Henry VIII
September 1543, 16-20

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James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors)

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1902

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'Henry VIII: September 1543, 16-20', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 18 Part 2: August-December 1543 (1902), pp. 98-106. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=76767 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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September 1543, 16-20

16 Sept.
R. O. [Spanish Calendar, VI. II., No. 232.]
191. The Privy Council to Chapuys.
The French have appointed to relieve Arde with victuals, and, at the same time, if the country of Brednok is left unguarded, to storm the church of Ouderwyk and fort of Hannewaynes. It is important to you that that fertile country should not be devastated, and to us that the road from Calais to Gravelines should not be infested by the enemy; and therefore the King thinks that Hannewaynes should no longer be defended by peasants but by veteran soldiers. If your men are deterred by the expense, he asks permission to furnish it with his own men. Credence for bearer, who can describe the site of the fort. Woodstock, 16 Sept. Signed by Westminster, Wriothesley, Browne and Winchester.
Lat., p. 1. Modern transcript from Vienna.
16 Sept.
Add. MS. 32,652, f. 98. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 34.
192. Suffolk to Henry VIII.
Perceives by Henry's letters, dated Woodstock, 14 Sept., that he is to set forth among the King's friends in Scotland the contents of the letter to Angus; but the chief point is not feasible, for the Cardinal and Governor dare not come to Edinburgh and are gone to St. Andrews, as appears by Sir George Douglas's letter to the lord Warden (forwarded to the Council). Will, however, move them to raise forces and get Edinburgh castle into their hands; and advises bestowing some money among them. Suggests devising a proclamation for them to make at Edinburgh and elsewhere, so as to make a clear breach with the other party. If they refuse, it will be known that they either lack power or good will; and, therefore, any exploit far within the country will require an army able to withstand the whole realm. As to the enterprise upon the Governor and Cardinal in Edinburgh; seeing that they dare not come there, defers making ready the ships and raising men, but prepares provision. And as to the army of 16,000 men to enter half by the Berwick and half by the West Borders, will consult this day and to-morrow with the lord Warden and some of the East Borders, and with Wharton and some of the West. The burning of Edinburgh with only 8,000 men is impossible, for the Scots can in time raise a far greater force to let it. As soon as the King's army begins to assemble they will join all together to oppose it. Begs remembrance of draughts for ordnance and costrelles filled with beer; for carriage of victuals must be on horseback— wains will not serve in that country at this season. A proclamation, with the entry of a main army, will make many revolt to the King's purpose. Sends herewith a letter from Sir Wm. Eure to the lord Warden enclosing one of lord Hume's. Darnton, 16 Sept.
Pp. 4. Add. Endd. : xvijo (sic) Septembris 1543.
16 Sept.
R. O.
193. Suffolk to Sir Richard Riche.
As there is a matter depending between Sir John Candysshe and Chr. Lassells, and I have stayed Candysshe here on the King's service, please direct the King's writ of commission to my lord President and Council in these parts to determine the matter. Darnton, 16 Sept. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Chancellor of Augmentations. Sealed.
16 Sept.
R. O.
194. Edmond Harvel to Henry VIII.
Wrote on the 9th. It is since reported that the Turks are withdrawn from Albaregal to Buda. The Turk's death is reported from Pectovia but not believed. Doria is arrived in Geane with 30 galleys and 1,500 Spaniards, who have joined Guasto's army of 14,000 soldiers marching towards Nisa; but Barbarossa has burnt the town and departed, carrying off many men of Nisa and Provence and certain French captains. Some conjecture that he will return to Constantinople by way of Africa, and attempt to take Tonys. The French ambassador, Moluke, has declared to the Signory letters from the French King, of 27 Aug., alleging that the prince of Melphi and Mons. de Brisake have undone 800 horsemen and 2,000 footmen of Henry's and the Imperial army in Henault, and that there was such disorder between English and Flemings about precedence that they are severed. The said Ambassador and the Bishop of Rome's legate have bruited, by letters from the French court of the 5th inst., "that the Scottish Cardinal with his faction there hath taken arms against your Majesty's fawtors and put all Scotland in tumultuation." Against these "impudent lies" there lack no "grounded arguments." At Mirandola 500 footmen have been made, to succour Maran, and embarked at places of the duke of Ferare and the Bishop of Rome. Venice, 16 Sept. 1543.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Sealed. Endd.
