Parish of Ryton

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Robert Surtees

Year published

1820

Pages

259-283

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'Parish of Ryton', The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: volume 2: Chester ward (1820), pp. 259-283. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76310 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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PARISH OF RYTON

The Parish of Ryton is bounded on three sides by the rivers Tyne and Darwent. The Tyne, flowing betwixt Durham and Northumberland, forms the Northern and North-Eastern boundary till its junction with the Darwent, which divides Ryton from Whickham, and from the Chapelries of Tanfield and Medomsley on the South-East and South, till the junction of the Milkwell burn and Darwent on the South-West. The Milkwell burn, a short imaginary line (drawn betwixt Durham and Northumberland), and the Stanley burn, flowing Northwards and falling into the Tyne near Bradley mill, complete the Western boundary (fn. 1) .

The Parish of Ryton is subdivided into six Constableries : 1. Ryton; 2. Ryton Woodside; 3. Crawcrook (including Bradley); 4. Stella; 5. Winlaton, including Bladon, Thornley, the Spen, Whitehouse, and other tenements, parcels of the lordship of Winlaton; 6. Chopwell, which includes Black hall, Milkwell burn, Ravenside, Armondside, Hukergate. and other tenements.

Ryton,

A handsome village, seated in a fair fertile widened vale, where the Tyne flows broad and clear, free from the impurities of trade and manufacture which darken his downward course.

Ryton lying near the military line by Carlisle and Hexham, has frequently suffered from the visitation of the Scottish armies. In 1297 the village is said to have been burned by Wallace, who at that time certainly occupied Hexham (fn. 2) , and here, in 1346, St. Cuthbert admonished King David in vision, and meeting him as it were at his boundary fence, warned off the trespasser from his sacred patrimony: “Rex David, more aspidis ad vocem incantantis obturantis aures suas, &c.” (fn. 3)

The manor of Ryton belongs to the See of Durham, under which the greater part of the lands there are held by lease or copy of court roll. Under Boldon Book, “The men of Ryton hold the vill on lease, with the demesne, the assize rent (fn. 4) , the mill and the service due (from the villans), with a stock of one draught and two harrows, and twenty chalder of oats of the Bishop's measure, and the fisheries; they pay fourteen pounds rent, make ladings like the men of Whickham, and, jointly with Crawcrok, provide the carriage of one tun of wine.

The Punder has five acres and the thraves like other Punders, and renders thirty hens and two hundred eggs. The villans pay twenty-four hens and two hundred eggs.

Hatfield's Survey mentions three free tenements; the Rector of Ryton holds thirteen acres called the Petrson's medowe, as the glebe of his Church, and pays no rent, as is alleged.

William fil. Thom. Gategang holds a messuage and sixty acres, sometime of William Ughtred, under 13s. 4d. rent; and John Stepyng has a messuage and twenty-one acres, once Gilbert Forster's, 13s. 4d. Bondlands with parcels of the demesne: John Knout holds a messuage and six acres, of which one acre and a half are of the demesne, and the rest bond, 2s. 4d.; John Taillour and twenty-six others hold twenty-five messuages, with divers parcels of bond land and of demesne; John Newcome holds three acres in Wappesley, 18d.; the Rector, a messuage and thirteen acres, 10s. 8d.; William Robynson one acre called Netylsydmed, 4d.; Richard Skyll half an acre at Crombwell bank, 6d.; the Chaplain of St. Mary's altar, one tenement, 6d.; John Bell an acre and a half called Datnesfeld, 18d.; William Robinson five roods under Hunstrok called Lampeland, 5d.; thirty-three others, ten messuages, and divers parcels; the tenants hold amongst them the common forge, of which the dimensions are forty feet by twenty, 4d. rent, and the water mill with ten shillings for toll of ale, 106s. 8d. rent; the same tenants provide carnage of a tun of wine, and are liable to the accustomed repairs of the lord's mill and mill-dam; Robert Newcomen holds Punderland containing five acres, and-receives from the tenants the usual dues of office, and pays at Christmas and Easter thirty hens; John Haynyng holds the fishery in Tyne, and pays 40s.

As to the said fishery, an Inquest taken at Gateshead in 1344 (fn. 5) , states, that from time beyond the memory of man there existed a fishery near Ryton called the Blaklough, to the Westward of Tyne Bridge, belonging to the Bishop of Durham; and another, fishery called Cromwell, of which the third part belongs to the See; and another fishery called Quikham Drawwater, belonging to the Bishop; and a yare called the Rutyare, with three heads, which also belonged to the See, and used to extend to the mid-water of Tyne; another yare of like extent called Maleyare near the Redheugh, all West of Tyne Bridge; and on the East of the bridge was the Kirkyare, beneath the Bishop's manor of Gates-head, extending to one third part of the water of Tyne; a fishery called Toulershell, and a yare under Gateshead Park called Helperyare, to a third of Tyne water; and, lastly, a fishery called Turnwater under Freregose, belonging to the Bishop.

The common belonging to the manor of Ryton was extremely extensive, and its boundaries towards Chopwell were the subject of litigation as early as 1562 (fn. 6) . A division of Ryton moor bears date 16 Sept. 1638 (fn. 7) ; the whole of the allotments are stated to be held of the See by copy of court roll, under 4d. an acre rent; the mines are, of course, reserved to the See,. with the usual clauses of compensation for damages to the tenant of the soil in working; and twenty acres were allotted to the manor mill, to provide horses for fetching in corn.

Ryton, Broomfield, and High Hedgefield, were divided in 1669 (fn. 8) . The persons receiving allotments were : Sander, Jolley, Walker, Helcoat, Greenay, Johnson, Best, Humble (fn. 9) , Newton, Cooke, French, Linslay, Hauxley, and Surtees. The Westfield, Westcrofts, Eastfield, and Low Hedgefield, were divided in 1690 (fn. 10) ; the claimants were, Sir Thomas Tempest, Bart, a hundred and seven acres, the Rector of Ryton, seven acres, Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. thirty-four acres; Hilcoate, Walker, Sander, Jolley, Surtees of Milkwell burn, Newton, Cooke, Hauxley, Stokoe, French, Sawyers, Dodds, and Greenay.

Lands in Ryton called Greenside, were included in the forfeiture of John Swinburn of Chopwell, Esq. in 1570, and were granted by Bishop Barnes to Cuthbert Carnaby, Esq. by copy of court roll 4 Oct. 1580 (fn. 11) . The Bishop granted other lands betwixt Rickleyforde and Abbotforde, near Rickley-hill (lately enclosed from the lands waste, by John Swynburne), to Robert Dodd (fn. 11) .

Ryton Woodside, a separate Constablery, containing several distinct tenements and some portion of free land, lies to the South of the village of Ryton.

Robert Hedworth settled his messuage of Ryton Woodside before 1592 on the marriage of his son John Hedworth with Isabel Harrison of Byermoor (fn. 12) , and 14 May, 8 Car. 1632, John Hedworth died seized of the chief messuage of Riton Woodside held of the Bishop in chief, worth 40s. per annum, leaving John his son and heir under age (fn. 13) . (See Pedigree of Hedworth.) By Ind. 3 March 1691, Paul Hedworth, of Ryton Woodside, Gent, and Margaret Hedworth, widow, granted their capital messuage of Ryton Woodside to Henry Jenison, of Newcastle, Esq. (fn. 14) who, in 1692, conveyed to Alexander Lambton, of Lambton, Gent. (fn. 14) and 6 March, 1697, William Lambton, of Lambton, Esq. (brother and heir of Alexander) granted the same messuage of Ryton Woodside to Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. (fn. 14) whose descendant, Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. still holds property in Ryton Woodside.

Pedigree of Hedworth, of Ryton Woodside.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Mr. Michael Hedworth, of Woodside, buried 18 April 1676.

Mrs. Barbara Hedworth, of the Woodside, buried 12 June 1681. Ryton Register.

* Ryton Register.

† St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.

The Church.

The Church stands just without the village towards the river, in a spacious cemetery shaded by lofty elms. The building is handsome and regular, consisting of a nave with uniform ailes, a chancel, and a West tower; the ailes are each formed by two pillars supporting pointed arches; the Western pillars are plain cylinders, those to the East are octagonal; the arches spring from corbeils of human heads. A gallery crosses the West end of the nave; on the front, “This Gallery was erected at the cost of Mr. Ambrose Crowley, and the Company of Smiths, at Winlaton.” Arms of the Smiths' Company. The West tower is square, springing from arches supported by heavy clustered pillars; it is surmounted by an octangular spire; the whole height rises a hundred and eight feet. The chancel is divided from the nave by a blunt pointed arch, springing from corbeils, and closed by a screen of old oak, carved in open tracery, roses, quaterfoils, and foliage. The chancel is stalled on both sides with oak, on which the arms of James, a dolphin embowed inter three crosses, are repeated (fn. 15) . The East window under a square label, has six lights divided by a stone transom; there are five narrow lights under pointed arches on the South of the chancel, and one of two lights nearest to the East; the lights in the ailes, and three which open Westward under the tower, are all modernized, single or double, under pointed arches of uniform architecture. The chief entrance is by a South porch; the vestry projects from, the North side of the chancel; a small pointed door is closed up in the North aile. There are some remains of figures and tracery above a small South door into the chancel, and some corbeils and ornaments, about the arches of the windows on the exterior of the South chancel wall. The highest ledge of the tower has also been adorned with grotesque heads, roses, lilies, and quaterfoils; on the East side of the tower, St. George appears in has relief trampling on the Dragon.

There was a Chantry within the Church of Ryton dedicated to the Virgin; the foundation is unknown. In 1425, the account of Ralph Eure, the Bishop's Eschaetor, mentions “five shillings the rent of a messuage and eighteen acres called St. Mary's lands, given by the Lord of Crawcrook to St. Mary's altar in Ryton Church, in mortmain without licence. 1498, Sept. 13, John Saunder, of Ryton, granted a cottage, three acres and a plot of ground, to William Clark, and his successors, Chaplains of St. Mary's altar, for the perpetual maintenance of a light before the image of the Virgin (fn. 16) .

Monumental Inscriptions.

Under the East window, on the South side of the chancel (within the altar-rails) lies the recumbent effigy of a Benedictine Monk, carved in Stanhope marble. The hands, elevated on the breast, clasp a book, on the cover of which is the Dove; the feet rest on a Lion:

On a brass-plate, on the North wall of the chancel:

Francis Bunny, borne May the 8th A° 1543, began to preach God's word Novembr. the first, An° 1567, inducted into a p'bend at Durham, the 9th of May, Anno 1572, made Archdeacon of Northumberland, A° 1573, Octre ye 20th; and the llth of Sep. A° 1578, made Rector of Ryton. Having buried here his four sones, and his daughter at Yorke, hasteneth to heaven after them, and, triumphing for hope of immortalitie, saith thus:


My barke now having wonne ye haven,
I feare no stormy seas;
God is my hope, my home is heaven,
My life is happy ease
This hope, this home, this life most sweet,
Whosoe will seeke to winne,
Must bid adiewe to all delights,
The sower roots of sinne.

Obijt 16 die Aprilis 1617.

Arms: 1. Argent, a chevron inter three goats' heads erased Sable, Bunny. 2. Gules, a cross flory Or, on a chief Azure three buckles of the second. 3. Per Saltire Ermine and Gules. 4. Argent, three bendlets Sable. 5. Gules, three lions rampant Argent, crowned Or. 6. Sable, three lions rampant Argent. 7. Gules, a fesse Or inter three saltiers Argent. 8. Argent, four bendlets Gules. 9. Argent, three boars' heads couped, in bend, between two cottises embattled Sable.

Crest: A goat's head erased Sable, the horns Or.

