Parish of Gateshead

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Robert Surtees

Year published

1820

Pages

105-135

Citation Show another format:

'Parish of Gateshead', The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: volume 2: Chester ward (1820), pp. 105-135. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76305 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

PARISH OF GATESHEAD.

THE Parish of Gateshead is bounded by the Tyne on the North, by the Parish of Jarrow on the East, by the Washington on the South-East, by the Chapelry of Lamesly on the South and South-West, and by the Parish of Whickbam on the West.

The whole Parish forms only one ancient Constablery; but an Act was passed in 1809, for constituting the Fell a separate Rectory, leaving, however, the whole original Parish still united as to the joint maintenance of the poor.

The borough of Gateshead.

The Borough in its present state consists chiefly of the Fore street, one continued line of building of various and irregular appearance, extending above a mile along the great North road, and at last descending rapidly from Bottlebank to Tyne Bridge; and of several ancient streets or lanes, or more properly gates. Pipewell gate (fn. 1) , stretching from Tyne Bridge Westward parallel with the river, derives its name from the pipes or conduits which brought water into the Borough from the higher grounds (fn. 2) . Hillgate (fn. 3) ., or St. Marygate, runs parallel with the river Eastwards. Oakwell, gate lies parallel to the Fore street from North to South, and takes its name from an ancient well, once shadowed by a broad branching oak (fn. 4) . At the Southern extremity of Oakwell gate are some buildings called Palace place (fn. 5) , where popular tradition has fixed the Palace of King John; and much more certainly, betwixt Oakwell gate and the Fore street lay the house and gardens of the loyal and wealthy family of Cole (fn. 5) . The mansion has been long converted to purposes of trade; but its chief front in the Fore street still exhibits the stile of domestic architecture of the reign of James or Charles, and one principal room, an upper chamber, lately remained pannelled with dark oak, with a mantle-piece ornamented with carvings of scripture history, and supported by terms, with a profusion of flowers and foliage.

The New street, which turns Eastwards to the church, and avoids the steep descent of Bottlebank, was built in 1790. The Back lane, or Mirk lane, stiled in some ancient charters the Angiport, has lately received considerable improvement, and from its airy situation and prospect over the vale of Tyne, bids fair perhaps to become the residence of the principal inhabitants.

The lesser passes and avenues are, as in Newcastle, called Chares. Oakwellgate Chare, High and Low Church Chare, St. Mary's Chare, Thomlinson's or Bailiff's Chare (now Half Moon lane (fn. 6) ), deriving name from some ancient officers of the Borough, and Jackson's or Colliers Chare.

To the extinct topography of Gateshead, belong Poterschihera, mentioned in the earliest charter relative to the Borough in the Durham Treasury. Waldeschere (fn. 7) . St. Elyn's well, and Elyngate, which occur in 1324 (fn. 8) . Pylotchare, and the Smithirawe, both named in the inquest on the death of Roger Thornton, 1430 (fn. 9) ; and within or immediately without the Borough in the town fields and meadows, Kabyncroft, Camerdykes, and Rikburnhede, all part of the possessions of the ancient Gategangs, some of whom assume in their charters the lofty title of Lords of Pipewellgate (fn. 10) .

Chilside and Spinner flatt are mentioned in an inquest on the death of David de Roddam in 1381 (fn. 11) .

(fn. 12) In ancient days Gateshead, before it shrunk under the influence of Newcastle, had a Borough market, which, according to depositions taken as late as 1577, was held twice a week, Tuesday and Friday, and extended from the Market cross, betwixt the Toll booth and Pant, to the blue stone on Tyne Bridge, or to the Brig yate. This Toll booth stood in the main street a little below the West end of Oakwellgate chare, and had latterly performed the functions, first of a School, and then of a public Bridewell. At this period also, the Pinfold, now removed to the Windmill hills, stood in the middle of the Fore street, opposite the Five Wand mill. The post road came down St. Mark's lane (fn. 13) , and entered Gateshead by Half Moon lane or Miller's Chare. A Post office was established in Gateshead in 1772, intended at first only as a temporary measure during the rebuilding of Tyne Bridge, but from its great convenience, both to the borough and neighbourhood, it has been since rendered permanent.

The borough lands.

The origin of this freehold property, vested in the Burgesses, cannot be traced to its original source. In 1551, the Burgesses were in possession of Wynde Mylne hill, Langflatt, and Stone-flatt. In 1563, they litigated their common right in Redheugh and Harelaw, with the Whites of Redheugh. A decree in the third year of Elizabeth (by Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, Lord Eure, and the Dean of Durham,) refers to a former decree made by the President and Council of the North in 1540, and orders the usage of pasturing the town fields therein prescribed to be observed till otherwise regulated by the Council of the North (fn. 14) (fn. 15) .

In 1814, an Act was obtained for enclosing the Borough lands or Town fields. These consisted of the Windmill hills on the West of Gateshead, and of Benchelm or Bensham (fn. 16) , the High and Low Swards, Threstley close, the Low flatt, Middle flatt, and Bull close, lying on the West as far as the water of Team. The whole quantity of these lands, which were divided according to the proportions of Borough tenure and common right, amounted to 157 acres. The Borough lands are now much improved and well fenced.

Benchelm. John Banks of the Borough of Gaitshed of age of LXXII zeres, examynyde and sworne, saith that the said p'cell of grounde caled Bensham is, & ever was, belonging to the broughe of Gaitshed, & the burgeeses & comynaltie of the same have hade peaceable possession and occupation of herbage of the same, wth ther cattell every year & all seasons of the years at ther libertie, without vexation, claime, &c. Sir Germayne Cregton, Chantre prest within the said church, of the age of 4 score & on zears, sworne and examynyd, saith, he never knew other wayes but the said burgesses had evr peaceable possession and occupation of the said ground, & that also the tennts to the hospital of Sainct Edmond did close ther ground from the said Bensham, & never claimed or p'tended anye entrost in the said Bensham (fn. 17) .”

Some other notices relative to the Town fields, will be found amongst the extracts from the Church Books.

A true survey made & taken of the mannor of Gateshead w th the appurtenances in the County of Durham, by us George Lilburne, Georage Grey, Thomas Sanders, Samuel Leigh, John Husband, amongst others appointed Surveyors by com'on from the hon ble com'ittee of Trustees for the disposal and sale of the late B'pps lands, wthin the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, by seuerall ordinances of Parliamt, Anno Dñi 1647.

To the ffourth ar'le we p'sent & say, that there are no outwoods nor com'ons wthin this mannor, excepting one com'on or waist called by the name of Gateshead fell. The com'on or herbage whereof belongs to the free borough men & ffreemen of the sd mannor & borough of Gateshead, containing one thousand three hundred acres or thereabouts, the bounders whereof begins & ends at a blew stone near Sr Thomas Riddell, Knt. his house, wch is fixed in the ground or earth near to the high street leading to the Southwards, close by the East side of the causway, till we come abt seventy yards or thereab ts to the Westwards of Moodyes Wind milne, from thence Southwards to a place called the White quarry, then to the next Dowl, & so to the second, third, & ffourth mark or crosse wch lyes to the Westward of the white house belonging to Mr. Ralph Cole; and thus far bounders upon a com'on or waist belonging to Upper heworth & Nether Heworth, then Southwards to a fifth mark, and from thence to a place called Wrakendike, where a crosse hath been, and a p't yet remains wth these l'res ingraven “I. Chirst”. from thence Westwards along the sd Wrakendike, till we come to Eighton quarrie, and thus far it bounders upon the East p't on a p't of a moor or waist belonging to the Baron of Hilton his tenants or assignes, and from Wrakendike crosse to Eighton quarry afores d, the other p't of the sd waist belongings to the sd Baron of Hilton, & bounders upon it on the South p't, from thence to upper Eighton hedge Westwards, & so along that hedge till wee come down to the sd upper eighton lane, and boundering for the most p't upon Eighton grounds on the south of the sd waist called Gateshead fell, from thence Northwards to the beginning of Chowden, & thence to Darwin Crooke grounds, Northwards, till wee come to goe Eastwds by the Whinney house grounds on the North of itt; and thence to the high street or way, & so to the blew stone formerly menc'oned where we begun. And we say further, that the lord of the mannor cannot improve any p't of the same, but wth the consent of the sd free borough men, and of the freeholders of Gateshead aforesd.

Gateshead Fell,

Formerly a wide spongy dark moor, extending from Wreken Dyke on the South to the toll-bar on the North, has been gradually spotted with scattered buildings of various description; and in 1809 an Act of Parliament was obtained for a general inclosure, which is now carried into effect (fn. 18) .

By another Act, passed in the same Session, the Fell is constituted a separate Rectory, and one acre of ground is ordered to be allotted to the Rector of Gateshead, for the scite of a church and church-yard.(The whole parish is still, however, to be considered as one township for the maintenance of their poor.) One rate has been already levied under the Act towards the building of the church.

Gateshead Park.

The old Gategangs occur as proprietors of various parcels in the Park. John Gategang, in 1340, held twenty-six acres “in veteri Parco juxta Gateshed,” by fealty, and 17s. 4d. (fn. 19) ; and in 1351 another John held thirty-three acres “in le ald Parke,” by fealty, and 22s. (fn. 20) The modern estate of Gateshead Park is held under the see of Durham, by lease for 21 years, and is vested in Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. to whose ancestor, William Coastworth, Esq. Bishop Crew demised in 1716 (fn. 21) .

Gateshead Park-house is a handsome brick mansion, built by the Coatsworths about 1723. The house is sheltered on the North by a row of large branching elms.

Not to insist much on the ancient Gabrocentum (fn. 22) , the present name of Gateshead may be very well derived, in perfect unison with its exact situation, from the Saxon Gatesheved, the top or head of the gate or road leading to the great pass of the Tyne. Whether Bede intended to translate Gateshead into ad Capræ Caput (fn. 23) , may be as doubtful as to fix the situation of Gabrocentum. The first certain notice of Gateshead, which proves that the place had a church, and was in all probability even then an ancient and considerable vill, is the outrageous murder of Bishop Walcher, already related, vol. I. p. xvii.

In 1164 Bishop Hugh Pudsey granted a charter (fn. 24) to the Burgesses of Gateshead, of which the chief privileges were, liberty of the forest, freedom from toll within the Palatinate, and, in general words, all such advantages as were enjoyed by the Burgesses of Newcastle. The charter, of course pre-supposes the existence of the Borough, the original foundation of which is, I believe, totally unknown. Under the same prelate, Hugh, the survey of Boldon Buke states that Gateshead, with the profits of the Borough, the mills, fisheries, and back-house, and three parts of the arable land, were farmed under sixty marks rent. The remaining fourth of the arable land, with the assarts which the Bishop had brought into cultivation, were in the hands of the Bishop, with a stock of two draughts. The land of Osmund (fn. 25) (a free tenant) paid 22s. 6d. Betwixt this date and that of Hatfield's Survey nothing occurs as to the tenure of lands; except the Inquests on the deaths of several free tenants, chiefly of the family of Gategang (fn. 26) , whom I believe to have been perfectly indigenous, and to have derived their name from their residence on the main street.

Hatfield's Survey—John de Ravensworth holds twenty-four acres at Saltwellsyde, by charter, once William de Slikburn's, 8s. The Master of the Hospital of St. Edmund the King holds one plot of ground, Pro quodam chamino habendo, or way-leave from the Hospital to Freregose, through the Lord's meadow there, and pays 4d. The heirs of Thomas Surteys hold an aqueduct, and a messuage built above it, sometime of Cuthbert the Clerk, 8d. The Guardian of the Chantry of the Blessed Trinity, within the Hospital of St. Edmund the Confessor, holds two messuages, once of Alice Prester, 2s. 6d. Thomas del Castell, in right of his wife, one messuage and seven acres below the Cokescroft, once of Thomas Vaux, 7s. 6d. The heir of Hugh de Redhugh, Chivaler, six acres, 4s. 2d. John de Topcliff twenty acres, in Esterlin Strother, 11s. The same John one plot and twenty-two acres, 14s. 8d. William Gategang holds a meadow called the Fletes, containing one acre, by foreign service, and 10s. The same William holds the meadow called Saltwellmede, once of Alan Marshall, 3s. 4d. And sixty-eight acres in the Calschotes and in the Hough, sometime his father's, 33s.; and twelve acres in Leystrech 8s.

Exchequer Lands—The Master of St. Edmund's holds half a messuage, 2s. 6d.; and four acres and one rood, sometime of John Ade, 2s. 10d. Walter de Dymyldon holds (of the heir of John Gategang) two acres at Saltwelstrother, 2s. 6d.; and the same heir one acre near le Lonyng, 11d.; and eight other parcels under divers rents. John de Ravensworth holds one acre, under le Rategraynes, and pays 8d.; and three other parcels, once of Alan de Silkburn. Thomas del Castell one acre below Lyghtker, 4d.; two acres near Ricrustburn, sometime of Thomas Vaux, 16d.; two acres below Aveley, 2s.; and four other plots and parcels. Thomas de Claxton and four others hold one messuage and four parcels under certain rents.

John of Sadberg holds two water-mills, and one wind-mill, which used to pay 22l. now 16l. 13s. 4d. The same John holds the fishery in Tyne, 20l.; and the manor, with the burgage rents and profits, the pastures and meadows of the demesne, of which fourscore and fourteen acres lie in Gateshead-field, and fifty-five acres on the Tyne; in all, for the whole profits of the Borough and Borough Court, 22l.

There are six acres now waste, sometime in the tenure of Richard Slikburn, under 3s. 6d. rent, and it is said that the Parson of Gatesheved holds in divers Places of Gateshead-field fifteen acres, which they believe to the Exchequer land, but for which nothing is paid.

The usual government of the town of Gateshead, from the earliest period on record, was by a Bailiff (fn. 27) , appointed by the Bishops of Durham. Bishop Hatfield, in 1348, appointed a Park-keeper of Gateshead, an office which was regularly continued by his successors (fn. 28) . Bishop Nevill, whose rolls are full of novel patents, added another office of Keeper of Gateshead Tower, which in all probability stood on Tyne bridge, and had been rebuilt or repaired when Nevill's predecessor, Langley, recovered one third of the bridge from the Corporation of Newcastle. The most important portion, perhaps, of the Borough history of Gateshead is that of the perpetual disputes betwixt the See of Durham and the powerful and wealthy Corporation of Newcastle, for the free navigation of the river Tyne, and the right of building quays and ballast-shores on its banks. This continued contest is, however, matter of general history, and shall be only referred to here as far as it affected in its progress the local interests of the Borough of Gateshead. The charters of the Norman Sovereigns name the Tyne as the natural and equal boundary betwixt Durham and Northumberland; and it is evident that amongst the Calumpnies, or claims injurious, of the men of Northumberland, “calumpnias quas diracionavit adversus cos Ranulphus Episcopus in presentia Henrici Regis (fn. 29) ,” &c. the usurpation of the whole exclusive navigation of the Tyne was one of the principal injuries of which the See of Durham, or their Grantees, the Church of St. Cuthbert, claimed and obtained the redress. “From Staneburnmouth to Tynemouth, even to the sea, half the water of Tyne belongs to St. Cuthbert and to the Bishoprick of Durham, the other half to the county of Northumberland; yet so that a third part, in the midst, shall be free and open to both; and the same water shall be measured at main flode, when the water flows full bank and bank:” and all the fisheries have “local name and habitation.” [The first fishery is St. Hilde yare and Ebbe yare, these belong to Wyvestow (Westoe); to Jarrow belong Ful yare in Pul, Ebbe yare, Aches yare, Uth yare, Huterdes yare, Stanre yare; to Munchestun belong Fule yare, Hungre yare; to Hebburne, Peth yare, Sywyne yare, Uthward yare; to Heworthe, Uthward yare, Uth yare, Londe yare, Hochemunges yare, Bondene yare, Fildene yare. These are the fisheries of the Monk's land, which they held from ancient time. The following belong to the Bishopric of Durham: to Gateshead, Goureth, Cuiper, Huulfs yare, Bosi-Hongri yare, Dike yare, Olfletes yare, Chirche yare, and another Chirche yare, Letherhose, Gaene yare, Deapha yare, Offulnes yare, Malde yare, Littell yare, Bonde yare, two Comerthe yares; to Whickham belong Tinnmuthes yare, Hurlhomes yare, Grip-Rote, Vornerk, Deape yare, Alcheres yare, Heh-Werestion; to Derwantemouth, one net (sagena) called Seth-Brannet; to Whynauton, Berde yare, Bladene yare, two nets called Toletpula, four Stelentes, two Rednettes; to Riton belong Crumbwell, Wytherpole, Stampul, four Stelents; and to Crawcruke, Buresfordes pull.”] And this record was made by the Elders of Haliwerefolk and of Northumberland in the time of King Henry II. before the Justices of England.

Various confirmations follow, amongst which that of Henry II. expressly mentions as a privilege of the free of Durham the free plying of ships on the South said of Tyne, sicut Rex habet ex parle altera (fn. 30) . Inquisitions were taken, one held in very Newcastle 1293 (fn. 31) , and others in 1317 and 1323, finding that half the water of Tyne was the ancient right of the See of Durham. Yet the rights of the county of Northumberland, as far as concerned the Tyne, from Hedwin streams to Tynemouth, centering in the infant Borough of Newcastle, grew with the growth, and strengthened with the strength, of the Corporation, which was pullulating with all the vigour of novel existence.

