Elizabeth
Miscellaneous, 1588

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas and Allen B. Hinds (editors)

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1931

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536-550

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'Elizabeth: Miscellaneous, 1588', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 4: January-June 1588 (1931), pp. 536-550. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76130 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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[1587. June.] “Copy of Mr. Comptroller's letter written in Italian to Andreas de Loo [sic] (fn. 1)
“The great prolonging of the treaty of peace hath grown through diversities of humours in this court; some inclined to peace, some to war; some for religion and others to make profit of the time by spoil and otherwise; so as you may not marvel though the Queen's Majesty hath been drawn into diverse opinions … which thing not being duly considered on that side hath bred great suspicion of her sincere dealing. And the Duke with the Council there remaining always steadfast and of one firm accord, did never vary in opinion; in whom her Majesty had ever firm trust. Nevertheless, she had always scruples put into her head; yet at the last you see how by letters and instructions sent by my servant Morris, it cannot be but that the Duke is fully satisfied; whose long abode there breedeth a jealousy in some on this side, that the Duke … should now go about by driving of time to seek for some unlooked for advantage; which her Majesty will hardly believe, although some would persuade her thereunto. This being answered … I say the treaty of peace is not only begun, but in heart and mind, on her Highness' part, concluded.
Memo. “This letter was written when Morris, my servant remained in Flanders, at time of the siege of Sluce; which I suppose Andrea de Loo did never show the Duke; his credit then being little [with] him, through many delays, as I do know; who was examined whether he came as a spy or meant truly.” “To my lord Treasurer.”
In the hand of Sir James Croft's clerk. ¾ p. [Flanders II. f. 163.]
Jan. 15/25. Safe conduct from the Duke of Parma for the Queen's Commissioners, i.e. Derby, Cobham, Croft and Dale.—Ghent, 25 January, 1588.
No signature. ? Copy. Latin.pp. [Treaty Papers V. f. 25.]
[March.] The description of the King's forces in these Countries in the year 1588. (fn. 2)
The Duke of Parma, lieutenant, governor and capt.-general.
Conty Mansfelt, marshal of the Camp, of the Council of War, governor of Luxemburg and capt. of a company of lances.
The Marquis of Guasto, general of the horse and of the Council of War.
Conte Charles Mansfelt, general of the artillery, of the Council of War and colonel of a regiment of Almans.
Marquis of Renty, admiral of the seas, general of the Walloon infantry, of the Council of War and capt. of lances.
La Motte, of the Council of War, governor of Gravelinge, commander of Steta and col. of a regt. of Walloons.
The Marquis Pedro Gaetano, of the Council of War and capt. of a comp. of lances.
Mondragon, of the Co. of War, castellan of Andwerpe and col. of the old regiment of Spaniards.
Olivero Castilliano, lieut-gen. of the horse, of the Co. of War and capt. of lances.
Don Juan de Manriquez, of the Co. of War and col. of a regmt. of Almans.
Camillo del Monto, of the Co. of War and capt. of a comp. of lances.
The Conte of Aremberghe, chief of the finances, of the Co. of War and col. of a regt. of Almans.
Ferando Gonzago of the Co. of War and col. of a regt. of Almans.
Don Carolus de Luna, of the Co. of War and capt. of a comp. of lances.
Principal men … reported come to win honour in the journey of England: the Archduke of Austria with 5000 rutters; brother or nephew to the King of Hungary, with 1000 horse; Don Juan de Medicis base brother to the Duke of Florence; Don Amadeo base brother to the Duke of Savoy; Don Juan de Manrique de Lara, son to the Duke of Najarethe; Don (fn. 3) son to the Duke of Infantasgo; Don Lewis Gosmanto, son to the Duke of (fn. 3) ; Don Alonso de Diaques, son to the King's principal secretary; the Duke of Brunswick with 1000 horse, besides a number of gentlemen that are come down for company of these.
The Walloon Regiments: the Conty of Egmont, the Marquis of Renty, MM. de Noircarmes, Ballancon, Fresin, La Motte, Count Octavio Mansfelt, with 20 old companies of no regiment. They have 12 companies each, at least, of 130 to 140 men.
