America and West Indies
December 1667

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Institute of Historical Research

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W. Noel Sainsbury (editor)

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1880

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520-534

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'America and West Indies: December 1667', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 5: 1661-1668 (1880), pp. 520-534. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76518 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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December 1667

Dec. 2.
Barbadoes.
1640. Gov. Wm. Lord Willoughby to Sec. Lord Arlington. Is now about settling the Post Office, which he hopes to do by consent and assistance of the Assembly, the way he takes in all things. Has been put to great hardships to supply the fleet, and to send them home, to effect which Sir John Harman and himself shall be forced to pawn ourselves to our shirts ; but it must be done, and they hope his Majesty will not see them suffer, for the service they have done will recompense all ten times over. Begs his Lordship's assistance in his request to his Majesty to return home this summer. Indorsed, Rec. 23 Janry. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 154.]
Dec. 10.
Boston, New England.
1641. Sir Thomas Temple to (Sec. Lord Arlington). Has received three letters from his Majesty since his last arrival in this country. The first two he speedily answered by ships of good force, one of which was taken near Scilly, and the other cast away upon Beachy (head), in Sussex. As to assisting the Caribbee Islands, has sent a ship of his own laden with provisions to Barbadoes, which was taken by a Dutch man-of-war within sight of the island. Has hitherto preserved Nova Scotia from divers attempts made by the French, and has built a strong fort at Port De Latour, in that part of Nova Scotia called by the French Acadie, and furnished it with ammunition, &c., and has driven the French out of their small forts adjoining as far as Cape Breton. News from London that peace is concluded, which is confirmed by printed articles brought over. Remarks upon that part which concerns himself, that is, the surrender of Acadia to the King of France, of a great part of which Temple has been in possession these ten years and more, and to which he has a just hereditary title, which is set forth. The original records are kept in the Castle of Edinburgh. Lord Lauderdale can inform his Majesty the part Temple claims as proprietor, for which he paid 8,000l. sterling to De Latour, and is also deeply engaged to divers merchants here and in London for great sums of money in preserving this country during the war, and not having had the least assistance from his Majesty. Is preparing to go thither as soon as the season of the year will permit. Hopes to send in two or three weeks a map of this country, also what he knows of the bounds as far as he understands them, and the great apprehensions of his Majesty's subjects in New England at the near neighbourhood of the French. Writes after this rude manner occasioned by the sudden departure of his friend Samuel Wilson, merchant of London, of great esteem in these parts, who can inform his Lordship of all things. Reminds his Lordship of his promise when Temple took leave of his Majesty at Hampton Court to stand his friend. If the King gives up this country without Temple receiving some real satisfaction, he is utterly ruined, and is now much in years and broken with cares, toils, and misfortunes. Indorsed "(For the Committee of Plantations.)" 3 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 155.]
Dec. 14.
Barbadoes.
1642. Address of the Representatives of Barbadoes to the King. After the great devastations and spoils of the Dutch, French, and Indians, it may well become their allegiance to let his Majesty know how unshaken their resolutions have stood and shall remain firm and untainted towards his Majesty's interests. So good a minister as now his Majesty has made them happy in, in the person of Lord William Willoughby, whose prudent regiment [sic] of affairs hath composed the most jarring interests and healed a divided and wounded people, salved all doubts of misfortune and ruin, and given them such hope as no former times could arrive unto. Hope their former address [see ante, No. 1565] is safe come to his Majesty's hands, and will find a favourable acceptation, and presume his Excellency will lay at his Majesty's feet an account of the war, with the truth of the hard times that have passed over them, their cheerful, "indefatigable sedulities" for their defence, and voluntary assistance to preserve Nevis and his Majesty's other territories, in all which they have demeaned themselves as loyal subjects. Nor shall his Majesty ever want the assurance of their obedience, nor they doubt his graceful condescensions, which may make flourishing these colonies. Signed by Henry Walrond, Speaker of the Assembly. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 156.]