The King's free Port of Newcastle obtained successively, an injunction to the Prior of Tynemouth to remove at his own costs a quay-shore, or mole, driven within the flood-mark of Tyne at North Shields; a revocation of Conservatorship granted to an individual, as trenching on the acknowledged rights of the Corporation of Newcastle; and an explicit and exclusive grant of the said Conservatorship to the Mayor and Aldermen from Edward II (fn. 32) . Under these circumstances the true men of the Bishop's Borough of Gates-head were driven to an open declaration of grievance, taken, in from of an inquest, at Durham, Monday before the feast of St. Margaret, 1336, claiming, as their ancient and vested right, free passage by the mid-stream of Tyne, and equally free lading and discharging of their cargoes all along the rivage or coast of the Palatine franchise of Durham; free fisheries, moreover, of the Lord Bishop and the Prior of St. Cuthbert on their own side of Tyne, with liberty to the fishermen to sell their fish where it listed them, and a market twice a week, and a fair once a year (on St. Peter's day), as far as the midst of Tyne bridge. But now the fishermen of the Lord Bishop and Prior, the first of Pipewellgate, the second of le Scheles, were utterly routed and disturbed from their said free sale, and were haled and drawn, vi et armis, &c. to sell their fish in Newcastle market. Moreover, none of the Halywerefolk were suffered to lade or discharge on their own side of the Tyne, and even the Prior's own proper wool, coming from Halieland (Holy Island), and landed on the Prior's soil at le Sheles, was seized, and the ship carried into Newcastle and embargoed, propter illam liberationem. And if the Scheles fishermen sell their fish to the very Bishop himself, or to the Prior, the Bailiffs of Newcastle hale and tug, and imprison, fine and amerce them, and put to rout all who attempt to carry, without composition, firewood, turf, coal, timber, or other articles of necessity, along the Tyne to the side of the Bishopric. Further, the town of Newcastle have built on Tyne bridge (fn. 33) , to its very Southern extremity, robbing the Bishop of his free soil and inheritance. And worst and most grievous of all, when William de Ullesam fell from the bridge into the water of Tyne, and there drowned, immediately came one Richard Mckilmuk, with Thomas Parry, found the dead body within the water-mark of the Bishopric, and dragged the corpse to Newcastle before they returned it for Christian burial to the church-yard of blesses St. Mary of Gateshead (fn. 34) . And hereupon the King, on petition of the Bishop of Durham, directed his writ to the Mayor and Bailiffs of Newcastle, reciting the Bishop's rights, and ordering them for the future to forbear from the outrageous practices in which they had indulged, to the grave and manifest injury of the see and franchise of Durham; to permit ships to moor, if they chose it, on the South said of Tyne, and to let the fishers catch and sell their fish quietly (fn. 35) .

A variety of inquisitions and processes follow on the heels of this. In 1345 the same Bishop, Richard Bury, had a verdict against the Commissioners of the Crown for interfering with the Conservatorship of the Southern side of the water of Tyne, which was vested in the Bishop jure sedis (fn. 36) ; and in 1352 (to omit other instances) the Burgesses of Newcastle humbled themselves for having seized the South Shields fishing-boats, and forced them up to Newcastle, even before the Cell of Jarrow had received its tithe of fish: compelling, moreover, the poor “seely fishermen” to swear that they would never sell fish but in Newcastle market (fn. 37) .

In 1384 and 1393 Richard II. (fn. 38) again confirmed to the See of Durham their right of mooring and unlading on the South of Tyne, and the free navigation of the river by the mid-stream, without let or hindrance of the Corporation. Yet, notwithstanding these reiterated royal confirmations, it may be doubted how far the active and wealthy Corporation of Newcastle ever totally removed their hook from the nostrils of the river dragon; for in 1414 the recovery of a third of Tyne bridge, and of the tower of offence (fn. 39) which the adversary had erected on it, seems to have been matter of no moderate triumph to Cardinal Langley, one of the wisest and most powerful Prelates who ever filled the Palatine throne, and who took possession of the disputed bulwark on the 3d of August 1414, with all his chivalry (fn. 40) . The third part of Tyne bridge has ever since, except during two brief and lawless periods of separation, remained attached to the See of Durham (fn. 41) ; but as to the river Tyne, matters went more in favour of Newcastle. In 1447 the river, from Sparhawk to Hedwin streams, was stated to be under the Crown the right of the Corporation. In 1454 the King granted the Conservatorship of the Tyne, within the same limits, to the Mayor and Burgesses; the same exclusive privilege is confirmed by a series of royal grants and confirmations; and in 1630 and 1637 the prescriptive right of the Mayor and Burgesses to hold the Conservatorship of the Tyne was pleaded and allowed in the King's Bench and Court of Exchequer (fn. 42) .

Gateshead, meanwhile, throve as it might, under the overshadowing influence of its neighbour; but this Southern suburb was always an object of attraction to the wealthy Burghers of Newcastle, and the temporary dissolution of the See of Durham, amidst the storms which attended the Reformation, offered an easy opportunity for making the acquisition. In 1552 an Act was obtained which severed Gateshead from the Bishopric and annexed it to Newcastle. The reasons for this severing and annexing, adduced in the Preamble to the Act, are,

That the quiet, order, regiment, and gouvernance, of the Corporac'n and body politike of the Towne of Newcastle upon Tyne hath bene not a lyttel disturbed and hindered, to a moche greate and manifest ympoverishment, ruyne, and decaye, of the saide Corporac'n, by reasone aswel that in the Towne of Gatesyde, parcel bothe of the possessione of the Bishopricke of Duresme, and also of the Libretyes, and Counte Palentyne of Duresme aforsaide, next adjoyning unto the said havon towne of Newcastle, on the South syde of the said ryver of Tyne, doo inhabyte and bene from tyme to tyme a greate nombre of carpenters, collyers, fishers, maryners, and other handycraftes menne, which by their handy workes gayne and have their cheif and in manner hole lyving in the said towne of Newcastle, wher they daly com'it manyfolde enormetyes and disorders which escape unponished, to a very evil example in the hinderance of justice, by reasone that soch offendors by repairing untto the saide towne of Gatesyde, being withowte the jurisdic'n of the said haven towne of Newcastle, fynde evasone and meanes to escape the condign correc'n and punishment of their saide mysbehavors; as also that for no smal nombre of the inhabitants of Gatesyde, withoute any respect to the conservac'n of the havon of the saide porte towne of Newcastle, being the chief maintenance and upholde of the same, do cast into the saide havon rubishe, wth all the refuse of their building, besydes the other clensing of their howses and streets, without any correcc'n or punishment extended unto them for the same, by reasone that the saide towne of Gatesyde is parcel of the saide Counte Palentyn of Duresme, and withoute the libertyes of the saide havon towne as is aforesaide; without remedye wherof the saide havon shulde perish, and therby the towne sholde be in great jeoperdye of ruyne and decaye: And further more, forasmuch also as a parte of the bridge over the saide ryver of Tyne, perteyning to the saide towne of Gatesyde is so farre in ruyne and decay for lacke of reparac'n that no cartes or carryages maye be suffered to passe over the same; for remedye whereof, and sundry other com'odyties here not recited, Be it, &c (fn. 43) .

To all this reasoning the community of Gateshead answered by setting forth, in a petition to Master Bell, Speaker of the Honourable House of Parliament, “Certen inconvenients that may arise by the unitinge of the Borough of Gaiteshed unto the Towne of Newcastell.”

  • 1. The Towne of Gaitshed is within the Countie of Durham, and hath his liberties and customs graunted by the Bishoppes predecessors, and payeth all assessments for the repayre of waies, bridges, charge to the warrs, watches of the beacons, and towne and feild watches, within the Countie of Durham, and yf the shoud be united they should bear charges there.
  • 2. The Towne of Gateshed is ruled by the Bayliff and Burgesses, and hath good and holsome constituc'ns and ordinances within themselves, and is as well gov'ned for justice as they are in Newcastell, punishing all offendors wh cast rubbishe and clensinge of their howses into the river of Tyne, and therefore the suggestion wh they alleage in the statute of unitinge the townes is manifestly untrew, as it is evidently knowen for that the South sid of the river, wh is towards Gateshead, is deep and more cleane then that sid towards Newe Castell.
  • 3. The statute wh they would revive by this Act is, that Gateshed, and all the inhabitants therin, should be united and annexed unto Newcastell, and he p'cell therof, and not of the County of Durham, and yet they would have a proviso to leave them to be punished in the County Palantyne, so they shall be under the rule, correc'n, government, and chardge of the Mayre and Aldermen of Newcastell, and also under the correc'n, punishment, and chardge of the lawes wth in the County of Durham, and of their Justices of Peace, and also under the rule and correc'on of their Wardens and Stewards of theire occupac'ns wth in the same towne, according to their orders in that behalfe p'vided.
  • 4. And also by the statute that should be revived the proviso is, that it should not extend to take away any com'on; inded they need not, for they may have a thousand acres and more wh doth belonge to Gateshed and other townes adjoyninge. But yf theis townes shal be annexed they may put all their cattle to eat wth Gateshed, or may enclose, and they may have the cole of Gateshed moore, wh will be worth, yf they may wyn the same, x thousand pownd, wh wcare to the disheritaunce of the Sea of Durham.
  • 5. Yf Gateshead should be taken from the County of Durham, it should be a hinderaunce also to the countrie, and do them wronge, for so they should want the helpe of Gateshed in bearinge the charge of warrs, bridges, wayes, watches, and other things.
  • 6. And yf it should be united in Newcastell, and we are not wth in the County of Durham, it would be replenyshed wth evell disposed persons and theues, because it is wth out their walls, as is the North p'te of Newcastell; whereas nowe in Gateshed their are a great nomber of substanc'al honest men faythful and trewe subjects, as did appere in the late rebellyon, some merchaunts, some drapers, and other honest artificers, whom the towne of Newcastell doth envie because they dwell so nie unto them.

The remonstrances of the “poore towne of Gateshede” were easily pushed aside; but one of the first Acts of Queen Mary's reign re-established the See of Durham ad integrum, and the Borough of Gateshead was restored, or rather, the late Acts affecting the See being declared null and void, reverted to its pristine connection with the Bishopric. Yet Bishop Tunstall, with a view, probably, to take off the opposition of the wealthy and powerful Corporation of Newcastle, who reluctantly quitted their grasp on the South side of the river, granted to the Mayor and Burgesses a lease of the salt-meadows for four hundred and fifty years, under 2l. 4s. rent, and of the Borough tolls during the same period under 4l. 6s. rent (fn. 44) ; and this sweeping grant being executed before the restraining statute, and confirmed by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, is enjoyed by the Corporation of Newcastle at this day. In 1578 Bishop Barnes, amongst his other spoliations of the See of Durham in favour of the Crown, granted a lease of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham to Queen Elizabeth for seventy-nine years; but the term being either thought too short, or for other reasons, in 1582 the same Prelate granted a new lease to the Crown for ninety-nine years, including all the pits, mines, wastes, parks, and royalties, under 117l. 15s. 8d. reserved rent. November 12, 1583, the Queen assigned to Henry Anderson and William Selby, Aldermen of Newcastle; and they; 4 August 1591, again assigned to thirteen of the principal Burgesses, on trust for the Corporation. The subesequent conveyances may be seen in Brand. The grand lease expired in 1682, when the manor reverted to See of Durham (fn. 45) . In 1716 Lord Crewe (Bishop of Durham) demised the manor of Gateshead, for twenty-one years, to William Coatsworth, Esq. (excepting as much of Tyne bridge, &c. and the buildings thereon, and excepting the advowson of the two rectories.) The lease has been since renewed to the Coatsworths, and their descendants the Ellisons; and is now vested in Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. (fn. 46)

Bishop Tunstall incorporated the barkers and tanners of Gateshead (fn. 47) .

In 1594 Bishop Toby Mathew confirmed the dyers, fullers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, cutlers, joiners, and carpenters (fn. 48) , and the cordwainers in 1602 (fn. 49) . In 1661 Bishop Cosin incorporated in one company the drapers, taylors, mercers, hardwaremen, coopers, and chandlers (fn. 50) ; and in 1671 (fn. 51) [at the request of Sir Ralph Cole, Bart. George Davenport, Clerk, Miles Stapleton, Esq. George Kirkby, &c.] the occupations of free-masons, carvers, stone-cutters, sculptors, brick-makers, tilers, bricklayers, glaysers, painter-stainers, founders, neilers, pewterers, plumbers, millwrights, sadlers and bridlers, trunk-makers, and distillers. Several of these companies are extinct (fn. 52) .

Of the modern Trade of Gateshead it is impossible to give more than a very general account. The whole merchandize of the place passes through the custom-house of New castle. The principal manufactures are Messrs. William Hawks and Co. foundery and iron works for anchors, mooring-chains, and all kinds of large iron works for the Government dock-yards. The Team iron-works, Messrs. Morrison, Mosman, and Co. Messrs. Whinfield and Thompson's foundery for cast iron in Pipewellgate. The Tyne glasshouse, Messrs. Atwood, Smith, and Richardson, in the Salt-meadows, for the manufacture of crown-glass. New Stourbridge works for flint-glass, Messrs. Lowry and Sowerby, Pipewellgate. Durham flint-glass-house, Price and Co. Pipewellgate. Building-yards, Forster and Co. South Shore; Jonathan Brown, ditto. Roperies, Harle and Co.; Miekle and Maggie, Hillgate. Colour manufactories, W. Hind, Pipewellgate; J. Gibson, Salt-meadows. Vinegar manufactory, Messrs. Batson's, Reid, &c. Hillgate. Oil ditto, W. Green, Hillgate.

Excellent grindstones have been long wrought upon Gateshead Fell, and exported from the Tyne in great quantities. They are classed in eight sizes, called Foots.

Inch diameter. Inch thick. N° in a chaldron
1 Foot 10 2 36
2 Foots 14 27
3 Foots 20 4 18
4 Foots 28 4 9
5 Foots 35 5 5
6 Foots 42 6 3
7 Foots 50 6
8 Foots 56 8 1

A grindstone foot is 8 inches; the size is found by adding together the diameter and thickness. Grindstones are made, when ordered, of larger, dimensions, up to 76 inches diameter, by 14 or 15 thick. The annual quantity wrought is about five thousand chaldron, each chaldron weighing about 14 hundred weight; the price about 1l. 7s. per chaldron (fn. 53) .

Under the return of 1801 Gateshead contained—inhabited houses 1037; families 2099; males 3974; females 4623: total population 8597. In 1811 total population 8782. It was computed at 7000 between 1690 and 1700.

Tyne Bridge belongs rather to the history of Newcastle, and (premising therefore, that a full account of its rise, progress, fall, and renovation, may be seen in Brand, I. 35–53,) it will be sufficient very briefly to remark, that it is supposed to owe its first foundation to the Emperor Hadrian. Pennant supposed even that part of the Roman masonry was still remaining, and several Roman coins (somewhat later than Hadrian) were certainly found in the ruined piers after the flood of 1771. The first bridge, however, was doubtless of wood; it existed under Henry II., and was consumed by fire, with a great part of Newcastle, in 1248. Brand records several subsequent benefactions for the repair of Tyne bridge; and an indulgence of twenty days, for the same purpose, from Bishop Walter occurs in 1256. In 1339, part of the bridge was washed away, and it is described as ruinous in 1342 and 1370. In 1414, Bishop Langley recovered the third part of the bridge belonging to the See of Durham (fn. 54) , which third part Bishop Tunstall repaired in 1530 and 1559. In 1582, a degree passed in the Exchequer, that the Bishop of Durham, and not the inhabitants of the County at large, should be charged with the repair of the third part of the bridge. The repairs of the bridge are mentioned in 1646 and 1649, to which, it seems, Charles I. had given timber out of the Crown woods at Chopwell. In 1770, the Bishop of Durham repaired with stone work that portion of Tyne bridge, where there had anciently been a drawbridge. On the night betwixt the 16th and 17th of November, 1771, the Tyne rose in flood from incessant rain which had fallen the preceding day to the South and Westward. On Sunday the 17th, the dawn of day discovered all the cellars, warehouses, shops, and lower stages of buildings from the West end of the close to Ouseburn, totally under water. The middle arch of Tyne bridge, and another arch towards the South, gave way with a tremendous crash, with eight of the houses (fn. 55) which crowded the old bridge, and overhung its Western parapet. On the Monday at four in the afternoon, another South arch fell with four other houses, and soon after the whole range of buildings, from the Blue Stone to Gateshead. In Newcastle, the Sandhill was a wide flood where boats plied; the timber and stores on the Quay were swept away, and the whole river as far as Shields, was covered with the wreck of boats, keels and craft, stranded and scattered along both coasts. Several small vessels were carried out to sea; and three sloops and a brig drove on the Quay side, and were left there when the flood ebbed.

It was found necessary to take down the whole of the old bridge (fn. 56) . The rebuilding of a third part of the fabric from the Blue Stone Southwards, was incumbent on the See of Durham; and in 1772, an act passed enabling the Bishop to raise 12,000l. for the purpose, by granting annuities for lives, not exceeding ten per cent. The foundation stone of the Bishop's part was laid October 14, 1774 (fn. 57) , and the first arch closed in July 8th, 1775 (fn. 58) . (fn. 59)

Rather than load the text with a tedious reference to small properties, I have preferred throwing together in this place ad calcem, a few of the oldest charters in the Treasury, relative to Gateshead, and the descents of a very few of the principal ancient proprietors.