Almayn Regiments: Counts Aremberghe, Barlamonte, Charles Mansfelt, Deikenberghe; Don Juan Manriquez, Don Hernando Gonzaga, Baron de Billy. They have 10 and 12 comps. a piece of at least 200 men each.
Spanish Regiments: Mondragon, Don Juan Deinigos, Pradillia, Bovadillia, Agilar; 2 new regts.; 24 cos. or less with 50 or 60 men in each.
Irish and Scots: Sir Wm. Stanley; Arche Patton; 1000 men between them.
Burgoinons: the Marquis of Waranbon; at least 1000 men.
Luxemburgeois: 3 companies of 500 each.
Bands of ordonances: Counts Egmont, Barlamont, Mansfelt, Heninge, Bossu, Duke of Arscot, Prince de Simay, Marquises de Haverey, de Renty, MM. de Baillen and de Morbecke; near 100 apiece.
Italian Regiments: Camillo Capuchuca, Don Gaston, 2 new regiments, about 3500.
Lances, Italian and Albanes: the prince's company; Marquises de Guasto and de Renty; Counts Hogestrate, Nicolas, Apio; Camillo del Monte, Don Juan de Robles, Pedro Gayetana, Georgio Kersie, Blaso Capuchuca, M. de Guny, Don Santio de Leva, Don Philippe de Robles, Nicholas Basta, Hanibal Gonzaga, Oliviero Castilliano, Coradin, Don Ambssio Mondragon, Don Carolus de Luna, the Grand Prior of Hungary; about 50 or 60 in each company.
Harquebusiers on horse: the prince's company, Count Mansfelt, M. de Risebroeke, Carondelet, Pradillia, Contrares, La Biche, George Basta.
Horse new arrved: 500 banditos sent by the pope out of Italy under a Roman gentleman with full pardon if they serve well.
Horsemen looked for, not yet arrived [Austria, Hungary and Brunswick as above].
Footmen looked for, not yet arrived: 3 regiments of Almans, 3000 Spaniards, 2000 Italians.
Entretenidos: 500 cast officers and other gentlemen, ready to follow the Prince wheresoever he goeth.
Note that I have not here specified any of the forces of Friseland nor any of his frontier garrisons.
There is also coninual levying of Walloons in every part to fill the regiments, i.e. 200 in each company; the like for the Almans which ought to be 300 in each company. Signed, Ed. de Barney.
4 pp. [Flanders IV. f. 198.]
[? April.] Capt. Ed. de Barney to (fn. 4)
Has maintained his credit but wishes to buy her Majesty's favour and the liberty of his Country. Has no doubt but to employ himself so as to give intelligences of what passeth from Cardinal Allen into these countries. The like from the Duke of Guise. And most assuredly will bring to pass all Owen's intelligences with the Prince of Parma, his correspondents in England, what priests go over and where they resort.
Signed and Endd. Half sheet. [Flanders II. f. 170.]
April 2/12. Instructions for the Council of State. (fn. 5)
34 articles; dated 12 April, 1588.
Copy. Endd. Dutch. 15½ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIII. f. 286.]
Another copy of the same.
Copy. Endd. French. 16½ pp. [Ibid. f. 296.]
April 2/12. Imperfections in the Instructions given to the Council of State.
The ld. General is only mentioned in the first article, and his authority clean taken from him.
The provision that the counsellors may not depart without the general's leave, taken from him and given to the president.
Where the ld. General and the Council were to be careful of the union of the provinces, the charge is left only to the Council.
The power of the ld. General to assist in the receipt and laying out of contributions is taken from him and the ordering and disposal of the revenues put in the Council's hands.
The direction of the Admiralty taken from the ld. General and settled in the College of the Admiralties.
The ld. General shut out of the charge of seeing that the bounds of the provices are duly kept.
The obedience of the captains and soldiers taken from the ld. General and settled in the governors of the provinces and in the Admirals.
His signature to commissions, only for the English.
His authority to assemble the States taken away and invested in the Council.
The residence of the Council left to their discretion, with no mention of the ld. General.
Authority to appoint the treasurer and receiver taken from him and conferred on the Council.
The despatch of commissions in his name and the disposal of the seal, taken from him and given to the Council.
Counsellors no longer to swear allegiance, but only to the States.
He is shut out of his share with the States in deciding matters of doubt.