(1667.) 1643. Note of what is "by the treaty to be performed by the King to the French concerning Quebec." To restore all places that had been possessed by the French in New France, l'Acadie, and Canada, i.e., Port Royal, Quebec, and Cape Breton. The English to render within eight days after notice, and to carry away all their ammunitions and goods within three weeks. General De Caen shall provide a ship for the English to fetch away their men, and take all their merchandize which shall remain and pay 30 per cent. profit. The arms and ammunition contained in the deposition of Champlain and the merchandize found at Quebec at the taking thereof, shall be rendered in kind or value to the French. What wanteth in anything shall be paid by Burlamachi. Burlamachi promises to pay to Gen. De Caen within two months after signing the treaty for his goods, &c. found in the fort of Quebec 8,270l., and to cause to be restored to him in England the ship Helen, and the goods taken in her, and shall further pay 6,060l. 4s. in Paris, for the ships Gabriel, St. Ann, Trinity, St. Lawrence, and Cape de Ciel. To be performed by the French. Lymang and Vaneth shall pay in said two months 2,424l. 12s. for the Jaques, and 6,989l. 12s. for the Benediction, and shall restore all the ships found at their arrival. The Bride's merchandize to be restored, and duties and charges to be defalked out of the sums to be paid. Account of the commodities of the Plantation of Quebec : 1. The soil very good to produce hemp. 2. Great store of hemp growing naturally in the Huron's country, with whom the colony has great trade for furs and beaver skins. 3. The country replenished with fir, pine, and all sorts of timber. 4. There may be yearly made and sent over great quantities of tar and pitch. 5. When his Majesty shall grant Letters Patent for the establishment of the Company's plantation and their protection, they will furnish such proportions of pitch, tar, masts, and timber at reasonable rates as shall be of much consequence for his Majesty's service and the benefit of the public. 6. Materials for his Majesty's magazines may be imported in greater quantities from thence than from the other Plantations, in regard of the abundance of trees, their situation close upon the rivers, and the less danger of surprise from invasion. Indorsed, "French treaty concerning Kebeck, the comodityes of Canada and Kebeck. Pitch, tare, hemp, and tymber." 1½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 157.]
Dec. 14/24. 1644. French memorial, being brief extracts of documents explaining the business of l'Acadie. In a commission under the Great Seal of France in 1647, confirming preceding Letters Patents, it is stated, that the Sieur D'Aulney had retaken the fort of Pentagoet from foreigners, and had brought back to his Majesty's obedience the fort of St. John's river, which De la Tour had retained by open rebellion against his Majesty by the aid of foreigners, and that in consideration thereof and of his great charges in building four forts, his Majesty confirmed said D'Aulney as Governor of all the territories of l'Acadie, from the river St. Lawrence to "the Virginias." The 25th article of the treaty of 1655 declares that the three forts of Pentagoet, St. John, and Port Royal had just been taken by the English, and that their restitution, &c. should be referred to Commissioners on both sides. By the treaty of Breda, the King of Great Britain engages to restore the country of l'Acadie, of which his most Christian Majesty was formerly in possession. By the memorial of M. de Ruvigny of the 2nd inst. it is proposed to mark out the bounds of that country, which notoriously consists of the forts and places of Pentagoet, Cape Sable, St. John's river, Port Royal, La Have, Campseau, and all that belong to them, which have been occupied by the French from the river St. Lawrence to the Virginias. Now to explain this in writing, according to the desire of his Britannic Majesty's Council, as it was explained to them by word of mouth on the 4/14th inst. It is notorious that the French were in possession of the places named in the memorial before 1655, and this is proved by the said Letters Patent of 1647, and the treaty of 1655 ; and as for the description "as far as the Virginias," it was taken from said Letters Patents and is a general term including Florida and New England, and all the lands which abut upon New France, and is restrained by the naming of the places, and the words and which "have been occupied by the French ;" but if it causes any scruple these general words "as far as the Virginias" may be omitted entirely. Some of the Council seem to be of this opinion while others have scruples about Pentagoet and St. Johns, on information that the English had been at Pentagoet before 1655, and that La Tour at St. John's had before said year had some commission from the King of England, and also from Cromwell. Those commissions would probably refute themselves, for in what terms could they be conceived, La Tour being a Frenchman and holding the country under the authority of the King his master. It is not denied that the English have been at Pentagoet ; the Letters Patent of 1647 show that foreigners had taken possession to the prejudice of the rights of the most Christian King and that it was said D'Aulney who made them retire. As to St. John's river, it is also admitted that there were contests between La Tour and D'Aulney, and that La Tour endeavoured to rely upon the protection of the English of Boston, but it was a contest between Frenchman and Frenchman, and D'Aulney restored to his Majesty's obedience the forts of said river of which La Tour held possession contrary to his said Majesty's desire. Further it appears that after D'Aluney's death La Tour found means to marry his widow, and took possession of the forts of Pentagoet, St. John, and Port Royal, to the prejudice of the Sieur Le Bourne of Rochelle, who claims all the property of said D'Aulney. That the English in 1655 took those forts from La Tour, who defended himself very ill, and came to London with his family. The French Ambassador had orders to demand the restitution of said forts, which was stipulated by the treaty of 1655, and is now about to be granted according to the treaty of Breda under the general words, the country of l'Acadie of which his said Majesty was before possessed. It may be that La Tour, who dared not return to France, made his submission to Cromwell in order to return to that country as he did in the end, but such an ill proceeding of a subject towards his legitimate Sovereign cannot alter his Majesty's right. This is so clear that it will not admit of further argument. In short the right of the most Christian King to the forts and country of l'Acadie is not in question, but only whether the French were formerly in possession of them ; the said Letters Patent of 1647 and treaty of 1655 clearly prove they were, so that there can be no further scruple in this business if in the act to be given, only those forts and places are specified with all that belongs to them. Indorsed, 14/24 10bre 1667. French, 7 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 158.]