I. Carta Wilti de Granavilla.

Will. de Granavilla oib. fidelib. S'cte Eccl'ie sal. Sciatis me dedissee & c'cessisse Dõ et Scõ Cuthb'to & monachis ibide' servientib' in Eccl'ia de Dunolm. Pottershihera q' juxta Novũ Castellũ in ppetuũ p aĩa mea & aĩab. oiũ parentũ meor. Testib. istis, Emma uxor. mea, Jordano de Umframvilla & fre' ej. Rodb'to, Joh' Constabulario de Novo Castello, & Hugone de Helletun, & Adam de Merlaio, & Nicholao de Bichar, Jordano de parva Benthona, Willõ fil. Ulgari, & Gervasio Medico, & Rog. fil. Hucdredi, & Rodb. fil. Elfledi, & Rob'to fil. Gualonis, & Gileb'to fil. Hug. & multis aliis hoĩb. de Gesemuthe & de Hetthona & de Cramlingatuna & de Hertalalive.

Sigillum Willelmi de Grainevilla.

[This Charter rests in Gateshead Box, Dean and Chapter Treasury. I suspect, however, that Pottershihera is scarcely Potterschare in Gateshead; the witnesses seem to point North of the Tyne. NosII. and III. are genuine Pipewellgate Charters.]

II. Carta Hugonis Episcopi.

Hugo Dei gra. Dunelm. Ep'us om'ib[us] hõib[us] suis fr'ncis et Anglis, qi has tras vidint et audierint salt'm. Sciatis me cõcessisse Thuroldo de Londiniis, et hed'b's suis totã illã trã meã que jacet juxt' Tynam ap'd West a capite pontis Tyne usq' ad Redhogh sicut meũ guastũ p. xx m'cis quas ip'e et Lessinus pat. uxĩs sue mĩ dederunt, tenend. Lib'e et qũete reddõ annuat' p' om'ib's franco burgo XIXd Volo aute' q'd p'd's Thuroldus et he'des sui sint lib'i et qũeti de tollnio et pañagio. Hiis T. Teb. de Sceltona, Willõ de Insula, Willõ Capellõ, Johe ru. Edm. Dapif., Ric. venator., Tho. fil. Wilti, Alano Cap'no, et m' aliis.

III. Carta Nicholai filii Toraldi de Gatesh'.

Om'ib[us] vid'ntib[us] v'l audientib[us] has lit'as tam fut'is q'm p'sentib[us] Nicholaus fili9 Toraldi de Folottebi salt'. Sciatis me concessisse & hac mea carta confirmasse Sparco filio Gamelli Oter & h'dib[us] suis t'ram illa; in villa de Gatesh' q'm tenet de me, & tenuit de patre meo thoraldi & quã edificavit ex vasto tempore ipi' thoraldi p'ris mei, & jacet int' t'ram Warnebaldi Monetarii & t'ram Ade Cyrotecarii, h'ndam & tenend de me & he'dib[us] meis in feodo & her'itate lib'e solute, &c. reddõ & faciendo illud servitiũ q'd fac'e solebat Thoraldo pati meo scilicet annuatim sex denarios ad duos t'minos scilicet tres d' ad Rogat'ones, &c. His testib[us] H'nrico decano. Rañ Capelt. Reginaldo de Leu. Baldewino fil Kile. Rob' fil' Brien. Nichol Scot. Daniele. Hñrico fit Botilde. Simone taliatore. Willõ de Lamesleie. Willõ lincoln. Lamb'to. Edm'do taliatore. Warino Cambere. Joh'e clico. & multis aliis.

IV. Omnibus, &c. Isolda, relicta Roberti Fader de Pipewellgate in villa de Gatesheved, in viduitate et ligia potestate mea. Sciatis me dedisse, &c. Willõ Syre de Pypewellgate et Eve uxori ejus totam illam terram cum pretin. suis jacentem super ley Stathes (fn. 60) in longit. et latit. inter terram predicti Willĩ et terram quondam Nicholai de Malton, reddendo Roberto de Hedworth et Julie uxori ejus et hered.2s. 6d. per annum. T. Walrano de Lomley, Ballivo de Gatesheved, Johanne Scot de Pampeden, Ballivo de Pipewellgate, Rogero Rede, Thoma fil. Uctredi, Johanne de Haxbye, Roberto del holme, et multis aliis. Apud Pipewellgate, 26 Jul. 1349

V. Omnibus, &c. Gocelinus Surtees sal. Noveritis me dedisse, &c. Wilto Syre de Pipewellgate in Gatesheved duas acras prati et dimidiam vocat. Thomaslandes(scilt) habitac'ones super aquam de Tyne, et quæ jacent in campo de swalwelles inter pratum vocat. le Briggemedowe ex occid. et pratum vocat. le Milnemedowe ex orien. T. Walrano de Lomley, Wilto Freman de Qwycham, Gilberto de Merlay, Roberto de Lambton, Roberto de Massam, et aliis. Dat. apud Swalwelles, 10 Octobr. A. D. 1352.

VI. Noverint presents et futuri quod ego Emma filia Johannis le Quareur de Gatesheved dedi, &c. Henrico de Farnakris quandam placeam terre in villa de Gatesheved, quæ se extendit a parte aquilonali in longitudine a loco ubirivulus de Pypewell cadit in aquam de tyne usque ad forinsecas metas et bundarias terras quæ fuerunt quondam Hugonis Fertlyng in vico de Pypewellgate, et in longit. similiter ad aliud capud a parte occid. a predictis metis usque ad quend. venellum qu. ducit ad fontem de Pypewell. T. Gilberto Gategang, tunc Ballivo de Gatesheved, Johanne fratre suo, Johanne Ade, Thoma de Vaus, Bartholomeo Plok, Radulfo Burdok, Ricardo de Cestria, &c.

VII. Indentura facta inter Willielmum Syre et Thomam Fournays, pro factura unius Staythe de lapide quadrato (fn. 61) .

Hec Indentura inter Wiltm Syre ex parte una et Thomam de Fournays cementarium ex altera teatatur quod predictus Thomas bene et fideliter manuceperit fide media predicto Wiltmo sibi facere unum stathe super suum capitale messuagium in Pypewellgate in Gatesheved, super aquam de Tyne ex parte boriali contin. in se in longit. decem et octo pedes in le ground ebbe de Tyne, equaliter in latitudine sicut latitudo dicti messuag. ex parte boreali, et totum de costagiis predicti Thome. Ita quod centum primum de taillstan ad dictum opus, quilibet taillstan erit de duobus et dimid. et resid. Omnium taillstans erit de tribus pedibus et magis ultra quam infra, ad dictum opus perficiendum. Et occidentalis pars predictæ stathe erit firmiter conjuncta cum coglestan equaliter sine defectu. Et quod dictum opus sit factum citra festum S. Nicholai prox. futur. post dat. confectionis presentium, nisi sit perturbatum per tempestatem, fluvium, vel maliciose (fn. 62) per gentes ville Novi Castri super Tynam. Et quod dictus Thomas dicto Wiltmo facit unam sufficientem latrinam infra dictam statham, et pro isto opere faciendo et perficiendo predictus Will's dabit p'd'o Thomæ vel suo certo attornato decem marcas sterling. argenti ut opus suum sine defectu pficiatur. In cujus rei testimonium partes predictæ presenti indenturæ alternatim sigilla sua apposuerunt. Testibus, Petro de Lewe, Ballivo de Gatesheved, Alano Gategang, Jacobo Gategang, Petro tinctore, Rogero Rede, Cuthberto Clerico, et multis aliis. Datum apud Pypewellgate, die dominica prox. post F.S. Petri ad Vincula, A.D. 1408.

Pedigree of Ravensworth.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* Robert de Ravensworth testis in cart. s. dat. Guiscardi de Charron circ. 1331.

† Inq. p. m. John de Eyghton, Monday after All Saints, 35 Hatf. 26 acres in Saltwellsyde by 4s. 4d. rent; a cot and three acres in Eyghton. John de Ravensworth, son of Emma, sister of John de Eyghton, heir, aged 24.

‡ John Ravensworth, by charter of Bishop Lewis, produced on the inquest, and dated 24 Jan. 1324, held 86 acres in Saltwellsyd and in Gatesheved-field by 3s. 4d. rent; three acres in Gateshead, &c. one messuage and a half, once of Alan de Slikburn, and thirteen acres—one acre subter le Rotgraynes—the manor of Ravensworth (or, rather, a manor within Ravensworth) containing three messuages, value 9s.; one cottage, 2s.; eighty acres of arable, 15s. 4d. per ann.; four acres and a half of pasture, 2s.; one acre of meadow, 8d.; one acre of wood, 20d.; held of Sir William Lumley, Knt. by the eighth part of a knight's service. A cottage, toft, croft, and three acres in Kibblesworth, held of John Scrutevile.

§ Henry Ravensworth held ut supra in omnibus.

Pedigree of Gategang.

Arms: A cheveron inter three goats' heads couped.

Seals, Plate X. No. . . .


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Henry Gategang testis cum Gilberto Gategang in carta sans dat. Alice de Quicham.

Jacobus Gategang testis cum Alano Gategang, 1348.

* Ominibus, &c. Thomas Sparce capellanus. Sciatis me concessisse Stephano Sparee fratri meo unum tenementum in Pypewellgate, ab aqua de Tyne usque fossatum versus austrum et in latitudine inter terras Will'i Gategang ex utraque parte. Testibus Gilberto Gategang, Gilberto filio suo tune Ballivo de Gatesheved, Will'o Gategang, &c. Apud Gateshed die Annunc. A. D. incipiente 1287. D. & C. Treas.

† Inq. in crast. S. Trin. 7 Bury. John Gategang died seized of 26 acres in the Ald Parke, held of the Bishop by fealty and 17s. 4 d. John son and heir aged 30.

‡ Divers Charters in the Treasury, and Charters of St. Edmund's Hospital.

§ Inq. die L. prox. p. F. S. Joh. ante Port. Lat. ao 11 Hatf. Sibilla, the widow of Gilbert Gategang, died seized of a capital messuage and seven acres in Kablyncroft infra Burgum de Gatesheved; three acres in Seynt Elyn Wel-croft infra eundem Burgum; a medow called the Marshel medowe, and le Fletes and le Strother medowe, and eighty acres of newly granted waste, novi vasti, in the fields of Gateshead, held by an exchequer rent of 4l. 2s. 2d., fifty-eight acres in Folesteby, held of the Almoner of the House of Durham. John, son of Alan Gategang, heir, aged 14.

║ Inq. die .L. in crast. Omn. SS. John son of John Gategang thirty-three acres in the Old Parke, by fealty and 22s. Mag. Henr. Gategang, brother and heir, aged 30.

§§ Henricus Gategang, Rector Ecclesie de Belton, heres Joh'is Gategang, et Joh'is de Castro Bernardi, dedimus Joh'i de Dolphanby terram in villa de Gatesheved inter terram D'ni Thome Surteys mil. ex parte austral. et viam que vocatur Hellegate ex bor. et in longit. a via regia ex parte occid.usque ad terram quam Robertus de Beltoft, &c. T. Will'o Gategang, &c. 1375. Orig.—Earl of Strathmore.

¶ Omnibus, &c. Rogerus de Heworth et Sibilla uxor. Noveritis nos confirmasse Will'o Syre totum illud ten. In Pipewellgate. Teste Alano Gategang Domino de Pipewellgate. 1348. D. & C. Treas.

** Inq. p. m. die L. prox. ante F. S. Greg. Papæ 5 Hatf.; obiit seisitus de tota terra de Pipewellgate, quæ tenetur de Episcopo in Baronia, val. 13s. 4d.; one place called Joppesriding, and one acre near the water of Tame, held of the Bishop by fealty; twelve burgages in Gateshead; a messuage and carucate of land in Boldon, called Faderleshouse; and four acres in Whickham, and a messuage and eleven acres in Folesteby. John son and heir, aged 4.

† [inverted]: Bourn, p. 194; and Brand, vol. I. p. 216.

†† Indent. Inter Will'um Gategang fil. Alani ex una parte et Dom. Priorem et Convent. de Dunelm. ex altera, quod non liceat Will'o alienare terras suas in Pypewellgate nisi dictis Priori et Convent. sub pena 100l. sterling. 19 Feb. 1387. D. & C. Treas.

Sciant, &c. quod ego Will'us de Gategang de Gatesheved dedi, &c. Joh'i de Dolfynby et Ricardo de Huton, cissori, unam acram in Colyerchare abuttan. super terras dominicas Episcopi Dunelmensis, in F. S. Cuthberti 1402.

Orig. charter, Earl of Strathmore.

║║ Will'us Gategang et Katerina uxor ad firm. dimiser. Walt'ro de Hesilden mess. In Gatesheved quod Joh'es de Bardenay forisfecit nobis causa vasti, &c. T. Johanne de Dolphanby, &c. 1375. Orig.—Earl of Strathmore.

‡‡ Inq. p. m. die Mere. prox. p. F. S. Mich. 25 Langley. Per quend. fin. Temp. Ricardi Bury, inter Alan Gategang et Agnet. ux. Quer. et Nicholaum Gategang, before. &c. 4 mess. 4 croft. in Gatesheved; 9 acr. de Joppesriding. Also in fee-tail, by virtue of the said fine, 146 acres in Gatesheved; fourteen acres called Salt-medowe; the place called Pypewellgate; Camerdykes; twenty-four acres called Strothir-medowe; fourteen acres at Rikburnhede. John Gildeford cousin and heir, viz. son of John son of Sibilla sister of William Gategang, aged 24.

Pedigree of Dolphanby.

Arms: Three dolphins embowed. Seal of John de Dolphanby, 3 Dec. 1405. Orig. charter, Earl of Strathmore.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

§ Will. Chesmen de Nov. Castro dat Johanni de Dolfanby 2 burgagia in Akewellgate inter ten. Joh'is Dolfanby et ten. Cantariæ B. Marie in Hellegat. T. Johanne Lawe, 22 Maii, 4 Hen. IV.

* The inquisition adds that William Hardyng holds 10l. per ann. out of the premises for term of life of Agnes his wife, and two tenements are abandoned, and are thrown up to the chief Lord, the Earl of Westmoreland, for lack of tenants, “tepentium in pestilencia modo regnante defunctorum,” and the very tenements themselves are represented as seriously affected, “valde debilia et ruinosa.”

† Probacio ætatis Johanne, &c. Witnesses, Henry Ravensworth, aged 60; John Hadham, æt. 50, came that day to town, being St. Michael's-day, and, alighting at the house of Thomas Hedlam, of Gatesheved, found that Joan, his landlady, was gone to church to be gossip for Joan Dolphanby, together with John Vescy, Chaplain, and Joan Pape. Thomas Botrell, æt. 56, “venit de partibus transmarinis in Vigil. Festi S. Mich. et fuit in ecclesia B. Marie de Gatesheved, rumores transmarinos annuncians et revelans vicinis suis, quando consang. suus Jo. Vesey,” &c. &c. 17 Dec. 14 Nevill. John Claxton, æt. 46, was on the Sandhill with Thomas Pape when Robert Dolphanby asked him (Pape) to let Joan his wife stand god-mother, &c.

‡ 26 Nov. 1490, Omnibus, &c. Conan Barton, arm. Noveritis me de consensu Roberti filii mei dedisse Henrico Bointon de Sadbury, arm. Will. Pudsay, Rectori de Bolton, Rolando Pudsey, arm. Tho. Strangwish de Ketton, arm. & Thome Herbotill de Ponteland, 1 claus. ex parte oriental. de Gateshed, vocat. Le Abraham Close. Rot. Sherwood.

Pardon of intrusion for Conan Barton, son and heir of Robert, 4 Sept. 6 Fox. Conan Barton, Esq. of Whenby, Patron of the Chantries of St. John Bapt. And Evang. and St. Loy, 1546.

Pedigree of Thomlison, of Gateshead.

Arms: Party per pale wavy Argent and Vert three greyhounds counterchanged, a chief invected Azure.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* Gateshead Register.

*** Mr. James Gascoyne, buried 23 Feb. 1630; John Gascoyne, Surgeon, 21 Aug. 1647; Thomas Gascoyne, Chirurgeon, 6 May 1652; Emanuel Gascoyne and Mary Harper, married 28 Feb. 1662; Margaret, daughter of Emanuel, bapt. 26 Jan. 1668; Mary, wife of Mr. John Gascoigne, buried 14 March 1628–9.

The Church.

The Church (fn. 63) is a spacious building of regular architecture, consisting of a nave (with uniform ailes), West tower, chancel, and transept. The ailes are formed by light octagonal pillars, supporting on each side five spacious arches. The transept opens into the ailes under similar arches. The whole body of the church is old; but the tower or steeple, and a portion of the West end of the nave, was rebuilt in 1740 (fn. 64) , when a new West doorway was opened under the tower; the old entrance is by a South porch. The whole of the light are modern, both in the ailes and chancel. The nave has uniform clerestory windows both on the North and South. The chancel opens into the nave under a wide pointed arch. There were formerly there recesses in the wall within the alter-rails for officiating ministers, but when the chancel was repaired by Dr. Prosser the recesses and piscina were removed. The old chancel roof is covered with a plain ceiling. The whole church is regularly stalled with old oak, carved with fleurs de lis, and with the Prince's feathers frequently repeated. There are also several coats of arms, particularly Cole, a cheveron engrailed inter three scorpions erect, on a chief three fleurs de lis (fn. 65) ; crest, a dexter hand grasping a scorpion. Gray, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed quarterly with Ridell, a fesse between three grabs: Virtute non vi. Liddell, fretty, on a chief there leopards' heads, impaling Tempest, a bend engrailed inter six martlets: Fama semper vivit. ....a fesse engrailed between three griffins' heads erased: and perhaps some other bearings. The font is a large basin of black marble. The ground immediately adjoining the church is called the Anchorage, and is occupied by the School-house, the Beadle's house, and other office connected with the Church.