By which abridging sort articles 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, and 24 of the treaty are in a manner clean made void and stand for ciphers; so that, in effect, the ld. General's office and power stretcheth no further but effectuer leur commandement.
Endd. “Imperfections in the Instructions given to the Council of State whereby it appeareth how the treaty is made void;” and, in another hand, “12 April, 1588.” 2¼ pp. [Treaty Papers XXXIII. f. 305.]
[? April 7.] Lord Cobham to Burghley.
After the despatch this morning of Morris (fn. 6) I have received such advertisements that I have thought very convenient to acquaint your lordship. They have discovered here that the quarrel between the French king and the D. of Guyses is counterfeited. Thereupon the 2 millions of crowns that should have been paid this last month to the D. of Guyses is stayed till they hear further from Spain and for that he hath failed to take those towns on that frontier that he promised. As also the small hope they have of the King of Scotland, being assured he is wholly her Majesty's.
It is thought that the duke will lay the siege afore Callis and winning of it he will put in his own soldiers. Besides they are informed how well her Majesty is provided for in her country and what a great Armado she hath on the sea.
I send this that I may have from her Majesty such directions as may guide this our action (if it be expedient). It were very good to send me a cipher to pass between your lordship and me and set down thus privately that you desire to know.
Any reasonable conditions of peace, as I hear will be granted. Let the iron be stricken whiles it is hot if it be thought convenient and profitable. You know my hand and name.
Holograph, unsigned and undated. Add. 1 p. [Flanders III. f. 371.]
April 9. Articles put by the States of Utrecht to their deputies going to the Assembly of the States General. (fn. 7)
Concerning the answer of the States of Holland to Lord Willoughby's proposals, complaining of their choosing a governor apart, and vindicating their own liberties; protesting against the encroachments of the States General, and the action of certain noblemen of the province; and the occupation of the house of Braeckel.—On 9 April, 1588, stylo veteri.
Certified copy. Endd. Dutch. 5 pp. [Treaty papers XXXIII. f. 282.]
“Note of sundry things mentioned in the Instructions and needful to be had from my Lord Treasurer, for the better instruction of the Commissioners.”
The negotiation at Burburghe, showing the abuse offered by the King's Commissioners to her Majesty.
The treaty at Chateau Cambresis.
Things propounded on her Majesty's behalf at Bourburghe.
The ancient treaties between Charles V and Henry VIII.
And between the Kings of England and Portugal.
Note of moneys lent by her Majesty to the States at Brussels for the King's use.
Pacification of Gaunt, ratification thereof by the States, in 1576; and confirmation by Don John in Feb. 1577[-8].
The 18th article of the Peace, providing that her Majesty should be answered for moneys lent.
A note of the bands given for payment thereof by Antwerp, Bruges, Gant, Niewport, Dunkirk and Brussels.
“Copies of the colloquies at Brussels, when the King's Council took arms to expel the Spaniards. The King's placcard allowing this expulsion, Dec., 1577; the confirmation thereof by the States General; and the according of the same by prelates, lords, gents, towns etc. in January, 1578.
A solemn act “in July following, 1578,” by the Council of Estates and the States General at Antwerp whereby a public peace was established.
“An Act of the States of Frise, procured by Mr. Herbert in December, 1587.
Endd.pp. [Flanders II. f. 162.]
[? June.] Three reasons to prove it necessary to urge the Commissioners:
(1) No security so long as the stranger forces remain there.
(2) Her Majesty forced thereby to stand upon such conditions as will not be well liked.
(3) The attempts discovered intended against the realm. The manner to treat for the peace for the United Provinces:
The point of religion to be urged to have continuation for the space of 10 years in the United Provinces.
For the rest of the points to be referred to the Pacification of Gaunt.
To require some convenient time for her Majesty to propound such points as shall be agreed on, to the States.
3 Degrees:
(1) The withdrawing of the forces and delivery of the towns.
(2) Withdrawing the forces and delivering the towns to the States.
(3) Withdrawing the forces and yet retaining the towns.
Whether a peace may be made with surety without the States.
The first 12 lines in Walsingham's hand. 1 p. [Flanders IV. f. 70.]
Questions meet to be considered of touching the intended treaty of peace.
If the treaty shall not go forward the breach may grow two ways: (1) on the point of religion; (2) by the States refusing to enter into any treaty.
