Henry VIII
July 1542, 21-25

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Institute of Historical Research

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James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors)

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1900

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'Henry VIII: July 1542, 21-25', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 17: 1542 (1900), pp. 300-310. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76661 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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July 1542, 21-25

22 July.
Poli Epp. III. 31.
522. Card, Contarini to Card. Pole.
My servant John has brought me your letters, together with your diligent annotations upon the little work (fn. 1) of mine which I sent to you to correct. Jokes about transcribers' errors. Card. S. Silvester has read the articles, and writes that he sees nothing to correct. Ex Bon. (Bononia?), 22 July.
Latin.
23 July.
R. O.
523. Henry VIII. to Francis I.
We have received your letters by bearer, (fn. 2) one of your secretaries, and heard his credence, containing specially two points : the one, the injuries done you by the Emperor in detaining your possessions and killing your ambassadors, which you were determined to revenge; the other that you had made a league offensive and defensive with the dukes of Saxe and Cleve, and the kings of Denmark, Sweden, and Scotland, wherein you reserve an honorable place for us, with six months' space in which to know our determination. We are not a little sorry to see, by the dissensions of you two, being great princes in Christendom and our friends, such an entry made to the common enemy, the Turk, unless God provide some agreement between you, or other remedy. Touching which agreement, you remember how we heretofore offered to be a mean, but then you seemed rather to put your confidence in the bishop of Rome, "so as the sequel declareth the matter to be nothing amended, but in worse terms than it was before;" nevertheless if "our wit, power, authority, or friendship" can do anything, we would yet be glad to employ it for the quiet of Christendom. We heartily thank you for your overture touching your leagues, but, as we have not used to enter into any treaty without seeing the articles, we desire you to deliver a copy of them to our ambassador there, to be sent to us; and, if it be done with some diligence, we shall make reasonable answer within the six months.
Draft in Wriothesley's hand, pp. 5. Endd. : The minute of the letter to the French king, xxiijo [Julii ao xxxiiijo]. The fly leaf mutilated.
R.O. St. P. IX., 97. 2. French translatior of the preceding in Mason's hand, corrected by Wriothesley.
Fr. Pp. 4. Endd. : Minute to the French king — (blank) Julii ao xxxiiijo.
Calig. E. IV., 112. B. M. 3. Copy of §2 in Mason's hand.
Fr. Mutilated, pp. 3.
24 July.
Calig. E. IV., 111. B. M.
524. The Privy Council to Paget.
The secretary Loubenny has been here with the King, bringing a letter of credence in the French king's own hand, and has received of the King's own mouth the answer shown by the copy (herewith) of his Majesty's letters now sent to the French king. You shall, accordingly, require the copy of their treaties with their new confederates. If they speak of men of war sent lately to Calais and Guisnes, you may answer that you hear of no number, but only of 200 or 300 sent for defence of the King's pieces there, and that they should make no worse interpretation thereof than the King does of their daily increasing their garrisons towards his frontier. The Emperor and they being his neighbours, and such preparation of arms on both sides, wisdom requires him to look to the surety of his things. Guld[eforde], 24 July. Signed by Southampton, Sussex, Hertford, Durham, Winchester, Gage, and Wriothesley.
P. 1. Much mutilated. Address lost.
R. O. 2. Rough draft of the preceding. Undated.
In Wriothesley's hand, pp. 3. Endd. : Minute to Mr. Paget, xxiiijo Julii ao xxxiiijo.
R. O. 3. Fair copy of §1.
P. 1. Endd. like the preceding.
24 July.
R. O.
525. Sir Edward Wotton to the Council.
The 3,000l. received, 29 May, by Mr. Rous, is fully issued in empcions and wages for three months ended the 12th inst. The number of men working "within the limits of payments" is now 825, and the empcions continue very chargeable; and therefore, to save importuning them by often sending, he begs to have 3,000l. sent, which will scantily suffice till Michaelmas. Perceives, by their letters of the 13th inst., that the King is informed that his works in Wotton's payment are not sufficiently overseen, and commands him to look to them or else see that the overseers do so. The order of the works remains still in charge of the Surveyor, for, hindered by sickness and the affairs of the treasurership, Wotton has "in divers whole weeks since Candlemas last," not been outside the gates. Two months ago, conferred with the Surveyor about the slowness of these works, who promised that he and his deputy, the warden of the masons, would oftener repair to the works. The lack of good clerks is such that divers of the garrison have, with the lord Deputy's licence, been appointed overseers of the works. Protests his desire to serve. Calais, 24 July 1542.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