1667? 1645. Mem. concerning Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia or L'Acadie consists chiefly of the forts and places of Cape Sable, the river St. John, Port Royal, La Have, and all that has been in possession of the French, from the river St, Lawrence southward to North Virginia (so called in the first grant of the Virginia Company to those of Plymouth), now called New England. Harwood and Winder, two merchants, may be able to inform their Lordships whether Pentagoet (the place only now in question) were indeed in the possession of the French. Of Pentagoet there may be some doubt, but of the rest, especially of Cape Sable, there can be none ; and Cape Sable is of the most importance, for it is the point which all ships trading to New England make, to direct their entrance into the Bay ; so that if war happen between England and France, those of New England will be forced to master it, which will not be hard. Mostly in Sir Joseph Williamson's handwriting with corrections. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 159.]
1667? 1646. Copy of the preceding, with the exception of the sentence about Harwood and Winder. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 160.]
1667? 1647. Considerations concerning the settlement of the main called Guiana, to be presented to the Committee of Trade. 1. It yields sugar, ginger, indigo, cotton, tobacco, rich gums, balsamums, and woods, as speckle wood, logwood, brazil wood. 2. It is well seated, the air healthful, infinite number of rivers for sugar works and carriage, and store of fish, fowl, deer, and other beasts, and gallant cedars and other timber. 3. The easiness of settling at present, for there are 150 well armed men, who have already brought the natives to submission. 4. The great number of men that but look for encouragement from England to go thence from Barbadoes, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and Montserrat. 5. The great profit in making the English masters of those brave and so much desired commodities, and those that come from Brazil must sail within 100 leagues of it, so that with their ships of war the English may ruin that nation while planting their own. 6. The place seems left purposely for the English by the Spaniard and Portugal, it being the only hopeful place unplanted betwixt the tropics in America. It was attempted by Sir Walter Raleigh, Harcourt, and others ; and "Raleigh was ruined by the treachery of King James, who by Gondomar let the King of Spain know his whole design before Raleigh was out of the Thames (as by his letter to Sir Ralph Winwood is apparent)." 7. The charity both to the poor Indians and their own countrymen. "Time will bring the one to a true knowledge of God and the other to good estates." 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol., XXI., No. 161.]
Dec. 16.
Barbadoes.
1648. Governor Wm. Lord Willoughby to the Privy Council. His Majesty having commanded six frigates to remain here, and the rest with Sir John Harman to return to England, presumes to give an account of all occurrences. Account of the desperate condition of his Majesty's dominions in these parts before his arrival, the distractions and poverty he found amongst the people, and how in a few days he reconciled them and united them for the defence of his Majesty's honour and their own interest. How they relieved their brethren, regained Antigua and Montserrat, strengthened the weaker parts abroad, fortified themselves, and held the balance equal, till Sir John Harman came and with great conduct turned it, by utterly destroying the French fleet at Martinico. After which the weather threatening the scene of war was shifted to Cayenne and Surinam, places though not of much discourse yet like to become of the worst consequence to this island. The considerations which persuaded Sir John with part of his fleet to that voyage, and to put his own son Henry Willoughby aboard with 700 soldiers. They found Cayenne well fortified, but Providence with little loss rendered them masters of it, and having burnt the houses and sugar works they dismantled the fortifications, taking away provisions and prisoners, and left the natives in possession with powder and resolution to keep it in future. Thence they sailed to Surinam, and after a smart encounter with the Dutch became masters of ; but the want of knowledge of the peace, and of that article of the surrender of places taken after the 10th May (as this happened), caused them to encourage the English colony, and leaving a good garrison they arrived at Barbadoes 10th November. Immediately sent back his son in the Bonaventure to Surinam to use his utmost to bring off the inhabitants and their moveables (which will utterly disable the Dutch to settle it), intending to put them on Antigua ; but if those men will not quit their stations, will suspend the surrender till he receives positive commands from their Lordships. But the vast necessary expenses of these matters are more difficult to overcome than the occasions were. Assures their Lordships his Majesty's revenue, which does not clear 6,000l. per ann., was before his arrival engaged for materials for this war beyond what it could answer during the time of his government, though it had not met with the excessive charge of supporting the fleet and supplying Sir Tobias Bridge's regiment : so that unless his Majesty issue satisfaction from his own exchequer, knows not where it can be had ; and in regard the inhabitants have so freely contributed great sums out of their own estates, chiefly for his Majesty's honour, in the defence of the Leeward Isles, especially Nevis, will not doubt but through his princely care they will receive satisfaction. Their condition had been much worse but for the friendship and bounty of New England, which presented him with 1,200l. sterling in provisions for the fleet before Nevis out of their affection to him for some services he had done them which he has been diligent to engage, in regard these colonies cannot in peace prosper, or in war subsist, without a correspondence with them. It remains that he acquaint their Lordships with their great want of servants, which the late war has occasioned ; if labour fail here, his Majesty's customs will at home ; and if the supply be not of good and sure men, the safety of the place will be always in question ; for though there be no enemy abroad, the keeping the slaves in subjection must still be provided for. If their Lordships will open a trade in Scotland for transportation of people of that nation hither, and prevent any access of Irish in future, it will accommodate all the ends propounded, and abundantly gratify his Majesty's good subjects here. Indorsed, Rec. February 9th. Rec. 12th February 1667-8. Read in Council 14th February 1667-8. Referred. 4 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 162.]