On a similar brass-plate near the former:

Franc', the third sonne of Richard Bunny of Newland, nere Wakefield, Esquier, and of Bridget Restwould, of ye Vache in Buckinghãshire, of very worll parentage, wife to ye saide Richard Bunny, was inducted into this peonage of Ryton A° 1578, Sept. 13, and had 5 children, Elizth the eldest, being mard to Willm Fenay, of Fenay, neere Almonbury in Yorkshire, died wthout issue, and lyeth buried in York in ye quyer of Allhallows Church. John ye eldest sonne, Henry ye third sonne, Matthw ye fourth sonne, died very young, and were all buried in this quier of Ryton Church, wher also lyeth Francis ye second sone of Frãcis aforesaid, whose monument this is; he maried Mary, daughter and sole heir of John Wortley, second brother of Sir Richard Wortley, of Wortley, Knight; he died wthout issue Feb. 26, A° 1610, being more then 26 yeares old; he was borne A° 1584, Novemb. 9.


I was sometime, but now I am,
And shall live thus for aye,
I am, I say, in joy that lasts,
And never shall decay.
I was, but then I did but dreame;
My pleasures were but paine;
My joyes were short and mixt with griefe,
Adew then life so vaine.

Arms: Bunny, with eight quarterings, as before, impaling, Argent, a bend Gules charged with three bezants inter six martlets of the second, Wortley.

On a brass plate on the floor of the chancel:


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Arms as before. Crest: A goat's head erased, marked with a mullet. Motto: Monte dessus.

On wooden tablets in the chancel:

John Anderson, Esquire, son to Sir Francis Anderson, of Bradley, departed this life the 3d day of October, Anno 1679.

Arms: Gules, three oak trees Argent. Crest: An oak Argent.

Near this place lyeth Roger Anderson, Esquire, the seventh and youngest son of Sir Francis Anderson, of Bradley, Knight, died the 24th of June 1723, aged 66. Arms as above.

On a marble tablet against the North wall of the chancel:

Mr. John Simpson, of Bradley, and Jane his wife. John died Dec. 31, 1732, aged 52. Jane, daughter of Henry Anderson, Esquire, died Nov. 23, 1748, aged 66. They left issue two sons, John and Francis.

Arms: Gules, a fesse inter two lions passant Or, Simpson, impaling, Gules, three oaktrees Argent, Anderson.

On a marble tablet:


John Simpson, Esq. of Bradley Hall,
who departed this life April 24, 1786;
and Anne his wife,
who departed this life August 4, 1783 ;
she was the only child of Richard Clutterbuck, Esq.
of Warkworth, in Northumberland.
By his second wife, Eleanor Collier,
they had issue twelve children.
Erected by their two surviving daughters,
Eleanor, wife of John Ord, Esq. and Anne Simpson.

On a tablet of white marble against the North chancel wall, within the altar-rails:


Frances Wilkie Thorp,
wife of Charles Thorp, A. M.
Rector of this Parish,
the only child of
Henry Collingwood Selby, Esquire;
died a few months after marriage,
the XXI day of April MDCCCXI,
aged twenty years.

On an adjoining tablet:


In the vault underneath
are placed the remains of
Robert Thorp, D.D.
Archdeacon of Northumberland,
and sometime Rector of this Parish,
who departed this life,
in the blessed hope of immortality
through Jesus Christ,
the xxth day of April MDCCCXII,
in his seventy-sixth year.
Grace Thorp, widow of Robert Thorp,
died III Aug. MDCCCXIII, aged seventy (fn. 17) .

On a monument of white marble, also against the North wall of the chancel:

Near this place lieth interred the body of the Rev. John Lloyd, A. M. late Rector of this Parish. He departed this life on the 13th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1765, in the 56th year of his age, most justly lamented by his family and friends, nor less by his parishioners, whom he had endeared himself to by every act of affection and duty, by his unlimited benevolence and chanty, and by a constant attention to the duties of his sacred function, through a course of twenty-seven years, during which he was their minister. He was the eldest son of the Rev. William Lloyd, D. D. sometime since Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester, and grandson of William Lloyd, the Bishop of that Diocese : distinguished in the age he lived for his extensive learning, but more for his fervent zeal for the Protestant religion, and for the rights and liberties of his country, which he supported with unshaken fidelity. The deceased married Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Robert Lightfoot, A. M. Rector of Deal, in the county of Kent, by whom he left issue three daughters, Elizabeth, Katherine, and Mary.

Arms: Argent, a chevron Sable, between three cornish choughs proper, each holding in its beak an Ermine spot of the second, Lloyd—impaling, Barry of six, Or and Gules, on a bend Sable, three escallops Argent, Lightfoot.

At the West end of the North aile, on a mural monument of marble :

Frances the wife of John Humble, ob. 3 Oct. 1754, aged 58 (fn. 18) .

Arms : A Stag trippant, a chief indented . . . . . . Crest: a stag's head erased.

In the church-yard, on a slab near the foot-path:

Here lieth ye body of Barbara Surteys, daughter was to Robert and Catherine Surreys of Ryton; the departed this life January the 25th, 1682.

As also of the said Robert and Catharine Surtees, and of Margaret and Mary, two other daughters of theirs. Robert died October the 4th, 1710, in the 86th year of his age.

Here lyeth interred ye body of Isabel Bowry, who departed this life the 16th day of June 1723.

An old stone coffin of the usual form lies in the church-yard.

“On the North side of the church-yard, is a large barrow twenty feet high and covered with trees; it has never been opened: but a similar one near Bradley Hall was, about twenty years since, found to contain a kistvaen, or square cavity composed of rude stones set on edge, enclosing some remains of a human skeleton (fn. 19) .”

List of Rectors of Ryton.

Ryton Rectory—Patron, the Bishop of Durham. King's Books, 42l. 10s.. 10d.; Tenths, 4l. 5s. 1d.; Episc. Proc. 18s.; Archid. Proc. 3s.—Dedication of the Church to Holy Cross.

  • Magister William de Marghe, 1254.
  • Alan de Esyngwald, 1300.
  • John de Botheby, 1312.
  • Nicholas Gategang (fn. 20) , 5 Sept. 1334.
  • William de Olby, 12 Jan. 1342, p.m. Gategang.
  • John de Wyndlynburgh, 1378.
  • Thomas de Gretham (fn. 21) , 1382.
  • John de Burgh, 1402.
  • Richard Moore, 1407.
  • John de Nepotiis.
  • John Wynname, Bac. Decret. (fn. 22) 9 Dec. 1497.
  • Robert Davell, LL. D. (fn. 23)
  • Anthony Salvayne, S.T.B. (fn. 24) 28 April 1555, p. m. Davell.
  • William Garnet, A.B. 27 Dec. 1558, p. res. Salvayn.
  • John Bold, S.T.P. (fn. 25) 14 Feb. 1577, p.m. Garnet.
  • Francis Bunny, A.M. (fn. 26) 11 Sept. 1578, p. res. Bold.
  • William James, A.M. (fn. 27) 1617, p.m. Bunny.
  • John Weld (fn. 28) , an intruder.
  • Ralph Blakiston, A. M. (fn. 29) 10 Dec. 1660, p.m. James.
  • William Cave, S.T.P. 1676, p.m. Blakiston.
  • Malin Sorsby (fn. 30) , 1679, p. res. Cave.
  • James Finney, S.T.P. (fn. 31) 1706, p.m. Sorsby.
  • Thomas Secker, A.M. (fn. 32) 17 Jan. 1727, p.m. Finney.
  • Robert Stillingfleet, A. M. (fn. 33) 1733, p. res. Seeker.
  • John Lloyd, A. M. (fn. 34) 1738, p. res. Stillingfleet.
  • John Rotheram, A. M. (fn. 35) 25 Feb. 1766, p.m. Lloyd.
  • Hon. Richard Byron, A. M. (fn. 36) 4 Nov. 1769, p. res. Rotheram.
  • Robert Thorp, D. D. (fn. 37) p. res. Byron.
  • Charles Thorp, A. M. (fn. 38) Univ. Coll. Oxon, p. res. Thorp, 1807.

The Parsonage is an excellent spacious house chiefly built by Dr. Fenney, with comfortable old sheltered gardens (fn. 39) ; not only the house, but the whole ground plot has been extremely improved by the present Rector (fn. 40) .

Several Roman antiquities brought from the Wall, are preserved at the Parsonage of Ryton; some account of the most interesting of these will be given in the sequel.

Francis Bunney, (third son of Richard Bunney, Esq. of Newland Hall, near Wakefield, and of Bridget his wife, daughter and coheir of Edward Restwould, Esq.) was born 8 May 1543, in the mansion of his maternal ancestors, “an antient house, called the Vache, in the Parish of Chalfont St. Giles in Bucks;” he became a student of the University in the latter end of the reign of Queen Mary, and fellow of Magdalen College 1562; his other successive preferments arc recorded on his epitaph (of which Wood seems to have had good information). He was Chaplain to the Earl of Bedford, then “antesignanus” amongst the noble favourers of Puritanism; and, as Wood adds, Francis Bunney himself was “very zealous in the way he professed, a great admirer of Jo. Calvin, a constant preacher (fn. 41) , charitable, and a stiff enemy to Popery (fn. 42) .” “He departed this mortal life at Ryton, 16 April 1617, and was buried in the chancel, near to the graves of 4 of his sons; over his grave was soon after set up in a wall adjoyning, a table or plate of brass, whereon are engraven certain trite verses,” (see p. 262) (fn. 43) . Honest Anthony gives a still more picturesque account of Edmund Bunney (elder brother of Francis), also a stout preacher and stern Calvinist, “with his bulky body and broad face, and his two henchmen on horseback in black liveries;” but the full portrait must be veiled till we arrive at Newsham in the Parish of Winston, where the Rector of Bolton-Percy's descendants acquired some temporal property, and where, be it added, their lineal representative exercises the humble occupation of a village carpenter.

In 1314 Bishop Kellow pronounced a decree betwixt the Hospital of Kepyer and the Rector of Ryton, viz. that Hugh de Montalt, Master of Kepyer, and his successors, should continue to enjoy an annual composition of two marks, payable by the Rector, in lieu of the one moiety of tithe of corn of the Bishop's demesne lands within the whole Parish of Ryton, and should, in consideration of such annual payment and perception, celebrate solemn mass with Placebo and Dirige for the soul of Bishop Anthony (fn. 44) .

Bishop Fordham granted licence to Thomas de Gretham, Rector of Ryton, to carry an aqueduct from Southwell through the Bishop's ground to the Rectory; “aqueductum subterraneum a fonte qui oritur in solo Ecclesiæ ex parte australi ejusdem Ecclesiæ vocat. Southwell usque ad Rectoriam (fn. 45) .” Bishop Skirlaw confirmed the grant to John Burgh, Gretham's successor, in 1405 (fn. 46) .

At the general array of the Clergy on Gilesgate Moor in 1400, the Rector of Ryton was charged with one lance and three archers, being rated at the same proportion with his neighbours of Whickham and Gateshead.

The Parochial Register begins 17 Dec. 1581.

A child of Sir William Davie, Knt. buried 7 April 1640.

Sir William Selby, Knt. buried 3 April 1649.

Mr. Bartram Bulmer, Mrs. Jane Tempest, married 30 July 1600; Anthony son of Bartram Bulmer, Esq. baptized 2 Dec. 1602; Mary, daughter of Sir Bartram Bulmer, 26 Aug. 1606 (see vol. I. p. 79.); Mr. William Buhner of Stella, buried 23 January 1681–2.

William Silvertop of Bladon, and 17 more, buried 28 May 1682. These 18 were drowned 28 May 1682.

The following extracts are from the Parish Books:

1603, Payed to the infected of Gateside. xviis. viiid. 1606, for my dinner and the Ministers vid. (at the Archdeacon's visitation 25 April). 1623, for ringeing at the return of our nobill Prince from Spaine, 1s. 1635, Pd Mr. William Selby, for six foxes' heads, six shillings.”

