Ib. p. 87.
VIII. "The saying and opinion of Raynold Bucker of Boxley, spoken
and obstinately declared by him in the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady
or the Sunday after in the 31 years (sic) of the King's Majesty's most noble
reign, in the house of John Man of Boxley, in the presence and hearing of
the same John Man, John Todde and John Stockwell; which Raynold
Buckley was abjured by the lord Warham, late Archbishop of Cant'; which
abjuration Mr. Dr. Leef, Master of Maidstone College, can declare more at
1. He said that the Sacrament of the Altar was bread like other bread;
"and that the knave priests did receive him before noon and did piss and
shit him out at whores' arses at afternoon; which accusation was taken
before Sir Christopher Hales, knight, deceased, at Maidstone the xxij (sic)
year of the King's most noble reign, and in writing delivered to Mr. Nevinson,
now Commissary. And afterward by Henry Cloake, then servant to the same
Sir Christopher; and also the same Henry Cloke did hear the same words
of Buckmer rehearsed by the witness aforesaid, and also declared it to the
said Commissary. And afterwards the same Sir Christopher sent for the
said Buckmer and the witness to Maidstone by Rauf Johnson his servant;
which Rauf delivered the said Buckmer to the Commissary and also the
witness; where the Commissary threatened the said John Todd, as he
sayeth and will say. And for a while the said Buckmer was in my lord
Archbishop's palace, as they said, under ward. But he went at large and
did pull hemp. And after the death of the said Sir Christopher, or a little
before, the same Buckmer was sent home again unpunished, contrary to
the King's laws. And thus bearing and favor with such like hath been
courage to other ill doers concerning ill opinions.
"In the visitation of Mr. Commissary kept at Sevington, Anno 1542, about
Michaelmas, said to the said parsons and vicars standing before him at the
high altar that they should give no absolution to such as were confessed
except they could say their Paternoster, Ave and Creed in the English tongue,
but would it be deferred until Easter and then to be given absolution
to them with their Communion. Then one Mr. Parson of Allington (fn. 32) said
that they would say that they uttered their confession. Then said
Mr. Commissary Ubi invenies auricularem confessionem esse de jure divino?
Respondit persona Venicbant ad Johannem Baptistam et confitentur peccata sua.
Et addidit, Qomodo confitebantur, aut publice aut accurate? Dixit ille
Petition to Cranmer from the parishioners of Elmestede, representing
that malicious and untrue information had been given to his Commissary
that lights were kept and oblations done before the image of St. James,
the patron saint of their church, against the King's injunctions; for since
the injunctions, no such lights have been maintained. Beseech his Grace
therefore to command the vicar and churchwardens to set the same
image up again "in his tabernacle at the high altar's end," where he
has ever stood time out of mind.
ii. A list of heresies detected and the detectors.
25 Sept. 1543.—Serles. "Christ was nourished with celestial milk and
not material." Nine witnesses named who heard the sermon at Leneham,
the day of the Assumption of Our Lady.
"Die Ascensionis Domini, 1541."—Scory. "He said there was none in
heaven but Christ only." Four witnesses—one of them is Shether.
(2.) In Lent 1541. "Only faith justifieth" : Ws., Gardiner, Wm.
Cockes. (3.) "The Supper of the Lord, quod he, is not hostia pro peccatis
but hostia laudis. Ws., Parkhurst, Gardiner, Hunt, Milles.
In Die Pentecostes ultimo.—Drumme. "The Holy Ghost is neither
in this place nor that, &c." Ws., Cyriack Petit, W. Hunt, Shether.
29 July.—Shether. "That Christ and baptism did nothing [else] (fn. 32) but
wash away our original sin, and if th[at] (fn. 33) any man after baptism
did fall, he must purchase remission of his sins by penance as Mary
Magdalene did." 12 witnesses. Hugh Cooper. That neither alms deeds,
fasting nor prayer helped the soul of man, but faith only; that he that
trusts to be helped by the prayer of any creature or person that ever God
made doth commit idolatry. Eight witnesses. George Hardes "is of the
Sadducee opinion, denying the resurrection of Christ in his manhood,
saying, that He rose only in the Spirit." Jas. Hardes, only witness.