Dec.? 1649. Gov. Lord Willoughby to Sec. Lord Arlington. Refers to his [preceding] letter to the Council. Intends this week for the Leeward Isles, where, by what he hears from England, he expects to meet with a more troublesome people than Barbadoes was supposed to be ; if they be countenanced from England will have the harder task, else doubts not to model them for his Majesty's honour and advantage. Hears there are some complaints against him, but wonders not because his name is Willoughby, some having said they disliked that, though few he finds here do. Indorsed, Rec. 9 Feb. 6 7/8. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 163.]
Dec. 16.
Barbadoes.
1650. Gov. Lord Willoughby to (the Committee of Plantations). Is informed that one Mr. Marsh, Squire of the Body to his Majesty, has made complaint to them that he is guilty of some extravagant actions wherein his Majesty may receive some prejudice ; if so, he is not fit to govern ; if not, he presumes they will judge Marsh as unfit to serve in a place of so great trust. Puts his cause and begs their judgment on this issue. The gentleman pretends much to the knowledge of the Indies, and to an interest there ; but he had had none, had not Barbadoes, at an expense of many thousands of pounds, preserved it. And this brings him to the question, whether it be convenient to separate the Government of Barbadoes from Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, and now part of St. Kitts. As for Antigua and Montserrat, Barbadoes gained them with the fleet set out at their own charge, and afterwards preserved Nevis ; and by that means Nevis outlived this last storm of war, and not by their own courage, for is well assured they were fit for a submission to the French. Uses not this argument to gain a territory, it being his right by patent. Intends to visit these desolate places, and hopes to resettle Antigua and Montserrat without the help of Mr. Marsh, and "bring Nevis into better order than his brother Russell hath yet modelled it ; being assured that the Governors there are and have been perfect Bashaws ; and truly, unless he hath a broader seal than mine, that must not be : in fine, his tyranny makes men weary of that island ; and if Barbadoes say the same of me, home I must come without calling." This he dares hardly do ; yet since their Lordships are so prepossessed of his behaviour here, with his Majesty's leave will adventure that they may be truly informed. He that is present at a committee has some advantage of the absent person, but looks on them all as peers in justice. Indorsed, Committee of Plantations, Recd. Feb. 14. 1667-8. 1½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 164.]
Dec. 25.
Kitterey.
1651. Nic. Shapleigh to Col. Nicolls. Omitted to signify in his last that he had disposed of two tracts of land to two friends, Edward Hilton and Capt. Walter Barefoote, reserving a yearly rent to the Lord Proprietor of New Hampshire, Robert Mason, all mast trees of 26 inches and upwards, and one-fifth of gold and silver ores, who are resolved to try the title with any who oppose them ; and as these lands are to remain to the purchaser, unless Nicolls or Mason disapprove thereof within two years from May last, requests his resolutions concerning the premises. On same sheet,
Shapleigh to Nicolls. Understands that by the last ship which arrived at Boston from London, there is a small vessel with the King's packet intended from thence direct to New York ; if it contains any matter concerning the affairs of these parts, prays that he may participate therein as soon as a safe conveyance presents. Has received 9l. 15s. from Capt. Breedon for his account. Sends kind love to Captains Nicolls and Exton. 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 165.]
Dec. 28.
Jamaica.
1652. Gov. Sir Thos. Modyford to the Duke of Albemarle. Since his letter of 3rd September [copy annexed, see ante, No. 1563] his Grace's of the 11th September has arrived, intimating the death of Sir George Smyth and the stopping payment of Modyford's salary till orders are received from him. Has appointed his son Charles, and in his absence his cousin Tho. Ducke to be his attorney. One of the surveyors of the island has presented Modyford with an exact plot of the same, with the parishes and plantations, which his son will present to his Grace : believes there are many more plantations in the obscure tract of the island settled by persons who for some cause dare not be known. Supposes if this map were printed by his Majesty's command, and copies dispersed to the several great cities of his Majesty's dominions, it might give great encouragement to become planters ; in order to which his son will solicit such persons as his Grace shall appoint. Has received the articles with France, Denmark, and Holland, which were very welcome ; also the heads of a treaty with Spain, which is very obscure to him, it referring both the Indies to a treaty made with the Dutch at Munster in 1648, which he has not seen ; so that he has not altered his posture, nor does he intend until further orders. ¾ p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 100.]