24 July.
R. O.
526. Sir John Wallop, Anthony Rous and Richard Lee to the Council.
Desire to report how the 7,000l. received from Mr. Deny, for the works here and in the "Marrys," is spent, and what money will suffice for three months more, ending 27 Sept. The first payment was for the month ended 10 May, 1,174 men working at Guisnes and 507 in the "Marys;" wages at Guisnes to the 30 horsemen, the two captains, and their bands, Ant. Rous and Ric. Lee, the 16 gunners extraordinary, and the said labourers, 992l.; wages to Mr. Wingfeld and his band, and the said labourers in the Marys 352l.; emptions and carriages 715l. 6s. 8d. The second pay, for the month ended 2 June, 1,593 working at Guisnes and 505 in the "Marys," wages (as before) 1,068l. and 465l., and emptions 664l. 6s. 8d. Third pay, for the month ended 5 July, 1,651 working at Guisnes and 587 in the "Marys;" wages (as before) 1,270l. and 387l., and emptions 632l. 13s.; as appears by the brief declaration of particulars sent herewith, which we, Ant. Rous and Ric. Lee, certify correct as regards numbers of men and wages, but only approximate as regards emptions, as the accounts are incomplete or not examined.
Send also herewith the numbers now working at Guisnes and the "Mares," with an estimate of the wages of them and the horsemen (accounting these from 31 July increased to 100), the captains and others aforesaid, and the emptions, for the months to end 2 Aug., 30 Aug., and 27 Sept.; which estimate will be under the mark, because 100 men have watched nightly this month for surety of the castle, the utter gatehouse being pulled down, and the 108 chalder of coal remaining of the provision made last year will only suffice two months. Advise like provision of coal to be made now for next year. Last year about 600l. was laid out for coal.
Perceive that the King will send over 1,000 footmen. If they are to come hither, where shall the labourers now within the town be lodged? The captains should bring their tents with them, for here is no place unless they dislodge the gentlemen already here. Ant. Rous will see that there is no want of victual. As for the 100 horsemen, I, Sir John Wallop, am provided with the whole number; but all are not furnished with horses and harness, as within three weeks they shall be. Guisnes, 24 July. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
24 July.
R. O.
527. Wallop to the Council.
"Advertisements from divers parts of France." An Englishman that came from Paris says that, 8 days before he left, they of Paris took up men to send to Picardy, Loreyne, and beyond the Mountains. In Picardy sundry Frenchmen asked him if the King would make war with them, or had required, or would require, his money which the French king owes, saying, "they hoped that the King would not meddle, for he is a good Frenchman, that is to say, he will not war with them."
Other advertisements out of Amyas, from a gentlewoman that "haunteth Monsr. de Vandosme much at his being there," I send herewith.
By another way learns that those assembled about Abvill and elsewhere are to keep camp by St. Powle, and dare make no enterprise until word come from England and the French king. The Burgundians await the like from the Emperor and the King of England, as the French say. On Thursday, 20 July, three companions of Arde said to their captain, "Captain, if ye woll give us leave, we know three good prisoners, Burgonians, we woll go fetch them." He answered, "If you find them upon our pale, take them; and if you fetch them out of th'Emperor's dominion ye shall be hanged for the same." Women and children are sent away from Arde, Monstrull, and other towns. This morning, 24 July, general musters are taken all Boullenois over, for the camp aforesaid.
Trusts they received his packet of letters despatched from hence 21 July. Signed.