Strawyn "affirmed that we be not bounden to believe anything which is
not written or contained in the Holy Scripture; nor ought to believe any
other thing than God's word found in Holy Scripture." Six witnesses
named "and other of Faversham." Swan, vicar of Sheldewiche. "Christ
did not die, neither for you nor me, nor your father, nor my father, but for
the fathers of the Old Law, and left us to be saved by our works."
Ws. : "Sir Geo. Woddall his curate and other can testify." John
Benson, "in contempt of the Sacrament of extreme unction, said If I
should chance to be sick and die I had as leve to smethe my coat therewith
as my body, for I can sweat fast enough." Joyce Benson, "talking of Our
Lady, said that she, viz. Mary, should have borne Christ, asking her no
leave." Three witnesses of the parish of All Saints, Canterbury, including
Milles, servant to Mr. J. Culpeper. Turnour said "that Almighty God
was the soul pr[iest], (fn. 34) and sang the last mass of requiem, and o[ther] (fn. 34)
masses profiteth not them that be dead." 2 Ws. "and other." Humfrey
Cotton, priest, "said that there be heresies in the Bible." 3 Ws. of Tenterden.
Nicholas Fitzwilliam "said that prayers did not help the souls that
were departed this present life, for in the dirige and de profundis the priests
pray for none but for themselves, &c." 3 Ws. (Under Fitzwilliam's name
is written in the same hand "Videat Reverendissimus"). Thomas Hasilden
"sayeth that if he could live without sin he were as good as God." Six Ws.
John Thatcher junior "said that the Bible was made by the Devil."
Ws. Starkey the barber of Canterbury.
IX. [Calcot to Cranmer.] (fn. 35)
"Be yt knowen un to your gracyus lordshep that thes is the very bell
that I deed wryt as consarnyng the ansour whan I deed ryde to the Corte,
and that was thus. My lord (fn. 36) saye Have me recommend to your master (fn. 37)
and tell hym that yf his matters be true and ryghtius he shal have frynddes
enow; for yfe my lord of Cantorbory shold poneche them wrongfully yt
wyll be gretly to his rebock and henderanc. Then at Oxford I met wyht
Mr. Ford and he xed me wher I had ben. And I sayd At the Corte. And
he exed me what my lord sayd, and I tolde hym. And he sayd the ansur
was good enoufe. And he sayd he had hard of my masters trobell be fore.
And I exed of home; and he sayd Of Mr. Docter Barbar. And then he
sayd Have me recommend to your master, and then tel hym that I hard
say that my lord Chancelar wold change his offes, and Mr. Bakkar shold
have yt. But he sayd, Speke yt not abrod on my word tel ye here yt mor
playne lyar spoken. And thes was the ansu that I had and that I deed
wryte to showe my master. Ther for, my lord, I beseck your Grac to be
good to me, for here is everry word as ny as I can call to my rememberanc
possybell. Thus God save your graccyus Lordshep."
P. 1. The handwriting is a little peculiar.
X. Interrogatories "for Shether and other."
1. Who were the beginners of these matters at London; 2, and by whose
advice "it was set forward." 3. With whom they had conference and who
encouraged them and how. 4. What foundation they had at the
beginning; 5, and whether of their own knowledge or by hearsay. 6. In
what they know my lord's Grace culpable; and how they know it.
7. "The like to be ministered for the proceeding of the same matter at
Canterbury." 8. How many justices of the peace, gentlemen and others
they have had conference with, and what each has done or said about it.
9. "To what things they have conduced thereunto." 10. "What Petite,
the clerk of the peace, or any other towards the law, hath said or done as
touching indictments, panelling of inquests, and by what accusation and by
whose motion or commandment. 11. "To what end or effect they
intended to bring these matters." 12. By what authority they began and
"Item, whether you told and declared to the Vicar of Charing, being
in his house at Charing, how that four of you did intend to preach two
sermons apiece in the Isle of Thanet in one day, and to how many mo you
did declare the same, and to what intent."
