June 1588, 16-20


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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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'Elizabeth: June 1588, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4: January-June 1588 (1931), pp. 491-504. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76127 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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June 1588, 16–20

June 16. Sir John Conway to the Lords Commissioners.
The report of disorders supposed to be done by this garrison upon the inhabitants of the country, is nothing but a stratagem of war. “The Commanders of the king's side can assure your lordships there is no such thing within our power or possibility. Since the 4th of June, we have been besieged round, and such is our present state than none of this garrison can pass without leave of the king's side … In truth the grief lyeth on her Majesty's part. We have four burghers … detained prisoners at Odenborough; others have been rifled of their purses and apparell … nightly our watch is disquieted with the approach of their horse and foot.
Has advertised their disorders, and required restitution, “and the reasons for their investment, but can procure no answer of the one, or satisfaction in the other.
He finds the proceedings strange: “that in the handling of a peace, arms shall be put in use, and violence used without redress,” and has suffered, expecting right from them, rather than complaint to their lordships; but finding no amendment nor other secure cessation of arms; but the sword, day and night held over his head, he hopes their lordships will think it reasonable that he accepts war and uses war, until a better peace or cessation of arms is used towards her Majesty's garrison under his charge.
He has not suffered one man to pass out of the garrison “upon any spoil” since their lordships' arrival. Seven or eight Walloons and Dutches went forth without leave to get booty, but he sent such sufficient troops to bring them in that they only escaped by swimming. “They rendered themselves at Odenboroughe, were well received for the intent they had to spoil the country, and had every man a month's pay given them for encouragement. This is true and this is strange, that they will nourish in themselves and reward those which are offenders in the spoil of the country, and complain of those which offend not in the same. If any outrage have been done lately abroad—as it is likely to be true—the fault resteth on the king's side. Since knowledge came to this garrison of their liberality and good acceptance of such as came abroad to spoil the country, divers—both Scots, Irishmen and Dutches have run over to the king's side, seven or eight in a day. No doubt but they would first commit some spoil upon the country before they rendered themselves…. The case being thus, I leave to your honours' wisdoms to judge whence the country's spoils proceed….
“I live neither in fear nor subjection of any prince but the queen my sovereign mistress; neither will I be kept within walls or bonds to her Majesty's dishonour nor my disadvantage … but will endeavour to right myself and the place through the help of God.”—Ostend, 16 June, 1588.
Copy. 2 pp. close writing. [Holland XXIV. f. 133.]
June 17. Thos. Webbes to Walsingham.
The Council letter was delivered to the Governor, concerning the alterations of the Commissaries of Musters, but he would not alter them without further commandment.” Prays that he may have the place as appointed. The place at Utrecht is not disposed of, and Mr. Wilford will not accept it. It may be served by the Clerk of the Cheque, all under one, as also all other places where no commissaries of musters shall be resident.”
If the peace do not take effect, it is likely the enemy may attempt Bergen and Ostend, where her Majesty has most brave men, but no provision of victuals and munition; “the want whereof will be the loss of her subjects and the towns withal, … although they be so good soldiers as will sell their lives dearly, so as they may have wherewithal.” If her Majesty or his honour think that the States will take care of any town where her subjects are, they will be deceived wherefore he prays his honour in time to foresee it; besides, if any such danger should happen, the rest of her towns stand in such terms as there cannot be any one company drawn out to succour another. His honour will see how careless the States are about Gertruydenberg, “which will hardly be relieved under 20,000l.; and there be not order taken within two days, they will all go to the enemy, who will give above 40,000l. for it … and yet they cannot find money for it. Count Maurice and the Lord Governor are gone this morning thither to see what can be done there. If they slip this, what will there be expected in the towns where are her Majesty's forces: in truth none…. Bonn is besieged, and the enemy doth batter it with twenty cannon at the least. Shincke is going up to ‘unset’ it. He sueth to the States for 500 horse to help him: I fear he will obtain none.”—Dordrecht, 17 June, 1588.