17 Sept.
Add. MS. 32,652, f. 101. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 35.
195. Suffolk, Parr and Tunstall to the Council.
Wharton and the expert gentlemen of the West Borders, and also the expert men of the East and Middle Borders brought by the lord Warden, have, after long debate and delivery of a bill (herewith) subscribed by those of the West showing what victual and carriage is there and that no army can enter that way, subscribed another bill (herewith) showing what they think a main army can do to annoy the King's enemies in Scotland who will not perform the late treaties, and what garrisons must be laid on the Borders. If a main army enters, Suffolk will leave a sufficient number to guard the Borders, use their horses for carriage, and send for them in the event of a battle. Enclose a proportion, drawn by Mr. Shelley, of bread and beer for 16,000 men for seven days, and a book showing what grain and victual, carts and horses are at Berwick; also a bill of the master of the ordnance, showing what ordnance and artillery at Berwick may be spared for an army. If a main army is to enter, the draughts for ordnance and 3,000 costrelles filled with beer for which Suffolk wrote must be sent, for carts cannot in winter serve in that country. Mr. Shelley, having the said costrelles, can shortly provide bread and beer for 16,000 men for 10 days. With a main army Suffolk will enter at Wark, "upon assemblaunce to enter into Tyvidale upon the Carres and Humes"; and, when at Kelso, will, with the whole army on horseback, ride in a night to Edinburgh (but 26 miles of fair way as Sandy Pringle says), and summon the town to find means to have the castle delivered to him within 3 or 4 hours or else he will put them to the sword, man, woman and child, and burn the town. If they deliver the castle, he will put in a garrison and take 30 or 40 townsmen as hostages for it; and if not, he will sack and burn the town, and return, wasting the countries of such as are not the King's friends. Darnton, 17 Sept. Signed.
P.S.—It is thought that, if a main army should not invade, 2,000 will suffice to garrison the Borders, unless the Scots enforce their Borders with great garrisons. The King may consider the cost of this garrison, and what little hurt it can do the enemies, with the cost of a main army and the hurt which it could do; and also the likelihood of such an army compelling many to the King's devotion, and what little charges the King shall be at after its return. If they fall to treating, Suffolk prays God they may proceed with better faith than hitherto. Enclose a letter from Sadler to the Council, and a letter of Bothwell's to the lord Warden with the copy of his answer.
Pp. 5. Add. Sealed. Endd. : 1543.
R. O. 2. An opinion of certain Borderers that upon the West Marches victual and carriages cannot be had for 12,000 men, nor for above 3,000, except horsemen provided for a night or two, because :—1. In that country is but "bigge and haver"; for wheat is supplied thither from Newcastle, the bishopric of Dureme and Richmontshire. 2. There are no vessels nor ovens to bake and brew; nor cask to carry beer, for all the country use "pottes and standes with wide mouthes," except three or four gentlemen. 3. The carriages are "but evil wains with weak oxen, and no horse carts there." 4. In the West Marches of Scotland are very straight and dangerous passages and no victual, "and, in the same, mountains and mossy country most barren without woods." 5. No trust is to be given to any Scottish men within their realm. Signed : Thomas Whartton : Thomas Curwen : John Lowther : Thorn's Sandffort : X'pofer Crakanthorpe : John Thomson.