Crawcrook,

A village about one mile to the West of Ryton.

Boldon Book.—Crawcrook is on lease with the villan service and the demesne, with a farm stock of one draught and two harrows, and pays, besides the assized rent (præter assisum redditum ), eleven marks and a half, and for the assized rent four marks and a half, and the vill provides one milch cow, furnishes four chalder of barley, as much of meal, as much of oats, maintains one man for Castleward, and joins with Riton in carting one ton of wine.

Before the date of Hatfield's Survey, Crawcrook had become a free manor, of which one moiety was vested in the family of Horsley, of Horsley in Northumberland. “Robert Horsley holds half the vill of Crawcrok, by knight's service and ten shillings (and a toft and forty acres called Bradley, by one penny rent, on St. Cuthbert's day in September).”

The descent of the family stands thus:


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Crawcrook was sold out by the Carnaby's in small parcels,;and the property is at present divided amongst numerous proprietors.

Little Kepyer, in Crawcrook.—A moiety of the vill of Crawcrook; was the property of the Hospital of St. Giles of Kepyer, and this portion seems to have been distinguished after the dissolution, by the name of Little Kepyer.

13 March, 1552, Edward VI. granted to John Cockburne, Lord of Black Ormiston, (inter alia ) all the possessions of the dissolved house of Kepyer in Gateshead, Whickham, and Ryton (fn. 47) . Cockburne transferred the whole possessions of the Hospital to Heath; and in 1587 John Watson, of Newcastle, Merchant, acquired by fine of John Heath, Esq. “four messuages, a water mill, four gardens, two hundred acres of arable, as many of pasture, a hundred and forty of meadow, forty acres of woodland, two hundred of furze and heath, three hundred of moor, thirty of marsh, a free fishery in the Tyne, and 27s. rent in Little Kepyeare near Crawcroke (fn. 48) .

In 1612 the same John Watson died seized of the capital messuage called Little Kepyeare in Crawcrook, leaving Thomas Watson his son and heir (fn. 49) , who granted the estate by fine and recovery in 1615, to Thomas Liddell the younger, Esq. Timothy Comyn, Gent, and Thomas Humble (fn. 50) . The conveyance was probably only a family settlement, for in 1618 another alienation occurs from Thomas Watson, Anne his wife, and Ralph Watson, to Robert Delaval, Esq. (fn. 51)

Previous to this, in 1609, John Watson had granted part of his lands in Little Kepyer; 4 messuages and tofts, 90 acres of arable, six of meadow, and common in Ryton and Crawcrook, to Robert Sander the elder, William Jollie, John Hauxley, and William French (fn. 52) ; all of whose descendants (fn. 53) held lands here in various proportions.

In 1621 Robert Sander died seized of lands in Crawcrook, parcel of Little Kepyer, which he had settled by indenture of trust, 17 Oct. 1617, on John Hauxlie and Robert Sander on the hill (fn. 54) .

In 1618 William French died seized of another parcel, leaving a son of his own name under age (fn. 55) .

In 1638 John Hauxley died seized of a messuage, mines, and quarries, in Crawcrook, parcel of the dissolved hospital of Kepyer, held of the Crown by knight's service, leaving Thomas his son and heir (fn. 56) . In 165. Catharine, daughter and coheir of John Hauxley, of Crawcrook, intermarried with Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent (fn. 57) . whose representative, Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. is possessed of considerable property in Crawcrook. In 1794 Crawcrook Tounfields, consisting of 700 acres, were divided by Act of Parliament. The coal-mines were reserved to such persons as were entitled before the division, and the other royalties to John Wharton, Esq. and Crosier Surtees, Esq.

Bradley.

Bradley Hall, a handsome modern house, stands nearly a mile to the West of Crawcrook, surrounded by soft wooded grounds extending to the Tyne.

Under Hatfield's Survey, Robert Horsley held a toft and forty acres in Bradley, under 1d. rent, at the Feast of St. Cuthbert in September. In 1372 the same Richard de Horsley died seized of the toft called Bradley, held by the same rent, leaving Robert his son and heir (fn. 58) , who, in 1393, is stated to die seized of Bradlay feld with le Beye, held in common socage by 1d. rent (fn. 59) ; their descendants have been stated under Crawcrook. Lancelot Carnaby, of Halton, Esq. brother and heir of Lionel (and grandson of Roger Horsley), took lands by copy of court roll in Bradley, Crookes, and Dryburne 1594 (fn. 60) ; and three years later, a pardon occurs to Richard Awgood for purchasing the messuage called Bradley Hall, a free fishery in the Tyne, and a meadow close of forty acres in Ryton called the Stanners (fn. 61) . Before 1610 Awgood had alienated Bradley to John Lyons (fn. 62) , of Newcastle, a receiver for the Crown under Elizabeth and James. The family are said to have been ruined by a Crown extent; however, John Lyons (who married Margaret, daughter of Lancelot Carnaby, of Halton), son of the elder John, died seized of Bradley Hall, and lands in Crawcrook in 1626 (fn. 63) , leaving William his brother and heir under age (fn. 64) . The name occurs no more. The Andersons, a wealthy mercantile family in Newcastle, had already acquired some portion of Bradley, which Robert Anderson, of Newcastle (fn. 65) settled about 1631 on Francis Anderson, of Jesmond, and the rest of the property was, I presume, acquired from Lyons.

Sir Francis Anderson (of Jesmond and Bradley already named) was a devoted loyalist, and on the ruin of the royal cause, became an object of peculiar persecution to the successful party. He was fined (fn. 66) , sequestered, imprisoned, and stripped of his title of knighthood, which fell within the list of proscribed honours conferred after the 4th of January, 1641, when Charles separated himself from his Parliament (fn. 67) .

Sir Francis long survived the Restoration; and Bradley still continues vested in his descendants (fn. 68) . (See Pedigree of Anderson annexed.)

Pedigree of Anderson and Simpson, of Bradley.

Arms of Anderson: Gules, three oak trees Argent.

Crest: on a chapeau Gules, turned up Ermine, a griffin's head erased Argent, marked on the neck with a link or fetterlock Sable.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

*** Besides the Andersons of Bradley, and those of Haswell (vol. I. p. 122), there were many other branches of the same family whom it is difficult to connect. The various Parochial Registers in Newcastle abound with scattered notices, which I have not ventured to apply to either Pedigree.

Mr. Francis Anderson, Anne Shafto, married 5 Feb. 1679.

Francis, son to Francis, bapt. 21 Dec. 1680.

Mr. Robert Anderson, Mrs, Anne Maddison, widow, married 29 Dec. 1670. St. Nicholas.

Francis Anderson, Newcastle, Merchant, Judith Lyons, married 9 Jan. 1620–1. Ryton.

* St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.

† Ryton Parish Register.

‡ All Saints.

Stella.

Boldon Book.—The son of William the Moneyer holds Stellingleye, by the correct boundaries (rectas divisas ), which the Bishop caused to he perambulated for him, and pays one mark.

There can be little doubt that this Monetarius, whose fame was so permanent that his son needed no other description than “to be of such a sire the child,” was the master worker of Bishop Pudsey's mint, and that Stella was the landed pension of his services.

The recorded rights of William the Moneyer must reconcile themselves as they may with the charter of Bishop William de St. Barbara (fn. 69) (in the Augmentation-office), which grants Stellinglei, with all its appurtenances in woodland, champian, roads, ways, metes, boundaries, mills, and meadows, waters, fishdams, and fisheries, free of forest-right and pasturage of the Bishop's hogs, to St. Bartholomew, and the Nuns of Newcastle, fortified by a triple row of benedictions from St. Cuthbert, St. Giles, and the Bishop, with “a division of curses moving under them (the benedictions) like a running bass all the way (fn. 70) .” Bishop Hugh himself, indeed, confirmed the charter (fn. 71) ; but the Bishop was “no scrupulous personage,” and if he wished to carve out of the Nuns' estate a life-interest for his master-worker, perfectly understood the maxim—that he who binds can loose; he who hides can find; and he who gives can resume. The Nuns, however, with the slight interruption of William the Moneyer and his nameless son, kept full possession of Stellinglei, which was again amply confirmed to them by Bishop Philip (fn. 72) . At the dissolution, amongst the estates of the Nunnery within the Bishopric of Duresme, occurs “Stellingley by yer,3l. 13s. 4d.

The estate of Stella became soon after the property and residence of the Tempests of Newcastle, a mercantile branch of the ancient house of Holmeside (fn. 73) , who acquired the title of Baronet in 1622, and resided here in catholic splendour and loyalty, during the reigns of the four Stuart Kings. Their heiress married the attainted Lord Widdrington, who forfeited his title in 1715. Their son Henry, deprived of his paternal estate and of his parliamentary honours, led a long life of peace and obscurity, in unmolested possession of his mother's estates; and, dying in 1774, left his property and his claims to his nephew Thomas Eyre, of Hassop, with remainder to his cousin Edward Standish, Esq. Under this entail Stella is now the property of Peregrine Edward Townley, of Townley, in Lancashire, Esq. (fn. 74)

Stella Hall, a magnificent old gavel-ended house, reared by the Tempests, stands almost close on the river, overlooking low watery grounds, washed and intersected by arms of the Tyne.

Stellahaugh witnessed the panic and defeat of a numerous and well-appointed English army, who fled before the face of the solemn League and Covenant, the 28th of August, 1640, and next day abandoned Newcastle. The Scotch planted there cannon in Newburn church, and forded the river breast high, under cover of their artillery, nearly opposite Stella Hall. (See vol. I. p. 95).

On a mural monument in the North Aile of Ryton Church (now removed):

Sepulturæ consecratum Nicholai Tempest de Stella, militis & baronetti (qui obijt An° D'n MDCXXV. ætatis suæ LXXIII.) et Isabellæ uxoris suæ charissimæ, filiæ Gulielmi Lambton de Lambton armigeri : Quæ quatuor filios, et totidem filias, illipeperit, et obiit An° D'n. MDCXXIII. ætatis suæ LXXI. Illa per tot annos præmoriens, quot illi prænatus erat. E liberis eorum sunt superstites Thomas, Henricus, Isabella, uxor Bertrami Bulmer de Tyrlesden, militis.—Jana relicta Thomæ Chaitor de Butrobee, armigeri.—Et Margareta, uxor Gilberti Errington de Ponteland, armiger.—Parentibus optimis et suavissimis Thomas Tempest baronettus, corum filius, observantiæ et amoris ergo, sibique et suis mortalitatis memor, hoc posuit.


Filius extruxit tumulum, pia sacra parentum.
Lambton erat matris, Stella domusque patris.
Miles erat Ni'olas Tempest, pater et baronettus
Isabella fuit mater; amore pares.
Octo illis liberi sexu sequo: Septuaginta
Ultro vixerunt, et cecidere pares.

Pedigree of Tempest, of Stella and Stanley.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Arms: Argent, a bend engrailed between six martlets Sable.

Crest: on a wreath, a martlet, Sable.

* Ryton Register.

† St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.

‡ See Thoroton's Notts, 228.

§ Brancepath Register.

Winlaton,

A manufacturing village on the heights betwixt the Tyne and Darwent.

Boldon Book.—Wynlakton and Berley (fn. 75) are on lease with the demesne and the villan service, and with the farm stock under 15l. rent. Besides, the tenants in villenage mow the Lord's meadows (each two day's work with one man), and then receive their corrody, and win and lead the hay one day's work.

The marsh, the meadow, and the wood (nemus ), are reserved to the Lord. The mill pays five marks and a half.