The Parsonage, a good house with gardens and a view towards the river, nearly adjoins the church on the East (fn. 66) .

Succession of Rectors.

Gateshead Rectory—the Bishop of Durham Patron; king's Books, 27l. 13s. 4d,; Tenths, 21l. 15s. 4 d. Episc. Proc. 10s.; Archid. Proc. 4s. Dedication to St. Mary.

  • Robert de Plessis.
  • Robert, 1275.
  • Henry Manselot, 1322.
  • Rich. Kilvington, S. T. P. 1344, p.m. Manselot.
  • John de Castro Bernardi, 1370, p.m. Kilvington.
  • Adam de Fenrother, p. res. John.
  • John de Castro Bern. p. res. Fenrother, 1376.
  • John Bathre, 1370, p. res. John.
  • Thomas Everard, 1380, p. res Bathre.
  • William de Dalington, 1389, p.m. Everard
  • John de Longley, p.m. Dalington.
  • William Malberthorp, Cl. p. res Longley.
  • William Wandesford, 1410, p.m. Malberthorp.
  • John de Thoralby, 1419, p. res. Wandesford.
  • Henry de Eton, 1421, p. res. Thoralby.
  • John Bonour, 1427, p.m. Eton.
  • John Lethom, 1435, p. res. Bonour.
  • Thomas Tanfield, 1436, p. res. Lethom.
  • Robert Mason, LL. D. 1474, p. m. Tanfield.
  • Ch. Mann, 1493, p. m. Mason.
  • John Brown, Cl. 1532.
  • William Bell, S. T. P. 1557, p. res. Brown.
  • William Byrche, A. M. (fn. 67) 1559.
  • Lancelot Doddisworthe, 19 July 1564.
  • William Hodgeson, 5 Oct. 1571, p. m. Doddisworth.
  • Clement Colmore, LL. D. (fn. 68) 1587.
  • John Hutton, 1595.
  • Thomas Hooke, 25 May 1612.
  • Joseph Browne, A. M. 18 July 1620.
  • Thomas Weld, an intruder (fn. 69) , 1649–1657 (fn. 70) .
  • John Laidler, A. M. (fn. 71) 16 Mar. 1660, pr. King Charles II. Sede vac.
  • John Cave, A. M. 1685.
  • Richard Werge, A. M (fn. 72) 1683, p. res. Cave.
  • John Cock, A. M. (fn. 73) 1687, p. m. Werge.
  • Robert Brograve, A. M. 1691, p. depr. Cock.
  • George Tully, A. M. (fn. 74) 16
  • John Smith, A. M. 12 June 1695, p.m. Tully.
  • Theophilus Pickering, S.T.P. 5 Dec.1695, p. res. Smith (fn. 75) .
  • Leonard Shafto, A. M. (fn. 76) 1705, p. res. Pickering.
  • Rebort Stillingfleet, A. M. (fn. 77) 1732, p. m. Shafto.
  • William Lambe, A. M. 1733, p. res. Stillingfleet.
  • Andrew Wood, A. M. 1769, p. m. Lambe.
  • Richard Faweett, D. D. (fn. 78) 1772, p. m. Wood.
  • Robert Thorpe, A. M. (fn. 79) 1782, p. m. Fawcett.
  • Richard Prosser, D. D. (fn. 80) Bal. Coll. Oxon. res.1808.
  • Henry Frederic Phillpotts, A.M. (fn. 81) Magdalen Coll. Oxon. res. 1810
  • John Collinson, A. M. of Queen's Coll Oxon. p. res Phillpotts, 1810 (fn. 82) .

The glebe, besides the house and gardens, consists of a field at High Team, of five acres, two roods, and twenty perches; a field of three acres, two roods, and thirty perches, between the Middle and Stony Flats (fn. 83) ; also a field three acres and twelve perches, bounded on the North by the Hexham road; a field of three roods and thirty-two perches at Bencham; and a field of one acre, three roods, and twenty-five perches, adjoining the Rectory house and gardens, and now called the Rectory-field (fn. 84) .

The Rector is Master of King James's Hospital, and there belong to him the fishery of Friar's Goose, with the liberty of drying nets, and 40s. paid annually by the grassmen for Parson's flatt and Bull's acre (fn. 85) .

The Rector is generally entitled to great and small tithe throughout the parish, excepting the following portions, covered by moduses: 5l. per annum, paid by Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. for tithe-hay of St. Edmund's lands in his possession; 2l. 10s. for all tithe of Darwent-crook; 6s. 8d. for tithe-hay of Saltwellside; 3s. 4d for tithe-hay of Field-house; all payable at Michaelmas. The Rector of Gateshead pays annually to the Bishop of Durham 1s. 8d. at Martinmas, for lands belongings to the dissolved house of St. Edmund's; 3s. 4d. to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, for St. Edmund's lands; and 2l. 13s. 4d. to Kepyer School, in Houghton-le-Spring.

Chantries.

There were at least four Chantries within the church of Gateshead:

1. St. Mary's Chantry, in the North porch. In 1330, Alan, son of Roger Prestre, and Alan Prestre of Gateshead, confirmed to Roger de Thorington, Chaplain, ten messuages in Gateshead, and 6s. 8d. out-rent. The Commonalty of Gateshead were to be patrons after the decease of Roger and Alan, et jurabit capellanus coram Rectore de Gatesheved qui pro tempore, &c. The foundation was confirmed by Bishop Skirlaw, 2 Nov. 1402, and by the Prior and Convent Aug. 8, 1403.

The Chauntrie of our Lady in Gatishedd was founded by one Alan Prestore, to fynde a preste for the mayntenaunce of God's service, and to praye for his sowle and all Cristen sowles, by reporte, but ther is no dede of eny foundacion therof to be shewed. Yerly value 75s 4d.; valew accordyng to this survey, 8l. 2s. (paid thereout for the rent 29s 4d. for King's tenths 7s. 6d. ob.); remayneth clerely 6l. 3s. 3d. ob. which ben employed to the sustentac'n and relif of Willyam Blynkynnsope, Prieste, incumbent there; ornaments 4l. 13s. 11d. (fn. 86)

Incumbents: 1330, Roger de Thorington. William de Norham occurs 1402. Sir John Bell. Sir John Turpyne, p. m. Bell, 1496. William Gotten occurs 1519. william Friende, Chaplain, 10 March 1544 (on the presentation of the Bailiff and Commonalty of Gateshead). William Blenkynsop 1546. Thomas Worthy received a pension of 6l.1553 (fn. 87) .

2. St. John's Chantry. By deed, dated on the feast of St. peter and St. Paul, 1421, John Dolphanby of Gateshead granted to John Vescy, Chaplain of the Chantry of St. John Baptist and St. John Evangelist (which he had then lately founded), fourteen tenements or burgages in Gateshead (fn. 88) . The charter was confirmed by the Bishop of Durham 1421, and by the Prior and Convent 1424.

Chaplains: John Vescy 1421. Thomas Hochinson. Sir Robert Beste, 14 June 1496, admitted on presentation of Conand Barton, of Whenby (a Yorkshire Esquire, and heir of blood of Dolphanby). Thomas Hochinson, 37 Henry VIII.; received a pension of 6l. in 1553.

At the Dissolution, yearly value 6l. 12s. 8d. ob.; value by survey 7l. 16s. 8d. wherof for one yearly obit, 6s. 8d.; for the King's tenths 13s. 3d. quad.; 6l. 16s. 8d. ob. quad. de claro; ornaments 47s.

3. St. Loy's Chantry, founded by John Dolphanby before 1442. The founder settled the patronage of this Chantry by deed, on the feast of Holy Cross 1442, on his grandson Robert Dolphanby and his heirs, by which descent it became vested in Conan Barton, of Whenby, Esq.

Sept. 28, 1532, Bishop Tunstall instituted Sir Robert Galele (p. mort. Sir Richard Rande), on the joint presentation of Anthony Lumley, Esq. (patron for that turn, on account of the minority of Conan Barton,) and of John Brown Rector of Gateshead. Richard Jackson received a pension of 3l. in 1553 (fn. 89) .

4. Trinity Chantry. "The Chauntrie of the Trinitie in Gateshead was founded by one Alan Prestore, to fynde a Prieste," &c. Yerelie value 4l. 4s. 2d.; value by survey 6l. 18d.; rent resolut. 2s. 6d.; King's tenths 8s. 5d.; remayneth clerely 110s. 7d. ornamenths 79s. 1d. (fn. 89)

John Huchynson received a pension of 5l. in 1553 (fn. 90) .

Monumental Inscriptions.

The first place shall be assigned to Robert Trollop (architect of the Town-hall in Newcastle, 1659),descended from a line of stone-masons (fn. 91) , and who prepared his own tombhouse, a heavy square pile, the lower part brick, the upper stone, sometime ornamented with golden texts beneath the cornice. On the North side, according to tradition, stood the image of Robert Trollop, with his arm raised, pointing towards the Town-hall of Newcastle, and underneath,


Here lies Robert Trowlup,
Who made yon stones roll up;
When death took his soul up,
His body filled this hole up (fn. 92) .

On flat stones in the choir, within the alter-rails:

Here lieth interred the body of Christopher Sanderson, late of Gateshead, Mercer, who exchanged this life the 22d day of December, An Dom. 1660. Here lieth interred with him his brother, Charles Sanderson.

Arms: Paly of sox, on a bend a sword, the point upwards; a crescent for difference; no colours.

Here lie interred the remains of the Rev. Ambrose Fenwick, and Elizabeth his wife. He departed Feb. 1st, 1732; she departed June 2d, 1738.

Jane, wife of William Dixon, died April 20th, 1761.

Here lieth the body of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of George Gray, of the Bishoprick of Durham, Esq. late wife to John Clifton, Citizen and Mercer of London, who departed this life the 6th of May 1651, near 32 years of age.

Here lieth interred the body of Timothy Tyzack, Merchant-adventurer, and Elizabeth his wife, who had issue by him seven children; two survived them, viz. Timothy and George. She departed this life the 13th day of October, an. 1659; he departed this life the 6th day of February 1684.

Arms: There acorns slipped, two billets in chief; impaling a fesse inter three lambs passant; no colours. Seigneur Je Te Prie Garde Ma Vie.

Without the altar-rails:

Here sleeps Mrs. Judith Weld, who was to three Godly Ministers a good wife; to Christ a faithfull servant; to the Church a virtuous member for piety, prudence, and patience. She departed this life 1656. In Jesu Domino splendida resurgam.

Above the South door a mural monument to Martha, wife of Thomas Richardson, of Lynn Regis, Master and Mariner, ob. 24 July 1731, æt. 50; her husband died 2 Sept. 1748 (fn. 93) . Arms: Or, on a chief Sable three lions' heads erased of the first, impaling, Gules, three bars, and a dexter canton Argent.

At the West end of the nave a long Latin epitaph on Brain Borrett, merchant, son of Miles Borrett, of Dowbiggin in the parish of Sadberge, in Yorkshire; ob. 7 Feb. 1695, aet. 36. Dorothy, his only daughter, ob. 5 Oct. 1704, æt. 19 (fn. 93) Arms: Argent, three boars' heads Sable, impaling a cheveron inter three crescents, on a canton..... Crest, a lion passant.

At the West end of the nave:

The burial-place of George Airey, Mercer, and Anne his wife, and their children ; George their eldest son departed this life the 1st day of June, A. D. 1693.

The burial-place of Lancelot Turnbull 1714.

On a mural monument attached to the wall of the South aile:


To the Memory
of
Andrew Wood, M. A.
Rector of this Church.
Born XXIX May MDCCXV;
inducted IX Sept. MDCCLIX;
interred,
amidst the tears of his Parishioners,
XV March MDCCLXXII.
This monument of their esteem,
affection, and gratitude,
was erected by the people
of
Gateshead.

This sepulchral series shall close with the Epitaph of the peaceable Thomas Arrowsmith.

On a compartment under the belfry:


MDCXXXVII.
Reader, in that piece of earth
In peace rests Thomas Arrowsmith;
In peace hee lived, in peace went hence,
With God and man, and conscience.
Peace for other men he sought,
And peace with peeces sometime bought;
Pacifici may others bee,
But ex pace factus hee.
Peace, reader, then doe not molest
That peace whereof he's now possest.
The God of peace, for him in store,
Hath joy and peace for evermore.

Pangit et Plangit
Amore Dolore
Robertus Arrowsmith.

St. Mary's Church is rich in plate : A silver cup 20 ounces, inscribed, “The free gift of James Cole to St. Mary's church in the parish of Gateshead.” Arms : a fesse engrailed inter three scorpions erect, a mullet difference. Crest : a naked dexter arm grasping a scorpion. (Mr. Cole died 1662.) A silver flaggon, 56 ounces, inscribed, “The gift of William Collinson, late of Gateshead, deceased, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, 1672.” Arms, on a fesse a crescent inter two mullets, in chief a lion rampant, in base three battle-axes turned dexterwise. Another silver chalice, 43 ounces, “The gift of Elizabeth Collinson, in memory of her daughter, Jane Wrangham, deceased, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, 1672.” A silver paten, 20 ounces, “Honor et Gloria soli Deo, 1732.” A cup 19 ounces and a quater, “Soli Deo Gloria.” A small silver plate, 7 ounces, without inscription. A silver chalice, 73 ounces and a half ; two silver plates for collecting alms, 23 ounces and a half each ; and a silver paten, 22 ounces and a quarter; these three are inscribed, “The gift of Mrs. Ann Shaftoe to the church of St. Mary, Gateshead, July 9, 1785.” A large silver basin, in which the alms are placed on the communion-table, 40 ounces, “The gift of Richard Fawcett, D.D. Rector, to the church of St. Mary's, Gateshead, May 13, 1780.” (fn. 94) A silver cup and salver, presented to St. Edmund's Chapel by the Rev. H. Phillpotts, Prebendary of Durham, 1815.

The Parish Register begins in 1559–60.

1574. Sollgars of Barwick came to this towne, and dep'ted this lyfe heare, and was buried the 26 of ffabruarye.

1625. On the margin of a leaf: Visitation which was last, burials this year 89.

June 1, 1636. The names of those that died in the infection of the plauge, and is buried in ye church-yard this year, 1636, since the first begininge, being aboute the first of June, as followeth—to Sept. 30 the number has been counted, on which day it was 200.

Mrs. Hambleton, a Scotch woman, bur.10 Dec.1644. Sir Charles Howard, Knit. 26 April 1652.

John Partiss, Sheriff Bailiff, slaine on the Tyne bridge, buried 24 Jan. 1652-3.

1665. Buralls of the plague, some whereof were in the church-yard, began July 30.

Cuthbert Dickinson dyed of the plague, buried 21 Sept. 1665.

Marie, wife of Willm Scafe, broke her neck 22 Sept. 1665.

Christopher Byerley, drowned by the fall of the bridge, buried 5 May 1772.

Christian William Baron Van Haake, 23 Jan. 1780.

The Parish Books commence in 1626.

1626. Paid James Cotts for an iron band for the bekon pane, 1s. 2d.

To James Coats, for making glasps for the roge stobe (the whipping-post), 1s. 2d

13 Mar. Paid, for careinge the towns armor, and puder and mach, to Wetburn lesors (fn. 95) , 9s.9d.

For carieing the armore to Whidbourn (Whitburn), 9s.

For ditto to Gilligate-more, 13s. 11d. For pouder and mach, 2s. 6d. For dressing the armore, 4s.

For the last muster going to Whittall-dike beffor Sir Thomas Tempaste, 8s.

To Mr. Raphe Coll, for the bulle wentring, 1l.

1627. Paid the com'on soldiers, for carieing the towns armor to the muster 2 tymes this weeke together with pouther and match, 11s. 6d.

For ringing on the coronation-day, 1s.

To Mr. Robert Riddel, for cloath to make the wayte Beedle and Bellman each of them a coate.

Paid the fine estreated for want of a ducking-stool, 6s. 8d.; and in the following year, Payd for the dokinge-stoull, 12s.

1628, Nov. 2. Gevene to two men come from the yell of re, 1s.

Paid unto an Irish Gentlewoman, wh had a passe wth divers of the Privie Counsellers hands att itt, wh she did showe unto Mr. Browne (the Rector), and he wild us to give her 5s.

For makinge a new coffinge and mending two ould ones, 5s.

For mending of Sawsana More her heade, 6s.

1629. Tow a pore lass 3d.; tow a blind prest 1s.

For bringe the ducking-stool from the trunk stayth, 6d.

1630. Paid unto five Irish folk wch had a passe, 2s. 6d.

May 29. Paid for ringing for the Prince, 2s.

Bestowed in wine of Mr. Peskott, for one sermon, 2s. 6d.

1632. Paid for whipping black Barborie, 6d.

1633. To workemen, for makeing the streats even at ye King's coming, 18s. 4d.; and Paid the piper for playing to ye menders of ye high waies five severall daies, 3s. 4d. (fn. 96)

For rogue monies 1l. 1s. 8d.; for irons mending to the whipping-stob 1s.; and in the next year, for whipping six rogues, 2s.

1634. One pair of bandeleares, 2s.; 3 bullet-bagges and inkle for the musket restes, 5d.; for a new armour to Henry Lawson, 1l. 6s. 8d.; for stampeing the new armour, 3s.

1636. For frankincense, pich, and rosen, 2s. 6d.

1637. Geven to a poore wench 1s.; to a poore scholler 1s.; to 4 prisoners in the toll-booth 2s.4d.; to my Lord's pursivant 6s. 8d.

1638. July 31. To a poor Hallifax man 3d.

Jan. 23. Paid the com'on soldiers goeing to traine on the ffell 3s.; pouther and match 1s.5d.