P. 1. Endd : "Sir Thomas Wharton's divise, etc."
R. O. 3. An opinion of certain Borderers that, if war is to be made this winter against Scotland, such an army as entered Scotland with my lord of Northfolke last year, able to meet the whole power of Scotland, is necessary if it is to abide there above three days. It should enter by the East and Middle Marches and should, if the power of Scotland be not assembled, march in two battles near enough to unite if attacked; and within ten days the Scots will either give battle or make "humble suits and offers, and especially, we think, the Borderers will offer bonds for service." With the necessary carriage and victuals, and seasonable weather, such an army would do far more than a continual garrison. The garrison in the East and Middle Marches of 700 horsemen and 100 workmen at Warke should be increased by 200 horsemen; for, on learning the intention to invade, the Scots "will be most cruel to do exploits afore the invasion." During the invasion, my lord Lieutenant may send certain of the garrison to the army if required; and afterwards, if no bond be taken of the Scottish borderers, and if great waste be made by the army, 600 horsemen will suffice for garrison. If trust be given to any Scottishmen "let experiment be used" by appointing them to do some "anoysaunce" in Scotland before the invasion. Signed : Thomas Whartton : Rauff Eure : Thomas Curwen : John Lowther : Thom's Sandffort : Robert Collyngwod : John Horsle : Xpofer Crakanthorpe : John Thomson.
Pp. 3. Endd. : "The divise of Sir Tho. Wharton, etc."
18 Sept.
Add. MS. 32, 652, f. 106. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 37.
196. The Privy Council to Suffolk.
Have seen his letters to the King, containing his opinion of the enterprise to be made with 8,000 horsemen, the requisites for a main army (including costrelles of beer from hence) and how the Governor and Cardinal dare not come to Edinburgh, and that a proclamation should be made in Scotland the specialties whereof he does not declare. Desire him to take in good part that they speak more plainly to him than otherwise they would gladly do. For where he dissents from their device, of an enterprise with 8,000 horsemen as not sufficient to burn Edinburgh, they think that all Scotland, upon sudden warning, is not able to encounter with 8,000 horsemen well furnished; and, the Borders being able to make so many horsemen as his certificates show, means of secrecy may be devised, on pretence of raids and defeating of the garrisons which the Scots have lately laid there. Doubt not that he will agree that this manner of exploit would be more terrible, for the suddenness of it, than the invasion of a main army, which now has one impediment more than may be hereafter, viz., the conveying of drink by costrelles. Point out the usefulness of carts, the number of men occupied in carrying by costrelles, and that the beer would be sour ere it came there. If he persists in his opinion, they ask to what purpose are the practices with the abbot of Passeley for the castle of Edinburgh, with Sir George Douglas for Black Nasshe and with Angus for Tentallon if the taking possession of them requires a main army? An addition of 2,000 footmen would be useful for assaulting and burning; but, for an encounter with the Scots, they think he will, on reflection, be of their opinion. Being in the place of lieutenant, it is not meet that Suffolk himself should adventure his life in this enterprise, but he is to devise means of secrecy, and furnish victual for it when the King shall see opportunity; for, since the Cardinal and Governor dare not come at Edinburgh, whose apprehension was the ground for this invasion, and whose fear to come thither argues some power in the King's friends, the King thinks good to put over this enterprise, but to have all ready for it in case the holds may be attained, or else the town of Edinburgh misentreat his ambassador, or (from Douglas or other) the King shall learn some good opportunity. Douglas is not to be made privy to any such enterprise, but only communed with, according to the King's former letters, of what his friends intend or desire. Suffolk should touch to him the interception of the posts to and from Mr. Sadleyr, which, being done so near Coldingham, cannot have been without the knowledge of his friends, whereby they deserve no such restitution as he sues for; and should also show him that the lord of Bronstone, in speaking of this, showed the King that Douglas's friends might convey Sadleyr's letters, one to another, between Edinburgh and Berwick as quickly and more surely than an express post. If Douglas undertakes this, Sadleyr should be warned to write important letters in cipher. Where Suffolk mentions a proclamation, but no specialities of it, they can write nothing in that behalf. That the Governor and Cardinal dare not come to Edinburgh is a token of the strength of the King's friends.