This suggests the following questions: (1) if the king allows toleration, whether the queen shall proceed in the treaty, and rest only upon freedom of conscience for a time; (2) if the queen shall go forward in any case; (3) if the States refuse to join, if the queen shall proceed to treat for them or no, or if they shall not allow of any conclusion of the treaty without free exercise of religion, whether she shall proceed in the treaty.
Last, if the treaty go not forward in respect of these impediments, what way is to be taken to continue the wars, and what conditions may the queen make with the States to diminish her charges, and yet to understand how by probability they shall be able to withstand the enemy.
Some other doubts to be moved: What council to give the queen; (1) if the king offers reasonable conditions for herself, requiring her to leave the protection of his subjects and the two towns, upon payment of her demands, and for his subjects the conditions of the Pacification of Gant; (2) if he yields to all the conditions save payment to redeem the towns, permitting her to hold them until either he or the States shall make payment.
Endd. 12/3 pp. [Treaty Papers V. f. 43.]
“The Contrarieties appearing upon this Treaty.”
“To treat of a peace, and to make such a war as is pretended, not only against the realm of England but against the person of her Majesty, so as, if the event of the war should succeed as the authors show their desire there would be no ground to treat of a peace.
“And therefore it is requisite that her Majesty might understand of the Duke whether his purpose be to become the executioner of the war; with such circumstances as by the Cardinal's letter, the Pope's Bull and by the common fame coming out of Spain; the general reports of the Duke's forces in the Low Countries and namely also by the unnatural vile brags of such English traitors as do now attend and accompany the Duke there.
“And to th' intent the Duke may understand what are the particularities of the conditions which are said to be the grounds of this war; whereupon her Majesty doth move these doubts; and which, if they be true, there is no place left to treat of peace: these they are”:—
That the Pope having already, by his bull, declared the Queen not to be lawfully Queen … nor her subjects bound to obey her but discharged of their allegiance, yea bound to rebel against her and to commit violence to her person; and that the King of Spain hath thereupon taken the charge on him … to invade her realm, to take the crown as in conquest and to dispose thereof as the Pope and he shall decree “with many other dishonourable things against her person and the whole nation of her realm, always” in mere estimation to defend themselves, yea to invade other kingdoms than to be afraid of any war that by means of a pope any prince can make and therefore although hitherto her Majesty hath sincerely proceeded upon the provocation of the Duke of Parma to treat of peace: yet she findeth so many delays in the treaty, and such unlikelihood by the answers to come to such a peace as shall have a continuance for her surety … and such a contrary violence intended by this great army come out of Spain by the solicitation of the Pope, … as it were against all reason and honour for her to continue this treaty, except … she be better informed what to think of these threatenings, whereof she doth require the Duke, as he will have her accept him as a prince of honour, to satisfy her either with assuring the same to be true or false, and not to give her any doubtful answers; for if he shall, she must … think all true that she hath conceived, and doubteth not but she hath a protector, the King of Kings, that, with the faithful hearts of her subjects will maintain her estate against the might of the greatest enemies that shall assail her.
“And if the Duke shall disavow his knowledge of these attempts, stirred up by the Pope and to be executed by him,” is still disposed to treat of peace and will agree to a cessation of arms; “her Majesty will then adventure, notwithstanding the powers that are come out of Spain, to proceed to the treaty. For otherwise, to see her realm to be invaded and to talk of peace in their country that shall invade her, she cannot with honour, nor without reproach in the judgment of the world commit such a fault … or continue her Commissioners to abide longer in those parts. And whatsoever God shall dispose hereof, wherein she doubteth not of his favour for her first defence; she shall make it known to the world that she hath principally sought for peace … so as the blood that may be shed in this war may be avenged by God upon them that are the authors and furtherers thereof.