Postscript. Sir Thos. Morgan desires me to tell you that Lord Willoughby begins to use him well, and is willing to put him into Berghes; for though he has letters from some one on that side to encourage him to the contrary, he stands rather for Sir Thomas than for Sir William Drury, but would rather the States should do it not he, for fear of offending others. “Touching his lieutenancy, he saith he will rather lose his place than suffer Sir Thomas to enjoy it. He has promised it to Mr. Wylford. I have wrought good friendship in outward show between them … I hope another letter from your honour will alter my lord governor's opinion touching Sir Thos. Morgan's place.” Schink is very much discontented with my Lord Governor, understanding that he seeks to put Sir John Wingfeild in ‘Gerteromberg’ if it be reconciled (which indeed is true, notwithstanding the Queen's letters in his behalf.
Add. Endd.closely written pp. [Holland XXIV. f. 135.]
June 17/27. Resolution taken by the States of Holland in the matter of Geertruydenberg. Having learned that the garrison there will not be satisfied with less than 200,000li. and that for lack of prompt payment they contemplate delivering the town to the enemy, and considering the difficulty of furnishing such a sum promptly, the consequences to other garrisons, the heavy arrears due to the sailors and warships, who ought to be satisfied first in the present conjuncture, yet in view of the importance of the town they have decided to do all that is possible, on the understanding that the town is preserved for the country, and in case some great sum has to be furnished for that garrison so that it will not be possible to pay the other soldiers and sailors suitably, they wish to be absolved from the inconveniences that are like to follow and they do not wish to be blamed in case there is default in furnishing the ships of war promised to her Majesty, and the deputies shall have power to agree to any other means of satisfying these men that may be less burdensome to the country and may preserve the town.—The Hague, 27 June, 1588, stilo novo. Signed, G. de Rechtere.
Endd. French, translated from the Flemish.pp. [Ibid. f. 137.]
June 17. Dr. Dale to Bueghley.
You see we have left no stone unremoved to get a quiet cessation in general terms … we have been led as it were by the hand by our instructions. I have the better hope of agreement because it seemeth hard for the duke to make a navy from hence to annoy England, his ships of war not being past 35 and they but such as are commonly in our ports, and his flat bottoms, which indeed are better than an hundred, being of so small defence both against the sea and against force.
In my opinion, as Phormio spake in matters of war, it were very requisite that my L. Harry should be always upon the coast, for they will steal out from here as closely as they can either to join with the Spanish navy or to land, and they may be very easily scattered by God's grace. Our postulata do trouble the K.'s commissioners very much and bringeth them in despair, specially the article of avoiding of strangers, rebus sic stantibus, both in Holland and France. God must put to his hand, for if they may perceive they cannot achieve their purpose in England, we shall have them mild; not otherwise, assuredly.—Bourborough 17 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 112.]
June 17. A report of the preparations at Dunkirk by one who came from thence on Monday, 17 June.
There are 37 ships, men of war and 60 hoys and boats with victuals.
There is also making ready at the K.'s charge 27 sail all top men of between 120 and 80 tons, very well appointed.
There came in on Friday last a ship and a pinnace out of Spain, with treasure.
They intent to be ready within 12 days, if they can get mariners, which they evoke for out of France 3000 and some others out of Scotland.
On Sunday last the 16th the Duke of Parma came to Dunkirk and viewed the fleet and rowed out to the mouth of the haven to view it likewise and the next day departed to Dixmuyden where his horsemen lie.
There came to Dunkirk last week from St. Omer and thereabouts, three score dry fates with apparel, spurs, bridles, stirrups, horseshoes, head-pieces and murrions.
Some report that the fleet shall to for Scotland, some for Calais but most for England.
Endd. as above. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 114.]
Another copy.
½ p. [Ibid. f. 116.]
June 17. The Commissioners to the Privy Council.