Draft, pp. 14. Endd. : Mynute to the duke of Suffolk, xviijo Septembris 1543.
18 Sept.
Add. M.S. 32,652, f. 104. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 36.
197. [Wriothesley] to Sadler.
Has not written for a good season because, through sickness, he was absent from the Court, to which he returned a little before the King's late removing from Ampthill. Communing for Sadler's safety from the fury of those wretched people, found the King willing that he should withdraw to a place of surety and surprised that he had not already done so, when some strong place was offered by Maxwell and Somervil. Advises him to withdraw to Tentallon till the King devises for his return.
Draft much corrected by Wriothesley, pp. 2. Endd : Mynute to Mr. Sadleyr, xviijo Septembris 1543.

R. O. St. P., V. 340.
198. Sir Anthony Browne's Instructions.
Where the King was provoked to enter war with Scotland by the late King of Scots, who died, after God had given the King great victory, leaving an only daughter, his Majesty's pronepte, he, "of his gracious and godly nature," both stayed his sword and hearkened to the suits of the nobles of Scotland (and afterwards of the Governor and nobles there) for peace and the marriage of the young Princess to my lord Prince. Which peace and marriage were concluded by persons authorised by their whole Parliament; but, after ratifying them, the Governor, seduced by the Cardinal, has not put in the hostages required nor kept his other promises. The King, considering that, where words and writings will not serve, the sword must constrain such unfaithful people to reason, thinks it more than necessary that, unless the Scots, without desiring any alteration of the said treaties, make humble petition to the King (with offer of acceptable assurance) to pardon their remissness and accept their suit, he should daunt them by force. For the furniture of this force, Suffolk, Parr and Durham, his Councillors in those parts, must be consulted; and Sir Ant. Browne is addressed to Suffolk to inform him of that determination and consult with the said Council within what time the 8,000 horsemen and 2,000 footmen may be assembled; and thereupon to signify to the King within how many days the entry into Scotland may be actually made when ordered.
As it is supposed that he will find Sir George Douglas with Suffolk, the said Council shall enter frankly with Sir George to know what he and his brother Angwish will do now, reminding him how Angwish, a little before going into Scotland, "said he durst undertake to set the Crown of Scotland upon his Majesty's head before Midsummer then following," and how Sir George and others have continually sued to the King to "bear and tolerate," and all things would succeed to his purpose, whereas they have gone evermore from worse to worse. Reminding him also of the bond, which he and his brother and other noblemen made, to serve the King if the Governor should revolt, as he now has, or the young Queen be taken from her keepers appointed by Parliament, who is now at the order of her mother and the Cardinal (which bonds Browne shall carry with him); and tasting whether he and the rest will make and execute a proclamation in Scotland, of which Browne has the draft. If he seem "slack and full of casting perils," they shall declare that the King will no longer feed them with money unless he see some fruit; but if he answer that he and his brother and their friends will do their duties, in refusing to come to the Cardinal and in executing the King's commands, he must be required to write the names of their friends of whom he is sure to take their part "and if they use themselves otherwise, then to be taken as no friends."
When Sir George is departed, they shall devise to put ready secretly 8,000 (altered from "eight or six thowsand") horsemen and 2,000 light footmen, to enter suddenly into Scotland with the victual at Berwick and devastate the country of the enemies even to Edinburgh gates, or (fn. 1) make further enterprise of the town of Edinburgh if feasible. Having foreseen the provision of victuals, assembling of men, description of captains and order to be kept, they shall defer the actual execution, awaiting the King's pleasure. In the enterprise the lord Warden shall enter as chieftain, with Browne, as the King's Councillor, to advise and help him. And Suffolk shall take order that garrisons be laid from time to time on the Borders for defence.
Browne shall devise with Sir George Douglasse to convey Mr. Sadler to Tentallon, to be in surety from the King's adversaries.
Draft with corrections by Gardiner, and a few by Wriothesley, pp. 19.
