.
By the resignation of the Earl of Leicester, the commission given by him to Sir John Conway, for the government of Ostend becomes void; which being come to the knowledge of the soldiers serving there has, as she has been told, moved some of them not to pay that respect which appertaineth to his place. For redress whereof, she desires him to move the States General in her name to renew his said commission in such ample sort as they grant unto the governors of the rest of her towns, to rule and govern the same as may best tend to its preservation. And to make him such allowance as they usually do to persons of his quality placed in like charges. And in the mean time to avoid such inconveniences as may grow by the disobedience of the captains and soldiers to him for want of sufficient authority, she has caused some of her Privy Council to signify to them that her pleasure is that they shall continue their obedience and duty to the said Sir John Conway, as they will answer the contrary at their peril.
Rough draft, corrected by Walsingham. Endd. with date.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 387.]
May 31. The Queen to the Commissioners.
We find by your letters of the 29th that you have dealt principally upon two points, the commission and the cessation of arms. For the first we do not mislike of some exceptions you took, yet we do not think them so material as to stand upon them, and if they will procure a commission from the duke founded upon the king's we see no cause why you should press them any further. For the cessation, our letters of the 13th May were referred to those of the 10th, … showing that our meaning was that if your could not procure the cessation general you should have stood only upon pressing the commissioners that nothing should have been attempted by the forces serving the K. in the Low Countries. But now seeing they urge you so greatly to enter into the body of the matter, which we have also just cause to desire … having also put ourselves in good order of defence against any attempt from Spain or those Countries as with the assistance of Almighty Cod we shall have no cause to fear them, we think meet you shall content yourselves with a cessation such as by them is offered, so as you can get the limitation of time enlarged to 20 days, for with 6 days or thrice six days certain knowledge cannot be given. Whereunto if they do not assent yet we think it convenient you shall proceed to the treaty, dealing speedily with the principal matters whereby we may shortly see whereunto we may trust.
With regard to the offer to defray your charges we do greatly allow of your refusal and yet we would have you let the commissioners understand how thankfully we do accept of the offer, requiring them thereof to give knowledge to the duke in our behalf.
After we had signed this we thought it very convenient to direct you to insist that the cessation should comprehend both our own dominions and Scotland, so far forth as nothing shall be attempted by any of the forces in the Low Countries under the duke, without urging it to extend to Spain, and yet we would not have you so stand upon it but that in case you shall find them resolutely bent not to yield thereunto, you may then proceed to the treaty without any further direction from hence. But we cannot in any case yield that the limitation of time be for less than 20 days for the reasons above alleged.
Draft, corrected by Burghley and Walsingham. Endd. “ult. May, 1588, by Morris.” 5 pp. [Flanders III. f. 406.]
Fair copy of the same.
Endd. with date. “2 June.” 1¼ pp. [Flanders IV. f. 1.]
May 31. Dr. Dale to Sir John Conway.
We are as wise as we were when we went from you and can agree upon nothing. Now we see it was good being with you. I say nothing but tristitia vestra.—Bourborough, the last of May, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Flanders III. f. 402.]
May 31. “List of her Majesty's forces, horse and foot, with the places where they were garrisoned the last of May.”
Flushing. Sir William Russel, Sir Thos. Sherley. Captains Richard Wingfield, Maria Wingfield, Ant. Sherley, Morris Dennis, Hender, Littleton, Randall, Darcey, Browne, Hart.
Ramekins. Capt. Erington.
Brill, the. Lord Burrowes, Sir John Burrowes, Sir Henry Norris.
Captains Brett, Hill, Vavasour.
Berghen up Zome. My lord Willoughby, Lord Audley. Captains Sir John Wingfield, Bannister, Anth. Wingfield, Scott, Udall, Baskerville, Helmes, now Salisbury, Powell, Francis Vere.
[In all the above, the colonel has 200 men and the captains each 150, except Lord Willoughby who has 250.]
Ostend. Sir John Conway, Sir Edmund Carey, Sir Walter Waller, Sir Edward Norris. Captains Chas. Blunt, Thos. Knollys, Sutherman, Huddy, Lambert. [All 150.]
Utrecht. Capt. Champernoun, 150.
La Fare [i.e. La Fere or Camphere]. Col. Morgan, 200. Horsebands.
Utrecht. Captains Blunt and Anthony Shirley. [Each 100.]
Berghen-op-Zoom. The Lord General, 200; Capt. Parker, 100.