Under Bishop Bury Winlaton had become the property of the Nevills, for an indenture of retainer betwixt the same Bishop and John Lord Nevill, of Raby, covenants, that Nevill shall hold his manor of Winlaton discharged of twenty marks rent due to the See. In 1368 Ralph Nevill, Chivaler, died seised of the manor, held by twenty marks Exchequer rent (fn. 76) .

Hatfield's Survey states only, “that Lord Nevill holds the vill of Wynlacton by knight's service and 20l. rent;” and in Lord Nevill's family the manor continued (through a seriesof inquisitions which it is needless to repeat or anticipate) till the reign of Elizabeth, when, just before the forfeiture, Charles Earl of Westmoreland (by indenture 19 July, 1569), conveyed his manor of East and West Winlaton (fn. 77) for 2000l. to Richard Hodgson, Humfrey Scrivener, William Selby, and Robert Anderson, merchants, of Newcastle. The purchasers immediately after granted to trustees (Ralph and George Lawson), for the use of Selby and Hodgson, in equal moieties (fn. 78) .

In 1613 William Selby died seised of half the manor, leaving George Selby his son and heir (fn. 79) ; which Sir George Selby died in 1625, and left six daughters his coheirs, married to Belasyse, Delaval, Curwen, Conyers, Fenwick, and Delaval. Yet the estate of Winlaton seems to have descended to Sir William Selby (brother and heir male of Sir George), sometime styled of Shortflatt, co. Northumberland; and in 1633 John Hodshon, Esq. and William Fenwick, Gent, had pardon for purchasing without licence the same moiety from Sir William Selbie, Knt. and William Selbie, Esq. (fn. 80) The alienation was probably on trust, for Sir George Selby, of Whitehouse (created a Baronet 1664), is sometimes stiled of Winlaton. (See Pedigree of Selby.) As to Hodgson's share, 8 Aug. 7. Car. 1631, George Hodgson, Gent, acquired three eighths of the manor of Sir Robert Hodgson, Knt. (fn. 81) . William Hodgson, Esq. (brother and heir male of Sir Robert) is described of Winlaton 1661 (fn. 82) ; his daughter and coheir Alice became the wife of Sir Thomas Tempest, of Stella, whose representatives held a portion of the manor. Yet the Andersons also retained some share of the purchase; for, 14 April, 41 Eliz. 1600 (fn. 83) , Robert Anderson, merchant, acquired one fourth of the manor from his father, Robert Anderson, Alderman, of Newcastle.

In 1644 an entry occurs in the Sequestrators' Books, “Letten to George Beadnell, all that eighth part of Winlaton Lordshipp, late belonging to Sir John Mints (fn. 84) , 75l. per ann. 13 Mart.”

A plan of the lordship of Winlaton, A. D. 1632, states—Sir William Hodgson's share, one thousand six hundred and one acres, two roods, and thirty-six perches; Sir William Selby, two thousand one hundred and twenty-one acres, three roods, and twenty-eight perches; and Robert Anderson, Esq. five hundred and nineteen acres and thirty-six perches.

The present proprietors of the manor and royalties are Peregrine Edward Townley, Esq. (as representative of Widdrington and Tempest) 36/96 ths; Miss Anne Simpson, 27/96ths; Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, Esq. M. P. 24/96ths; the Representatives of the Earl of Strathmore, 7/96ths; the Marquisses of Bute and Hertford, 1/96th; and William Morton Pitt, Esq. M. P. 1/96th.

Winlaton, however, is better known from the manufactory established here by Sir Ambrose Crowley, than by the history of any of its ancient proprietors. About 1690 Sir Ambrose fixed on this situation to establish the extensive iron works which still bear his name. He had first sat down at Sunderland, but was induced to remove his colony to Winlaton, from the advantages of the situation betwixt the Tyne and Darwent, a cheaper country, and plenty of coal. The establishment extends to Swalwell. “The chief branches carried on at Winlaton and Winlaton Mill (on the Darwent) are the making and grinding of edge-tools, manufacturing files, and slitting bars of iron into nail-rods. The works at Swalwell are on a greater scale: anchors of the largest size, mooring-chains, pumps and cylinders for steam-engines, all kinds of cast metal utensils, agricultural implements, hoes, spades, shovels, &c. and in short, almost every form of which iron or steel is susceptible, is produced in these works. There is a warehouse of articles for country consumption at Swalwell. The company have also warehouses at Greenwich, and in Thames Street, London (fn. 85) . Two vessels of three hundred tons burthen are constantly employed in the carrying trade.” (fn. 86)

Sir Ambrose (notwithstanding the ridicule cast on Sir John Anvil (fn. 87) ) was a worthy, honest, persevering man, with a sound head and good intentions, and he seems to have paid a very laudable degree of attention to the bonos mores, as well as to the “creature comforts” of his colony. “After the works were brought to answer the proprietor's view, a code of laws was instituted for the preservation of good order, and a court of arbitrators was held every ten weeks, to determine disputes and appeals. Schools were established at Winlaton, Winlaton-Mill, and Swalwell, where the workmen's children were taught reading, writing, and accounts. A surgeon also was appointed to attend the whole body. When any workman was ill he had money advanced; when superannuated or disabled he had a weekly maintenance; and at his death his family were provided for.” (fn. 88) These charities all ceased in 1816, and the workmen are now on the usual footing of other manufacturers.

A Chapel (fn. 89) was built at Winlaton in 1705 (said to be on the foundation of St. Anne's Chapel, destroyed in the rebellion of the Earls 1569), capable of containing three hundred persons, and a stipend was provided for the Minister (fn. 90) . The Chapel (which had been previously abandoned by the Company) fell into decay in 1816, and upon the same scite a large School-room was immediately erected by subscription, aided by gifts from the National and Diocesan School Societies, and from Lord Crewes' trustees. The church service is voluntarily performed in this school-room (under the Bishop's sanction) by the Rector of Ryton or his Curate whenever other duties leave them disengaged; but there is no settled stipend or establishment at Winlaton.

Sir Ambrose's descendants sold all their interest about 17 .. to .... Millington, whose son, Crawley Millington, is now at the head of the firm.

Pedigree of Selby, of Winlaton.

Arms : Barry of eight Or and Sable, a crescent difference, Selly;

Quartering, Party per fesse Gules and Argent, six martlets counterchanged, an annulet difference, Fenwick.

Crest: a Saracen's head couped at the shoulders proper, with a wreath round the temples, tied in a knot behind Or and Sable.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* St. Nicholas Register.

† See vol. I. p. 89.

‡ This Sir George Selby (knighted 160.) had the honour of entertaining King James on his various progresses Northwards, insomuch that he was generally distinguished by the title of “the King's host.” Indeed, Sir George's splendid hospitality seems to have been a very leading feature in his character, and “not forgotten in his epitaph: “Serenissimi Regis Jacobi hospitio et servitio nobilitatus. Ob lautum certe et affluentem perpetuo apparatum, et liberalissimæ mensæ communicationem merito passim celebratissimus:” and again, “per totum vitæ cursum lautissima usus fortuna.”

Sir George's splendid monument (of which see a full account in Bourne, p. 62–72, or in Brand) was removed several years ago, and only underwent the fate of a still more illustrious memorial, the cenotaph of the fourth Percy, Earl of Northumberland (murdered at Cockledge in 1489), which was removed to make way for the Selby's—Sunt ipsis etiam, &c.

Five individuals of the Selby family obtained the honour of knighthood from King James. Sir William Selby of Biddieston, knighted at Berwick, 1603; Sir George, the King's host ; Sir William of Winlaton, 1613; Another Sir William of the Mote near Ightham, Kent; and Sir John Selby, of Twisel.

§ Qu. wife of Thomas Selby?

Thornley,

A single tenement to the West of Winlaton, nearly opposite to Gibside. In 1361 Agnes, widow of John Menevyll, of Horden, held the manor of Thorneley, in Wynlawton, of Ralph Nevill, by 40s. rent. She also held of the same Ralph Nevill, the hamlet of Huntlaysheugh in Wynlawton, by 2s. rent (fn. 91) . In 1368 Thornley is mentioned in the inquest on the death of Ralph de Nevill, Chivaler (fn. 92) , and it probably rested in the family till the sale of Winlaton, in 1569. Thornley was the seat of a branch of the family of Tempest from 1565 to 1709. By fine 8 Aug. 12 Car. 1636, William Tempest, Gent. acquired from Sir William Selby, Knt. and Elizabeth, and their son William Selby, half of a messuage, toft, and garden, two hundred acres of meadow, as many of pasture, a hundred acres of arable land, and as much of moor and whin, in Thorneley, in the parish of Ryton. The annexed pedigree explains all that I know of the subsequent descent of the estate (fn. 93) , which now belongs to the Marquisses of Bute and Hertford.

Pedigree of Tempest, of Thornley.

Arms as Tempest of Holmeside, a mullet difference.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

1671 Nuncup. will of Richard Tempest, of Newcastle, merchant.

William Carr, son of William Carr, late Maior of Newcastle, sole legatee.

Mr. Richard Tempest, merchant, buried 17 August 1671.

Mrs. Mary Tempest, widow, buried 26 August 1674. St. Nicholas.

Jane, daughter of Luke Tempest, of Winlaton, bapt. 4 January, 1657. George, son, &c. bapt. 4 March 1660–1.

Lewis Tempest and Ann Surtis married 24 August, 1686. (Ann Tempest, of Winlaton, widow, administered to her husband, Lewis Tempest, 13 January, 1695.)

Jane Tempest, of Bladon, buried August 1667. Ann Tempest, of Bladon, buried 12 March, 1698–9. Ryton.

* William Tempest and Margaret Heley married 4 May, 1585. Jarrow.

† Ryton Register.

‡ St. Nicholas Register.

§ Mary Tempest, buried 24 March, 1667–8. Ryton.

The Spen. In 1370 Katherine, widow of Hugh de Fery, held four messuages and a hundred acres in Berley and Spen, of John de Nevill, Knt. by 3s. rent, and suit at the Manor Court of Winlaton. The Spen is included in the general alienation from Nevill, in 1569, and seems to have been afterwards held by different families, and in various proportions (fn. 94) . The Upper Spen is now the property of; the Nether Spen belongs to the Earl of Strathmore.

Berley is now, I presume, Barlow, a village to the North of Thornley and the Spen.

Bladon, a village to the East of Stella, on the Tyne, occupied chiefly by persons connected with the business of the collieries: it is included in the sale of 1569, and now belongs to P. G. Townley, the Earl of Strathmore, and Thomas Beaumont, Esq.

Axwell Park—White House. It has been already stated that the modern seat of Axwell is built on the grounds of White House, in the parish of Ryton, and that the name is transferred from the old seat of Axwell Houses, across the Derwent. White House was probably a modern name given to the residence of the Selby's, built on their portion of tne manor of Winlaton.

Chopwell.

In its ancient extent Chopwell, bounded by the Derwent on the South, and by the Milkburn on the West, filled the South-western angle of the parish of Ryton, and reached to the extreme verge of the county of Durham. But several free tenements—the Milkburn House, the Black Hall, Ravenside, Amondside, have been long ago shivered from the original mass; and lately the heart of the estate itself has been divided into several distinct portions.