R. O. Ib. 38. 2. Fair copy of the first paragraph of the preceding, headed "Instructions given by the King's Majesty to," &c., Sir Ant. Browne, master of the Horses, whom he sends "at this time into the North parts for the purpose ensuing."
Pp. 2.
18 Sept.
R. O. [Spanish Calendar, VI. II., No. 233.
199. Chapuys to the Queen Of Hungary.
This King hearing that the French, 8,000 foot and horse, would, within ten days, revictual Ardres, and considering, by his experience of Frenchmen, that such a band would at the same time make other enterprises, caused his Council to write me a letter (copy enclosed) and show me by a map that unless the two places mentioned in the letter are not surely guarded the French would spoil the Emperor's country and the King's between Gravelines and Calais and stop all traffic that way. The Grand Porter of Calais and another gentleman who brought the map prayed Chapuys to write to her to provide experienced men to guard these places; or else to let his men guard them, if she will put some artillery there and command the neighbouring peasants to aid in making the necessary ramparts. As there is no time to send and send again, the King desires her to advertise his deputy of Calais of her intention therein. London, 18 Sept. 1543.
French, pp. 2. Modern transcript from Vienna.

Corpus Reform., v. 174.
200. Melancthon to Alesius.
A Pannonian guest is going thither (an honest and learned man, pastor of the Church of God in the city of Corona (fn. 2) ), that he may hear the churches of these parts, for he wishes his church to be joined with ours. I gave him the pages of our last disputation, about which I much desire to speak with you. O that we may hand down a plain and incorrupt doctrine to posterity! This is my chief wish. Let others contend for power and empires.
Latin. Add. : "Reverendo viro, eruditioni et virtuti præstanti D. Alexandro Alesio, doctori Theologiæ in inclyta Academia Lipsica.
18 Sept.
Corpus Reform., V. 178.
201. Melancthon to J. Snegius.
John Turstenius has been called to teach the church there, but cannot at present leave this, so they have exhorted Master Johannes Anglus to go. Commends him highly. He is an Englishman but has long lived among the Germans. 18 Sept. 1543.
Latin. Add. : Reverendo, &c., D. Magistro Joanni Snegio, pastori ecclesiæ Heidensis in Ditmarsia. (fn. 3)
20 Sept.
Add. MS. 32,652, f 114. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 38.
202. Sadler to Henry VIII.
On Monday night (fn. 4) last, arrived here the Dowager, Governor, Cardinal, Murrey, Argile, Bothwell and their complices, except Lenoux and Huntley, who are said to have joined Angus's party—and indeed Lenoux will not be on the side that the Governor is of. Glencarn has sent word that Lenoux would leave his affection to France and gladly ally with Angus, by the marriage of the lady Margaret, in which case he hopes (as Sadler hears) for the King's aid in the recovery of his title to this realm, which (he says) the Governor usurps. Yesterday the Dowager sent lord Ryvan, (fn. 5) on behalf of the Governor and Council here, to pray Sadler to speak with them. Found them, in the Cardinal's house, set at a long board, the Dowager at the board's end, with the Governor on her right and Murray on her left, the Cardinal next the Governor, and the rest in order. When Sadler was, at the Queen's request, seated, the Cardinal declared that they sent for him for two causes, viz., (1) that they had seen letters from the King to the Provost and inhabitants of this town, which were so sharp that they thought the King must have been untruly informed, and, as the principal occasion of them seemed to be that Sadler was not well treated, doubtless he could show some specialty wherein he was mistreated, and they would both punish it and provide for his due treatment hereafter; and (2) that, where they learnt from him that one of his posts bringing letters was detained by the Humes, they prayed him to impute it only to the wildness of the Borders, and they would have the post delivered. In reply, Sadler so set forth the ungodly violence of these townsmen to him and his, and their vile railing on the King, that all seemed sorry to hear of it, promising to punish it and prevent it hereafter. As to the post, told them that the man was taken by Patrick Hume, who has laden him with irons like a thief and threatened to hang him with his letters about his neck; and duly engrieved the nature of the default. They prayed him to ascribe it to the disorder caused by the daily raids in Scotland by Englishmen. He retorted that like attemptates had been made by Scots in England, which Englishmen would not suffer