P.S.—This day Mr. Vaughan, Mr. Pawlmer, and other gentlemen, according to their promise to the gentlemen of Arde that were here, (fn. 3) went thither; where they were received without the accustomed stay at the gate, and had leave to go where they would, but went straight to Mons. de Torsey's lodging, who rose up from table to receive them, and had them to dinner, and used them very gently. In conversation, Mons. de Torsey said he knew the King "was more French than I[mperial], and so being, he doubted not but well to overcome the malice of th'Emperor;" yet he had no commandment to begin war, but looked to hear from Mons. de Vandosme to-night or to-morrow.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
24 July.
R. O.
528. Adrien De Croy [Sieur De Roeulx] to Wallop.
Has received his letter asking if the French saying, that they will encamp at St. Pol, is true. If Wallop's messenger had not come, would have despatched a gentleman this night to inform him that the duke of Vendosme is marching within the Emperor's ground of Arthois with 14,000 or 15,000 foot, 400 or 500 men of arms and artillery to besiege Arras or Bethune. Has been at Arras preparing to receive them, and trusts their coming shall be to their confusion. The French king draws towards Spain with a great army. His army has entered Luxembourg, and that of the duke of Cleves, in his pay, makes war in Brabant and Liége. The Emperor is attacked unawares, for the truce lasted still five years, and feels most the opening this war gives to the Turk. As to the passport for Wallop's horses, has no news of it from the Queen, but he may take them up, to pass by Gravelinghes or St. Omer, for the writer is sure the Emperor would do much more than that to please a servant of the King of England. To show how he trusts the English nation, if there are any young men there who desire to see war in the Emperor's service, will send money to raise them under some English gentleman for captain. Hopes to be to-morrow night at St. Omer, and there to hear news from him. Bethune, 24 July. Signed.
French, pp. 2. Add.
24 July.
R. O.
529. The War.
Letter of marque (granted by Jehan de Bois Lambert, sieur de Precarre, captain of the castle of Toucque, lieutenant to the Admiral of France, in the absence of the Sieur de la Meilleraye, vice-admiral in Normandy) to Thomassin Nordest, captain of a ship called La Bonne Avanture, of 30 tons, now at Havre de Grace, against the Emperor's subjects. Honnefleu, 24 July 1542. Signed : Jehan du Boislambert.
Fr. p. 1. Sealed.
24 July.
R. O.
530. The Nuncio Capo Di Ferro to Cardinal Farnese.
(fn. 4) His Majesty (Francis I.) afterwards showed him of a new defensive league between him, the Kings of Scotland, Sweden, and Denmark, and the duke of Gueldres against the Emperor, of which, as a matter of ceremony, and not because he cared about it, he had informed the King of England, in case he wished to enter it, in order that he might know the consequences if he offended the King of Scotland. Denmark and Sweden had already taken a booty of grain from the Emperor's subjects worth 100,000 ducats. Next year, when they had many barks ready, and he had 400 ships, they would trouble the Emperor in earnest. He added that all Germany was in arms with the contention between Saxony and the Landgrave, and the duke of Brunswick; and he had allowed Count William, who was lately here, to go against Brunswick, for Saxony and the Landgrave were giving him (Francis) men, and had offered to join him; and that poor Brunswick, like all others who attached themselves to the Emperor, would be ruined, as Signor Ascanio and his own Constable were. He made great demonstration of affection and obedience to his Holiness. Three days ago they were as discontented and enraged at his Holiness as now they are satisfied and affectionate; but neither [condition] is to be counted upon, and if at this last audience the Council had been mentioned it would have set up the furies again. (fn. 4)
Italian. Modern extract from Rome, pp. 2. Headed : Del nuntio Capo di Ferro, 24 di Luglio 1542, di Bion, al Rmo Card. Farnese.
25 July.
Dasent's A.P.C., 19.
531. The Privy Council.
Heading, "At Chobham, the xxiij. of July," but no attendance or business recorded.
Meeting at Windsor, 25 July. Present : Southampton, Sussex, Hertford, Russell, Durham, Winchester, Gage, Browne, Wingfield. Wriothesley, Dacres. Business :—Recognisance (cited) of Thos. Morres, John Westcote, and Wm. Spenser, of Windsor, to keep the peace.
[*** Next entry is 29 July.]
25 July.
Kaulek, 435. (Abstract.)
532. Marillac to Francis I.
M. de l'Aubespine, the bearer, will report the delay which the King made in their audience and all news of this country. French. Headed : [London,] 25 July.
Kaulek, 436. (The whole text.) 2. Memoranda for L'Aubespine.
The delay of the audience because the Emperor's ambassador was at Court, and to show coldness, the English thinking something was to be sought, such as the marriage which, in his last audience but one, the King mentioned to the ambassador. (fn. 5) The manner of the Councillors before speaking with the King.