1667, Dec. 29./1668, Jan. 8.
London.
1653. Memorial of the French Ambassador Ruvigny. That Sir John Harman hath taken Cayenne, and made the French Governor, the Chevalier de Lesy, and others prisoners. The most Christian King demands of the King of Great Britain that, conformable to the treaty of Breda, immediate order be given for putting said country, forts, and prisoners of Cayenne into the hands of his said Christian Majesty. French and English translation. 2 papers. 2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., Nos. 166, 167.]
1667.
Dec. 31. Whitehall.
1654. The King to Sir Thomas Temple. He is commanded by these presents forthwith to surrender to the most Christian King, or to his order under the Great Seal of France, the country of Acadia which formerly belonged to the said King, namely, the forts and habitations of Pentagoet, St. John, Port Royal, La Heve, and Cape Sable, which his subjects enjoyed until the English took possession thereof in 1654, 1655, and since ; conforming himself therein to the 10th and 11th articles of the treaty of Breda. Annexed,
Copies of the 10th and 11th articles of the treaty of Breda for the restitution of the country of Acadia to the most Christian King. But if any of the inhabitants of Acadia prefer to live under the King of Great Britain, they shall be permitted to withdraw (within one year of the restitution of said country), and sell or dispose as they please of their lands, goods, slaves, &c., or carry them away as they please without molestation. French, togetherpp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 168.]
1667. 1655. Mem. "Lord Arlington to the Governor of Nova Scotia, 1667, to đđ (deliver) up that country to the French. Sir Thomas Temple, Governor. "The sum to be paid, whether therein stipulated. Journaux." ½ p. [Dom. Entry Bk., Chas. II., Vol. XXIV., p. 105.]
Dec. 1656. Grant to the Earl of St. Albans, John Lord Berkeley, Sir Wm. Morton, and John Trethewy, upon the surrender of a patent granted by the King in the first year of his reign to Ralph Lord Hopton, the Earl of St. Albans, and others. Doquet, see ante, No. 1513, in Williamson's hand. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 169.]
[1667.] 1657. Some observations on the island of Barbadoes. The first seven years the island was little improved, on account of the distinct claims of the then Lord Chamberlain, Philip Earl of Pembroke, and the Earl of Carlisle ; in the latter the right was settled by commission from Chas. I. It became a flourishing colony by the great encouragement of the Dutch, and in 1643 (after it had been planted 17 years) there were 18,600 effective men, English inhabitants, of which 8,300 were proprietors ; its value was then not one-seventeenth so considerable as in 1666, but the real strength treble what it is now ; the negroes not being in 1643 above 6,400, were in 1666 above 50,000 ; the buildings in 1643 were mean, with things only for necessity, but in 1666 plate, jewels, and household stuff were estimated at 500,000l., their buildings very fair and beautiful, and their houses like castles, their sugar houses and negroes' huts show themselves from the sea like so many small towns, each defended by its castle. This formidable prospect and the condition the Dutch left the island in in 1651 when expelled by Sir George Ayscue has diverted the French and Dutch from attacking it, for they might easily have become masters. Not above 760 considerable proprietors and 8,000 effective men, of which two-thirds are of no reputation and little courage, and a very great part Irish, derided by the negroes as white slaves ; and indeed except the proprietors, merchants, tradesmen, officers, and their dependants, the rest are such as have not reason to discern their abuses, or not courage to leave the island, or are in debt and cannot go ; for 12,000 good men at least formerly proprietors are gone off, and tradesmen, wormed out of their small settlements by greedy neighbours, are thus computed :—Between 1643 and 1647, to New England, 1,200, to Trinidado and Tobago, 600 ; between 1646 and 1658, to Virginia and Surinam, 2,400 ; between 1650 to 1662, to Guadaloupe, Martinique, Mariegalante, Grenada, Tobago, and Curaçoa, 1,600 ; with Col. Venables to Hispaniola and since to Jamaica, 3,300 ; and with Francis Lord Willoughby to St. Lucia, 1,300 (perished in that design) ; with Major Scott in 1665 against the Dutch on Tobago and New Zealand in Guiana, 800 ; with Col. Henry Willoughby in 1666 for regaining St. Christopher's, 1,000 ; and the same year with Francis Lord Willoughby on the same design 2,000 men, most of whom were either lost in the hurricane or are since dead. Mortalities and those that have slipped away without tickets from the license office may equal those that since 1651 have been transported thither, so that those left are fit rather to betray than defend so valuable a country. Of men born on the island few are gone off ; they may be accounted 1,500 and are the best infantry. The causes of weakness are : 1st, the land monopolised into so few hands. 2nd, factions amongst the planters : almost every considerable proprietor is a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, captain, or lieutenant, for since 1626 there have been divers Governors and substitutes, viz. :—Capt. Powell, Capt. Wolverston, Sir Wm. Tuffton, Col. Hawley, Major Huncks, Sir Henry Huncks, Col. Bell, President Sir Richard Pierce, Fras. Lord Willoughby, Mr. Searle, put in by the Parliament 1652, Col. Modyford, by same Parliament 1659, Col. Walrond, President for Lord Willoughby, and Fras. Lord Willoughby, against whom and his family the people were strangely disaffected, and are still dissatisfied. All these Governors changed their officers, councillors, and judges, so that there are so many factions to this day. The now Lord Willoughby new modelled the militia, put out most of the deceased Lord's friends and put in his professed enemies, and those discarded were chosen by the Assembly and became "great creatures for the country," unravelled all the designs left in writing by the late Lord, and pressed the now Lord to promise the making of no alterations in government without the advice of the Assembly ; to which he readily consents, and now judges they are well satisfied with him ; which the writer knows to be his great mistake, for till he ratifies the acts of non claims to cut off his Majesty's pretence to the 10,000 acres the present proprietors can have no security. 