unrevenged, and if peace was not observed the fault lay in themselves. The Cardinal prayed Sadler "to garr him understand how the default should be in them." Sadler said he would; and declared in order how, upon the decease of their late King, Henry not only stayed his sword but, in zeal to the wealth of both realms, was content to treat a peace and marriage, which they concluded and swore to perform—the non-performance of which within the time limited was the only cause of this disorder of the Borders. The Cardinal replied that the greatest part of the nobility was not present nor consenting to the conclusion of the treaties; doubtless, Henry was a prince of such wisdom as would rather seek direct means for the authentic and honorable conclusion of them than private ways which could not stand; and the noblemen present minded no less to satisfy the King than the others who had privately treated with him did, "in all things reasonable standing with the honor and surety of their Sovereign Lady, and the honor, liberty and common wealth of her realm." Sadler answered that they could not say the King had privately treated with them, for their ambassadors were instructed by Parliament and the treaties solemnly ratified by the Governor in the name of the whole realm; which if they would perform should redound chiefly to their own benefit, and if they listed to digress from them the dishonor should be theirs. The Cardinal replied that doubtless the King was a prince of such honor as would press them to nothing contrary to the wealth, honor and liberty of the realm (and anything not repugnant to the same they would gladly do), and if, "for not granting to that which cannot stand with the honor and liberty of this realm," the King persecuted his own kinswoman, an infant, it could not stand with his honor. Told him he should not be judge of the King's honor; and bade him persuade himself that, as the King had friendly proceeded to the conclusion of things which undoubtedly tended to "the weal, honor and surety of his pronepte," so he would prosecute interrupters of the same as her enemies; and, if they minded to begin any new treaty, they should but deceive themselves, for, assuredly, the King would not relent in anything that was concluded— indeed, at the time Sadler came here he durst have laid his right hand that the King would never condescend so far—and therefore they should either conform "out of hand to accomplish the treaties or else to declare plainly their utter minds in that behalf." The Cardinal answered that they did not send for him on purpose to talk of this matter; but when all the lords were come, which should be very shortly, they would advise what to do in it, "not offending the honor and liberty of the realm."
The Governor then took Sadler apart, and said that these men were very stiff against the treaties, but he remained the same man as ever. Told him he was sure that the King had once a very good opinion of him but uncertain what was now conceived, upon his sudden revolt from the noblemen by whom he might have wrought these men to his will; and as to the treaties he could not with honor digress from them. He answered that it lay not in him to perform them; but, when the other lords came, he would declare himself as he had promised.
Here Murrey interrupted the communication. Evidently they were loth that Sadler should talk long with him; and indeed they "use him like a man of his wit," but fear his revolt from them. So Sadler departed.
Wrote in his last that lord Flemyng and the abbot of Pastle were sent to persuade Angus, Cassells and Glencarn to a convention here. These lords and Somervile have sent Sadler word, by James Dowglas of the Parke Hedge, that their answer was that they must first advise with their friends north of the Frythe; and also that to-morrow they all meet at Dowglas to answer the King's late letters to them. They mean to answer the lords here that they will come to no convention unless all concur to the performance of the treaties, as appears by the enclosed letter from Somervile to Sadler, showing his suit to have his son home. Maxwell labours to have Angus and the rest come to this convention, upon a trust that, when all are together, they will agree to perform the treaties. Sees no likelihood of it, and knows not what he means by this solicitation. This day he was here and spoke with the lords, but departed without speaking to Sadler, to whom he sent word that this convention could do no hurt and would show who were with, and who against, the treaties, and that Angus would be as safe here as at Dowglas. No other of Angus's party seems willing for this convention.