Having declared to the King, as instructed, (fn. 6) the causes which moved Francis to war.
He said he could not believe it; and if true, it was strange that the Emperor should have caused the ambassadors (fn. 7) to be killed. That he was annoyed at this war, seeing how harmful it may be to Christendom. That, as both princes are his allies and, as he thinks, friends, he formerly did his best to pacify them; but as they suspected that he nourished discord between them he gave up meddling, and now thanked God that it was known that this rupture of the truce did not proceed from him—using these words, that it could not be said that he had been either the maker of that great amity that was believed to be between them or the author of this war. That he will seek all means to agree them. That it was true that when the King and the Emperor were on terms of agreement, and even at the time of the Emperor's passage in France, they had pushed him into a narrow corner, but, thank God, he was still alive and not so little a king as he was thought. That he had news that in France he was ordinarily said to be of small account (qu'il ne pouvoit gueres). The pleasure he showed at hearing that the war is begun. Saying that if the King takes the death of his ambassadors as such an injury, why did he listen to the articles (fn. 8) which the Bishop of Rome sent him about peace, and deliver others in reply, to which answer was expected within three weeks? The answer made to this. He says it is easy to believe that the King expects peace, since, with such forces assembled, he executes nothing.
Having told him of the treaty of Sweden.
He says that the King of Sweden is too poor to help the King, and the duke of Prussia too far off; the King of Denmark could help, but the Easterlings were merchants who could very well do without war. When he has seen the articles of the treaty he will decide whether to enter it; but would first know if all those named by me as having entered it, have signed it. The instance he made to know the contents of the treaty, and the reasons why we would not show it, both to make him believe the aid greater and to gain time. It were well first to enquire whether he would sign league offensive or defensive; which he will never do; and as it is to be presumed that he will not enter, he need not know the contents. This would irritate him all the more; for the preparations made since he spoke with us show that he is not a little irritated.
Going to the chase he said he had just had news that between our two armies of Cleves and Lucçambourt the enemies had interposed in great force; and he asked what forces Mons. d'Orleans had, and what captains. Also what forces and captains were in the army which the King would lead in person, and in that of the King of Navarre, and what in Piedmont. That he was assured that the King would not have so many lansknechts as he wished; the answer being that some had to be turned away. That it would need the revenue of three kingdoms to pay these armies; answer being to explain the order put in the finances, and that in three or four years the revenue had increased by three quarters, and that there would be no want of money, for the fund and the revenue, &c. That this entering upon war about the ambassadors will not be greatly approved, because it is known that they were going to the Turk; answer being, etc. (sic), that at the time Rincon was with him he never invaded, and this loss of Christians of Buda did not happen. Whether the King had sent to defy the Emperor and given his subjects time, as accustomed to withdraw their goods? It was answered that when the Emperor broke the truce the war was open, and the Emperor felt that he had so offended the King that he held himself as defied; there was more need for the Emperor to give defiance when he meant to kill the King's ambassadors, for that was a wickedness and evil will which could not be discovered, whereas the King's preparations to obtain redress were so many, and made so near him that he could see them from his windows, and his ambassador had not budged from France, and continued to send men to the Emperor, who passed and repassed freely. Assuring him, for his satisfaction, that the war was really open, and that we were astonished that he had not yet had news of what the King's armies had done. He asked moreover what aid that poor little King of Sweden could give, and if the King of Scotland was to make war too, who was so poor; [saying] that the duke of Saxony had enough to do elsewhere, and that the enterprise which he and the Landgrave made for the duke of Brunswick would end in smoke, as Brunswick was supported by the Emperor and Empire, and if they attacked him, especially during this expedition of Hungary, they deserved to be set upon. It was true that the King of Denmark could give some aid, and was making some enterprise, for he had arrested several ships, even of his (Henry's) subjects, but had only taken out the artillery and would, he expected, pay for it.
Being informed that the treaty is offensive and defensive without exception, and with all forces, he remained greatly astonished and annoyed. He was told that, if he would write to his ambassador in France, the King would gladly send him a copy that he might enter it at the honourable place kept for him. He promised to write. This was done upon news of the footmen and horsemen already sent by Denmark to Longueval, who was asking for more.