Bishop Hugh gave Chopwell to Newminster Abbey in exchange for Wolsingham. The following charter was produced in a tythe cause betwixt the estate of Chopwell and the Rector of Ryton, in 1674 :

Absalon Prior et Capitulum S. Cuthberti omnibus fidelibus suis de Halywarfolc Francis et Anglis Salutem. Sciatis Dom. Hugonem Episcopum nostrum dedisse Abbati et Monachis Novi Monasterii, Chopwell cum omnibus pertinenciis suis in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam et adquietanciam decirnarum omnium suarum, concedente ecclesia in cujus parochia eadem villa sita est: insuper dedit eis salinas super Blyam in Bedlingtonscira, et aquam et piscationem quas habuerunt tempore Ricardi de Bedlington. Quam donac'onem nos quantum, &c. concedimus et confirmamus secundum tenorem literarum ejusdem D. Episcopi Hugonis. Si quis vero successor ejus eandem terram eis auferre voluerit, concessit eis Wolsingham quam in excambium accepit pro Chopwell, cum omni integritate, sicut predecessor ejusdem bonæ memoriæ Willielmus Episcopus eis dederat interventu Sacræ recordac'onis Eugenii Papæ. Etjus suum quod ibi primum habebat et primum jus in eadem terra eis confirmavit authoritate episcopali. Cartas vero quas de eadem terra habuerunt fidei ecclesiæ nostrae recommendaverunt, tali convenc'one ut eas ulterius non repetant nisi eis forte de predicta concessione, &c. violencia errogetur. Tune enim eis repetentibus cartæ quas habuerunt de Wolsingham, integre restituantur. Testes sunt, Willielmus films Thosti, Alanus Presbyter de Walesende, Magr Thomas de Sexebals, Johannes de Rana, Radulphus Nobilis. Reg. I. Eccles. Dun. Pars. 2. fo. 1.

I can only conjecture that on the dissolution the Swinburns, who were already tenants of Chopwell under the Abbey, obtained mediately or immediately the fee simple from the crown or its grantees. In 1545 John Swinburn (fn. 95) (a bastard of the house of Edlingham) devises his farm (fn. 96) of Chopwell to his second son John Swinburn. In 1553 the younger John executes a settlement of the manor (fn. 97) ; the fee was therefore acquired betwixt the two dates. In 1562 John Swinburne, Esq. was litigating his boundaries betwixt the manors of Ryton and Chopwell, with Pilkington, Bishop of Durham (fn. 98) . In 1569 he was deeply engaged in the great Northern rebellion, fled under attainder to Farniherst in Scotland, escaped from thence into Flanders, was afterwards a pensioner at Madrid, and probably died in exile (fn. 99) . The manor of Chopwell, thus vested in the Crown, was granted by the Queen (fn. 100) to Sir Robert Constable of Flamborough, in recompence of his most base service as a spy and informer (fn. 101) . Sir William Constable, son and heir of Sir Robert, sold the manor of Chopwell to Anthony Aucher (fn. 102) , and he immediately conveyed to Ambrose Dudley, Alderman of Newcastle, whose son and heir, Toby Dudley, Esq. left an only daughter Jane Dudley, wife of Robert Clavering (fn. 103) , a younger brother of the first Sir James Clavering, of Axwell. The male issue of Clavering failed in his grandchildren, and Sarah, the sister and eventual heir of John and Dudley Clavering, became the wife of the Lord Chancellor, William Earl Cowper (fn. 103) .

In 1689 the owners of the manor of Chopwell are stated to be John Clavering, Esq.; Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent.; Robert Surtees, of Milkburne-house, Gent.; Charles Hedley, of Almond Garths; Ambrose Stevenson, of Bierside, Gent.; Edward Surtees, of Crawcrook, Gent.; Anthony Surtees, of the Hollins; and Cuthbert Prockter, of Darwencoate Hagg, yeoman (fn. 104) .

Some years ago the Chopwell estate was alienated in parcels by Earl Cowper. Chopwell-hall, Horsgate, and Broomfield-house, were purchased by Dr. Thorpe, Rector of Ryton, and by his son Robert Thorpe, of Alnwick, Esq.; West Chopwell and Greenhead by Mr. John Taylor, of Swalwell; Leadgate and Ravenside, by Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterley, Esq.; another portion by William Surtees, Esq.; the Spen-farm, by Mr. Miller, of Gateshead, and another portion by Mr. Robert Waugh. The mines of coal were reserved by Earl Cowper.

Crown Lands.—When the Crown granted the manor of Chopwell to Constable, the woods were reserved; and in 14 Nov. 6 Jac. a confirmatory grant to Sir William Constable excepts “all wood and woody grounds called the East Wood, the Moore Close, Deane, and the Carres :” (fn. 105) and this portion, of very considerable extent, still remains in the Crown, and much of it has been lately planted.

Almonside or Almond Garths (fn. 106) , formerly parcel of Chopwell, but alienated at an earlier date. In 16/6 John Duck (Alderman of Durham and afterwards Baronet) and John Heslop sold Armondside and Sillyhaugh to Robert Surtees and George Surtees, Gents. This estate is now the property of Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterly-hall, Esq. by devise from his relative Anthony Surtees, of Ackworth, co. York, Esq.

Hukergate was possibly that portion of Chopwell which Ambrose Dudley, Esq. “assured to John Stephenson, of Bierside, who married his daughter;” (fn. 107) at least Hukergate remained in the heirs of Stephenson till it was sold by J. H. Wharton, Esq. M. P. to Mr. James Hutchinson, of Ryton.

Pedigree of Swinburn, of Chopwell.

Arms: Swinburne of Edliugham, Party per fesse Gules and Argent, three cinquefoils countercharged. Crest : out of a ducal coronet Or, a demi boar issuant Argent, wined and armed of the first.

Swinburn of Chopwell. The paternal Arms, within a bordure compone Argent and Azure, and Crest out of a ducal coronet Gules, a demi boar as before, by grant from William Harvey, Norroy, to John Swynburn, of Chopwell, Esq. 6 September 1551.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* The younger Gilbert may possibly be identified with Gilbert Swinburne, of Prodo Castle. Will dated 4 Feb. 1590, leaves his demayne of Muggleswick to his wife Dorothy and son Anthony; names his brother-in-law Arthur Lee, his daughter Elizabeth Stocole, and his two yonge daughters Jane and Anne.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

Margaret, wife of Mr. Rowland Swinburne, bur. 15 January 1628, St. Nicholas.

Mrs. Frances Swinburn, widow, Papist, buried Dec. 23, 1703, St. Oswald's.

Thomas Swynburne, of Butterby, Gent. buried 24 May 1633.

Tobias Swinburne, Esq. Mrs. Mary Richardson, mar. 23 Sept. 1638, Ryton.

* See the strange story from Dr. Basire, p. 582.

† St. Oswald's Register.

‡ St. Nicholas, Durham.

*** William Swinburn, who married the heiress of Edlingham, was son of Thomas, of Capheatoh, by Margaret, daughter of Wilfrid Lawson, of Usworth, co. Pal. His brother John Swinburn, of Black Heddon, married Mary, daughter of Thomas Collingwood, of Eslington, and had issue four daughters and coheirs: Mary, married to Henry Widdrington, of Cheeseburn Grange; Dorothy, to Thomas Selby, of Winlalon, (4th son of Sir William Selby, see page 274); Elizabeth, to Ralph Widdrington; and Frances, living unmarried 1638.

Pedigree of Dudley* and Clavering, of Chopwell.


[Pedigree]

[Pedigree]

* I believe the Heralds do not allow to these Customers of Newcastle and Lords of Chopwell the Dudley lion of Warwick and Northumberland, double queue Vert. Arms of Clavering see Axwell.

† St. Nicholas Register.

§ Eryholme.

‡ Ryton.

The awarde and determinac'on of the old boundaries between the manors of Ryton and Chopwell, by Sir Thomas Gargrave, Knight, and Henry Savell, Esq. both of the county of York, arbitrators chosen by the Bishop of Duresme and John Swynborne,

First they awarde, on deposition of sundrie witnesses, as also by the old bookes and wrytyngs showed by the Bushoppe, “that the field called Kyefeld is the proper inheritaunce of the said Bishopricke, and within the manor of Ryton. ” And whereas divers places named in the old bounders, shewed by Swynborn are not well knowen, but remaynes in doubt and bredith dissencion, the places hereafter named shall henssefourth be the bounders of Chopwell, and be so hadde, used, and taken for ever.

First, according to the old bounder the same begynneth at a place or fountayne called Mylkwell, as it runnyth into Darwent, and so by the head of the way called Chappellwell, and by the river or becke runynge along the Woodside called Falcalside, and so along by the said water, still runynge betwixt the head mores and groundes, and a passage or waye leadynge over the said water com'only called Roderforde or Rudyforde, and from thence turnynge upward toward the East by a little greene platte or waye to the South-syde of a greate rounde hill like a wynde mylne hill, and then streght from the said hill up to a grene way or grene pece of ground leadyne eastward derectlye to the Northe syde of a pece of grounde caste aboute with a greate olde diche, by some called the Arbour, and from thence eastwarde dyreclye over the old holowe waye eynde up to the toppe or highte of the more or hill there, and from thence dyrectlye to the diches of Kyefielde, and so dyrectlye to folow the dyche of Kyefielde southwardes, and by the South eynde thereof unto the head of a rivell or sike about a hundreth yeardes from the south-east corner of Kyefeld, and from thence to turne downwarde by the said sike or rivell, as the same runyth or goyth downewards unto a gayt called Ruelay-gait.

Great stones shall be laid from Roderford untill the head of the siche that descendeth to Ruleygayt, not above twelve score one from another; and upon every stone on crosse of a speciall marke to be hewen.

If John Swinburn durynge his lyffe shall maike colepytts upon his mores or grounds of Chopwell, and, shall require passage or way-leve over the waystes of the Bishoppe in Ryton, the sayd Rt. Revd in considerac'on of ye faithfull friendshipp of ye said John hereafter to him to be hadde, sha'l grant the same way-leave, Swinburn paying twenty shillings per ann. so long as his yearly gain does not exceed twenty pounds; and if above 20l. then he shall pay 40s. and no more. And the Bishop grants to Swinburn a parcel of ground (belonging to Ryton, adjoining the syke leading to Ruelay-gate) already enclosed by Swinburn or his servants, to be taken by fine or coppie, paying 10s. yearly at the most. And whereas Robert Sanders and Robert Hedworth were sore bett and hurt, John Swinburn shall cause to be payed to Saunder xls. sterlynge, to Hedworth xxs. in recompence of their hurts. 10 Oct. 1563. Rot. Pilkington, B. B. N° 11.

Inventory of Thomas Swinburne, of Haughton, 16 May 1566.—xx oxen, xiiil. vis. viiid.; xxiii kye, xiiil. vis. viiid.; iii yong nolt, xxs.; fowerscore and thrateen yowes with their lambes, xviiil. xvis.; viii swine, xvis.; xii yowes wout lambes, xxxiis.; vi geld yowes, xvis.; one gray nagge, xiiis. iiiid.; one mare, xiiis. iiiid.; one yong mare, xxvis. viiid.; xvii boules of bigge, vl.; iii boules of bigg mault, vis.

Three dublets of taffata, one Spanish jerken, one black cote, one paire of black hose lined wth sarcenett, one black cape, one black gowne furred wth cony, iiil. vis. viiid.

ij swordes, one stele cappe, xs.

ij fatherbeds wth bolsters and coverletts, and one over sea-coverlett, xls.; ii fatherbeds, xiis.; xi quishinges, iiiis.; ii par of shets, ii pillobers, sixe table napkins, one borde clothe, vi corse towells, viiis.

viii stone of wool, xls.; vi potts and posnetts, xls.; one kaudron, one ketle, ii panes, xiiis. iiiid.; ii waynes and plowes, xls.; ii sylver spones, xxs. Then follows a list of nearly similar articles at the Stellyng (probably a led farm): ii oxen, xxvis. viiid.; v kye, iiil. vis. viiid.; vii quies, lvis.; xlii wethers, viiil. xiiis.; v tuppes and a gimer, vis.; xl hogges, iiiil. xiiis. iiiid.; x hogges, xxiiia. ivd. vi boules of whet, xliis.; vii of rye, lvis.; x boule of otts, xls.; vi platters, vi dishes, vi saucers, i bason, xs.; in ye wife's hand in gold, vl. vs.

x acres of growing rye, ls.; iii bushel of rye sawen, viis. vid. &c. Suma cxxxil. os. xviiid.