Encloses letters from the Provost of this town in answer to the King's. Is now used more courteously, and has received a small present of wine. Edinburgh, 20 Sept., at night.
P.S.—Huntley has arrived here (so the report of his revolt to Angus is untrue); but a servant of Lenoux has just brought two letters (herewith) from my lord of Glencarn, one to be addressed to lady Margaret Douglas and one to Sadler. The servant's credence was that Lenoux had left the Governor and Cardinal and, from being a good Frenchman, is become a good Englishman, and will shortly despatch a servant to the King and lady Margaret with his full mind. Signed.
Pp. 9. Add. Endd. : 1543.
*** The portion of the above letter after the beginning of Sadler's reply about the post, is printed in Sadler State Papers, I. 294.
20 Sept.
Add. MS. 32,652, f. 120. B. M. Hamilton Papers, II., No. 39.
203. Sadler to Suffolk.
Refers to his letters to the King, which, because posts are taken on the Borders, he sends by Henry Ray accompanied by an officer of arms appointed by the Governor and Cardinal, who say that the posts are taken against their will and promise him his letters untouched. Sees not that the treaties will be observed unless for fear of war, and some think that the Kirkmen desire war. Hears to-day that they intend to despatch him into England, by giving him a resolute answer within 3 or 4 days; but unless they force him to depart with their answer, he will await the King's pleasure. Edinburgh, 20 Sept., at night.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Sealed, Endd. : 1543.
20 Sept.
R. O.
204. H. Lord Maltravers to the Council.
According to their letters, has taken bonds of all French subjects within this town and "faulxbourghe," the Skunage, and the bailiwicks of Marke and Oye, Colham and Sandgate. Asks whether they are to be put to ransom and remain or to have their goods seized and be expelled. Sends his own reasons for thinking they should be "amoved." Calays, 20 Sept. Signed.
ii. "That it were good to amove out of the town and marches of Calays the strangers born under the French king's obedience."—In this and all other previous wars, French incursions into the Pale have always been guided by Frenchmen who have been resident in it; and therefore it is to be supposed that those who remain are not to be trusted, and will be so still less "when they shall he exactioned." Better to amove them and have them as open enemies than remaining as spies. There will be more profit of their goods the sooner they are seized. And where the King desired me to devise means for gradually amoving strangers and increasing the number of Englishmen, this seems a good opportunity, and the example would make other strangers more willing to depart hereafter.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd. : 1543.
20 Sept.
R. O.
205. Trade with Flanders.
Note, by Hen. Bostoke, of the despatch of "Gentyshe clothe" from Antwerp 30 Aug. 1543, and, by Otwell Johnson, of its receipt in London 20 Sept., with the cost of custom, portage "to my house in Lymestrete" and freight.
P. 1, mutilated. Add. by Bostoke : "at Mr. Cave's in Lyme Street."

Footnotes

1 This down to the end of the following sentence is substituted by Gardiner for the original, which stood : "to Edinburgh gates, if it may be, in case the Scots shall make any new practise with his M[ajesty] and shall not make suit, with present off[er] of the hostages, to have his Highness accept the treaty in all points as it is passe[d]. And to th'intent the Scots in this mean time shall mistrust no false measure, whereby they might on their partie make provision for resistance, if they shall seek to have the treaty altered by new communication, the said Duke, &c., shall in that case entertain them, and give hearkening unto them, as though they would 'conceyve' them and advertise the King's Majesty of their desires, and shall with the same send for M[r.] Sadleyr to come to him, as it were for his advice, who must in any wise either be had clearly away out of Scotland, or at the least conveyed to Tentallon, before anything be notably attempted. And when they shall have their force in order and areadiness, and shall see the time best for them t'enter, they shall then send the Scots word that his Majesty will no more suffer their 'trinkering' and immediately shall make their entry and do their enterprise."
2 Kronstadt in Transylvania.
3 Heide in Dithmarschen.
4 September 17.
5 Ruthven.