Upon the 7th President Richardot went to inform the duke about the cessation and to bring his answer. He returned not till the 12th so that in the mean time we could do nothing. Upon the 13th he made his report that the duke found our proposal to be unequal, as we required all the towns in the Low Countries, being 500 or more, to keep the cessation towards the 4 towns, and that the Low Countries should not have cessation. He proposed three ways, (1) that we should choose 4 towns with whom the cessation should be kept, or that all her Majesty's subjects in the Low Countries should have cessation against all the Low Countries, who should have the like from the Q.'s subjects there, or that the principal matter should be treated of and the cessation remain as it had done. He complained of certain hostilities committed of late by them of Flushing and Ostend, though they had forborne all hostilities. We answered that the cessation we proposed was word by word equal on both sides, and any inequality therein was not so great as that proposed by them. For the spoils done we reminded them of H.M.'s letters to the governors under her in this country, to be sent if a cessation were arranged, and we understood that certain were departed out of Ostend to run away to the duke's camp, and so were none of H.M.'s garrison. Then we required answer concerning the number of days after intimation. Whereunto Richardot answered that the duke was contented to give 10 or 12 days but further we could not get of him, for the count of Arenberghes and I, said Richardot, have made a reckoning that the duke hath kept 60,000 men upon his hands; desirous to have a peace. Then we demanded the commission from the duke, whereunto Richardot desired pardon and said he had forgotten it, but we should have it forthwith. He said further he had informed the duke of our motion of the inconvenience if the king's navy should come forth … her Majesty's being already upon the seas, and the duke had written again to the king, which was the cause of my staying, quoth Richardot, one day longer at Bruges. Then we required him to put his report in writing and ended for that time.
The next day (the 14th) they sent the writing here enclosed, which we took time to consider until the next day, when we required them to explain the meaning of the words aut ullas ipsius copias which they declared to mean the K.'s forces in the Low Countries only, which we said contained the same inequality expressed in their former writing, and gave them our answer enclosed. Then, as commanded by her Majesty's letters of the 1st June, Dr. Rodgers, whom we appointed for this, did very fully and sufficiently open every point of her Majesty's good dealing towards the K. of Spain … and of the evil offices of his ministers towards her, with protestation that nothing should be taken as spoken by way of expostulation but only to declare her Majesty's honourable dealings, which we all affirmed to be true. To this the K.'s commissioners said nothing at all, but desired us to enter into the principal. Whereunto we said that these things showed H.M.'s affection to quietness, and at our next meeting, the 17th, we would propose unto them such things as we thought most convenient for a full reconciliation. At our meeting on the 17th we delivered the articles enclosed, and required their answer as soon as might be with such plainness that H.M. may perceive the sincerity of their meaning, more directly than hath been done heretofore, that their slackness may be recompensed with sincere and direct dealing hereafter, which thing they promised.
Yesterday evening we received H.M.'s letters of the 14th, whereof many things are already done. The rest we will be careful to do, that H.M. may be fully informed what to determine upon the whole negotiations.—Bourboroughe, 17th June, 1588.
Signed by all five. Add. Endd. with short abstract of contents.
pp. [Flanders IV. f. 103.]
Draft for the same.
Endd. with date. 10½ pp. [Ibid. f. 106.]
Enclosure. Richardot's new proposition for cessation of arms, 14 June, 1588.
Quod nihil hostiliter admittetur in omnibus hisce inferioribus Belgii provinciis ex parte suae Regiae Majestatis neque per suos contra civitates et loca quae per praefatam ser. Reg. ibidem detinentur aut ullas ipsius copias: Neque vicissim ex parte ejusdem ser. Reg. contra regiones, civitates, loca, copias vel subditos suae Reg. Cath. Maj. in iisdem inferioribus Provinciis. Quod ad tempus attinet, quandoquidem praefati ser. Reginae legati declarant sex dierum spacium post revocationem brevius ipsis videri, concedi ejus loco potuerunt decern vel duodecim dies. Quo nihil amplius admitti potest.
To avoid further occasions for complaints, consider it would be better to make no further mention of the cessation, but to proceed to the principal.
Endd. as above. Latin from the French. 1 p. [Treaty Papers V. f. 86.]
Enclosure. Answer of Her Majesty's Commissioners to the new proposition touching Cessation of Arms, 15 June, 1588.
Inequality of the form of cessation proposed; the last while restraining the queen's subjects from all offence of Belgium leaves the king's subjects free to invade the queen's dominions. The term of 12 days is too short, but as the king's deputies profess a desire to enter upon the principal, they will not refuse, so that the world may know the queen's love of peace is such that she will refuse no honest and just conditions.