“And he shall let the Duke understand that what untruths the rebels of this land that are with him shall deliver to him, for their own advantage, of the advantages that he may look for in this realm; her Majesty is most certainly assured that the generality of all her subjects is so affected to maintain her in her crown, and to continue the sceptre thereof in the right blood of this crown (whensoever God shall be pleased to call her) whereof there are no small number known to her people not farther from her in any degree than from her grandfather King Henry VII, of whose body many are extant, and many also by the body of her great grandfather, Edward IV; to which the natural people of England will with their lives and bloods have such natural regard as they will never [let] any stranger be preferred to the sceptre, by the interposition of a Pope, or by the forces of any King of Spain or other King, of what[ever] might he may be. Which, if it were well considered … the villainous reports and traitorous instigations of a small number of traitors and rebels, that have been maintained by the King of Spain in pensions, and now sent to the Duke of Parma to serve under him, would not hold such place either with the King or with the Duke, as it seemeth they do; and where one great ground is by them feigned to move the Pope and King of Spain to this war, that … her Majesty useth great persecution against the Catholics … [whereas] it is to be proved that there is not any that professeth the Catholic religion that suffer death for the profession of their religion, but only for stirring the people to rebellion or for comforting of others to destroy her Majesty or for denying their allegiance to her, and affirming her to be no lawful Queen.”
In Burghley's hand. Endd. (by Robert Cecil ?) “The Lord Treasurer's opinion touching the course to be held with the Duke of Parma upon the contrarieties of the treaty.” 5¼ pp. [Flanders II. f. 49.]
[? June.] There remaineth one other doubt of most weight to be considered before any full conclusion can be made of the peace, the resolution whereof is to be accommodated as other things shall fall out, for the peace between the K. of Spain and the Low Countries. In concluding peace with the K. of Spain they will demand restitution of the 2 cautionary towns, but on her Majesty's behalf must be said that if the K. yield to his people an assured peace and all the stranger forces shall be voided out of the Low Countries then her Majesty judgeth to keep the towns but until she may be satisfied of such charges as by bond of the States whom she hath aided they do to her, and therein it may be truly said that the sums which are due to her are not so great by one half as she and her people have expended; but so she may have it by contract she shall be content in respect of the benefit that the peace may bring … to bear the losses how great soever they are. But if the Countries shall not have such a peace as may be sure for them and if the stranger forces shall not be avoided without any suspicion of their return, then whatsoever conditions may be offered and concluded for a peace, her Majesty may not deliver those two towns, for upon them doth consist her assurance to enjoy peace, and without them she can make no account of any sound peace to continue.
The one is that the K.'s subjects of the Low Countries may be fully assured to live in peace with full liberty and the K.'s favour, whereby the intercourse betwixt her Majesty's dominions and those Countries may be restored to the ancient usage. The second is that all foreign forces may be fully avoided … as they were in all former times when there were no wars betwixt France and them, as now there are none, nor have been almost there 30 years. And you may conclude that these two obtained and her Majesty reimbursed of that which is due to her, the peace betwixt her and the K. of Spain will be speedily concluded and will last without interruption, to which points you are to refer the scope of all your treaties.
Holograph, by Burghley. 2 pp. [Flanders III. f. 410.]
To know her Majesty's pleasure what shall be done with those of Holland and Zealand and other united parts otherwise, if speedy order be not with them taken it will be a great impediment to these proceedings, for which purpose it is requisite that some person both of skill and credit be chosen to deal as well to induce them to conformity as to take these reckonings and accounts of her Majesty's charge demandable there.
Also that some instrument in writing be sent to the Commissioners here to avouch that which is to be demanded as well from the States General as of Holland, Zealand etc.
And it is requisite that some warrant be sent to my lds. and the rest here to use discretion in matters of small importance, for avoiding of often sending for resolution.
Dr. Dale is sickly and therefore it shall do well that one other civilian were sent hither, and in my simple opinion Dr. Awbrey or my cozen John Herbert, which is acquainted with the causes of Holland and Zealand, although they be both my kinsmen I do not let to prefer them to a troublesome journey.
And I am to let your lp. understand that of the commissioners on the other side four are civilians, and lately is come hither a famous man of that profession, either to assist them or to supply the place of any absent. If her Maj. incline to proceed in this treaty and there be any want of money to be used I am informed by men of good judgment that she may take up a good mass thereof at Andwerp, wherein I may use the help of Martin de la Faille and Carolo Lanffranke … and as I understand the greatest sum is in the house of Spinola.
I do chiefly remember this in respect there will be time spent in gathering the money demandable and if any man of our nation shall be discharged of our government here, ready money will save her Maj. a great part.
No endorsement.pp. [Flanders IV. f. 270.]
De Loo to [Burghley].