Vlissing. Sir Wm. Russell, 100.
Amersfort. Sir John Burrowes, 100.
Duesborough. Sir Robert Sydney, 100.
“Waggener and Rein.” Capt. Bowcer, 100.
Noted by Burghley. To Mathew Morgan, “a weak company.” Capt. Thos. Knollys, “overthrown in service, and not yet mustered.”
3 pp. Endd. by Burghley “in June 1588.” [Holland XXIV. f. 47.]
May. Document endorsed. “Memorial presented by James Digges, on the behest of the Lord Willoughby.”
And below, in L. Tomson's hand. “Touching his engaging himself in the matter of Ostende.”
Headline. “The causes that moved the Lord Willoughby … to engage himself in Ostend; with such other matters as his Lordship hath required James Digges to inform her Majesty's honourable Privy Council.”
Sir John Conway's letter, averring that the town was not tenable for 4 hours, or 4 days at most. Calling the officers to him, he found that the above opinion was ratified by them. Immediately thereupon, he received intelligence of the enemy's intentions and their approach. Thereupon, seeing the dangerous opinions of the Governor judged it best to depart, giving orders for the bringing of other forces thither, yet with such care that other places should be left ready to answer all occasions.
But if the enemy should attempt Bergen up Zoom or some other place, so small are her Majesty's forces that it would be almost impossible to defend two places at once; seeing Berghen, with the forts, will require near 3000 men, and Ostend 1800 or 2000, “besides the two towns of assurance, which, for many respects, must be kept strong also.”
The bands are generally weakened, having been 18 months or more without any full pay.
Whereof his Lordship desires consideration may be had, and that the articles ensueing may be considered.
1. For competent victuals and munition to be sent to Ostend for its provision; “for there is no hope to be relieved by the Estates.” Also treasure for full pay from 12 October, “to prevent many mischiefs.”
Two or three hoys to be employed in divers respects of importance about the provisions.”
Also “some supply of bands for the strengthening … of such towns as are in her Majesty's hands, from whence 700 are presently drawn to Ostend.
“Also 300 men to Ostend, to supply the sick and other defects of the bands already there.”
Signed, James Digges.
Endd.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 394.]
May. “A memorial for Ostend.”
1. To see the town supplied with victuals. Margin, “Sir Thos. Shurley to be called on to hasten the victualler.”
2. To provide spades, shovels and pickaxes. Margin, “To give order to the Officers of the Ordnance.”
3. To give order to Lord Willoughby and the Governor of Flushing for the sending of 600 men to Ostend. Margin, “Flushing, Bergen.”
“Letters to the Governor to take order for the fortifying of the town.
“To set down some orders to be observed for the Governor.
“Letters to be written to the Lord Willoughby to call upon the States for the fortifying of the Town.
“To cause the dyke by Bruges gate to be cleansed.”
In Walsingham's hand. Endd. as in headline “May, 1588.” ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 392.]
May. Articles touching the Low Countries.
The States think it expedient to preserve the union of the Provinces that there be garrisons of her Majesty in some other towns of the Provinces, she being asked to provide them besides the 4000 foot and 400 horse.
It is manifest by these that they cannot garrison her Majesty's people without her assent; contrariwise she may not garrison her people in what towns she list.
Quaere whether they have not broken the 21st article by Hollock in Denmark, France, Scotland, etc.
Further articles about reforming abuses in taxes, money changers, the re-establishment of public authority and maintenance of military discipline; the preservation of the public weal; the payment of the foreign forces.
Endd. as above, with date; and by Burghley: “Concerning the Authority of the Governor. Articles in French.pp. [Holland XXIII. f. 390.]
May. Advertisements out of Germany.
Troops levied by Marquis Charles at Inspruck, and others also levied there, which were to have been employed for Maximilian in Poland, are going into Flanders; also armour from Insbruck and harquibusses made in Milan.
There are levies made throughout Germany which are said to be for Poland; but they are going towards ‘Augusta’ and Bavaria. “The levies which Casimir is said to make are nothing so great as they have been given forth, for he seemeth in manner not to stir.”
Endd. with date. 2/3 p. [Newsletters XXVII. f. 35.]

Footnotes

1 The text in Motley: United Netherlands ii., p. 367.
2 See Japikse: Resolutien der Staten Generaal, Vol. v., p. 157.
3 See Japikse: Resolutien der Staten Generaal, Vol. vi., p. 157, which gives the date.