Endd. as above. Latin. 2/3 p. [Ibid. f. 88.]
Enclosure. Demands of the Queen's Commissioners, 17 June, 1588, stylo veteri.
(1) Renewing of the treaties; (2) toleration and continuance of privileges; (3) to remove the strange forces; (4) restoration of the towns upon rembursement of H.M.'s charges; (5) assurance for observing the conditions agreed upon.
Endd. with abstract of contents. Latin.pp. [Ibid. f. 90.]
June 17. The Earl of Derby to Burghley.
I take it as a special favour that notwithstanding your head is fully fraught with the affairs of the realm [torn] late accident by God's order (which I do also mourn for) you have been pleased to send some few lines in your own hand. [Of the K. of Spain's navy and their negotiations has nothing to add. Ready to be employed where he may do her Majesty best service] “comforting myself specially to hear of her Majesty's provident care in putting her whole realm in readiness to withstand whatsoever may be attempted against them.” [Compliments.]—Bourborough, 17 June, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 118.]
June 18. Capt. Edmund Uvedall to Walsingham.
I understand by your letters that Sir Thos. Morgan has told you that there is unkindness between him and me and other captains; whereof I humbly crave your leave to declare the causes.
After the departure of my Lord of Lester, our nation, by means of Stanley and Yorke's treason “grew so far out of taste with the States, as they sought by all means to thrust us out of our garrisons; which Sir John Norris and Mr. Wilkes finding, sent special commandment to all garrisons to take in no Dutch companies without order from England. They, desirous to bring their practice to effect, sent divers companies to Bergen op Zoom … and as soon as they were in the town, practised with the rest of their nation for the putting of us out, which was well known to Sir Thomas Morgan; yet notwithstanding he would have received as many companies as came, and would not be persuaded to the contrary. When the captains found his will to be without reason and that his judgment reached not to look into the policies of the States, nor that soldiers afoot committed by him could be a sufficient discharge for them, considering the Colonel-General and Mr. Wilkes had sent commandment both to Sir Thos. Morgan and the captains to receive none; they with one consent, both for the safety of the place and service of her Majesty denied him the receipt of any Dutch into the town without order from England. Whereon he commanded us to set down under our hands the reasons why we denied it, which we did; the copy whereof I have here-enclosed, sent to your honour. Since the doing of this, which was good service to her Majesty … he hath offered those wrongs which are intolerable.
First—whereas in all martial courts since there was wars, the governor sits as judge and the captains as a Council of War and assistants to him, freely to deliver their opinions—in open court he commanded us to sit and hear and say nothing, alleging that her Majesty's captains had no juries, nor would not suffer us to speak in any matter, but made his will a law, and did allow that those which were the States' captains might speak in all cases, but not her Majesty's, in which he made us worse than slaves. There lives not a peasant but hath liberty to speak in honest sort. For my own particulars, to disgrace me he delivered to Sir William Russell that I was a great fool and that I had my beginning from him; my credit, my preferment to your honour and all that I possessed. What wrong he hath done me in that is known to your honour.
In a matter wherein some of my soldiers were wronged by a favourite of his, the cause coming in question in court, Sir Thos. Morgan refused to hear my soldiers' witnesses, being gentlemen, and desired to swear; and heard the witnesses of the contrary party without oath. Myself sitting at the table, being no party in the matter …, he commanded me away, and would have brought me within compass of mutiny, and in my absence, the contrary party spake at large, and after, he sent for me and commanded me to silence; a wrong which I think was never offered to one but me; and contrary to justice; one of my soldiers, being wronged was kept in prison two months …
“Lastly, in the matter between Mr. Whetstone and me, wherein I was sifted to the uttermost, and found by all the honourable hearers, that what I did I was forced to, and in defence of my reputation, Sir Thos. Morgan, to whom the matter did nothing appertain, put himself into the cause of purpose to take away my life, and gave these judgments, that by law I should be shot to death, and both buried in one pit; if pardoned, to have my company taken from me, and banished; by which means it was long or there could be any better procured for me than banishment, as I can prove by letters of honourable persons, only by his speeches it cost me 100 marks or I had an end.