Feb. 13. For prunching the trees in ye church-yard 4s. 6d.

Mem. That 20s. a year was given to the poor by the will of Anth. Hebson, dated 20 Sept. 1624.

1639. May. For ringing the bells when his Matie came to the town 2s.

Sept. For ditto when the King came from Barwick 1s.

6 Mar. Paid to the pavers, for worke att the Pant and Battle Banke, 5s. 5d.

1640. For amending the Goatshead, being the waites cognisance, 3s.

1640. To a poor seaman that was shipp-broken 4d.; to Mr. George Basnett, for the townes charitie to redeame a captive out of bondage, 2l.

1641. Ringeing when his Matie came from Scotland 1s. 6d.

Paid to a poore woman that did beare a child in this towne, soe that she might begone, 2s. 6d.

Sept. 14. To a poore widow, a ministers wife, who had a passe, 1s.

Given to Patrick Watt, for 2 sermons wh was thought fitt to be donn, 5s.

1642. Oct. 16th. “For as much as it hath pleased Almighty God to visite this P'ish with the plague of pestilence [a sume or sesse of 24 weeks ordered], collected for the use of the infected poor 28l.6s. Given to a gentleman whose father was a Doctor in Divinity, 2s.

1643. March 29. Paid to a poore man who should have had a collection in the church, but had not, 1s. 6d.

April 28. Received of Collonell Clavering, for wine that his solgers received att the communion, 14s.

April. Paid to Thomas Arrowsmith, John Stott, and Richard Thompson, for goeing to Durham about souldiours comeing to have a fre quarter in the towne, 14s.

April 30. Received the remainder of a sess laid for the discharge of Maiger Gourding (Major Gordon) sholders, 2l. 5s. 1d.

Feb. 29. For 2 horse lod of colls when the solgers was att the church 8d.

April 28. Of Barronet Coll, for his child layreston, 1s. 8d.

1644. June 8. Paid to George Browne, for helping the herdman to keepe the kine on the towne more (two weekes night and day), because the tyme was troblesome, by reson of the army, 7s. 7d.

15 June. 4 men for ringing the bells when the sheige was rased at Yorke, 3s. 8d.

In the next year the scourge of Pestilence was added to that of War.

1645. Received at the church dore at seaverall tymes, for the reliefe of the poore infected people, 7l, 17s. 5d.; for making loudges, and for the reliefe of the poore infected people in Benshom, paid more than could be collected of the 6 weekes sess (which was laid on in the year 1644) because of the peoples impoverishment, 3l. 2s. 10d.

In this year the beacon had a new pann and a crook, 18s.; and the towne paid a fine of 11l. 15s. to Captain Grey, “which the Com'ittee did lay uppon this towne for lack of the com'on armes, and for his and his mens charges when they came about the fine;” also it was not without a payment of 1s. 2d.that the poor Burghers did “redeame their great new gate, which the Scottes had taken away and carried to their leager, which gate did hang at the entring in to the towne fields.” Moreover, the town was charged with 2s. 8d. “for two forks and two rakes for the Governer's use.

1646. June. Paid to men for assisting to drive the Fell, and watching the beastes where they were pinded; but James Towers of Newcastle, p'cureing assistance of the Scotts, came violently and tooke them away by force, his beasts being in nomber 79; also ther was at that tyme 90 of another mans, 9s. 3d.

Novemb. Pd to Rob. Sanderson, for dressin jergin's hole (fn. 97) , and carrying away much rubish when Newcastle men would have fined Gateshead for it, 4s.

To Roger Young and others rideing to Durham sev11 tymes about the preventing of a great sess, which Mr. Maior and other men of Newcastle did labour to impose upon the inhabitants of Gaitshead, 5l.

1647. To Ra. Thompson for procureing an order from the Com'ittee about a cesse wh the Maior of Newcastle would have had imposed on the demesne lands, 17s.

1648. Sept. 7. For ringing the bells, when Colchester was taken, 4s.

1649. For ringing the bells the last of February, 4s. 4d.

For removing a horse wch fell into the house of office at the almeshouse, 1s.

1 stone of figgs riding the boundarie, 4s 8d. (fn. 98)

Spent in entertaining the Newcastle Ministers when Mr. Weld, our Minister, was installed here, 1l. 12s. 8d.

Paid at Mris Watsons, when the Justices sate to examin the witches, 3s. 4d.; for a grave for a witch 6d; for trying the witches 1l. 5s. (fn. 99)

1650. For ringing when Edinborough castle was surrendered, 4s.4d.

Paid the fidler, when the feilds were mowed, 2s. 8d.

Received of John Willowbie, which he brought from Chester in le Streett, whiche was collected 16th of October, for Mallbrough (fn. 100) , and which was refussed (in regard the greatest part of the moine was in bordwells (fn. 101) , which moine did remaine at Chester) 2l.18s.6d.

1651. Expences—Paid the piper at the mowing of the fields 2s.Pd the ringers when Dundee was taken, 4s.

1652. For ringing when the good newes came the Hollander was beaten, 4s.4d.

To 4 men wh came from Worcester wth a brefe from ye Keepr of the liberate of England, to the loss of 5000l.; 2s. 6d.

1654. Monie given to a poore man and two children, having a pass from my Lord Protector to travell into Scotland, 1s. 6d.

Monie given to burie Mrs. Willowbie, Parson Hookes his daughter, who was of late Parson of Gaitshead, 10s.

Robert Gaille, for dying the waites coats of a deep collor, 2s. 6d.

Paid James Madder and the rest of the constabells for Lilbourn's troupes, for coles and can-dell, and for the Irish troupe, and for keeping of sick souldiers, for the burying of one and setting away the other, 18s.

The Lady Riddell, for wintring of the townes bull, 1l. 6s. 8d. [The same charge 1655, 1656, &c.]

1656. Controversies between Will. Riddell, Esq. and the town referred to arbitration.

1657. Spent upon the High Shirriff at Mr. Watsons, about the towne's affaires for keeping a fine of [off] the towne is 2s. 2d.

Pd for one gallon of muld sack, had of Mr. Watson, bestowed on Mr. James Clavering, Justice of Peace, at his taking journey to the Pliament, 9s.

1658. For ringing the bells upon the Lord Protector his inauguration, when it was published, 4s. 4d.

Sept. 3. Pd for ringing the bells for the signall mercies this Comonwealth received upon anno 50 and 51, never to be forgotten, 4s. 4d.;for ringing the 5th of November, 4s. 4d.

For meate and nursing for a poore woman that was stabbed in 3 places, and after meanes used for her recovery, at last dyed, 1l.

In this year, 1658, several of the four and twenty of the parish of Gateshead were displaced, as being “persons who by the humble petic'n and advice were disabled from exercising any place or office of publique trust, and guilty of profaneness and other crimes, soe that they are not fitt to be entrusted in that employment;” and their places filled by other godly and sober inhabitants of the Borough, by order in Councill, dat. at Whitehall, Tuesday 22 June, grounded on certificate from Robert Fenwick, Henry Ogle, Esquires, and John Topping, Governor of Tinmouth.

1659. For burying a poore man, was like to dye before Mr. Elea. Cliftons doore, 2s.

In the following year the first symptom of returning loyalty occurs:

1660. Pd to Mr. Benedicke Hoarsly, for drawin the kinge's armes, 5l.

Jan. 28. Sir Franeis Liddell, Knt. and Mr. Ralph Cole, chosen of the 24. Given by James Cole, Esq. “a fair silver chalice.” Given by ffrancis Collinson, “a large pewter flagon.” For ringing the bells severall times when the King was proclaimed, and since, 1l. 13s. 8d.

1662. For redeeming a muskett yt was pawnd 1s. 4d.

Nov. 15. Agreet with Jño Hilton, concerning a leagesie left by his deaseased unckell Henry Hilton, Esq.

1664. Spent when the Fell was sett out, 2s. 6d.

For the Kings book, desired by my Lord Bishop to be kept and preserved in the church, 1l. 12s.

For a paire of shoes for a poor boy and for a shift for him 4s.

For rideing the bounders 16s. 6d.; for figgs, prunes, and drinke, 1l. 1s.

1665. Pd 4 soulders when the went to Sunderland, 14 dayes, at 4d. per day.

Pd 2 laborers for 2 days to resist Esq. Ridalls men in Bensham, 4s.

1666. For a white sheet for pennance 1s. 6d.

For writing the modwell of the pews 4s.

1667. Recd 3 qrs. rent for Mrs. Cole's old rotten cottages, 7s. 6d.

1669. Spent at Durham, being caused to witness agt Mr. Goore, for preaching at Richd Stocktons on Sunday July 11th, 4s.

To three broken seamen 1s.; to a woman who suffered by fire 2s. 6d.

1671. Subscription for the redemption of the poor Christians, now slaves under the Turks, 15l.7s.9d.

Paid for powder and match when the keelemen mutinyed, 2s.

1672. To Mr. Roger Preston, for making and setting up the organ, 51l.

1673. To a distressed gentleman, named Mr. Labourne, 5s.

1683. Drinke, when Mr. Harrison preached, and for mending a poore box, 6d.

1684. 1 pint of sack when Mr. Shakespear preached, 1s. 2d.

For carrying 26 Quakers to Durham, 2l. 17s.

Expended on the coronation day, April 23, 2 barells gunn powder, 6l.; 1 hogshd of ale, 2l.; given the gunners and their mate 15s.; paper, starch, match, and packthread, 3s. 1d.; nailes, and a skin for the rammers, 8d.; bringing up and carrying downe 9 great gunns, 1l. 0s. 4d.; 9 tar-barrells and labourers, 11s.; labourers bringing the ale and powder barr1ls, 2s.; for mending the church-yard wall, weh was pulld down for the gunns, 2s. 6d>.

1694. Pd Rob. Taylor for inviting the Clergie to dine wth the Bpp. 1s.; expences when we consulted the Bishopps entertainment, 1s. 6d.; expences in entertaining the Bishopp, 7l. 17s.

To Mr. Newton, for carrying two poor children to London, 18s.

1701, 22 April. Ordd that ye littell bell now in the belfrey be p'sented to Robt Ellison, Esq. for ye use of Heworth chappell, in leiue of the arrerages due to ye sd Rob. Ellison for the blew quarry spring.

1702–3. 13 Jan. Ord. that Wm Lakey be forthwith kept and indempnifyd for a vexatious suite brought agt him by the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, for breweing of ale and beer in the towne of Gateshead.

1706. A new hood for the Rector, 2l. 2s. 9d.

1708. For sweetmeats to entertaine the Bishop of Durham, 5s.

1724–5. 3 vols. Foxes book Martyrs, pd Mr. Cotesworth, 4l. 9s. 6d.

1727–8. For an entertainment at the anchoridge on the coronation 4l. 2s. 4d.

1746. Ringers, Duke of Cumberland's birth-day, 12s. For taking of Carlisle, 5s.; victory of Culloden, 12s.; Prince of Hesse coming, 12s.; the Duke's safe return, and candles, 12s. 6d.

1771. Particulars of the Subscription for sufferers by the inundation.

The following extracts are from some tattered remnants of still more ancient account in the Vestry:

Item, Robert Robson, to ye gylton (gilding) of ye crose, xiid. Of Alison Ffathrestanhaugh, iiis iiijd. For ye beryall of John Borrell, talyor, iiis. iiiid. Gatherd in ye kirk, to ye gyltyng of ye crose, vis.

Expens. It'm, for a nald nobill (old noble (fn. 102) ) to Bartrom Yonghosban, viiis xd. To Thomas Hutchonson, for a farthyn of gold, iis. To Willm Broon, for a quartr of a nald nobill, iis. iid. For qwiksilver to gylt wt xiid. For oyle to ye lampe, iid. For gyltyng of ye crose, xxd. To the sawers, for sawying, xid. & xiid.

Expen. For payntyng of ye crose stafe, iiiid. For synggyng of ye lady mese, xld. For synggyng of a dirige for ye wife yt gafe ye skarlet hode, xviiid. To Androw Writer, for a lettr of atornay, iiiid. For mendyng of glase wyndow, iiid. For rydyng to Dorham for haloying of ye vestments, viid. For a stryng to ye litell bell, viiid. For mendyng of ye organe xxvis. viiid. For sweyng of Kyrk, iid.

These accounts are signed Anno Dñi M.CCCCmo nonagesimo, Thomas Huchinson, capellan. Rob. Robson Smyth, Thomas Robynson, John De . . . .

St. Edmund's Hospital.

If Ad Murum were admitted to be Wallsend, Ad Capra Caput, the monastery of Uttan, might very conveniently be allowed to stand for Gateshead; but Ad Murum has been also conjectured to be Welton near Harlow Hill, or perhaps still more probably Halton Chesters. At all events, this Saxon foundation must have perished in the storm of Danish invasion. It is only possible, and totally unsupported by evidence, that the scite of the ancient monastery may have been remembered and designated as the scite of a long subsequent religious foundation.

A certain Chapel, Chantry, or Hospital, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, existed in Gateshead about the year 1200 (and possibly long anterior), and consisted of a foundation for the maintenance of one chaplain and three poor brethren. To this ancient establishment Osmund, son of Hamo, gave four acres in Harlei, nearest to the grove of Benchelm, parcel, viz. of that portion of cultivated ground which he had received from Bishop Philip, in exchange for Ulkilstan (fn. 103) . Henry de Ferlington, constable of Durham about 12.., contributed his lands in Kyoe in frank almoigne (fn. 104) ; and by charter, also without date, Baldwin wi' the head gave to Gerard, son of Geve, Steward of the Hospital of the Holy Trinity in Gateshead, seventeen acres in the South part of his field called Alrisburne, reserving from the Hospital eight pence rent towards the reparation of Tyne bridge (fn. 105) . The charter was confirmed by Alice of Quicham, and Alianor, widow of Simon de Lamford, daughters of Baldwin, reserving one toft near the church-yard of Quicham, out of which Alice and Alianor undertook to satisfy the See of Durham for one pound of pepper out of the whole tenure (fn. 105) .

The revenues of this Hospital of the Trinity were extremely exile; and in 1248 Bishop Nicholas Farnham (with consent of the Prior of Durham, and of the resident brethren of the Trinity) consolidated the revenues of this house with those of his new foundation of “The Chapel and Hospital of St. Edmund, King and Confessor, and of the glorious Bishop Cuthbert in Gateshead (fn. 106) .” This consolidated foundation consisted of a Master, and three Chaplains, each of whom was to receive from the Master twenty shillings; and should the good seed now sown prosper and encrease, “taliter studeat (Magister) erogare quod in districti judicii examine ut fidelis Dispensator à Judice supremo cum electis ex fructu bonorum operum vitam capiat sempiternam.” The Master was empowered, after due monition, to proceed to the deprivation of irregular or scandalous brethren (fn. 107) ; and the Bishop of Durham was constituted Patron and Visitor, with the power of correction and amotion. The charter of endowment included, 1. the vill of Ulkilstan (Ouston); 2. the old demesne of Gateshead, with the wood of Benchelm, containing forty-three acres, betwixt the arable lands of the Holy Trinity and the road to Farnacres, pointing towards the meadows; 3. Nine and twenty acres (being an escheat) in Aluresacyres (fn. 108) . Some subsequent benefactions occur of very trifling amount. John of the Kitchen, Burgess of Gateshead, contributed a parcel of ground opposite to the venel, called Waldeschere, in Gateshead (fn. 109) . In 1378 Bishop Skirlaw gave to William de Brantyngham, then Master, three cottages in Gateshead which had escheated to the See. In 1361 Isabel de Birtley died seized of a messuage and sixty acres in Kyoleeh, held of the Hospital by the service of a rose on St. John Baptist's day (fn. 110) ; and in 1430 an inquisition occurs concerning an acre of ground held under the Chantry of the Trinity in St. Edmund's, called Belesacre, lying near a cross at the head of the Borough of Gateshead (fn. 111) . Not long after, 7 Oct. 1448, Bishop Nevill appropriated the Hospital of St. Edmund's, with the whole of its rents and possessions, to the Nuns of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle, on condition of maintaining two officiating priests in the chapel of the Hospital, and reserving two pensions of 6s. 8d. to the See of Durham, and 3s. 4d. to the Prior and Convent, as an indemnity for any loss they might respectively sustain by the annexation, which was to take place immediately on the death or removal of the existing Master of St. Edmund's (fn. 112) . From this time the Hospital became, as it should seem, a mere stipendiary Chantry, dependant on the White Ladies; and the Prioiress held her courts, by her Steward, in the chapel of St. Edmund's for the lands of the Nunnery in Gateshead. Agnes Lawson, Prioress of St. Batholomew, and her chapter of nine nuns, resigned the house of the White Ladies to Henry VIII. Jan. 3, 1540 (fn. 113) ; and a rental remaining in the Augmentation Office, dated betwixt 4 Henry VIII.Jan.3, 1540q; and the dissolution, includes the following statement of the revenues of St. Edmund's.

Gateside in the Bushoprick of Durham.

£. s. d.
Item, the Hospytall of Sanct Edmund the Busshop and Confessor, by yer 12 0 0
It. a tenure and clos in the hands of Henry Anderson, by yer 0 6 8
It' a tenyre in the hands of the Prests of Farnacres, by yer 0 13 4
It. in Whikham, a tenire in the hands of Thomas Pendrat and his falo, by yer 0 6 0
It' a tenire in Usworth, in the hands of Thomas Harle, by yer 0 8 4
It' a tenire in Kyo, in the hands of Robart Marlay and Wyllm Lawes, by yer 2 1 0
It' Ulston, by yer 6 13 4
It' Stellingley (fn. 114) , by yer 3 13 4

Masters of St. Edmund's Hospital.