Dettes wh the testator doyth owe.—To my brother Gawen, when he rod to London, in lent money, xxs. Item, in lent mony of my brother Gawan, when he paid his ransom, vil. vis. viiid.; to my said brother lent money in Newcastell, vis. viiid. Item, lent money to pay for an house to Mr. Brend, in Yorkshire, iiil. xiis. Item, when I paid my rent of Haughton, iiil. vis. viiid.

Item, borrowd of my brother Gawan, when the good man of Chopwell rode to London, ixs. Item, I am indebted to my brother Gawan, wh he paid to my ant Rames, of Newcastle, for the half of Ihon Swinburn's bond, viis. Item, xxs. wh he Pd to David Wilkinson, of London.

Item, awing to Richard Conyers, of Durham, for certen clothe, xxxviiis.

Item, the rent of Haughton, due at Whitsonday, vil. xiiis. iiiid.; the rent of Stelling, xxvis. viiid.; the rent of the collepitts, vs.; to I hone Billingham for a horse, xliiii. xiid.

26 Apr. 1576. Gawyn Swinburne, of Chesborough Grange, parish of Stamformham, Gent. to William Swinburn a silver goblet and my tenement in Hawkwell; my right of the Stellinge to one of my nephew John Hearons sons, of Chipches, to Dorothy Raymes, to Isabel Fenwick, of Wauker, to Thomasin Thirlewaye, to my niece Elizabeth Billingham, to Agnes Charlton, to John S. my base son. Wife Margaret executrix. Witness Arthur Shafto, Vicar, John Raymes, Rowland Shaftoo. Inv. 2 Oct. 1576.

7 April 1561. Thomas Swynburne, &c. brothers Gawayn and Gylbert, executors. To Gawayne my fermhold of Stellyng; to cosyn Sir Olyver Selbe, my best horse; to John Bellyngame, my nece's sone, iiij kye; and iiij yonge nowlt to Robert Thyrleway, my nece's sone; to Esabell Lyle, my nece; to Annes Heron, my nece.

21 July, 1572. Thomas Swinburne, of Edlingham, Esq. to be buried in the Church of Edlingham. My castle and demaines of Edlingham, the towne, and milne, and Newton, and Ruthly, and the woods, to my uncle Gawayn S. for seven years, paying my heirs 20l. per ann; to son William, Abberwyke and lands in Mykle Bavington for life; to daur Janet four yeares profitt of Hamsterlie; my brother George, to my son John my lease of the tithe-corne of Edlm, Newton, Lear-child, and Woodhall; to Gilbert S. the tithe-corn of Black Heddon; to son John my sylver salt, sylver spoones, and all heirelumes in Edlingham and Nafferton; and my velvet cote, satten gowne, satten doublett, and velvett hose; to son William my black horse; to my two sisters either of them two kye and two calves. Sons John and William and daughter Jane executors. Uncles Gawan and Gilbert supervisors, with William Carr and John Shafto. Witness, William Carr, John Shaftoo, Robert Bednell, Roger Collingwood, William Shafto, Lance. Errington. Pr. 2 Aug. 1572.

From a note-book of Dr. Basire, Archdeacon of Northumberland.

1667, Mund. 26 Aug. From Stanh[ope] to Durh[am], upon a reference from the Judge Baron Turner to Mr. Deane Sudbury and myselfe, betwixt Thomas Swinb[urn], Esq. and Thomas his youngre son, and John his elder brother.

Raine and wind all the way, wet to the mid-leg for 8 m[iles], after 4 h[ours] 9fer [conference]. O the insolence of Thomas, junr. Jo suppax. Prov. xviii. 19 (fn. 108) . The fa[ther] qf. just judgment for doting so much on Thomas jun. who arrested his father in his bed by bayleys brought in. Adjourned, refer till Tuesd. Sept. 3.

Father agreed to give Thomas 15l. per ann. to make up 40l.

Catharine, daughter of Mr. Thomas Swinburne, of St. Nicholas parish, bur. 26 Jan. 1664, at St. Oswald's.

Blackhall.

At the time of Dudley's purchase, the Blackhall was held by subinfeudation under the Crown grantees, by the family of Rutherforth, a circumstance which was productive of some awkward consequences. A feud, of which the cause is not explained, but which probably originated in some contention concerning rents or boundaries, took place betwixt the Rutherforths and Dudley, and in 1615 “John Rotherforth, otherwise Rudderford, Gent. of Wrensnest, Charles Rotherforth (fn. 109) , of the Black Hall, Hugh and Gawen Rotherforth, and William Shafto, were outlawed for forcibly entering into the manor of Chop-well, with intention to kill and slay Ambrose Dudley, Esq. George Gifford, and others, at a place called Westwood; in which affray William Shafto struck the said George Gifford a mortal wound in the thigh (of which he soon died) with an iron lance.” The Rutherfords fled from the face of the law. The Bishop, to whom the forfeiture accrued, granted their interest in the Black Hall to Sir Philip Constable, of Everingham, Knt. (15 Apr. 1615) (fn. 110) , who in the same year conveyed to William Carr (fn. 111) of Cocken.

The Black Hall was half a century later the seat, perhaps not the property, of a branch of the family of Blakiston (fn. 112) .

It afterwards passed by purchase to the family of Surtees, of Crony well, and is now the property of Anne Surtees, only daughter of the late Robert Surtees, of Durham.

Milkwell-Burn.

By indenture 5 May, 2 Car. 1626, Ambrose Dudley, of Chopwell, Esq. and Tobye Dudley, his son and heir, granted to Anthony Surtees, of Medomsley, the tenement called Milkburn-house, in Chopwell (then in the occupation of Charles and Alexander Joblyn), under 13s. 4d. crown rent for the Milkburn, and 5s. for as many beast-gates; with all rights, &c. free and exonerated from every other claim (fn. 113) .

The estate has ever since rested in the family of the purchaser (fn. 114) , and is now the property of Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterley-Hall, Esq.

The Burn lies on the extreme boundary of the county, within the angle formed by the junction of the Milk well-burn and Darwent. The house stands on a warm sunny plot at the foot of a green sloping hill; and a beautiful narrow dell, full of oak and various forest-wood, tracks the upward course of the little sparkling Milkburn.

Charitable Benefactions to the Parish of Ryton.

By will proved 26 May 1687, and proved 1699, Ralph Harrison, of Bryansleap, Gent. left 100l. to the poor of the Parish of Ryton (fn. 115) .

Sir John Clavering, of Axwell, Bart. who died ...., left 50l. to the poor of Ryton Parish.

By will proved 1708, Jane Grey left 20l.

By will dated 14 Dec. 1705, and proved in 1710, Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. gave 20l. to the poor of Ryton Quarter, the interest to be distributed by his Executor during life, and afterwards by the Minister and Churchwardens. [The principal was paid off by Crosier Surtees, Esq. great grandson and heir of the testator.]

By will dated 31 December 1718, proved 4 May 1719, Thomas Humble, of Ryton Woodside, gave 20l. to the poor of Ryton Parish, the interest to be distributed by the twenty-four of the Parish.

By will dated 13 July 1717> Anthony Surtees, of the Holling, in Northumberland, gave 50l. to be placed at interest by the Minister and the twenty-four of the Parish of Ryton, and the interest to be disposed of at Christmas and Midsummer amongst “poor, aged, and impotent men and women, and fatherless children of the Chopwell Quarter of the parish of Ryton. ” [He also bequeathed 50l. to the poor of the Parish of Ovingham, to be placed out and the interest distributed in the same manner]: proved by Anthony Surtees, son and executor, 18 May 1725.

John Simpson, of Bradley, Esq. who died 1733, left 50l. the interest is distributed on the 23d December; the principal is in the hands of Mr. Simpson's heirs.

In 1786 John Simpson, also of Bradley, Esq. bequeathed 5l. per annum to the poor of Ryton Parish.

In 1795 Jane Forster bequeathed 100l. to the poor of the vicinity of Ryton Woodside (fn. 116) .

Walker Lawson, of Ryton, Esq. left 100l. 3 per cents. to the poor of Ryton and Ryton Woodside; also 60l. for the benefit of the parochial school (fn. 117) .

There are five Schools within the Parish of Ryton: one at Ryton, which has Mr. Law-son's benefaction before named, 5l. per annum from Lord Crewe's Trustees; and 5l. from the Copyholders of Ryton, out of their joint stock; 2. Greenside, founded 1812, supported by subscription; 3. Bladon (no school-house) supported by subscription; 4. 5. two Schools at Winlaton for boys and girls, founded 1816.

Lady Liddell also supports two schools (for boys and girls) at Crawcrook.

The Ryton Savings Bank was the first established in England.

The whole of the Charitable Institutions belonging to Crawley's manufacturers at Winlaton, Winlaton-Mill, and Swalwell (which had been supported by voluntary contributions of the workmen under regulations already mentioned), ceased in 1816, during a season of unparalleled distress amongst the commercial classes.

Footnotes

1 Within these limits Ryton forms a triangle (not unlike the geographical shape of the County of Durham), with the apex Jo the South-East, confined by the junction of the Tyne and Darwent.
2 See Wallace's protection granted to the Canons of Hexham, 7 Nov. 1297; Hemingford, vol. I. p. 135 quoted by Lord Hailes, vol. I. p. 277. According to Hemingford, the Scots had a hoketide holyday of ill, “vacabant incendiis et rapinis,” from the feast of St. Luke, 18 Oct. to Old Martinmas; and Fordun, lib. xi. cap. 29, speaking of Wallace, “totam Northumbriam usque Novum Castrum conculcans et devastans a festo Omnium Sanctorum usque ad Purificationem,” &c. and in this conculcation it seems he set his foot upon Ryton.
3 Fordun, lib. xiv. cap. 2. King David's preceding station was at Hexhain, afterwards “castrametatus est apud Ryton.” The sequel of the adventure has been told, vol. I. p. xlix, and will recur under Nevill's Cross.
4

Cum assiso redditu.

Ry, is I believe, an old British name for water, and I suspect wherever a village of this or similar name occurs, that it will be found seated in some "wide-watered vale." Ryton on the Yorkshire Darwent, Ryton on the Severn in Shropshire; Ryegate, Surrey; Rydal in Westmoreland, &c. may be adduced as instances.

5 Inq. die Ven. prox. ante F. Nativ. S. Joh. Bap. 11 Bury.
6 See Chopwell.
7 Register Book, K. 497; page 159 of the same volume contains an information by the Bishop's Attorney-General to ascertain the boundaries of Ryton and Winlaton, and an order for a trial at law, but no subsequent proceedings appear on record.
8 Commissioners: Ambrose Stevenson, of Byerside, Gent.; John Hunter, of Newburn; George Hedley, of Almond Gards; and John Greenwell, of Weldon, yeomen; the award was in the hands of Anthony Surtees, of Ryton, Gent, in 1740. Rectors books. Rev. Charles Thorpe.
9 The heiress of the family of Humble intermarried with.... Lambe, Esq. whose son (by a second wife) Humble Lambe, Esq. has an estate and a handsome residence in Ryton. Mr. Lambe purchased the share of Crawcrook, which belonged to John Hall Wharton, Esq. M.P.
10 Commissioners: William Greenwell, of Kibblesworth, Gent.; George Barkar, of Heddon on the Wall, Gent.; Thomas Leaton, Bentfieldside, Yeoman.
11 4 Oct. 22 Eliz. Mickleton's MSS.
12 Pardon of Alien. G Aug. 1614, Rot. 2 W. James, Nos 5 and 6.
13 Inq. p. m. 8 Car.—Post mortem Joh'is Hedworth filii Jo. Hedworth suspensi, qui obiit in Novo Castro mercator G annis elapsis.... hæres infra ætat, pro terris in Riton Woodside (circ. 1632). Mickleton's MSS. vol. 55, p. 91.
14 Title Deeds, Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq.
15 These are probably the arms of William James, Rector 1617–1659. Bishop James gave the Dolphin without the crosses.
16 Rot. B. Fox, N° 11 dors.
17

On flat stones within the altar-rails : In fide Christi F. W. Thorp, ob. 21 April 1811, æt. 20.