“It hath been always the least part of my desire to be troublesome to your honour in matters touching my own particular; but because I doubt Sir Thos. Morgan hath delivered to you that which may defend himself and disgrace me, I enter to the boldness to deliver you at large the wrongs he hath offered me; and I should think myself most happy if I might answer it afore your honour. The least of these wrongs are sufficient to withdraw any man's affection from him, and for my part I had thoroughly resolved never to be commanded by him; but the love and obedience I bear to your honour shall alter my resolution, and I will carry myself in such sort as shall fit an honest man to his governor….—Bargen-op-Sone, 18 June.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. closely written. Seal of arms. [Holland XXIV. f. 139.]
Certificate of the Captains.

“Whereas we have received certain letters from the Colonel-General and Mr. ‘Welckes,’ with commandment to receive in no garrison of these countries unless it be by especial patent out of England: we, those captains that do fulfil that commandment, and therefore withstand such patents as hath since that time come for the better assurance of the place to her Majesty, do take upon us by virtue of these letters the doing of the same; in witness whereof, we subsigned with our hands the 27 February.
Francis Vere; Thos. Baskarveld; Dave Powell; Edmond Uvedall; Richard Hart; John Boncke.
Copy in Uvedall's hand. ¼ p. [Ibid. f. 140.]
June 18. M. Adolfe Meetkerke to Walsingham.
Forwards a letter of Dr. Paul Knibbe, his son-in-law, (fn. 1) now at Flushing, praying for letters of recommendation, or to procure them from the queen; which he does the rather because, being taken into service at Staden he would have means to advertise her Majesty of all that passes in Germany, without any expense to her, and to hold good correspondence with this court.—London, 18 June, '88.
Add. Endd. French. ¾ p. [Ibid. f. 144.]
June 18. Capt. Thos. Baskerville to Walsingham.
Promising to obey his letter to Capt. Vere, Capt. Uvedall, and himself, willing them to forget their dislikes against Col. Morgan; and to yield him obedience according to the authority given him over them.—Bergen, 18 June.
Holograph. Add. Endd. 1 p. Seal of arms. [Holland XXIV. f. 142.]
June 18. Croft to Burghley.
Thanks for the mediation of himself and Walsingham. Condolences on loss of his daughter. Does not doubt but he will continue his favourable hand for the furtherance of H.M.'s service in their treaty. Learns from Andrea de Loo that the K.'s commissioners greatly mislike the manner of the setting down of the articles propounded, liking far better the form used by Croft at Bruges, and it seems they would willingly take some such course as that was, whereby they might the better express reasons to induce the king to grant the same, as Croft had done in the 12th note. Refers to him for advice. Sends him a copy of Mr. Secretary's letter (fn. 2) from which he takes no small comfort.
The desire of the other side to embrace the form of proceeding suggested by himself argues a consent in them to confirm the subject matter, and he conceives the success may be such as may stand with H.M.'s pleasure to accept of. Asks his lp's. advice as also what he conceives to be H.M.'s opinion of the reasons he remembered in his last letters to Burghley touching the conformity of Holland and Zeeland.—Borboroughe, 18 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd.pp. [Flanders IV. f. 120.]
June 19/29. M. de Champagny to Burghley.
Being persuaded that you will do all that is proper to re-establish good relations between our sovereigns I feel bound to inform you that the day before yesterday the queen's deputies proposed some articles to enter upon the principal matter, which we insisted upon, for brevity, seeing that they did not utter a word of what Mr. Croft put forward at Bruges, and which we did not mention either, perceiving the lack of conformity between them. They brought forward some points, practically on this footing, but so lacking in the energy of the others that it has caused more disturbance than anything else, even after a long speech of Dr. Rogers in the preceding communication at our expense. We decided to make no answer or say what we might, touching greater persons than himself, as he did, and gave cause enough for it … In short I see nothing better for proceeding satisfactorily than what Mr. Controller advised, for a beginning, for if you do not give it more support in credit and respect from your side, it can hardly be assisted by others, because it belongs to the queen's own service.—Bourbourg, 29 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd as stilo novo. Fr.pp. [Ibid. f. 122.]