3rd. The proprietors and tradesmen wormed out between 1643 and 1654 : the planters design to have all their tradesmen, sugar boilers, &c. of their blacks, and put blacks with all their tradesmen ; has inspected many plantations and seen 30 or 40 English, Scotch, and Irish at work in the parching sun, without shirt, shoe, or stocking, and negroes at their trades in good condition ; by which the whole may be endangered, for now there are many thousands of slaves that speak English, and if there are many leading men slaves in a Plantation, they may be easily wrought upon to betray it, especially on the promise of freedom. How each party abets its faction in the greatest dangers, would amaze any Englishman : something of it may be seen in their address to the King in 1667 ; and when Fras. Lord Willoughby urged that there might be during the war 1,000 men in pay, they replied, they has as good lose all as have veteran soldiers, and that they did not doubt to defend the island, but could not demonstrate how ; for to compel men that have neither house, land, goods, wife, or children or pay to be sometimes four or five days together on duty, without so much as victuals, save what they stole, was extremely severe ; but this was their practice, and till the arrival of Sir Tobias Bridge's regiment there were not 40 men in pay. Is persuaded the like has not been practised in the whole world ; for it's not in his creed to believe that a people whose all is beyond the seas will run the gauntlet of a hazardous fortune for the interest of their native country when good terms are proffered by an enemy. 4th. The Jews not having like liberty as in the Dutch and French islands, have been very treacherous, discovering when the English were to embark against the French and Dutch, and in the matter of the relief of Antigua ; but the constant egress and regress of strangers, there being seldom fewer than 60 or 70 sail of ships, not only deceives the Jews, but the most ingenious inhabitants judge they are stronger than really they are. Offers as an expedient, unless his Majesty have a strength of veteran soldiers to keep up his interest, as the Spaniard, French, and Dutch have, that, 1stly, a delatory letter be sent in answer to their last petition, "which will not only keep up their hopes of being a Republic, but will extract their whole desire from them ;" and, 2ndly, that a letter be sent to Lord Willoughby to command his great courtesy to that people, especially the leading men ; "for upon keeping or losing the Barbadoes depends the whole interest and trade of the West Indies." Indorsed, ... 1667 (part of Indorsement has been cut off). 9 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 170.]
1667? 1658. "Memorial of the island of Tobago, now called New Walcheren, how it is situate, and of what advantage it may be to the State of the United Provinces." It has a very good climate, above 20 rivers, many fruit and other trees, shell and stone for lime, a great deal of clay, and many places proper by nature for forts. It is more fruitful than any of the Caribbees, there being not a hill which may not be planted ; there is abundance of ginger, sugar-canes, indigo, cassia, fistula, cocoa, and roacou trees for dyeing orange, cocoanuts, oranges, lemons ; tobacco and rice will grow there. The cotton, ginger, and sugar are better than from Barbadoes, and the island is wholly free from hurricanes. Barbadoes lades yearly 80 to 100 ships with sugar, cotton, ginger, and indigo, and Tobago, which is one-third larger, may in time be made a better colony, having abundance of wood for boiling sugar, &c. The charges of garrison, ammunition, &c. may be defrayed out of the head money, which every inhabitant pays, besides all the Christian women above 15 years old, as well free as slaves, pay 100 lb. sugar yearly, which is the practice of all the Caribbee Islands. The minister who went thither 18 months since, and can preach in Dutch and French, being since returned, would be of great use to draw the people to the Dutch. The advantages the State will receive are very great, for in six years that island will lade 20 ships yearly with sugar, &c. in return for necessaries, and the inhabitants of this State will not need to sail through the favour of the English or French to their colonies and trade with foreign passes. Rice, Turkish wheat, beans, peas, cabbage, wild hogs, goats, fowl, and fish abound, as appears in the book of the minister Bochefort in 1665. If the island be taken possession of by their Lordships [the States General], it has already been possessed by Cornelius Eversen, all the old planters now in Holland, Curaçao, and other parts would transport themselves thither, and bring the island, now we have peace with England, into a good posture ; many Dutch and French Protestants in the French islands would also transport themselves thither, to be free of the slavery of the French company, and of trouble about their religion ; and the rather if their Lordships will put on the island 50 or 60 soldiers and 12 or 16 pieces of cannon for security. 6½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 171.]