Forwards the second reply to the last answer of the deputies from this side, with a translation into English, for which the lord baron asked. If matters continue thus a good end will soon appear. There remains the article about damage by seizure on both sides, which the doctor apparently thinks should not be mentioned. A friend who favours the business advises not to omit about calling the Estates, because the duke will either do it with all diligence or will agree, without that which is desired, and the Estates will never do anything to the prejudice of England, the ills and discomfort of the one depending on the other. He thinks it best not to refer to the pacification of Ghent, but to obtain toleration; which may be had from the duke, fearing that the practice can hardly be obtained, though the time may be short.
The deputies say their reply is proper as the king must see their manner of proceeding and because the other side, as they say, have not proceeded in good order. Some ill feeling has arisen between the deputies, but after de Loo had laboured for two days they gave him a promise to treat amicably. They do not take it well that the English doctors assume too much the conduct of affairs, saying that matters of state should be dealt with by lords, taking the advice of doctors when required. May his lordship still keep his hand on the affair. Assures him that the duke is exceedingly well disposed but everything consists in knowing how to conduct it properly, and that the king may see that what is right is done.
Has no doubt the money will be paid, at least the loans; the rest might be a charge upon the lands. For the rest despatch is necessary. Hopes he will not lose favour for his efforts in the divine work.
Holograph, without signature or address. Italian.pp. [Flanders III. f. 3.]
[? 1588 June.] The proceedings of the K.'s commissioners seem to be with great judgment and discretion. That they have a great respect for H.M. appears by the 1st article in their answer declaring their desire to hasten the peace.H.M.'s commissioners being directed by their civilians, who are inclined to a cavil upon words, not well conceiving the sense, do enter into erroneous concepts and therein obstinately do persist, with intent to repair home speedily, without due respect of the cause.
The answer mentions that the former treaties between the emperor and K. Hen. 8 shall be renewed, with reservation to alter anything that may be prejudicial to either prince, wherein they mean to have consideration of things according to the time when both princes were tied to maintain the Romish religion.The said civilians do not conceive what the K.'s commissioners mean when they speak of friendly conference to explain what is meant in the former treaties concerning the Romish religion and so in misconceiving their good meaning they grow into judgment that nothing on the other side is intended but detract of time, and advise accordingly the sooner to procure their calling home. And then shall it fall out according to information given by ill willers that H.M.'s commissioners were sent over only to detract time until the end of July, and so return without doing anything.
I declared to our principal doctor that I found the kings commissioners desirous that we should set down in articles our full demands for H.M. He asked why they did not set down their demands, which when I affirmed they had done it, he obstinately denied it, although in express words it is demanded in the last article of their answer.
¾ p. [Flanders IV. f. 170.]
[1588 ? June.] The queen's deputies do not find the satisfaction they looked for in the reply given to their articles on the 26th June old style: as regards the money expended by the queen, of which the king professes to know nothing, though he could easily obtain information from his ministers; and there are many in the reconciled provinces who were present when the queen was asked to help them from the oppression of foreign troops, in 1576 when succour was asked of divers princes. In lending her money she laid it down that no offence should be given to the king by his own subjects and always tried to prevent the Provinces from giving themselves in desperation to another prince, always endeavouring to prevent their total alienation from their natural prince, and always seeking to return them to the obedience of the king. It is unjust to misinterpret her good intentions and that the expenses incurred should be an occasion of prejudice. To clear up this matter upon which ignorance is pretended the queen asks that the reconciled States may be assembled as soon as possible, as knowing the facts, and decide not only about the security for the queen's money but what is good for the repose of all the provinces of the Low Countries, as well for the voiding of foreign troops and giving all appointments to natives, as things necessary for their security and that of the queen and her subjects; so that the king and the deputies may see how the queen desires to conclude in an equitable manner and with sincere procedure a stable peace. The queen not claiming alone to escape those inconveniences which by reason of proximity and commerce should be amended these being intimately connected so that the security of all depends on practically the same remedies. Without wishing to meddle in the affairs of others or moved by any ambition the queen sets forth what has been declared by her deputies m the articles presented for greater clearness to show what she claims:
(1) Renewal and confirmation of tho treaties between Henry VIII and Charles V.
(2) Restoration of privileges and liberties, for the better confirmation of intercourse with England. No Inquisition.