June 19/29. M. de Champagney to Leicester.
Having been unable to obtain the exchange of M. de la Noue for the Count of Egmont … you may believe how little I can do what you desire for M. de Thouraise … Have offered in exchange three English gentlemen; but must be excused if do not exert myself to prevent them being sent to the Comté of Burgundy into the power of Madame de Thouraise, since you have caused M. de Thouraise, taken by those of Berghen, to be sent elsewhere. If you have him delivered to the French you must not expect me to prevent their being sent away nor any other subjects of your nation from suffering like inconvenience, which they will owe, in such case, to your Excellency and to no others.—Bourbourg, 29 June, 1588.
Copy.pp. Fr. [Holland XXIV. f. 145.]
June 20. Lord Wyllughby to the Lords of the Council.
How far I had proceeded in the cause for Gertrudenberghe my discourse by Mr. Bagnall and my letters of May 7 have advertised you. Since which, no means has been unessayed to preserve the place. If the matter had been taken in the beginning (as was proffered and I wished) the conditions might have proved more easy, but the delay had wrought great alteration in the men. And the States' letters “concluded upon no means how to satisfy (until the last jump) when all hope to save the town was in manner lost. It was most needful then to deal roundly … and to go to the touch with them that stood upon such ticklish points. To which effect, lying with Count Maurice and certain of the States two or three days aboard our ships … with much ado yesterday they yielded themselves content to accept of 20 months' pay; which amounteth near to 30,000l. sterling; which the Count and States have given me their word shall be performed. And the soldiers well satisfied with my promises, account all as received from her Majesty. I never found men more resolute … not to hearken to Count Maurice, nor to deal with the States.” And when I named Sir Martin Shencke for their governor they protested “rather to put themselves and the town under the Spanish government then to allow of him, whom they esteemed ten times more bad than Colonel Hollocke, both for cruelty in his bloody executions, and for witholding their payments…. And their rages appeared so vehement against him as I durst not enter into any treaty for him unless I would have hazarded the town…. Likewise Count Maurice, from whom great part of this money must come, entered into some jealousy, that if Skinche should once get that government into his hands, he would (as with all other places under his rule) keep it for his own private benefit; without respect of him or the country's common cause.”
Your lordships wrote that two companies should be cashiered, and their pay allowed to Skinke; but as they must be two of the weakest, I doubt how I could content all parties, having received letters to meddle with none save my own or Captain Parker's; and therefore leave it to your lordships to name which shall be discharged. I am now going to the Hague, “to follow such causes as concern her Majesty's service with the States, and to procure a full conclusion for Gertruydenberg.”—Dordrecht, 20 June, 1588.
Postscript. “I have been earnest with Mr. Killigrew to deal with the States for Sir Martin Skink's causes, who seems to have no great taste of him.”
Signed. Add. Endd. with note of contents.pp. small close writing. [Holland XXIV. f. 147.]
June 20. Lord Wyllughby to Burghley.
[Refers to Burghley's loss and his own discouragement from home.]
How necessary it is to entertain these countries in union, your counsels have told me, but other directions have come to me, “fit to disjoin from us the chief means. It hath been always accustomed to make choice of chief men, and to hold them in by good offices … and not to discourage them by hard measure. Schenck is come over recommended governor for the town of Gertruydenberg, appertaining in just right to the mortuary house of Count Maurice and the late Prince of Orange his children, and the chief part of their livelihood. The said Schenk having many governments which he yields no account for, richer than the revenues of the whole house of Orange that live here. To compass this, he hath brought no money nor taken no pains or hazard in determining the altered estate of the town. On the other side, the Count hath employed himself and all his friends with their purses; and now at the upshot of the matter hath engaged him and his for the payment of many thousand pounds. To transport this town from the inheritance of the one, and all his expense, to a man rewarded to his full desert; to displease such a person, and proceed contrary to the opinion of a whole estate, I leave it to your lordship's wisdom to judge. Yet herein I am commanded to travail; though I fear me if it were possible for me to achieve it, as I doubt I shall never (because he is so deadly hated, and termed by them in Gertruidenbergh a more cruel, bloody and near man than Hollock himself, and protesting they will receive the Spaniard before him) yet should (as I have said) proceed therein, not without great fear that I should do such disservice to her Majesty in alienating so many minds for one private man, as I doubt I should receive but little thanks after. It may please your lordship also to consider … what consequence this matter draweth with it. The sums of money are so great which are to be employed in this, as your lordship may assure yourself … that their war here will be nothing for all this year, take it by sea or land. That they also (distasted by some of our overthwart dealing) go about to make a new party. It is here in some jealousy that the Count of Hollock and the other ambassadors are appointed for Denmark and Germany, to stir the princes of those parts.” I send your lordship their Instructions, and leave the rest to your judgment.