  • Magister Ricardus, occurs 12 kal. Apr. 1265.
  • John de Lynce, occurs 1 June 1344.
  • John de Apilby (fn. 115) , coll. by Bp. Hatfield, 20 Aug. 1353.
  • Adam Fenrother (fn. 116) , cl. 1366.
  • William de Brantingham, 1374.
  • Reginald Porter, coll. 3 Dec. 1404.
  • John Newton (fn. 117) , 1405.
  • John King, occurs 14...
  • John Walkington.
  • George Radclyff, 29 Jan. 1431.
  • John Heyworth (fn. 118) , coll. 12 May 1435.
  • Thomas Kyrkeby, cl. May 1441.
  • William Hilderskelfe, 7 Oct. 1449.
  • John Shirwode (fn. 119) , 1467.
  • Anthony Belasys, LL. D. (fn. 120) 15...
  • Robert Claxton (fn. 121) , 15 Aug. 1552.
  • John Woodfall, 6 May 1579.
  • Clement Colmore, LL. D. (fn. 122) 4 June 1587.
  • John Hutton, Rector of Gateshead, appointed on the new foundation by King James, 4 January 1610.

Since which time the successive Rectors of Gateshead have been Masters of King James's Hospital (fn. 123) .

The ruined Chapel of St. Edmund's stands about a mile from Tyne Bridge, on the East side of the High-street in Gateshead. The West front has a doorway under a deep pointed arch, with a profusion of plain mouldings ; on each side of the doorway plain shafts and round-headed (or trefoil ?) niches. Above the door is one long lancet light in the centre, and two smaller ones, with blank pointed arches intervening. The South side of the chapel has five lancet windows betwixt alternate buttresses. The North side has four similar lights, and two small doors, one under a narrow pointed arch, and another under a sort of trefoil head. Some of the capitals are flory, others plain. The East front has three lancet lights. The architecture of the interior is extremely plain and simple; the lights on the North and South are under round arches inwards, though pointed without; and the whole fabric consists of a single body, undivided by aile or transept.

The ancient house of St. Edmund's (as distinguished from the foundation of King James) became, after the dissolution, the seat of the Ridells, a branch of the ancient baronial family of Northumberland. The house and gardens of Sir Thomas Ridell (fn. 124) suffered severely from the Scots army under Lesley, on account of the loyalty of their owner. William Ridell, Esq. grandson of Sir Thomas, is styled of Gateshead in 1710; but the estate passed, under some family settlement, or legal transaction, which I am unable to disentangle, to the Claverings of Callaley. The house of St. Edmund's was the seat of this ancient Roman Catholic family in 1747, and was gutted and plundered by a Protestant mob. The mansion has since been untenanted. Its remains stand to the East of the Chapel, and still exhibit the ruins of a building in the high stile of Elizabeth or James, with large bay windows, divided by stone mullions and transoms; a heavy stone gateway faces to the street. The estate became, a few years ago, by purchase from the family of Barras, the property of Cuthbert Ellison, of Hebburne, Esq.

Pedigree of Ridell, of Gateshead, Fenham, Swinburne castle, and Felton.

Arms: 1. Argent. a fesse between three garbs Azure, Ridel; 2. Azure, three....Or, Horbotel; 3. Argent, a fesse inter three mullets pierced Argent; 4. Argent, a fesse (charged with a mullet) inter three martleta Sable; 5. Barry of six Argent and Azure, in chief three annulets Azure; 6. as first, Ridel. Visitation 1615.

Crest: A demi-lion Or, holding between his paws a garb Azure.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

§ See the proofs of these early descents, and the Pedigree considerably extended, in Raine's North Durham.

║ Walter de Ridel dat Rob. de Barnold terras quas tenuit temp. Dukentini avi et Patricii patris et Will'i et Walt'ri avunculor. Walteri. s.d. teste Rad'o de Ridel.

* Kellaw's Register, fol. 3, b. It is doubtful if William the elder was not father of the coheiresses.

† Tenet manerium de Tillmouth, excepta 1 carucata tradita uni Cantarie in perpetuum, et excepta tertia parte quam Emma quæ fuit uxor Willielmi patris Willielmi tenet in dotem; manerium de Twysill cum hamelettis de Dudhou et Veteri Grindon, exceptis duobus terris husband. quas Hugo Ridel tenet, &c.; duo partes man. de West Upsetlington; et omnia predicta maneria sunt destructa per Scotos, ita quod nihil valent.

‡ Mr. William Ridel's wife buried 7 Nov. 1630.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* See Pedigree of Thornburgh, Burn and Nicholson, vol. I. pp. 117–122.

The Hospital of St. Edmund's, of King James's Foundation, in Gateshead.

Either Hutchinson's supposition must be admitted, that there existed two contemporary foundations, the one dedicated to St. Edmund the King, the other to St. Edmund the Bishop; or else it must be conjectured, perhaps with more probability, that at the dissolution some small portion of the endowment of St. Edmund's was suffered to retain its original destination, for the support of a Chantry or Hospital. For though the beautiful Chapel of St. Edmund became the seat of the Ridels, and though the other principal possessions of the Hospital in Gateshead, Kyo, Whickham, and Ouston, all most evidently passed into lay hands, yet in 1543 an appointment occurs of Chaplain to the Chantry of the Trinity in the Chapel of St. Edmund's Hospital. A Master also occurs in the following year; and in 1545 (37 Henry VIII.), when Parliament granted to the Crown the last sweepings of the abbey plunder, the private chapels and chantries, this foundation of Gateshead (which had therefore most evidently survived the surrender of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew) is included in the list of houses placed by this last Act at the disposition of the Crown. “The Hospitalle of St. Edmund, in the parish of Gatishedde, was founded by the predecessors of the Bushoppes of Durham, by reporte, but to what intent or purpose we know not, for we have not sene the foundacon therof.”

In this survey the Hospital is described as standing half a mile distant from the parish church; yerely value 109s. 4d.; clear value by this survey, deducting 12s. 3d. tenths, 7l. 7s. 9d.; out of which the Master allows four marks to a Priest, who officiates twice a week; “value of ornaments nil, for ther be neither goods, catalls, ne ornaments, appertaining to the same, to our knowledge; ther were no other landes nor yerely profitts.” Yet this Chantry was still preserved; and by the Act 7 Edw. VI. which laid Gateshead to Newcastle, the patronage was vested in the Corporation, but seems to have reverted to the See of Durham. In 1611 King James totally refounded this Hospital, under the name of “King James's Hospital in Gateshead.” The charter of foundation states that there had long existed a certain Hospital within Gateshead, called the Hospital or free Chapel of St. Edmund King and Martyr, of which the founder was not certainly known; that the society consisted of a Master and three Brethren, but that the charters and muniments of the Hospital were lost or destroyed, aut senio et ætate consumpta et putrefacta; and the lands of the Hospital in a great measure converted to purposes of private emolument. The new society was ordered to consist of a Master, who shall always be the Rector of Gateshead for the time being, and of three poor Brethren, who were ordered to receive 3l. 6s. 8d. each during the life of the first Master, Hutton, then appointed; and after his death the full profits of the Hospital were to be divided, one third to the Master, and two thirds to the three poor Brethren. The endowment consisted of the scite, mansion, and garden, then belonging to the Hospital, of forty acres of arable land, five loads of hay off ten acres of meadow, forty acres of pasture, and a close at Shotley Bridge, with all such rights, members, liberties, and appurtenances, as the said Masters and Brethren, or any of them, had enjoyed, de facto saltem si non de jure, within the term of sixty years preceding the date of the letters patent.

The Masters of this Hospital have been the successive Rectors of Gateshead. The Chapel stood on the East side of the Fore-street, about a mile from Tyne Bridge; it was disused as to public service when Mr. Lambe was Master. The same Rector took down the lodgings of the Brethren, which adjoined the chapel, giving them some pecuniary allowance in lieu of them. In this situation the institution rested till 1810, when an Act passed enabling the Master and Brethren to grant leases of their property in parcels not exceeding one acre, for term of ninety-nine years, and to enable the Bishop of Durham to make statutes and ordinances for the government of the Hospital, and to augment the number of poor Brethren, so as the incomes of the present Master and Brethren suffer no diminution.

By a schedule annexed to the Act, its then annual rents, arising from lands and mines, were stated at 455l. The lands pay tithe to the Rector, but are leased tithe free.

Under the powers of the above Act the Bishop of Durham issued a set of statutes for the government of the Hospital (October 17, 1811), by which, amongst other regulations, ten younger Brethren were added to the three ancient ones; the Master shall enjoy one third of the clear rents; out of the residue he shall pay 25l. to each of the ancient Brethren, 40l. to the Chaplain, and the residue shall be divided betwixt the ten younger Brethren, so as no such younger Brother shall receive more than 25l. (fn. 125)

While the Act was passing, a new Chapel was begun and finished by subscription, a little to the South of the old seite. The dimensions of the new Chapel are, 80 feet by 40; and it was consecrated by the name of St. Edmund's Chapel, by the Bishop of Durham, A. D. 1810. A piece of ground adjoining to the South, consisting of two roods and twenty-three perches, was purchased by the parish, and consecrated at the same time, for a church-yard. Divine Service is performed on Sundays, by the Chaplain; and the rest of the week the Chapel is used as a School, on the Madras or Bell system, which is supported by voluntary annual subscriptions, and well attended.

In the year 1811 the old ruined Chapel of St. Edmund's, and the Master's house, were taken down; and the houses of the three elder Brethren were at the same time rebuilt, a little to the North of the new Chapel; and on these new buildings all Dr. Lamb's remaining dilapidations were expended.

Saltwellside,

A pleasant retired mansion in the fields looking towards the Team.

The name occurs in Hatfield's Survey, when John of Ravensworth held twenty-four acres here (which had belonged to William Slikburn), under 8s. rent. Henry Ravensworth had livery of lands in Saltwellside 26 Langley (fn. 126) , part of which were the property of his descendants 13 Nevill. In 1504 Christopher Brigham, merchant, John Hedworth, Esq. Richard Errington, and Barbara Yonghosband, sued out a pardon for acquiring the tenement called Saltwellsyde from Robert Brigham, merchant (fn. 127) .

The estate was soon after the property of the Hedworths of Harraton, and, towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth, their occasional residence (fn. 128) . In 1629 (fn. 129) Sir John Hedworth, Knt. Richard Hedworth, and Elizabeth, conveyed to William Hall, merchant, and Alexander his son, their lands in Saltwellside, Beacon-house, Birdside, Threeleazes, Deckham, and Gateshead. In 1640 Sir Alexander Hall (fn. 130) devised his manor of Saltwellside (failing his son Alexander, who died in infancy,) to his brother-in-law, Ralph Maddison, Esq. Lyonel, son of Ralph, was of Saltwellside in 1666, and his son, another Lyonel, left only two daughters, by Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Herbert, of Midpleton-Quernhow (fn. 131) . The eventual sole heir became the wife of Thomas Place, of Green Hammerton, co. York, Esq. Recorder of York, who sold Saltwellside to Joseph Liddell, of Moorhouse, near Carlisle, from whom it passed by purchase to Joseph Dunn, Esq. the late owner, whose widow now resides there.

Deckham's Hall.

By will, dated 17 Dec. 1614, Thomas Dackham, of Gateshead, Gent. devises to his daughter's daughter Elizabeth, wife of Henry Mitford, “his capital messuage and tenement in the parish of Gateshead, adjoyning unto Gateshead More, wherein Henry Mitford now dwelleth, and all that his nether tenement thereunto adjoyning,” and to her first-born child and its heirs successively, &c.; and, failing her issue, to Robert Brighouse, son of Tempest Brighouse, late of Newcastle, Draper; and failing, &c. to Jane Mitford, daughter of Anderson Mitford, by testator's daughter deceased; remainder to his own right heirs. Lands in Backworth to Robert Brighouse, and desires the Earl of Northumberland to admit him as next heir. To the poor of Gateshead “three pounds towards the bringing home of the water.” To William, son to his brother Henry Dackham, 5l.; to his cosin John Dackham, one of the Maisters of Requests; Henry Mitford, Executor, friends Thomas Riddell and Thomas Chaitor of Butterby, Supervisors.” Inventory 29 Dec. 1614.

Deckham's Hall (fn. 132) lies to the East of the great road, near Gateshead toll-bar. It was sold a few years ago, by George Wooler (of Fawnlees near Wolsingham), to William James, Esq. (fn. 133) the present proprietor.

Redheugh.

Redheugh, a mile from Gateshead, now the handsome modern seat of the Askews, gave local name and residence to a long race of ancient owners. Alexander del Redhogh occurs in a charter of the thirteenth century, and in the great Bounders Riding, or, “Chivauche faicte à remember par quatre prodes hommes elus et assignez de par I'Evesque et quatre par le comune,” an entry occurs, Willam del Redhowe “a relesse son droit en les wastes de Gatesheved pour douze acres à tenir par la chartre de I'Evesque (fn. 134) .”

In 1350 the manor was held by Thomas del Redhough of the See of Durham, by homage, fealty, and suit of court (fn. 135) . He left an only daughter, Isolda; but the family estates had reverted to a male heir, and Hugh del Redhugh died in 1390, seized of two thirds of the manors of Redheugh and Holynside, Lynths and Bradley, and two thirds of two thirds of the manor of Axsheeles (fn. 136) . Thomas, nephew of Hugh, and the last male heir, died in 1420 (fn. 137) . The manor of Redheugh, partly by descent, and partly by conveyance from the other coheir, vested in the family of White, who continued in possession till Robert (son and heir of Robert White), who had livery 1 October 1619, sold the estate to Francis, afterwards Sir Francis Liddell, Knt. about 1620 (fn. 138) .

The estate was mortgaged by the descendants of Sir Francis Liddell, and the mortgagees conveyed to Francis Earl of Derwentwater, who devised to the Hon. Thomas Radcliffe and Lady Mary Radcliffe. In 1748 Lady Mary Radcliffe conveyed to Adam Askew (fn. 139) , of Newcastle, M.D. grandfather of the present proprietor (fn. 140) .

Pedigree of Redheugh and White, of Redheugh.

Arms: Argent, three cocks' heads erased Sable, combed and wattled Gules; in the centre chief point a mullet of the last.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

*** The Whites of Redheugh are totally unconnected with the maternal ancestors of Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart.; the latter family are descended from the Whites of Hawthorn; see vol. I. p. 16.

Field House,

Half a mile to the South of Gateshead, adjoining Saltwellside on the South and West.

William Wilson, son and heir of Ralph Wilson, aged 30 15 Car. I. 1639, had livery of lands in Fieldhouse, Joppesriding, and Cramerdykes. The family were for two or three descents stewards to the Lords Lumley, and partook in the loyal feelings and sufferings of their patrons.

13 Mart. 1644. Lett to Raiph Clavering and Doctor Weld all those lands called Field House, in the parish of Gateshead, belonging to William Wilson, a delinquent.

In 1684 Field House was the estate of Sir Ralph Carr, Knt. It was afterwards the property of the Liddells (owners also of Saltwellside), and was sold by Joseph Liddell, Esq. to the family of Barras. The Low Team estate (well known for its iron-works) was sold together with Field House. Mr. John Barras is owner of Low Team, and Mr. George Barras of Field House.

The following Pedigree stands in the Visitation 1666.

Pedigree of Wilson, of Field House; and afterwards of Lumley Castle.

Arms: Sable, a wolf salient Or, in chief three estoiles of the last.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* Pardon Rad. Harding, Ric. Harbottle, et Alex. Darley, quod per script. indentat. 17 June, 9 Eliz. adquisiv. de Ric. Hodgson I tenem. vocat Joppersriding in Gateside ad us. Ric. Hodgson pro vita rem. Radulfo Wilson & hær. masc. &c. 4 Nov. 4 Jac. Rot. W. James. Item pro Cramerdykes.

Darncrook,

(Darwencrook,) was parcel of the possessions of Kepyer Hospital, and was purchased (by fine, 3 Aug. 1612,) from John and Thomas Heath, Esquires, by Thomas Liddell, Alderman of Newcastle, who devised the estate (27 July 1615) to his youngest son Roger Liddell, whose male issue is extinct (fn. 141) . Darncrook is now, by purchase from several intermediate proprietors, vested in the family of Liddell, of Ravensworth.

Charitable Benefactions to the Parish of Gateshead.

Henry Smith, Esq. by deed, dated October 19, 1619, gave 5l. (fn. 142) per annum to the aged and impotent poor who shall have resided five years in the parish of Gateshead; charged on lands at —, in the possession of the Earl of Scarborough.

By deed, Jan. 16, 1673, Elizabeth Collinson (fn. 143) gave to the Rector and Church-wardens, on trust, for poor widows and poor inhabitants of the parish of Gateshead, certain lands in Easington [two closes and a stripe of land, whereon stood a cottage within the precincts of the Rectory at Easington], rent 8l. 11s.per annum 1792 (fn. 144) .

Thomas Rawling, by will, left to the poor a house and malting in Oakwellgate, vested in the Rector and Church-wardens (fn. 145) .

[Ralph] Cole, [Esq.] gave a rent-charge of 4l. per ann. on a house belonging to Thomas Pearson (fn. 146) , [now to Thomas Easton, 1817.] Sir William Blackett, by will, 1680, left a rent-charge on a house near the North end of Tyne Bridge, now in the possession of James Hume; 40s. per ann. to be paid to be to the Rector, and by him to be distributed to the poor. Dr. Aldworth gave a rent-charge of 20s. on a house in Gateshead, in the possession of Mr. Thomas Harvey, payable annually at Christmas. Matthew Bates gave a rent-charge of 20s.on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Mr. Robert Proctor, payable annually at Christmas. Mrs. Jane Sutton gave a rent-charge of 20s. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Nicholas Walton, Esq. payable annually at Midsummer, [now lost, 1817.]