The ambassador, to confirm his late report (fn. 9) of the language used, renewed it in my presence. The King answered that the Admiral began it to his ambassador, who like a good minister, knowing his master's friendship to the King, held the said language without charge, being sure that he would not be disavowed. That the words held were but general. That, assuredly, he was not going to enter into war without great provocation. That the King must not find it strange that he reinforced his garrisons beyond sea, seeing what they were doing at Ardres and places near him; and the reply made him by the ambassador about it. He said also that no faith was to be given to the Imperials' saying that they were making a marriage (fn. 10) and obtaining money from him on account of the Emperor's ambassador's late going into Flanders; which going was only to settle a dispute about navigation. He had sent no person of quality with the ambassador, as would have been done had there been question of disbursing money upon surety or of treating the said marriage. However, he confessed to us, what he has always hitherto denied to the ambassador, that he had been much sought after for the marriage and for money, but that no conclusion had been made.
The men that are enrolled secretly. All merchant ships commanded to be ready. The dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk absent. Milord Warden absent "sur les hancres." The saying of some gentlemen of his chamber "qu'il falloit bien que ce roy fust de quelque costé." Eighty pieces of artillery already at Calais. Gunners sent away in all haste.
After waiting till Monday, for they delayed my despatch because they sent their courier on the Sunday at dinner, they sent for us to the Council, where, under pretext of speaking of private matters, the Privy Seal and Secretary took us apart and told us that I had come without speaking of the pensions, which was the only quarrel between the Kings, who for the rest were as good friends, &c. The reply of Marillac that we had no instructions (que n'en avions riens), and that heretofore the King had made overture to find some way of extinguishing that quarrel, but without success, and that the King was ready to listen to all reasonable "partiz." From thence we went to speak to the King, who received us much more solemnly than usual, repeated his former language, apologised that these letters (fn. 11) were written by his secretary, and added that he wished to remain the King's good friend, and would on his side continue the amity, thinking his brother so reasonable that he would not give him cause to the contrary.
After the return from Court, "entendu qu'on avoit chargé quelque nombre faulx de colliers, municions, etc." The plan of Ardres and Therouennes. "Le pont de M. Hierome." The mariners retained. 600 men passed to Calais before my arrival.
Besides the above M. de l'Aubespine will remember to give the King the following news :—That the eight ships prepared in the Thames, of which Marillac has several times written, are ready to sail; and will, whenever weather permits, proceed towards Antonne, to Porchemue, where there is provision of victuals ready to be shipped within 24 hours. No great personages will go in these ships, nor more men than needful to work them. They are the King's ships. It is true that about Antonne are 15 or 16 other ships likewise prepared; and there are said to be 7 or 8 others in the north, at Houlch, on the Yorkshire coast. Also it is understood that this King is seeking to buy in Flanders 15 ships of 200 or 300 tons, and is bringing a great quantity of munitions and harness. The bp. of Waiseminster departed eight or ten days ago, secretly, to go into Spain by sea. Lately arrived a courier from the Emperor, who, without speaking to the Emperor's ambassador, came straight to present his letters to the King, "laquelle fin ne se peult entendre estans les affaires fors secrets."
French. Headed : Memoire.