“The contract, the Council of Estate and the matter of war are in wonderful declination; desiring that the fire should light in some other place…. I could wish her Majesty to delegate some qualified honourable person, either to confirm the contract and the government or to draw home her forces; for as they lie in Berghen and Ostend and about the country, they certainly are subject to great disgraces and no service at all to countervail her infinite charges … as hath been oft by me before alleged. Besides, those forces—if an enemy should set foot in England or Ireland—would affront him better perhaps than is looked for. This, I allege, is excepting the cautionary towns, which, till rembursement, I wish doubly renforced. Such a choice respected person, with such a resolute course … all differences of this country being at this present in a manner atoned, shall certainly work no small effect … and truly, it will not be less advantageous to her Majesty to employ a lord Ambassador than a General that hath neither men, means, authority or credit to offend or defend withall….”
Thus humbly craving pardon for my rudeness, and wishing I might be at home to do your lordship service which I am fitter for than this, I leave you to God.—“From Dort, newly returned from before Gertruydenberg,” 20 June, 1588.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIV. f. 149.]
June 20. Lord Wyllughby to Walsingham.
Refers him to the letter sent to the Lords for what end is made at Gertruydenberg. Yesterday he received letters from Sir Edw. Norris at Ostend, the copy whereof he sends enclosed. Before its coming he had appointed the companies of Lord Audley and Capt. Anthony Wingfeild, according to their lordships' order to remove from Bergen thither—supplying them by his own company—and had signified their pleasure to the governor of Flushing for sending three companies from thence, which he thinks has been done.
Count Hollock is departing to-day or to-morrow towards Denmark and Germany. Sends enclosed a copy of his Instructions, but knows not “what others more secret he may have under the shadow of these.”—Dordrecht, 20 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. with abstract of contents. ½ p. [Ibid. f. 151.]
Copy of letter from Sir Edw. Norreys.
They have still advertisements “that the enemy lieth here encamped, and his guides and sentinel places [sic] round about; and his horse cometh nightly to the sconce upon the dyke which Sir William Reade made; and amongst them assuredly spoken that he attendeth but the watchword” to come upon them. They still have the same opinion of their weakness as when his lordship was with them; and pray him to send the four companies to assure them and “take away all intent of yielding; for the enemy findeth daily means to send drums hither upon light causes, and Barney's wife is here greatly honoured and her husband exceedingly much made of…”—Ostend, 13 June, 1588.
¾ p. [Ibid. f. 152.]
b. Copy of “l'Instruction donnée au Conte d'Hohenloe par les Estats Generaux a son departement” to accompany and aid the deputies to be sent to the King of Denmark, the Dukes of Saxony and Brandenburg and other potentates.—The Hague, 24 June, 1588 [n.s.] (fn. 3)
French.pp. [Holland XXIV. f. 153.]
June 20. Colonel Martin Schenck. to Walsingham.
The enclosed letters were stayed by a commissary of the States General, who had charge to send them to her Majesty before my departure from Germany; and which you may remember I mentioned lately at the court.