Thomas Powell, by will, July 16th, 1728, left a sum of money to build a poor-house (fn. 147) . (fn. 148)

Isabel Glover gave a legacy of 6l. 13s. 4d.; Margaret Ramsey 20l.; and William Coats-worth 50l.; which several sums were applied to enlarge the poor-house.

John Bowman left an almshouse, now inhabited by the poor [situated in Hillgate].

Robert Harrison left, by will, a sum of money, which, with other money belonging to the parish, was laid out in the purchase of 124l.6s. 6d. 3 per cent. consols. and since sold out for 128l. 13s. 3d.; of which 113l. was applied in taking a mortgage upon the houses of Taylor Ansell, in Pipewellgate, and the remainder was distributed to the poor.

Anthony Hypson, by will, Sept. 29th, 1624, left a rent-charge on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Mr. Thomas Paten, of 5s.per ann.; another rent-charge of 5s. per ann. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of William Bruce (fn. 149) ; another rent-charge of 3s. 4d. on a house in [Cannon-street,] Gateshead, now in the possession of George Claughton (fn. 150) ; another rent-charge of 1s. 8d. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Matthew Johnson (fn. 151) ; another rent-charge of 2s. 6d. on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Christopher Bedlington (fn. 152) ; another rent-charge on a house in Gateshead, now in the possession of Robert Morgan (fn. 153) , of 2s. 6d.; which several rent-charges are due annually at Whitsunday, and are left for the benefit of the poor of the parish of Gateshead. The produce is annually distributed.

In the said parish is also a School, founded by Theophilus Pickering, D. D. Rector of Gateshead, who by his will, dated Jan. 9, 1700-1, left the sum of 300l. the profits of a colliery wrought by him out of a parcel of ground called Bull's Acre, in the parish of Gateshead, and settled the same upon the Anchorage adjoining to the parish church of Gateshead, for the perpetual maintenance of a School-master, there to be chosen by the Rector of Gateshead, The said sum of 300l. is now in the hands of the Corporation of Newcastle upon Tyne, on bond (fn. 154) at 5l. per cent. per ann. And for the said yearly produce of 15l. the Master teaches 15 Scholars, appointed by the Rector of Gateshead, who, on condition of the payment of 5,l. per cent. per ann. allows the Mayor of Newcastle to name three of the said scholars, being of the parish of Gateshead. The above account is extracted from the Terrier 1792.

Pedigree of Maddison, of Saltwellside, and Newcastle upon Tyne.

Arms: 1 and 4, Argent, a cheveron Sable, charged with three mullets Or, inter three martlets Sable; 2 and 3, two battle-axes crossed in saltire Sable.

Crest: a dexter hand proper (sleeve Erminois) grasping a battle-axe Sable.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* St. Nicholas.

† St. Andrew's.

‡ St. John's

*** This Pedigree was entirely compiled by Sir Cuthbert Sharpe.

§ See the issue of this marriage in Hutch. Cumb. vol. II. p. 154–5. In 1774, John Maddison, grandson of Mary Warwick, (son of the Rev. Thomas Maddison) succeeded to the Warwick Hall estate (on the death of Francis Warwick, Esq.). and died s. p. 1784, when his nephew, Robert Bonner, Esq. claimed the estate as heir at law, and took the name of Warwick.

I know not where to find a better place for the following epistle from Sir Peter Ridel to the antiquary Sir Robert Cotton, who seems to have entrusted to his care the forwarding of some Roman antiquities from Northumberland.

“Honorable Knight,

“Since your departure I have expected still when the burden of your stones shoulde be layde upon my care; but as I did all this tyme so I doe still wayte expecting the same; but is shoulde seame some of those you trusted in Northumb: for this business are in some degre North Bryttans, a great part whereof are in shewe at your service, but in tryall nothinge, soe the stones are not yet harde of heare att Newcastle: wherefore if you thinke it so fitt, it weare in my opinion fitt you should wryte to them that should send them hyther, otherwise your messenger's power and myne, wh is but subordynate, will not in haist turn to effect to your pleasure. If they doe come, I shall doe my parte of your busynes; and for this messinger, I assure you he hath bene very willinge to doe your service in this employment, but it must be another tyme when he must have them to carye; if he come hyther agayne, you cannot have a better caryet. Thus, assuringe you my love is ingaged unto you for requytal of muche kyndenes, I rest

Yours so farre as my power may doe you service,

Newcastle, this 24 th of October 1605.

Peter Riddell.

“Postscript. I did intend to have requyted this kyndenes of your brother's wth an answer, but the messenger's haist, myne own shame and my insufficiency that I cannot return answer in his own language, wh is his prayer, are causes why I doe intreat you to tayke the burden of my comends to him my frend and loveing brother when wee lyved together.”

Cotton MSS. Julius C. iii. 316.

Footnotes

1 The seite of Pipewell gate seems to have been granted by Bishop Hugh to Thorold of London, under the description of “his waste lying Westward from Tyne Bridge to Redheugh,” (see charters II. and III. in the sequel.) Mickleton's MSS. mention a court held in 1348, before the Bailiff and good men and true of Pipewell gate, which was then held by the Gategangs.
2 The well was near the East end of the Street; an adjoining field is still called the Panthead close.
3 Anciently Hellegate.
4 Brand, I. 482. Pardon Tho. Portyngton et Joh. Fenwyk, Capellanis, de adquirendo de Thoma Surteys milite unum tenement. ex parte occid. de Akewellgate, super corner terre Willi. Whitehestre mil. et unum tenem. per nomen unius aqueductus, et mess. super edifieat. ex parte orien. de Akewelgate inter tenem. Rectoris de G. et tenem. Johannis Dolphanby, 20 Aug. 22 Langley 1428. The scite of the Oak well, where Brand's informant adds that three strata of pavement were discovered, is now totally unknown, and I will not very pertinaciously defend the alleged derivation. However, many other ancient Pants and wells (the Chille well, St. Elyn's well, &c.) have been lost, and Gateshead suffers considerably at this day from the scarcity of water.
5 Thomas Cole, Gent. died seized of Pallice Place in 1620, which was conveyed in 1656 by Sir Nicholas Cole of Kepyer, and Ralph Cole, to John Willobie. In 1694, Sir Ralph Carr (a mortgagee) released Pallace Place to Anthony Pattison Gardener.
6 Bailiffs-chare formerly crossed the High street Eastward into Oakwellgate, but is now nearly obstructed by a house built across it; it is also called Miller's lane, as leading from the Windmill hills.
7 See the Charter of Wm. de Granavill, in the sequel.
8 Richard Blenkyn to John dictus Multgreve, a tenement betwixt the land of Gilbert the Weaver, and the venele which leads to St. Elyn's well. Randal's MSS. Elynwelcroft occurs in the Inquest on the death of Sibilla Gategang, in 1356.
9 Inq. p. m. Roger Thornton, 6 Feb. 24 Langley. Three messuages a retro le Smithirawe,held of the Bishop by Burgage tenure, and Landmale; three messuages in Pylotchare, four in Akewellgate, two in Pipewellgate, &c.
10 See Pedigree of Gategang, and Charters.
11 Inq. p. m. 35 Hatf.
12 In Gateshead, as in Jarrow, my obligations to the second Edition of the Picture,&c. are perpetual.
13 Qu Mirk Lane ?
14 Decree at Brancepath, 1 May, 3 Eliz.
15 May 18, 1607. Cows were stinted in these pastures at 14d. a head.
16 The Nemus de Benchelm occurs in the earliest Charter of Trinity Chapel; yet a Gaelic antiquary would derive the name from the situation, “the hill of the sloping descent.” The Bull close much more certainly takes name from its venerable old inhabitant the Town Bull, who resided here in summer, and in winter battened at the costs of the good Lady Cole. See the Church Books.
17 From a loose paper in Gateshead Vestry.
18 The principle on which the Act directs the division to be effected is as follows : 1. one sixteenth (after deducting sufficient space for highways, quarries, public wells, and watering-places,) to the Bishop of Durham and his successors,as lords of the manor, soil, and royalty; 2. one sixteenth to the Freemen and Borough-holders of Gateshead, in satisfaction of their exclusive privilege of letting stints on the said wastes; 3. one other sixteenth to the Rector of Gateshead. Then (excepting some additional allotments afterwards directed to be made to the Bishop and his lessees, and to the Borough-holders and Freemen) the whole residue to be divided according to the respective annual value of the different estates entitled to common right—each ancient burgage entitled to such common right being estimated at 60s. per annum, and the Commissioners being empowered to ascertain the value of all other estates, &c. as they see fit. The sixteenth allowed to the Borough-holders to be subdivided according to their respective common-right last twenty years, and to level and remove all such cottages being built on the waste as were prejudicial to the purposes of the enclosure. The plan and award to be lodged in the Registrar's office, in the Bishop's Chancery at Durham. The royalties were expressly reserved to the Bishop and his successors, the owners being allowed to work and win stone for the use of their own allotments only.
19 Inq. p. m. 7 Bury.
20 Inq. p. m. 5 Hatfield.
21 The following is the best catalogue I have been able to collect of the Park-keepers of Gateshead : Roger de Tickhill, with a fee of three halfpence per diem, ult. Feb. 1348. Rot. Hatf. A. Sched. 4, in dors. No. 7. (See the Patent in the Appendix.) William Forrest, of Gateshead, 20 Apr. 1369, Rot. Hatf. A. Sched. 15, No. 9. John Kempe, 28 Nov. 1399, Rot. Skirlaw, No. 66. Hughe Attehalle, 24 July 1403, ibid. in dors. 4. Robert Preston, 8 April 1448, et Custos Turris ibid.; for the latter office one halfpenny per day and a gown, or eight shillings every Christmas. Rot. Nevill. William Thomlyngson occurs 1 Oct. 1529, to whom, jointly with his son Thomas, Bishop Tunstall granted the office of Clerk of his Mines. Pat. 1 Oct. Ao 9.
22 Camden, Gale, and Stukeley, have identified Gabrocentum with Gateshead (see also Baxter's Glossary, 125); but Horsley, apparently with more reason, fixes this station at Drumbrugh in Cumberland. Britannia Romana.
23 The whole information that can be gathered from the passage referred to (Bede, III. C. 21) is, that A. D. 653 Peada, King of Mercia, was baptized, with all his chivalry, in a royal vill of Northumberland, called Ad Murum, and that he carried off with him, in his retreat from the sacred laver, four Priests, Cedd, Adda, Betti, and Diuma. Now of these Adda was brother to Uttan (of whom a miraculous story is related III. C. 15), “Presbyteri inlustris et Abbatis Monasterii quod vocatur Ad Capræ Caput,” which King Alured literally translates into Saxon Ppezeheapbe. And hereupon follows a conjecture of Brand's 9I. 461, note), that Bede might mistake Gate via for Goat capra, &c. and a very true observation, that Gate is still well understood in the North as synonymous with road, an ancient Saxon expression which has been peculiarly preserved in the names of streets in almost every considerable city or town in Britain, from London to Edinburgh; but the word is still also well understood in a more general way, What gate are you ganging?
24 See the charter in the Appendix.
25 See the descent stated in the sequel.
26 See the Pedigree of Gategang.
27 The names of several of these officers occur in charters in the Vestry and in the Treasury at Durham. In 1620 Sir Thomas Ridel, Knt. excercised the office. In 1772 the Borough petitioned the Bishop to appoint a Bailiff, stating that such officer had been discontinued since the death of Robert Delaval, Esq. whose patent was dated 1631. During the last century the Borough business has been managed by two Stewards and four Grassmen.
28 See Gateshead Park.
29 See Appendix to vol. I. part I. p. cxxvi.
30 Carta Henr. II. D. & C. Treas.
31 Inq. apud Nov. Castrum sup. Tinam in crast. S. Hilar. A° 21 Edw. I. de medietate aquæ de Tyne Episc. Dunelm. spectan.
32 See Brand throughout, or Gardner, p. 9 et seq.
33 This objectionable building was probably the tower recovered by Cardinal Langley, and of which Bishop Nevill granted a patent of Keeper.
34 See the Inq. coram Simon de Esh, Vic. Dunelm. A° 3 Bury, printed in Brand, vol. I. p. 10–11, note.
35 Charter 20 Aug. 8 Edw. III. apud Ebor. printed in Brand, 11–12, note.
36 Record in the Tower, A° 18 Edw. III. See Spearman's Enquiry, p. 9; and Brand, p. 12.
37 Brand, ibid.
38 Carta Richardi II. facta Episc. Dunelm. A° 7. D. & C. Treas. Alia carta ejusd. A° 18. de libertatibus regalibus com. Palatini inter Tynam et Teisam, usque medium aquarum illarum cum applicatione, oneratione,et exoneratione navium, batellorum, &c. See Spearman, p. 10; Monasticon, p. 46; Brand, vol. I. p. 12.
39 Leland saw “a strong wardyd gate at Geteshed.” Itin. vol. 8, fol. 51.
40 See General History, vol. I. p. Ivi. notem, quoting Chambro; Spearman, p. 10; and Brand, vol. I. p. 14.
41 A blue stone marks the boundary of the Bishop of Durham. “In 1771, in the night between the 16th and 17th of November, the river Tyne rose with great rapidity; the arches of the bridge were totally filled by five in the morning, so that a current was forced into the West end of the Close, and the Sand-hill was so completely inundated that boats were employed there. An arch North of the toll-gate gave way first; next another arch fell at the South end, with eight houses built on its West side (those on the East side remaining supported by their timbers). On Monday afternoon another South arch fell, and the whole remaining superstructure was so shattered that it was found necessary to take it down. An Act was passed in 1772, enabling (inter alia) the Bishop of Durham to raise 12,000l. on annuities charged on the revenues of the See, for rebuilding his third part of Tyne bridge. See Brand, with a view of the ruined bridge by Beilby.
42 See Brand throughout; and Gardner's England's Grievance.
43 Preamble to Act 7 Edw. VI. N° 10.
44 Rot. Tunstall.
45 See Brand, vol. I. p. 481–485.
46 Mr. Ellison, under the powers of the lease, holds a halmote court; see Brand, vol. I. p. 486.
47 Rot. Tunstall, 20 June, 1 Eliz. 1557.
48 Rot. Tobie Mathew, 21 Aug. 37 Eliz. They seem to have had a new charter of incorporation from Bishop Cosin, 23 July 1671.
49 Rot. Tobie Mathew.
50 Rot. Cosin. This charter, which seems to incorporate in one common bond of union men of very discordant handycraft, contains a condition that the freedom of the company shall be sold to any person proving his apprenticeship to any of the above trades in any other place, on paying ten pounds to the company, and as much to the Bishop of Durham.
51 Charter 24 April, 20 Car. II.
52

In 1810 sixteen freemen were allowed as claimants on the Fell; viz. six drapers, and ten bricklayers. In 1814, 9 Dec. nine fullers and dyers claimed on the Borough lands.

The following strange letter, in which Robin Trollop offers to bribe the Bishop's officer with a very good new trunke, remains in Gateshead vestry:

“Sir, After my humble service, I am sory I did not waite of you acording to your letter. A dangerous sickenes stoped me. I intreat you to send me word whether you can grant the charter as wear wth you; that is, grocer and bridler and sadler. You know the grocers overed ten pound to yourselfe, and ten to Mr. Stapleton, and for putting in the trunk-maker you shall have each of you a very good new trunke: if you like not this, I promised you a hundrd pound for my Lord's fyns, due to my Lord from our Company for 7 years. Sr I intreat you doe not slight us, unles our neighbours will gratifie you better then we: and we must call it soe if you grant them that for love for which we ofer you this greatt some of mony. I beg your anser, and I will endeaver to wait of you and se if we can conclud this busines, if not I am sory we have trubled you soe much; soe I remain your humble servant to command,

Feb. 15th, 1670. Red Hugh.

Rob. Trollap.

For his much honer'd frind Mr. George Kirkby, jun. Durham.”

53 Bailey's Survey of Durham, p. 43.
54 See p. 110.
55 Mr. Patten's house was actually carried away seven or eight miles down the river, and was found floating with a cat and dog inside both alive, on Jarroe slake, which capacious bason was of great service in receiving the redundant water of Tyne. A woman with her child in her arms, was found drowned in the slake. A vessel near Shields took up at sea a child alive and well, floating in its wooden cradle.
56

The old Bridge, which was crowded with shops and buildings, is described in Grey's Chorography of Newcastle, 1649. “The Bridge of this town over the river Tyne consisteth of arches high and broad, having many houses and shops upon the Bridge, and three Towers upon it; the first on the South side, the second in the middle, and the third on Newcastle side, lately built upon an arch in the bridge, used for a magazine for the towne; and an old Chappell. There is a blew stone about the middle of the bridge, which is the bounds of Newcastle Southwards, from Gateside in the county Palatine of Durham.”

Strange as it may seem, there was a Hermitage on Tyne Bridge—after all, I believe, no uncommon station, as travellers in peril of water might be presumed to be desirous of the spiritual assistance of such a holy personage. The Ladies Chapel on Tyne Bridge is mentioned in 1616. The Tower was used as a place of confinement, and also, it seems, for different purposes, for the Barnes MS. gives a ludicrous account of one Harry Wallis, who having, under the influence of drink, insulted the Puritan Alderman Barnes, and being therefore confined in the Tower, found a quantity of malt lying in the chamber, which he forthwith proceeded to shovel into the Tyne, singing,

O base mault,
Thou didst the fault,
And into the Tyne thou shalt.