25 July.
R. O.
533. Wallop to the Council.
Received theirs of the 21st on the 24th at midnight, and perceives it is come to the King's knowledge that the wife of Barnard Greete, a stranger born, having lands in France and a Frenchman to her son, has often access to Fienes, whereby she is suspected to be a spy to Mons. de Beez, and that the King, considering what intelligence is between a man and his wife, desires both sent over to the Council. Has this afternoon by advice of Mr. Rous, treasurer, and Mr. Pawlmer, one of the captains, sent over Barnard Greete, and intends to send her "along seas" to-morrow. On Tuesday, 17th (fn. 12) inst., Mr. Pawlmer, being sick, wrote that he had a matter of importance to open. Went, with Mr. Rous to him; who said there was a woman in the castle, a stranger born and having a son in France, who was not only a spy to Mons. de Beez, but so placed that, in an hour, she could destroy all the munition in the castle. Wallop answered that he knew no other but Barnard Greete's wife, who had the keeping of one Walter James, being sick, who keeps the keys of all the munitions; "and if she be false, quod I, then am I well at ease, for her husband is one that many times writeth for me, whom I do take to be an honest man, and was written to in his favour by Mr. Connyngesby, and report was made of him by divers out of England that he was meet to be here and should do good service, and, at my last being in England, Mr. Berkeley, of the Privy Chamber, gave me thanks on his behalf, requiring me to be and continue his good master; yet notwithstanding, I mistrusted him the same morning by reason that, after I was up and ready, reckoning to have finished my letters that I began overnight of the King's Majesty's affairs, could not then find him within the castle, whereupon incontinent I sent one to bring me sure word where he was, who did meet with him coming out of the town. And at his coming towards me did perceive that I was somewhat moved with choler, excused himself to have been in the town mending of a doublet. And when I came there where I am accustomed to write, I said to him, 'Bernard Greete, take good heed what thou dost, for I do now put thee in trust of a matter of great importance, and I do protest unto thee that there is none do know the same but thou and I, nor none shall; and therefore if this thing chance to be discovered it must needs proceed of thee and of no man else, which shall be to thy utter undoing.' He being therewith wonderfully abashed, saying that yet he did never deceive any that hath put him in trust, albeit he hath been secretary to divers great men. And with that I charged him upon his allegiance to be secret in these things." Upon that declaration Mr. Pawlmer suggested that she should be despatched out of the castle, and after discussion with Mr. Rous and Mr. Pawlmer, Wallop called Bernard Grete and, without telling him the matter, said he would convey most of the women and children out of the castle, "and that my wife should be one of them." He, "mistrusting somewhat the matter, with the water in his eyes," said he would send her to her brother, dwelling beside St. Omer's, of the Imperial part, but had not money sufficient to send her away; whereupon Mr. Rous, out of pity, gave him two crowns.
Upon reflection, decided to keep her in the castle until the King's pleasure were known; and, on returning from the Great Master, asked Mr. Pawlmer if he could learn further. He said she had been at Fienes, and, within two days, he reckoned to know more. On the 17th, (fn. 13) within an hour after Mr. Pawlmer first showed the matter, a gentleman came from the Great Master, and Wallop was occupied entertaining him until supper time, going next day to the Great Master, returning on the Thursday, and writing his despatch on Friday. Had in the meantime desired Rous and Pawlmer to examine Water James; who said he kept his keys locked in a cupboard, the key of which he kept in his purse, but lately, on going to Calais, he left the key of a gallery, in which were certain pikes and handguns laid out to be delivered to the captains, with Bernard Grete's wife. Determined, the Saturday following, with Rous, Pawlmer, the Surveyor, and Mr. Vaughan to examine both James and her further; but this examination is now left to the Council, "saving that Pawlmer before her departure asked when she was at Fyenes, she confessing to be there upon a jour de feaste, about xiiij days past."
In his last, wrote that the Frenchmen should encamp at St. Poll. To verify that, sent Guisnes to the Great Master with a letter cf news, as occasion for him to send his intelligence. He returned a letter on closed. Asks how to answer his proffer to entertain certain of the King's subjects in wages. Will send him occurrants of Picardy and Boulloynoiz, and so continue intelligence with him. Encloses a proclamation published this day at St. Omer's. Guisnes, 25 July, 10 p.m.
Signed.
Pp. 6. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
R. O. 2. Order to the Count de Roeulx and the Council of Arthois (by the Emperor, who was anxious to remain at peace with all princes, especially the French king, in order to be able to turn his forces against the Turk, the common enemy of Christendom, and therefore passed unnoticed many practices made by the French king against him, until now that the French king has advanced to pillage his subjects of Luxembourg, and has induced the duke of Cleves to invade Brabant) to proclaim throughout Arthois that all his subjects withdraw their goods into the towns and fortresses, and that those who owe goods or money to Frenchmen pay the same to the Emperor's officers. Dated Brussels, 19 July 1542, and subscribed as published at St. Omer, 25 July.
French. Copy, pp. 2. Endd.
25 July.
Spanish Calendar, VI. II. No. 35.