That her Majesty may not think that I was speaking of things which I did not mean to produce, I send you them, praying you to present them to her with my very humble apologies. As for my affairs here, I have found that her Majesty's recommendations and letters have not the result which she intended; for instead of investing me with the government of Gertrudenberg, M. ‘Willibe’ has put in his brother-in-law, as you will shortly learn more in detail; as to which I should never have thought that her Majesty's letters would have been so little accounted of by her own subjects; a thing which I have never seen in other nations.—Dordrecht, 20 June, 1588.
Postscript. I do not write to her Majesty or the Earl of Leicester, as I am expecting some further particulars whereof (so soon as I know them) I will inform them, and shall betake myself to my garrisons, where I shall hold my ground to the utmost, for I cannot remain here, deceived not only by the States but by the servants of her Majesty.
Signed. Add. Endd. French. 1 p. [Ibid. f. 157.]
June 20/30. S. de Grimaldi to Don Ferdinando Lopez de Vila Nova, governor of Carpen and Lommerssom Carpen.
Acknowledges his letter of the 19th. Difficulty of sending of letters owing to the great danger of freebooters. Learns from Cologne that they have received letters to send to Kerpen, so that his letters that way arrive late and he always sends them by messengers towards Amiens. Learns from him of the reception of his of the 10th with the news of France and the peace of Bruges of which they have had so little news since. Wishes he could write some news of their expectation which would deserve the cordial thanks he sends so often. Hitherto he has seen how coldly the English proceed, but hopes that with the arrival of the Armada, we shall hear them talk otherwise. As his letters are appreciated will keep Don Lopez informed, especially from the importance attached thereto by his Majesty. Encloses a note picked up since his last letter. Marvellous news is expected any day, but has nothing more at present.—Bruges, 30 June, 1588.
Signed. Add. Endd. A Secretary of the Duke of Parmays. Fr.p. [Flanders IV. f. 185.]
Copy of what the king has had added to the publication of the Jubilee.
The king as an obedient Catholic and defender of the faith has raised a great army and a strong fleet to be used for the extirpation of heresy and the undoing of the ministers of Satan, to unite in England, the nursery of all the pestilential sects where so much blood of martyrs has been shed. To attain this end he charges all faithful men to pray God to guide the force to a safe port, to bring victory to the army and success to all the king's enterprises. Spanish.
Of the 26th June at Bruges.
This day Capt Moresino leaves for Dunkirk, whence he will put to sea to go and find the Armada. His Altesse is in no wise astonished that it tarries so, without his receiving further news. He has set out at 3 o'clock this morning, some think for Dunkirk to review the crews of the war ships, some that he is gone to see the canal by which our boats are to pass towards Nieuport and to hasten the passage.
They say that on the return of Pres. Richardot the deputies of England have begun to treat of the principal. French.
1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 186.]
June 20/30. Desmarets to M. Demetieres, seigneur de la Planine, secretary of the King's Privy Council.
Has answered all his letters and delivered those sent to him. This is in reply to the last, received from M. l'Audiencier who had it from M. Zounius. With regard to the debt assigned to him by his Majesty it will be difficult to recover the money. Mme. Hopperus had an assignment, but she has still to receive the first farthing (maille), despite her favour at Court, such is the extremity and misery. M. l'Auditeur must find the means and then will do his best.
Has written that the hopes of peace are null and it seems the English are not behaving straightly and try to lull them to sleep. Thank God that will not be easy, if the fleet achieves success. If not do not expect peace but unspeakable injury to Christendom, which God forfend and may He second the holy intention of his Majesty and of all good princes. The thing is hazardous for the enemy has had too much time to make provision and see their preparations, designs and great faults; but will say no more. Hopes that God will give victory to the good king and have pity on the affliction of his church. To this end prayers are being offered continually both here and there in practically the same form, and will not cease until they are heard. The army of Spain tarries and goes slowly for certain designs, he understands, but does not know what, and is still far off. Not too ready here, but hope to be in a few days. Will send him word of what happens from time to time.—Brussels, last of June, 1588.
Signed. Add. as above to Madrid, to go in the packet of M. Audiencier. Endd. last June, from Brussels. Fr. 1⅓ pp. [Ibid. f. 187.]


1 At page 480 above.
2 At page 491 above.
3 In the same terms as the instructions to the deputies at p. 484 above.