[1667.] 1659. Louis le Page, Sieur de Lomesnil, to the King. Has the honour to belong to the Duc de Gadagne, and is cousin to the Sieur de Foubert. Having been obliged by ingratitude and injustice to quit the service of France, he retired into his Majesty's kingdom a month since to sacrifice to his Majesty's service his experience, vigour, and youth, and having acquired in his great voyages the knowledge of several things very necessary and profitable for his Majesty's States in America, has prepared memorials and a map, and prays his Majesty to order his Council forthwith to examine them, that they may give a faithful account of the importance of his project. French, 2 pp. ; also English translation. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., Nos. 172, 173.]
1667? 1660. Notes relating to America. Sir H. Vane in 1637 went over Governor to New England with two women, Mrs. Dier and Mrs. Hutchinson, wife to Hutchinson's brother, where he debauched both, and both were delivered of monsters [see Col Papers, Vol. IX., No. 74]. Received the King's commission, then banished. Mr. Cotton died in 1654, having lived there 26 years ; left two sons, both episcopal. New England. The Massachusetts (Elbowe) : Boston is the head of it, and stands on seven hills "(Gorton's Simplicity's defence agst. the 7 headed policy of Boston in New England) :" in 1664 had 14,300 souls : great trade to Barbadoes with fish and other provisions, with fruit from Long Island : 300 vessels trade to Barbadoes, Virginia, Madeira, Acadia, &c. : the town "arched into" (?) the sea upon piles, so as ships come up to the doors ; 1,300 boats that fish at Cape Sable, &c. : merchantable and best fish sent to Malaga and Canaries, second sort to the Portugal Islands, and the worst to Barbadoes : this, as all other towns, is governed by seven townsmen (so called), of which one is a principal person, and of the quorum annually chosen by the Council (?) and freemen. The militia is under a Major-General, chosen annually "by beans (?)" ; they have 30,000 fighting men ; in every town they have an artillery that meets weekly, and all from 16 to 60 train, eight times in the year, and the seamen, of whom there are at least 8 to 10,000, twice. Divided into four associated counties, two being named Essex and Suffolk : their university is called Cambridge, and the college Harvey (Harvard) College, (founded) about 28 (years) since (in 1638), "who went hence with the ladies Arabella and Susanna, who went with Mr. Cotton, the E. of Lincoln's sisters." One Dunstan (a Presbyterian Anabaptist), professor there, a very ingenious though heterodox man ; Eaton, Dunstan, and Chancey, professors successively : Leverett is their Major (and the people is the General) ; Bellingham, Governor, annual, presides in Council, and has a double vote ; Willoughby, Deputy Governor ; one Pike, a hopeful man, and of great interest among them : they can by their charter make but 18 magistrates and a Governor, but they evade by making commissioners and deputies of the Court, as they call it. Great quantities of peas, pork, &c. from the sea coast that borders Plymouth and Connecticut. Have 76 towns and villages. Salem, Ipswich, and Charlestown, great towns of trade, cod and mackerel ; in the Elbow, mackerel : they have a mind to enlarge their patent. Province of Maine : "From A. to B.," first granted to Sir Ferd. Gorges, afterwards Lord Gorges, and by him to Eldredge, Godfrey, &c. : several towns, as Winterharbour, Saco, York, &c., have been hooked in by Massachusetts ; and so their strength goes to that colony. Great fisheries at Isle of Shoals, where are more than 1,500 fishermen. "A A"
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granted in 1632 to Sir W. Alexander or E. of Sterling, in recompense of Canada, then restored to the French, and so was Long Island ; now both are the Duke of York's, the Earl's interest being bought out : very mountainous and uncultivated country, only good harbours and fit for fishery, and of great advantage to take away the fish trade from Massachusetts, and overbalance them. Canada : cold, and yet but as France (from the great lakes and snow on the mountains) ; winds generally W. and W.N.W. in lat. 43 and 45 : it is called Nova Scotia : all ours generally : the lat, 32½, which is Bermudas and Gulf of Lewis (?), generally stormy, and the wind southerly. Cape Breton : an island with coal on the very surface : T. Temple dwells idly at Boston, and is fooled by them. Fort St. John and Fort Royal, the only great places, but T. T. suffers them of Boston to trade there and rob the English : fish, coals, furs : Boston persuaded T. T. to raze the forts, 1662, to spare charge, and so free themselves from and take off the check we might