534. Mary Of Hungary to Chapuys.
Has delayed answering his letters of the 12th, 16th, 19th, and 20th inst., owing to Francis having, without previous challenge, invaded the country in two places, viz., by Luxemburg on the 13th and by Cleves on the 15th. Fears also that he is going to make a third attack on the frontier of Arthois, though on the 12th, on the very eve of invading Luxemburg, he positively declared to M. de Marvol, the Imperial ambassador, that he would attempt nothing against this country unless we gave him cause, yet he despatched his son Orleans to Luxemburg, where he has taken Dampvilliers, a small town incapable of defence, and may take several other places, as very few are fortified. Has ordered Thionville and Yvoix to be strengthened with ordnance, &c.
On the side of Cleves, M. de Longueval and Martin van Rossen, who has taken the title of Marshal of Gueldres, have penetrated into the district of Vos le Duc (Bois le Duc), but have gained no place of importance. They have taken Hochstrate, the country seat of the La Laing family, but it is only a pleasure house. They threaten Antwerp, but will find it no easy place to besiege, with our forces in their rear, which can soon be concentrated.
Chapuys is to inform the King of this invasion, and see if the King will feel inclined to succour the Low Countries; but only as if it came from himself, unless he see a chance of getting some aid, however small, by representing that if the French get possession of Flanders they will dictate to the English, whom they will no longer care for. Chapuys shall also thank the King for his warning touching the islands off the coast of Holland, which the Duke of Holstein might surprise. Means to see to their defence, and is arming a number of ships to prevent the Danes getting near them. A few days ago our people captured near Verre, in Zealand, a large ship of the Duke of Holstein's armed for war, whose captain, on being questioned, confessed that he had been sent by the Duke to explore the coast, and had already landed two men in Holland, and was about to have landed two more in Zealand; also that they were afterwards to have sailed for England, and learned what armaments were being made ready there; then to cross to France with letters from his master to the French king, which the captain threw into the sea when he saw he would be taken prisoner. He pretended to know nothing of the contents, but doubtless he was to report in France what he had seen in Holland and England, and settle what his master should do with the ships he is said to have armed and fitted out for sea. He was then to revisit England, or if he met with contrary winds come back to this sea and capture and rob as many English ships as he could. We are determined to have him examined afresh and put to the torture if necessary, to reveal the whole truth; and, if anything concern England, we will let the King know.
The navigation edict was already revoked before receipt of Chapuys's letter of the 12th, and the governor of the English merchants here has written that he is satisfied. If Francis's secretary (fn. 14) spoke to the King in the terms specified in your letter to the Emperor, it was quite in accordance with what the [French] king himself said on the 12th to the Emperor's ambassador, two days before he commenced war on this side, viz., that he would continue to be friendly as long as we did not give him occasion to be otherwise. So Henry will be able to judge of Francis's sincerity.
Should the Emperor address letters to her by way of England, begs Chapuys to have them forwarded with all speed as he did those which she wrote to the Emperor in Spain. M[alines], 25 July 1542.
From a draft at Brussels.
25 July.
Poli Epp. III., 99.
535. Cardinal Pole to Cardinal Cervini.
There arrived here this morning one Alessandro de Bologna, with two English youths, who said they were Flemings, but were recognised by some of Pole's household for English. Alessandro says he comes from London, where he dwells, and was taking the youths to Messer Francesco Casale, who had asked him to get him an English youth as a servant. Alessandro varies in his story, and is recognised as one of the King of England's equerries (cavallaricci), so that it might be well to speak with Casale and learn the truth. Does not suspect the youths, who appear simple, but this Alessandro, their guide. Encloses a letter from Alessandro to Casale, and another letter which he carries to Bologna, which may be returned to him. As he writes to Casale that he is going to speak with him on the matter he knows, it would be well to ask Casale what that is, and send word to Pole, who will then interrogate Alessandro, and see whether they tally. Has not examined him about this, so as not to offend Casale. Viterbo, 25 July 1542.
Italian.

Footnotes

1 It is not clear what treatise of Contarini's this is. The misreadings referred to do not help to identify it with any in the collected edition of his works.
2 L'Aubespine.
3 See No. 519.
4 Marillac. See No. 500.
5 Marillac. See No. 500.
6 See No. 470.
7 Fregoso and Rincon.
8 See No. 418.
9 See No. 500.
10 Of the Emperor with the Princess Mary.
11 See No. 523.
12 Should be 18th, as the 17th was a Monday.
13 Meaning 18th. See No. 519.
14 L'Aubespine.