Rev. R. Thorp, S. T. P. Northumb. A. diac. ob. 20 April 1812, æt. 76.

18 Considerable property in Ryton has descended through the family of Humble to that of Lamb. Humble Lamb, Esq. has a seat at Ryton.
19 Picture of Newcastle, 2d. edit. p. 160. Hutchinson, vol. II. p. 437.
20 Chancellor to Bishop Beaumont.
21 See the grant of an aqueduct in the sequel.
22 John Wynname bound himself to Bishop Fox in 100l. penalty, to observe continual and personal residence. Rot. B. Fox, Nos. 20, 21.
23 The “Mister Docter Davelle,” of Leland, who perhaps entertained the antiquary in his Rectory at Ryton, and there told him, “that the limes of the Bishoprike goith beyond the mouth of Darwent up apon Trente (Tyne), even to the Paroch of Rytoun”—Lel. Itin. 5 fol. 103,194; where an account may be also seen of the Doctor's own baronial descent, “as Mr. Doctor Davelle sayith, but sufficiently to me proved not.”
24 For honest Anthony Salvayn, see vol. I. p. 130–140, Sherburn Hospital; he was presented to Ryton by Gerard Salvin, of Croxdale, the elder and younger, Patrons pro hac vice by let. pat. from Bishop Tunstall,
25 A Lancashire man related to Bishop Barnes. Nicholas Baldwyn had letters of presentation 1576, but was never admitted.
26 See some account of him hereafter.
27 Vicar of Merrington, and Prebendary of the 12th Stall; buried in Durham Cathedral 12 Jan. 1659; his arms are on the stalls on each side, at the entrance of the chancel.
28 His brother intruded into Gateshead.
29 Son of Marmaduke Blakiston, Rector of Sedgfield; see Pedigree of Blakiston, of Newton Hall.
30 Buried at Ryton, 24 Nov. 1706.
31 Prebendary of the third Stall, and Rector of Long Newton, where he also built a Parsonage-house.
32 Rector of Houghton-le-Spring, Prebendary of the third Stall, Bishop of Bristol 1734, of Oxford 1737, Archbishop of Canterbury 1758.
33 Rector of Gateshead, Prebendary of the 5th Stall, resigned Ryton for the Mastership of Sherburn Hosse.
34 Son of William Lloyd, Chancellor of Worcester, and grandson of Lloyd, Bishop of Worcester. (See his Epitaph).
35 Resigned for Houghton-le-Spring, see vol. I. p. 177.
36 Brother to William fifth Lord Byron, Rector of Haughton-le-Skerne, ob. Nov. 5, 1811, æt. 88.
37 Archdeacon of Northumberland.
38 To whom the Author is indebted for much friendly attention.
39 Over the door, the arms of Bishop Crewe, with his crest, the Lion's gamb, and mitre, 1709.
40

Yet without any affront to the Genius Loci—the house has not degenerated into a mere lay-residence (the frequent consequence of modern ecclesiastical alteration), but retains that sober yet cheerful aspect, which at once marks its proper use and designation; and if on the sheltered plot in front “blushes the flower of various die,” the old garden on the West retains its sheltering hedges of clipped yew, and its due prolixity of espalier and gravel walk. The Church flanks the Rectory most amicably on the North, and the “condition of the agreement is such,” that neither of them puts the other out of countenance.

The Rectory house and gardens are (not unpleasingly) sequestered and deprived of any distant view, but the prospect from the adjoining church-yard is extremely beautiful; the eye runs over a soft foreground of wood and pasture falling to the river, and embraces a long reach of the broad gallant Tyne, washing the deep haughs and meadow-grounds on the Durham side, whilst the Northern bank rises swiftly, inclosed and cultivated to its summit, and scattered over with various objects. The town and church of Newburn (where the Scotch planted their cannon before the victory of Stella Haugh in 1640), almost over-hang the Tyne; more distant, on the upland landscape, are scattered the villages of Walbottle, Throckley, Horsley, and Heddon on the Wall; Wylam woods are to the West; and Eastward the view extends over the vale to the heights above Newcastle.

41 As one proof of this assertion, that “famous preacher Master Bunney of Ryton,” is frequently called on, in testamentary dispositions, to preach the funeral sermon of the deceased.
42 Master Bunney did not confine his impugning of Popery to his efforts from the pulpit, for he was the author of four polemical works, recorded in Wood's Athen. vol. I. p. 356, of a plain and familiar Exposition of the ten commandments; (all which were published); and of “an Exposition on Joel,” dedicated to Tobie, Bishop of Durham, in which the author saith, “he hath preached sermons at Berwick 20 years ago (1595), of which this booke is the summe;” which, “if printed, would contain about 3 quire of paper.” Ibid.
43 Mr. Bunney left 100l. to the University of Oxford, towards building the new Schools; 33l. to Magdalen College; and 50l. towards the repairs of Ryton Church; which last sum his nephew, George Bunney of Newsham, (son of Edmund aforesaid) seems to have disputed for in Ryton Parish Books. “For writing a letter to Mr. George Bunny, vid. 1619; 8 Feb. 1624, a suite ordd. against George Bunny of Newsam, Gent, for 50l. given by Mr. Bunny the Parson towards the repairing the church.”
44 Kellow's Register.
45 Rot. Fordham, 3 Dec. A° 3.
46 Rot. Skirlaw, 11 April, A° 16.
47 Pat. 6 E. VI. see Kepyer.
48 Fine ad assis. Dunelm. 29 Eliz.
49 Inq. p.m. 11 Jac.
50 Fine 8 Aug. 12 Jac.
51 Fine 31 July ad assis. Dunelm. 15 Jac.
52 Fine 27 Aug. 7 Jac.
53 Most of these names are to be found in the Divisions of Ryton Town-fields, 1669, 1690, see p. 260.
54 Inq. p. m, 22 Sept. 19 Jac.
55 Inq. p. m. 5 April 1618.
56 Inq. p. m. 9 March, 14 Car. By Ind. previous to his death, John Hauxley had granted a lease of the premises for thirty years, to his third son George Hauxley, in consideration of 40l. legacy left him by his grandmother Anne Swinburne, which he was unable otherwise to discharge. Ibid.—John Hauxley, Margaret Swinburne, married 12 Nov. 1599.
57

In his will, dated 10 June, 1700, Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent, devises his copyhold land in Hedgefield and Rytonhaugh to his grandson Surtees Bowrey; his lands in Medomsley, and his undivided lands in Crawcrook, which himself and John Stevenson, Gent. bought of Ralph Carnaby, of Chollerton, Gent, and French's-farm, to his son Edward Surtees; and half his lands in Crawcrook-fell, Westcrofts, Broad-lane, &c. lands in Crawcrook, bought of Thomas Swinburne, of Gray's Inn, Esq. lands at Nagsfold and Entersteel, in the parish of St. Oswald's, and at Embleton-hall, in the parish of Sedgefield, to trustees for his son Hauxley Surtees for life, and, failing his issue, to Edward; to Hauxley Surtees his copyholds in Whickham; 100l. to his daughter Ann Surtees; 50l. each to granddaughters Ann and Catharine Newton; 100l. each to his daughters Isabel and Catharine; 20l. to the poor of Ryton-quarter; to his nephew Ralph Ord, the house at Ryton Loaning-head; personal property to his daughters equally.

This provident gentleman, to whom I feel my obligations to this day, was the younger son of Edward Surtees, of Broad Oak, in the parish of Ovingham, Gent, (who died 1655) by Margaret Coulson, niece and heiress of Robert Surtees, Alderman of Durham. Robert Surtees, of Ryton (of whom a very favourable idea for prudence and probity has been entertained by his posterity), left, by Catharine Hauxley, several daughters, and two sons, Hauxley, who married Anne Watson, of Silksworth, and died 1719, without issue, and Edward Surtees, of Mainsforth, Esq. who died 1744, æt. 84. Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. eldest son of Edward, by Jane Crosier (see Newbiggin), married Dorothy, daughter and coheir of Thomas Lambton, of Hardwicke, Esq. and had two daughters, of whom Jane married her cousin Crosier Surtees, of Redworth. 2. George Surtees, of Mainsforth, Esq. second son of Edward, died unmarried 1769. 3. Crosier Surtees, of Merrysheels, co. Northumberland, married Jane, daughter of Ralph Hodgson, Esq. of Alwent, and was father of Crosier Surtees, Esq. who married his cousin Jane Surtees, of Redworth: their eldest son Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. still holds property in Ryton and Crawcrook. 4. Hauxley Surtees, Merchant Adventurer, of Newcastle, married Elizabeth Steele, and was father of Robert Surtees, who had Mainsforth by gift of his uncle George Surtees, Esq. 5. James Surtees, youngest son of Edward, died unmarried. By his second wife Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Burletson, and widow of Richard Reed, of Stranton, Edward Surtees had issue Reed, Thomas, and Isabel, who all died without issue. (See Stranton).