57 The Bishop of Durham won his stone in a field behind Oakwellgate, in the same quarry out of which the stones were won for building Gateshead steeple.
58 The whole of the sum raised for the repair of Tyne Bridge being paid off, the Bridge was thrown open without toll 1818.
59 A short account of this same transaction has been introduced per incuriam on p. 110–111.
60 See Brand, vol. II. 255, where mention of una placea vocat. le Stathes occurs in 1338.
61 Videlt murum de septem pedibus.
62 The Contractor, it may be observed, classes together floods, tempests, and the malice of the enemy, the Burghers of Newcastle.
63 Gateshead church is said to have stood originally further to the East, in a field below the rectory, formerly called Lawless Close (since the Miller's-field), the scene of the murder of Bishop Walcher and his adherents in 1080; see vol. I. p.xvii.
64

The old tower was lower, a plain oblong structure. Causfield, the architect of the new steeple, was ruined by the undertaking. Lambert.

Six bells were purchased by contribution about 1730. The Corporation of Newcastle and the Trinity House were principal benefactors, and the family of Ellison. One bell is inscribed T. Seller, Eborac. a second Te Deum laudamus, a third Vos Jubilate, a fourth Festa Decoro. The whole of the bells were new hung in 1773.

65 The chief with three lis is an addition to the arms as usually borne by the Baronets of Brancepath, and was probably adopted as a distinctive difference by the Coles of Gateshead. The whole bearing is merely assumptive, and rests on no authority in the College of Arms. I suspect a pun to be intended betwixt carbo, coal, and crabro, a hornet or scorpion; particularly as Sir Nicholas Cole (in his plate of Durham Abbey West front, presented to the Monasticon) adopts the motto “Carbo hic parentum marmore perennior.” The Coles, who became gentry (in spite of Garter and Norroy) per saltum, and rose in three generations from the Smithy to the Baronetage, were included (two brothers) in the disclaimers of St. George's Visitation, and never afterwards faced the Heralds.
66 Dr. Lambe's executrix paid 300l. dilapidations, viz. 100l. on account of the Master's house in King James's Hospital, 50l. for the house of each of the Brethren, and 50l. for the Chapel. In 1783 Egerton, Bishop of Durham, judging it expedient that the Master (who is always Rector of Gateshead) should reside in the Parsonage, granted a licence under his great seal to the Rector, to expend the said 100l. on the rectory-house, of which sum 65l. and upwards was employed in rebuilding the East end of the Rectory, and the remainder in enlarging the drawing-room, &c. Terrier, 1791. This drawing-room was taken down, and the East end enlarged with new rooms A. D. 1814, at the Rector's expense.
67 Res. For Stanhope, ob. 1575.
68 Rector of Brancepath, and Spiritual Chancellor of Durham.
69 An order occurs of the Commons' Journals, July 18, 1645, for inducting Mr. Jonathan Devereux, Clerk, into the Rectory of Gateshead; see Brand, vol. I. p. 503.
70 See Parish Books.
71 “John Ladler, Rector, D. D. bur. 17 Apr. 1679. Elizabeth his wife, bur. 2 July 1673.”
72 “Rev. Mr. Richard Werge, Dorcas Rutter, mar. 6 July 1686. Mr. Werge bur. 31 July 1687.”
73 A nonjuror; Vicar of St. Oswald's q. v.
74 “Buried 26 Apr. 1695.”
75 Resigned for Sedgefield. Prebendary of the fourth, and afterwards of the eleventh, stall.
76 “Rev. Leonard Shafto, bur. 29 Aug. 1731.”
77 Resigned for Ryton. Afterwards Master of Sherburn, and Dean of Worcester.
78 Vicar of Newcastle, and Prebendary of the third stall; ob. 29 April 1782.
79 Rector of Ryton, and Archdeacon of Northumberland.
80 Resigned for the Archdeaconry of Easington; Prebendary of the third stall.
81 Prebendary of the ninth, and afterwards of the second, stall.
82 To whom the Editor is indebted for much friendly attention and accurate local information.
83 Allotted, in lieu of four stints, according to an Act passed 54 Geo. III. for inclosing the Borough lands in the Parish of Gateshead.
84 These three fields last mentioned were obtained in January 1815, in exchange for two fields at Low Team, of Two acres, two roods, and thirty-five perches, a way-leave between them, for which Sir Thomas Liddell paid 8l. per annum; a ruined cinder oven and ale-house; aud a close of two acres, two roods, and thirty-seven perches; all in the Parish of Whickham. The exchange was made under an Act of Parliament for inclosing part of Whickham Parish, between the late John Carr, of Dunston Hill Esq. and the Rector of Gateshead, with consent of the Bishop of Durham, who also enfranchised the Rectory-field.
85 Ex inform. Rev. J. Collinson.
86 Certificate in Augmentation Office, 37 Hen. VIII.—In 1719 a brass seal was discovered beneath a third stratum of pavement (in sinking a well) at Carlisle, with the legend S. Beate Marie de Gathesevid, which Dr. Ellison believes to have belonged to the Church-wardens of Gateshead. Brand has engraved a seal representing the salutation (but the legend destroyed), which he conceives to belong to the same church, being appended to a will in the Augmentation Office, dated at Gateshead 1427. Brand, vol. I. p. 489, and vol. II. p. 184.
87 Willis, vol. II. p. 75. See Brand throughout, vol. I p. 490–1.
88 See a fuller account of the endowment of this and the other Dolphanby Chantry, appended to the account of that family, p. 117.
89 Certificate in Augmentation Office, 37 Henry VIII.
90 Brand, and authorities there quoted, vol. I. p. 492–3; Willis's Abbeys, vol. II. p. 75.
91 And who occasionally, as it should seem, struck off into the line of trunk-making with good success; see p. 112.
92 “MrRobert Trollop, buried 11 Decr 1686.” Gateshead Register. Elinor, wife to Robert Trollop, 17 Dec. 1679. Isabel, daughter of Mr. Robert Trollop, buried 23 Aug. 1673. Henry Trollop, free-mason, 23 Nov. 1677. According Lambert's notes, Trollop's burial-place came by descent to the family of Harris, of Gateshead, whose heiress married the Rev. William Lambe.
93 These two epitaphs may be seen fully printed in Brand, vol. I.
94 Terrier, 1792; and Lambert's MSS. Pen. George Allan, Esq. M. P.
95 Whitburn Lizard.
96 It was not unusual, I believe, to amuse the labourers on these bounty-days with music; a piper generally attended on highway-days. I recollect reading a trial at Durham, in which a Mr. Spearman made a forcible entry into a field of Mrs. Wright's, at Birtley, and mowed and carried away the crop whilst his piper played from the top of the loaded wains. It was observed in Court that Mr. Spearman piped the corn away: “Aye,” said he (when he had gained a verdict), “but you see I knew who would pay the piper.”
97 A great drain, or sewer, in the low part of Gateshead, towards Tyne bridge.
98 These figs were distributed to children, that they might remember the riding of the boundaries. A witness relative to riding the boundaries of Blackburn fell says, that (about 1730) “the Bishop's Bailiff, Douthwaite, came riding, and sounding a horne, and scattered spice and white cakes,” &c. Sometimes the poor bairns were first whipped on the boundary stone, and feasted afterwards.
99 For a full account of this horrible business, see Brand, vol. I. p. 476; and Gardner.—Common Council Books of Newcastle, “March 26, 1649: The petic'on concerning witches was read, and ordered that thanks be returned to the petitioners, and the Com'on Council will contribute their best assistance therein.” A witch-finder was sent for from Scotland, who set aside twenty-seven out of thirty suspected persons. One wizard and fourteen witches of Newcastle were executed on the Town-moor 21 Aug. 1650, with a gang of nine moss-troopers, and one Northumberland witch, Jane Martin, wife to the Miller of Chatton. The Scotchman had a broad piece for every one whom he detected; and afterwards, when he came to the merited consummation of the gallows himself, made ample confession that he had sold the blood of above three score poor creatures for twenty shillings a piece.
100 Viz. for a fire there, which (according to Merrington Register) burned 224 houses, a church, and market-house. April 28, 1659.
101 Bordwells (and still more corruptly Bodells) i.e. Bothwells, a small Scottish copper coin, so named from the Earl of Bothwell, Master of the Mint.
102 These gold coins were probably melted “for ye gylton of ye crose.” The old gold was esteemed the purest—the gold farthing is probably synonimous with the quarter noble.
103 Original charter in the vestry at Gateshead.
104 Madox's Furmulare, p. 58, No. 113.
105 Original charters, printed by Brand, vol. I. P. 464–465.
106 Charter dated 30 Jan. 8 Pont. 1248, printed by Brand from the original in the Augmentation Office, and by Allan.
107 “Si quis, diabolico instinctu incontinens, vagabundus, &c. in sua malitia perduraverit,” &c. For obvious reasons no offence which a monastic could commit was held more scandalous than that of deserting his convent (an act which was indeed very likely to lead to every other irregularity); but for militia [Brand, p. 467, note, line 6,] read malitia; for though the monk who had cleared the pales of his convent, and was scampering like a stray deer through the mingled sweet briars and quicksets of the secular world, might be well said to persist in militia sua, in the service in which he had engaged, “under the sooty flag of Acheron,” or not less expressively, according to the Scotch divine, “under the brode banner of Black Sanctus,” yet the metaphor is generally applied by divines, ancient and modern, in meliorem partem, the Christian warfare, the church militant, &c.; and the stray monk is therefore rather represented as hardening his heart, and persisting in malitia sua, with obstinate endurance and malice aforethought.
108 To compensate any loss which the Church of Durham might suffer by this endowment, Bishop Farnham gave them in compensationem tam modici damni, sixteen acres, and the advowson of the church of Staindrop, five oxgangs in Thymelby, thirty-five acres in Crake, the whole vill of Herdwyk, the advowson of Stamfordham, and forty marks out of the Northumbrian benefices of the See of Carlisle, to be augmented to sixty on the death of Bishop Sylvester of Carlisle.
109 Augmentation Office; Brand; and Allan's Collections. In the Augmentation Office, besides the charters quoted in the text, there is an original bull of Pope Urban, in favour of Adam Fenrother, Master of St. Edmund's, against the detainers of tithes.
110 Inq. p. m. This was part of the donation of H. Fferlington, which, under this easy rent, had been virtually travelling back into lay hands.
111 Inq. p. m. Will. Redhough, 24 Langley.
112 See the charter of appropriation printed in Bourne, p. 213–215, from the original in the Augmentation Office.
113 Surrender, Augm. Office; Brand, vol. I. p. 229. See a full account of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew, or the White Ladies, in Brand, vol. I. p. 200–235. On the dissolution, the scite of their house was granted by patent, 4 Aug. 36 Hen. VIII. to William Barantyne, Goldsmith; Kenelm Throgmorton, of London, gent.; and Henry Annetson. It soon after became the property of a Lady Gaveere, who sold to the Andersons, who pulled down the house, according to Bourne, on account of the numbers of Scots who harboured there. The will of Henry Anderson (157..) mentions “his house, land, and orchards, called the Nuns of St. Bartholomew.” The “Nunnes dene,” mentioned by Leland, is said to have been also filled up by the Andersons, but is still known by a beautiful well of clear water. Bourne's “pleasant field” was afterwards the property of Sir Walter Blacket, and after his death was sold to Mr. Anderson, who covered it with buildings. Bourne and Brand, vol. I. p. 233.
114 Stellingley, however, (Stella) was parcel of the primitive possessions of St. Bartholomew, before the annexation of St. Edmund's, though here thrown here thrown together with their Gateshead possessions, probably as being on the South of Tyne.
115 Rector of Whickham.
116 Rector of Gateshead.
117 Rector of Houghton-le-Spring.
118 Vicar of St. Nicholas, Newcastle.
119 Probably afterwards Bishop of Durham.
120 Master of Sherburn Hospital, and sometime Rector of Whickham and of Brancepath; see vol. I. pp. 130 and 140.
121 Of the family of Claxton of Burnhall.
122 Prebendary of the eleventh stall, Rector of Gateshead and of Brancepath, and Spiritual Chancellor of the Diocese of Durham.
123 See hereafter, p. 130.
124

Sir Thomas Ridell the younger rendered himself so obnoxious to the Parliament that 1000l. was offered for his apprehension. He escaped with difficulty from Berwick in a small fishing-vessel, and died in exile at Antwerp; see the Pedigree.

I much fear that the following epistle from John Lesley to Sir Thomas Ridel during the leaguer of Newcastle, is not genuine.

“Sir Thamas,
“Between me and Gad it maks my heart blead bleud, to see sik wark gae through sae trim a garden as yours. I ha been twa times we my cusin the generall, and sae shall I sax times mare afore the wark gae that gate. But gin awe this be dune, Sir Thamas, ye maun mak the twanty punds thraty, and I maun hae the tagg'd tail trooper that stans in the staw, and the wee trim gaeing thing that stans in the newke o' the haw chirping and chiming at the newn-tide o' the day, and forty bows of bier to faw the mons with awe (fn. 155) .

“And as I am a Chevalier of fortin, and a lim o' the House of Rothes, as the muckle main kist in Edinburgh auld kirk can weel witness for these aught hundred years and mare bygane, nought shall skaith your house within or without to the valedome of a twapenny checkin.

I am your humble sarvant,

John Lessley,

Major-General and Captain over sax score and twa men and some mare, Crowner of Cumberland, Northumberland, Marryland, and Riddisdale, the Merce, Tiviotdale and Fife, Bailie of Kirkadie, Governor of Brunt Eland and the Bass, Laird of Liberton, Tilly and (fn. 156) Whooley, Siller Tacker (fn. 157) of Sterling, Constable of Leith, and Sir John Lessley Knight, to the bute of awe that.”

The above notable epistle is said to have been found amongst some old papers in the warehouse of Mr. Jackson, hopmerchant in Newcastle.

125 Act 51 Geo. III.
126 See Pedigree of Ravensworth; livery to Thomas Cuthbert 13 Nevill. Ibid.
127 Rot. Sinews, A° 2.
128 See Pedigree of Hedworth, under Harraton.
129 Rot. Howson, A° 1.
130 See Elemore, and Pedigree of Hall, vol. I. p. 121.
131 See Pedigree of Maddison annexed.
132 The front of the house is in Heworth Chapelry, the back part and the estate in Gateshead.
133 A Pedigree of James, of Deckham's Hall, is lately entered in the Heralds' Office.
134 Kellaw's Register, fo. 271; A° 31 Edw. I.
135 Inq. 5 Hatfield.
136 Inq. ult. Jul. 3 Skirlaw. One third of the estates was in dower; see the Pedigree.
137 Inq. 15 Langley.
138 Licence of alien. 17 July 1620, Rot. Neile, A A.
139 For some account of the ancestry of this very eminent Physician, see Burn and Nicholson, vol. I. p. 255.
140 Ex inform. John Adam Askew, Esq.
141 See Pedigree of Liddell.
I cannot quit Gateshead without acknowledging my particular obligations to Joseph Willis, Esq. and Sir Robert Shafto Hawks—to the Rev. J. Collinson and the Rev. J. Hodgson—and to Sir Cuthbert Sharpe, for a vast mass of valuable information, collected from every accessible source.
142 £16. 1s. 4d. received by the Churchwardens from Lord Scarborough 1817.
143 Daughter and coheir of Robert Thomlinson, of Gateshead. By will, 20 Nov. 1677, Francis Collinson, Gent. husband of Elizabeth, left 20l. to the poor of Gateshead, the interest to be distributed by the Church-wardens and Overseers; and “one large bible, with the frame whereon it standeth, to the church of St. Marie's in Gateshead, to be laid up or chained in the vestry, for the use of the Ministers.”
144 £10. rent received 1817.
145 Producing 10l. per annum 1817; and an allotment on the town fields belonging to it, 4l. per annum.
146 These are probably the tenements abused in the Church-wardens books, 1667, as Lady Cole's old rotten cottages.
147 Tho. Powell, of Newcastle, Gent. will dated 16 July 1728, desires to be buried in a Christian-like and decent manner, “but not unless three whole days and nights after dead,” and desires to be buried eight foot deepe; he gives several rings of the new fashion, with the letters on the outside.” “I give all and singular my messuages, bonds, mortgages, notes, debts, &c. after my debts and funerall charges is paid, towards erecting and building an almshouse for poor men and women in the parish of Gateshead, in the county of Durham, and to be built in the street that leads from Newcastle to Durham, between the goat on the top of the steepe hill and the tool-bouth, or Papish chapell, and to purchase a piece of ground there of free land, and to be for the use of the poor of Gateshead for ever, the parish keeping it in repair after first built; and I do appoint Mr. John Maddison, hoastman; Mr. Charles Jordan, mercer, of Gateshead; George Surtees, grocer, of Gateshead; and Mr. William Stephenson; to be trustees of this my will and testament.
148 An allotment on the town fields belonging to the poor-house lets for 4l. per ann. 1817.
149 John Bruce 1817.
150 Mrs. Forster 1817.
151 Now lost.
152 Jonathan Colling 1817.
153 John Lister 1817.
154

No bond is apparent, and though the 15l. per ann. is regularly paid, the Mayor does not nominate any Scholars.

*** The notes and additions within brackets are from the Rector and Churchwardens, 1817.

155 To close the bargain.
And acts in this place the part of a divorcer intended to give amplitude and dignity, for Tully-Wolley is but one estate.
‡ Receiver.