(3) Religious toleration.
(4) Evacuation of foreign troops from all the Low Countries.
(5) All appointments for natives.
(6) Repayment of the money advanced by the queen.
(7) General pardon.
(8) Assurance for the queen of a firm and perpetual peace between England and the House of Burgundy with all the dominions of the King of Spain.
The above articles have to be amplified according to the various notes which the doctors hold and to add what may occur for the benefit of her Majesty.
In de Loo's hand. Italian.pp. [Flanders IV. f. 153.]
Summary.
Q. Ask to see the powers given by the king to his Highness to treat.
Ans. They have been shown them.
Q. Cession of Arms.
Ans. Sufficient reasons have frequently been given why it cannot be granted.
Q. That all other treaties between the crowns shall be renewed and that all places that wish to submit be included therein.
Ans. Ready when they meet to satisfy this.
Q. The withdrawal of foreigners.
Ans. His Majesty cannot do it because of all his neighbours in arms, and without this cannot evacuate promptly.
Q. Wishes to treat freely.
Ans. No difficulty about this and desire to treat sincerely.
Q. Wishes the old alliance with Portugal to continue.
Ans. The king is no less friendly to her than his predecessors in that kingdom.
Q. On liberty of conscience.
Ans. The king does not think she would wish to give him the law in his own country, any more than he would do so in hers.
Q. That the Inquisition be not set up on this side.
Ans. His Majesty has never wished to do so.
Q. That all governors, general or particular, shall be natives of the country.
Ans. The king must not be prevented from appointing those whom he pleases.
Q. Asks restitution of the money expended to maintain this war.
Ans. The king says these debts were not made at his request, and he could more justly claim restitution of the money consumed daily to recover these countries.
Q. Offer to deliver him all the places she holds.
Ans. It is only reasonable that the places so unjustly detained shall be rendered to him.
Q. Offer to assist the king with all her power to reconquer his rebellious countries.
Ans. Desire for more enlightenment thereupon, and to learn the manner and with what means and forces.
Q. What assurance can they give for the keeping of the treaty.
Ans. They can give no other than the word and signature of the king and his Highness, to which other places and provinces have trusted.
Endd. “A pamphlet dispersed in Flanders touching the treaty of peace. French. 1 p. [Flanders II. f. 355.]
Another copy of the same.
Endd. “Extracte sommaire touching the treaty of peace.” French.pp. [Flanders IV. f. 328.]
[? June 8.] Walsingham to Lord Willoughby.
“Her Majesty hearing of a dislike grown between your lordship and Sir William Russell, about the disposing of a footband in the town of Flushing, void by the resignation of Anthony Shirley; appointed the Lord Treasurer, Lord Steward and me to consider of the controversy, whereupon we have met together to confer about the same, your servant Colman, the bearer thereof, being present…. We find, first, that her Majesty's meaning hath been from the beginning that the government of the auxiliary forces of 5000 foot and 1000 horse; and of the Cautionary towns, should be two distinct charges; and that the Lord Steward at the time of his being there was specially restrained to meddle with the ordinary bands in garrison in the Cautionary towns, otherwise than by the consent … of the governors of the towns.
Secondly, there are two sorts of bands in these towns; the old crew, establishing at the taking of the towns into her Majesty's hands; six companies, only removeable by consent of the Governor; the other, an increase added by the lord Steward when he thought the town in danger. The band resigned by Mr. Shirley is of the old garrison; the disposition of which belongs to the Governor, not to your lordship, which her Majesty has commanded us to signify to you. This should have been done under our hands, but yesterday the Lord Treasurer departed from the court by reason of the death of the Lady Oxford (fn. 8) ; and the Lord Steward being also absent, her Majesty has desired me to write in her name that her pleasure is that you conform yourself thereto. “Yet for avoidance of such disgrace as your lordship might conceive to fall upon you if in the heat of that controversy this direction should take place,” it hath been thought meet that the band shall remain in Capt. Shirley's hands until both Savage, upon whom your lordship had bestowed it, and Fulford, for whom Sir William Russell wished it, shall be otherwise provided for. And if hereafter any bands should become void, they shall be disposed of according to the above direction. The same has been signified to Sir. Wm. Russell; and if there be any other cause this dislike between you and him is nourished, I hope your Excellency will think it the better course “to have matters taken up between you than by maintaining the division, to hinder the public service and bring both your credits in question.” [Added in Walsingham's own hand] “wherein Mr. Killigrew hath particular direction to deal between them for the compounding of this controversy.” [Undated.]