58 Inq. p.m. 27 Hatfield.
59 Inq. p.m. 4 Skirlaw.
60 Liber Halmot, A° 37 Eliz.
61 Bradley held of the Crown by knight's service, a third part of a messuage called Greenlaw, held of the Crown per quæ ignor. and a third part of four cottages, forty acres of meadow, forty arable, twenty pasture, mines of coal, and common of pasture, in Bradley and Crawcrook. Inq. postmort. 5 Car.
62 Mickleton's MSS. vol. 54, p. 38. Post mort. Ric. Awgood, non obiit seisit. quia vendidit terras Johanni Lyons.
63 John Lyons, of Bradley, buried 21 March, 1625-6, Ryton. Eppy Lyons, buried 27 March, 1643, St. Nicholas Newcastle.
64 Post mort. Johan. Lyons pro terr. et miner. carbon. in Grenelaw, habuit exitum 1 Henric. qui obiit in vita patris sui, et sic descendit Johanni filio 2do, qui ob. 2 Maii, 1629, sine exitu, et sic descendit Will'o filio tertio, modo apprenticio Humfrido Blunt, de Novo Castro Sailor, æt. 19. Mickleton's MSS. vol. LV. p. 133.
65 Robert Anderson, of Alnwick, had issue Robert Anderson, of Newcastle, who married the daughter of... Lambe, and was father of Robert Anderson, who married Anne Anderson; their son Robert (named in the text) married Jane, daughter of Thomas Liddell (of Ravensworth). Visit. Northumb. 1615. This family were perhaps not very immediately connected (except by intermarriage) with those of Bradley, and bore very different arms. [Vert, three stags lodged Argent, attired Or. Crest: a stag lodged amidst rushes, and pierced through the neck with an arrow Or, headed Argent.]
66 He paid 1200l. fine to the Commissioners of Sequestration.
67 “Act to make void all titles of Honor, Dignities, or Precedencies, given by the late King since the 4th of January, 1641.” The preamble states, that the late King, “to promote his wicked and traitorous designs against the Parliament and people of England, did, contrary to the end to which he was entrusted, take upon him to confer and give titles of honour, &c. unto such persons as he thought might be serviceable to him;” and enacts, that “any person assuming such titles after 25 March, 1652, shall forfeit—if of the title of Nobleman, 100l.; of a Baronet or Knight, 40l. for every offence; to be recovered by information in the Exchequer or publique Sessions.” A List of these Exempted Honors was printed (with the Act prefixed) by T. Walkley, London, 1652.
68 The memory of the loyal Sir Francis seems to have been held in high veneration by his descendants; and when John Simpson and Jane his wife commemorate the virtuous endowments of their eldestson Anderson, they add, that he was “so called as being a descendant of the worthy and loyal family of the Andersons of Braidley, who suffered so much in the time of the civil wars, in defence of their king and country.” M. I. in the Chancel of All Saints, Newcastle. Bourn, p. 99.
69 The Charter is printed in Brand, I. 205, notet, and need not be repeated. The date must lie (for the reasons there given) between 1143 and 1149.
70 Tristram Shandy.
71 Brand vol. I. p. 206–7.
72 Brand I. 208–9.
73 See Pedigrees of Tempest, and the connection of the two families—Holmside and Stella.
74 See a full Pedigree of the ancient house of Townley, and a much more full and interesting account of the family, written con amore, in Whitaker's “Craven.”
75 In 1424 Ralph, first Earl of Westmoreland, devised his manor of Winlaton to his son Edward Nevil, the stock of the Lords of Abergavenny. It, however, soon reverted to the elder line. See Raey.
76 Inq. 23 Hatfield. An inquisition in the same year states, that William de Silksworth held twenty messuages and three hundred acres in Winlaton of the Bishop, by fealty and 20l. rent.
77 East and West Winlayton, Blaydon, Baytehouses, Thornlay, Spen, Smalles, Sherwenhouses, Lyntesforde, and Barlay, and free fishery in the Tyne. Indenture enrolled 4 Eliz. and Pardon of Alienation, 4 Sept. 29 Eliz.
78 Rot. Barnes.
79 Inq. p.m. 11 Jac.
80 Rot. Morton.
81 Pardon 21 Jan. 7 Car. Rot. Morton.
82 See Pedigree of Hodgson under Hebborne.
83 Rot. Tobie Matthew.
84 Sir John Mennes (or Menzies), a Scottish Knight, who had obtained some interest in the collieries, and is included in the list of the principal Delinquents after the surrender of Newcastle. In 1651 Sir John Mennes, of Winlayton, is included in the list of Loyalists who refused to compound, and whose estates were ordered to be sold for the use of the State.
85 Their wharfs are at Greenwich, and their warehouses in Lower Thames-street, at the sign of The Doublet, said to have been a picture of the identical leather jerkin in which Sir Ambrose worked when a common smith.
86 Picture of Newcastle, 2d edit. p. 159.
87 Under this name the Knight of Swalwell is said to be designated by Addison (Spectator, N° 299). Sir John Anvil “began the world with a small parcel of rusty iron ; and being gifted in the acquisition of wealth, was knighted in his 35th year, and being intent on making a family (with a dash of good blood in their veins), married a woman of fashion, who changed his name to Enville, and confined her husband to the cockloft when she had visitors of quality.” I know too little of the private history of Sir Ambrose to decide how far the resemblance may hold, but it has been said that our Knight changed his name from Crowley to Crawley; though this is very questionable, as he signed Crowley in 1713, when he made his will; at all events the euphonia does not seem much improved, but I believe there was a good family of the latter name in Bucks, who occur in the list of Knights of the Royal Oak. Sir Ambrose was knighted at St. James's, 1 January 1706; served Sheriff of London in 1707; and died in 1713, being then one of the Aldermen of that city and M. P. for Andover. By Mary, daughter and coheir of Charles Owen, of London, Gent. (5th son of Sir William Owen, of Cundover, co. Salop,) he had one son and five daughters. Mary the eldest was married before 1707 to James Hallett, citizen and goldsmith of London; and Lettice, Sarah, Anne, and Elizabeth, were under age at the time of his decease. Lettice married afterwards Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart.; Sarah became the wife of Humphry Parsons, Esq. (Lord Mayor of London, 1707); and Elizabeth married to John, 10th Lord St. John. John Crowley, Esq. only son of Sir Ambrose, born in 1689, married Theodosia, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Gascoigne, S. T. P. Vicar of Enfield, co. Middlesex, and by her had John and Ambrose, who died without issue, and four daughters: Mary, second wife to Sir William Stanhope, K. B.; Elizabeth, married to John 2d Earl of Ashburnham; Theodosia to Charles Boone, Esq. M. P. for Castle Rising; and a posthumous daughter that died under age. Theodosia the widow of John Crowley, Esq. died in 1782, and devised the bulk of her property to the Earl of Ashburnham, her son-in-law, and to George Viscount St. Asaph, his only son, and the Ladies Henrietta, Jemima, Elizabeth, and Theodosia his daughters, then her only surviving grandchildren.
88 Anonym, quoted by Hutchinson, vol. II. p. 443.
89 An account of the rebuilding of Winlaton Chapel was printed in London 1711, to which is prefixed a letter of Lord Crewe's (23 Sept. 1710), stating that Mr. Jonathan Story had been very instrumental in the good work. The tract itself is addressed to Henry Lord Hyde. The first place of worship, which was licensed 1704-5, was the hall belonging to Sir William Blacket, Bart, in June 1705. The manufacturers chose a minister of their own, and contributed for his support one half farthing in the shilling from their wages, which was augmented by 10l. per annum from the proprietors. Afterwards a certain stipend was fixed for the minister of 50l. per annum; and the allowance above named became sufficient to yield above 20l. per annum for a school. The Chapel was for some time served by its own separate ministers, and daily service was performed there.
90

Chaplains. Edmund Lodge, cl. 1705, Master of Haydon Bridge, which he resigned 1739; Curate of Whickham, ob. 1742, æt. 63. Affabel Battel, Chaplain to Mr. Crowley, bur. 26 Mar. 1723. The Company had also a gallery in Ryton Church.

18 Dec. 1624. Sir George Selbye, Knight, mentions “his tombe as alredie erected” in St. Nicholas Church, and gives to the Churchwardens of St. Nicholas, and their successors for ever, his house at Stockbridge, in Newcastle, of the yearly value of a marke, “soe that they and their successors doe p'vyde, that from tyme to tyme my said tombe be well kept and cleane in comlye manner.”

The inventory of this wealthy Knight includes a tolerably exact account of the furniture of his royal guest's apartment. “In the King's Chambre : three bedsteads with their accompaniments; a great chaire, one large quission covered with taffaty, one ciprusse-cabinet, one trunke gilded, one cabinett of chiney work with a case, two water-boxes, one seeinge-glasse, and an iron-chimney; total 29l. 2s.

91 Inq. 16 Hatfield.
92 Inq. 23 Hatfield.
93 Pardon of Alien. 8 Oct. 1636. Rot. 2 Morton, B. B.
94 William Shafto, de le Spen, Gent, died 1631. William Read, of the Spen, ob. 1632, leaving Cuthbert Read (son of Nicholas, deceased), his grandson and heir, underage. “It was one Barloe who had two daughters, one married to William Read, the other to James Wild, who sold his part to William Tempest, of Thornley.” Mickleton, vol. 55, p. 90.
95

John Swinburn, of Chopwell, the elder, Esq. “My farme at Chopwell to my wife for life, remainder to my son John Swinburn. My son John to occupy the Bailywick of Wylom till John, son of Christopher S. come to fifteen years of age; to my son Sir Rowland Swinburne, to my son Alexander S. and his children, xxxl.; to Anne Leile x markes; to Gilbert son of my brother Gilbert, to my sister Amice, to Sir Thomas Spragan, Abbot of Blanchland,”—dated 20 Sept. 1545. Reg. Holgate and Heath, p. 150. Consist. Court of York. The issue of Christopher are traced in the annexed pedigree. Those of Alexander might perhaps be traced in Newcastle. Gilbert, the nephew of the testator, seems to have held the demesnes of Muggleswick under Blancbland Abbey.

Peter Hedley, of the Spen. yeoman; daughters Margaret and Dorothie; daughter Anne, espoused to Edward Dod, 3 March 1583.

Richard Wild, of the Nether Spen; to James Wild; to daughter Nell Wild, ij kye; to daughters Elizabeth, Dorithye, and Grace, wife Isabel. Witness Cuthbert Swynburne, Robert Wyld, 2 January 1583.

96 John Swynburne, of Chopwell, occurs as joint lessee with Thomas Welden, of Welden, of the tithes of Stamfordham, 10 August, 1508. Rot. Bainbrigg, A° 1.
97 Ind. 7 May, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary, recited in the title deeds of Amondside, Robert Surtees, Esq.
98 Hunter's MSS. D. and C. Library.
99 See the general account of the Rebellion, vol. I. p. lxxiv. et seq. ; and the several particulars and references relative to Swinburn, ibid. p. lxxii. note.
100 Pat. 31 Eliz. Mickleton's MSS. No 33.
101 Vol. I. p. lxxiv, note r, and Sadler's Papers throughout.
102 Pardon of Alienation, 22 Nov. 10 Jac. and another pardon for Dudley's purchase, of same date; but the sale from Sir William Constable took place probably some years earlier, for in 1608, 1 April, 6 Jac. Ambrose Dudley had letters patent of grant or confirmation of the “whole scite of the manor of Chopwell, late of John Swinburne, Esq. &c. of the demaines now or late in the occupation of John Warde, Gent. of the tenement called Darwencote, Woodside, Ravenside, le Blackhall, Annas Garthes, and certain lands in Blaydon and Medomsley.” Mickleton's MSS. No 33.
103 See the Pedigree of Dudley and Clavering throughout.
104 See some of these properties separately accounted for in the sequel.
105 In the reign of James I. John Lyons, of Bradley, Esq. Receiver of the Revenues, being a defaulter to the Crown, an extent issued against his estate in Chopwell “the East Wood, Moor Close, Deane, and the Carres.”
106 Commonly called the Guards.
107 Mickleton's MSS. vol. LV, p. 155, “other lands in Chopwell, wh was Rich. Medley's, sold by Master Dudley to Thos Hedley, rent 2s. 6d.
108 “A brother offended is harder to be won than a Strong city : and their contentions are like the bars of a castle.”
109

Charles Rutherford, named in the text, married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Swinburne, of Capheaton, and of Margaret's five sisters Grace married Gawen Rutherford, of Rutchester, and Ursula married .... Rutherford. The following scattered evidences of the name occur at Ryton:—William Rutherforth Elliner Merryman, married 1588. Cuthbert Roderford Annas Penshill married 1587. George Rudderford buried 14 May 1490–1. Thomas Ruderforth, of Blake Hall, Gent, buried 1595. Charles Rotherforth, of the Blake Hall, Gent, buried 15 Sept. 1640. Ane Rutherforth, of Crawcrook, 96 years old, 2 July 1652. From one of these entries it should seem, that Charles the outlaw of 1615, returned when the storm was over, and died unmolested in his old habitation.

The chief seat of the Rutherforths was Rutchester (the Roman Vindobala), in Northumberland; but 1 really suspect that the clan came originally from the Scotch side of the border, and that the Rutherfords who beset the Lord of Chopwell in Westwood, had in their veins some of the blood of the Cock of Hunthill.

“A hot and haughty Rutherford,
Men called him Dickon draw the Sword.” Lay, canto vi. st. 7.

110 Rot. 3. W. James, N° 38.
111 Licence of Alien, 1 July, 12 Jac. Mickleton, N° 33.
112 Robert, son of Robert Blaxton, Blakehall, Gent, baptized 8 April 1656. Mr. Ralph Blakiston, of Chopwell, buried in Chopwell Porch, 14 May 1671. Mr. Robert Blakiston, Blackhall, 19 May 1676. Ryton Parish Register.
113 Ind. enrolled Rot. Neile, B. B. N° 31.
114 See Epitaphs under Ebchester.
115 See Tanfield and Briansleap.
116 All these sums amounting to 360l. poor-stock, are in the hands of the Rector, and the interest is distributed in the vestry 23 December.
117 These sums are in the hands of the Churchwardens.