have over them : hopes of copper in several places, stands out like fingers, arms, and legs. Boston pays 1l. 12s. per ton on goods from Connecticut and Long Island ; much more Long Island might gain if they would be industrious. The French have Quebec, a stronghold, and trade up the river ; to it a long passage. Plymouth is the Elbow of land, 80 miles by 22 ; about 1,600 men ; one Winslow is their major, an ingenious man ; much more considerable in comparison of the Massachusetts ; a good silent people, never venomous (?) in the Rebellion ; planted in 1621 ; it holds a deed of the Plymouth Corporation, "p[er] gladium comitatus." "Mem. the Duke of Bucks now alive, being young, gave up that Plymouth Corporation charter to one Willis (?), his tutor, who sent it into N. England, and so it fell into their hands ;" Plymouth Corporation, so called from the town in England where their Council was held. Massachusetts has a castle or fort at the entrance of Boston called Castle Island. The old pretended patent to Lord Say, &c. never passed the seal ; they had an Order of Parliament in 1649 (?) for their Corporation, which argues they had no patent before. From Hudson's River to the east of Delaware Bay (New Jersey so called) (held) by Lord Berkeley and Sir Geo. Carteret from the Duke of York's patent ; pipestaves, bread, beef, pork, whale oil ; sea rich in whales near Delaware Bay ; most whales about that end of Long Island, &c. as cod about Nova Scotia. Maryland : Lord Baltimore is sovereign ; coins, issues out arrests, &c. in his own name ; likely to have had it in some right of Lord Delaware, to whom he was allied ; at present none of the family of Delaware have any right in those parts. Virginia : planted about 100 miles up into the country, near the river ; James City, with about 20 houses, but very large ; abroad are little settlements ; fine river ; "sickly a little agueish (?)" ; His Majesty absolute sovereign ; the salt water between the main and Accomack, about 10 leagues over. "Jucatan, is wt do you say." Indorsed, From Major Scott's mouth. In Williamson's handwriting, difficult to decipher. 5½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 174.]
1667? 1661. Mem. by Under-Sec. Williamson, relating to the West Indies. Barbadoes : Sir W. Tufton sent there to settle the Plantation in 1627, and afterwards shot by Hen. Hawley, who was there for the Earl of Carlisle's right, and is yet alive there. The last Earl of Carlisle sold his interest for a trifle to Lord Willoughby. In two days they go to any Leeward Island near, but can't come up in 30 or 40 by reason of the N.E. and E. winds. About 10,000 men, and near as many in 1650. Caimanos : the places where turtle are taken. Demerara : all Indians. St. Vincent : all Indians, and some negroes from the loss of two Spanish ships in 1635. Barbuda : great turtle fishing. Nevis : 5,000 men ; sugars. Statia (Eustatia), Saba : cotton and indigo : "M. Londres, &c. (a Newgate bird, as he called himself to the French Governor)" : it has but one way up to it, cut through the rock, with great stones ready to be hurled down on assailants. Tobago : taken from the Dutch by Maj. Scott, Oct. 1665. Montserat : 600 men taken in Sept. 1666. Surinam on the main : 1,200 men ; 30 miles broad and 50 long ; planted 1652 by Lord Willoughby ; attempted in 1643 by Marshall ; in 1635 the French colony, as big as ours, cut off by the Indians ; sugars and specklewood, of which cabinets are made ; Byam, Governor. Baroma (?) : taken Jan. 1665-6 from the Dutch by Major Scott. French. St. Martin's : salt made on Anguilla ; tobacco ; 1,300 men. St. Christopher's : 2,000 men. Guadaloupe : 65 good sugar works ; rich, fertile, many slaves ; 2,500 men. Todos los Santos, Martinique : a strong fort ; but three sugar works ; tobacco and indigo ; 4,500 men. Grenada : cotton ; 400 men. Sta. Crux : 400 men. Tortuga : lost by us in 1654 ; sold to the French by one Watts, Governor there. Margarita : the only island kept by the Spaniard ; the great place of pearls. Dutch. Curaçoa : the main strength, goats and sheep. Arobo (Orubo) and Banaer (Buen Ayre) : horses and salt ; these only are profitable in their trade with the Spaniard. To Barbadoes is usually a passage of six weeks, and they come back in seven to 10 weeks ; from Barbadoes to Jamaica in eight days, and can't come up in less than six or seven weeks. The current runs N.E., being forced through the Gulf of Florida, where is the Bahama sands. "This motion is propagated even in the Bay of Biscay, as the author thinks, meeting with westerly winds in the latitude of Bermudas, which blow it quite on to the Bay of Biscay." Indorsed, From Major Scott's mouth. 3½ pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXI., No. 175.]