Draft by Beale. Endd.pp. [Holland XXIV. f. 45.]
[? June.] Occurrences.
A Spanish ship now come to Dunkirk has had a fight with a ship and pinnace of Bristol, in which the Spaniard first sunk the pinnace and afterwards shot down the main-mast of the bigger ship, securing the flags of both vessels. Many of the Spaniards however were wounded and four or five killed, including the master.
At a place near Dunkirk called Waten there are forty flat-bottomed boats, and at Dunkirk they rig all the ships they can, but as if they required no haste, “wherefore it is the less perceived.” The Duke of Parma is expected there shortly.
They give out that the drawing of the Duke's forces into those parts is to embark them in the Spanish armado. Only eighteen companies of horsemen, Italians and Albeneses are to go, “being all choice men.”
The enterprise now taken in hand by Spain is upon two quarrels; one temporal, the other spiritual.
The temporal quarrel is to be revenged upon England for four injuries received; viz., the surprising of the money sent to the Duke of Alva about arms '68; suffering English soldiers to assist the rebels of the Low Countries; the spoiling and sacking of towns in the Indies; and “constraining the King to incredible charges to convey yearly his treasure from thence to Spain, and to fortify the spoiled places; and last of all, the keeping of certain towns in Holland, Zeeland, Brabant and Flanders and witholding them by force from the King of Spain, which is an encouragement to his subjects to persist in their rebellion.
“For reformation whereof he hath made a general motion to all his friends … insomuch that the clergy throughout all Europe, by order of cessment from Rome, do contribute to this enterprise; in consideration that the King by his temporal force … should restore to the obedience of the church of Rome the kingdoms of France, England and Scotland,” entertaining for France the Duke of Guise and his adherents, who attempts to break the Salique law and to reduce the people to the obedience of the church of Rome.
There are divers men of great estate whose office it is to make a sudden tumult upon any slender invasion of England or Scotland, “and so make a general rebellion against the Queen, to the intent she may be deposed and the Scottish King placed.”
This invasion requires many ships for landing men; the ships of Spain to serve for landing them in the west of Scotland and England; the ships of Holland for landing them in the east of Scotland and England; and the rest of the army to remain in France under the Duke of Guise.
The King of France will let French mariners help to man the Spanish ships, and some ships of the French ports will help them. Also great sums of money are offered in secret to the towns of Holland, to suffer their ships to transport men.
In this enterprise there beginneth to grow two accidents very perilous for the army, viz:
The clergy doubteth good dealing by the Duke of Parma and the Duke of Guise; for that they have received such incredible sums of money and done nothing for the service of the clergy.
The martial governors see such heartburnings between the Spaniards and Italians that unless they neither march nor quarter together there will be dissension in the camp and overthrow of the whole army.
The Earl of Westmorland is of so small credit that though he be sent to the Duke of Parma from the Duke of Guise, it is rather to be rid of him than for any great service, for the service will be committed to another. “At the time of his departure from Paris, the Duke of Guise told me that the Duke of Parma had cause to employ him in certain service by the sea; but gave him no money to furnish his journey.” The Duke of Parma at Bridges gave him a thousand crowns, but it would not long remain with him.
The show of the great forces ready to invade England puts the Queen to such charge as in a year or two, “she will be weary, and lay the country open, as they say and hope for in Rome.”
Endd. “1588. Occurrents.” 4½ pp. [Newsletters IX. 46.]

Footnotes

1 Written about June, 1587, but apparently sent to Burghley much later.
2 This is probably the actual paper forwarded by Conway on 21 March. See page 213 above.
3 Blank in MS.
4 See Cobham's recommendation at page 260 above.
5 The full text in Bor: Nederlantsche Oorloghen, bk. xxiv., ff. 65d–67.
6 Morris took letters on 7 April (p. 275 above); Cobham first uses the cipher on 26 April (p. 321 above.)
7 See, Japikse: Resolutien der Staten Generaal, vi., pp. 261–3. The text of the articles is given at pp. 263–5.
8 She died on 7 June.


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