XI. A paper headed by Cranmer : "Dr. Willoughby."
"My Lord, as concerning the schryne, I had never commandment to pull
hit down, and also hit his bot anente thenke (an empty thing); bot Master
Thwattes had hit at Sente Astens and gave hit to the cherche." Was
commanded to pull down the rood, but could not do it alone; so he went
the next morning with the parish priest to some parishioners and showed
them the order; and they said the King's book was to the contrary, except
where oblations were made to it, "and by and by cassyd (caused) that same
artekell to be redde, and then all sayde ther scholde none be pollyd downe
ther; and by and by cassyd a loke to be sett of the dore. Part of ther names
be thes : Master Pettet, Wylzam Amys, goodman Macstede, holde fader Baker,
and alle the holle paryche. And this was of a Sonday in the morning; and
the nexte Sonday after, and I ham avyssed, Master Twhattes was mared;
and ther Master Pettyt broke the mater to Master Moylle, and he dyd asche
wherever ther wor one oblacion ther to or no; and he sayd Nay; and
then sayde Master Moylle Then I warrant yow let him stonde."
"Also as conserning that ever I preched of ony sante, or thowght one
seche thenges I wolde I scholde never come in heven, nor never so ment;
hyffe I had I wolde not aplenyd (have complained) to Master Comyssare of
that thyng wyche I wolde have mantynde; and as for Colver strette I never
saw hit. I have bene here bot iiij yere. How scholde I have Lade Colver (fn. 38)
in honde and never harde of hyr of my consyence to this day."
In Willoughby's hand, p. 1.
ii. Dr. Willoughby's [first] confession, (fn. 39) containing replies to each of the
interrogatories (X.) as numbered, viz. 1, That the first he ever heard of the
putting forth of the matter was on Palm Sunday in Dr. London's house, of
Serles and him; 2, and it was set forth by Serles only, without any man's
knowledge "that I know of, for my coming to London was to speak with
the chamberlain of London and his errand to Oxford. 3. Cannot tell by
whose counsel or encouragement it was. 4. Cannot tell "what matter they
had at the beginning more than he provided for of himself," for I can say
nothing against any one but by hearsay. 5. "And whether they were of
his own knowledge or by hearsay I cannot tell; but he and Gardener had
been gathering of matters a quarter of a year before. I perceived that by the
mossyons thay mayde to me for pottyng of them upp." 6. Of things against
my lord he knew nothing they minded till he saw it in writing. 7. Nor of their
preferment of their articles at the sessions; for he was not in Kent at the
time, nor spoke with any justices of peace in this matter, or, 8, with any of
them that was privy. At the beginning he told Mr. Moyle and Mr.
Thwaytes that Dr. London said the justices would be "shent" for suffering
such preaching. 9. Knows not "to what things they have conduced unto";
only consented "to bear the name of putting up of these matters which Serlys
did, and that I said it was I, here in the country in many places, lying upon
myself like a fool, and yet never came before the Council, nor never minded
but to avoid the suspicion; I made much babbling and much noise, bringing
myself in great slander, and nothing so. And for this doing I submit
myself to God and my lord's grace. 10. Never reasoned with Pettyd or any
other lawyer touching indictments or any such matter "be my fathe." (fn. 40)
11. Knows not what effect they intended to bring this matter to. Most
likely, to subdue his Grace's (the Abp's.) power. They hoped to have had
other commissioners than his Lordship, for so Dr. London promised them.
12. As concerning their authority, suspects they took it of Dr. London's
presumption, seeing him go forward against such men of worship. (fn. 41)
"Thenkyng oder scholde acome to the same, I ferde Master Torner and
the Vecar of Hosprenge my selffe, ther was so many schamfull maters lade
As to the Vicar of Charing, never drank in his house nor came there
since your Grace's household did lie there; nor ever heard of this matter
before. Was too foolish and too full of words to be of their counsel, and
so they said.
In Willoughby's hand, pp. 2.
XII. Interrogatories for Mr. Baroo, clerk of the peace in Kent.
1. Whether he drew the indictments against John Blande, Ric.
Turnour and others indicted at Canterbury castle on Thursday before
Michaelmas last. 2. Whether those persons who informed him that the
said John Blande in his sermon said "The mass doth not profit for sins,
for then Christ suffered his Passion in vain" gave also information that he
wished to teach his audience that private masses were not laudable, &c., or
whether deponent put words to that effect into the indictment, of his own
mind or at the suggestion of others. 3. Whether those who accused
Blande of saying in his sermon that the mass is no satisfaction for sin and
only a remembrance of the Passion of Christ informed him also that he
said it in contempt of the King's laws, or deponent put this into the
indictment of his own mind, &c. 4. Whether those who accused him of
saying that there were plain and detestable heresies in the mass book, yea,
and in the mass also, added that he said so to deprave the mass, or deponent
put this into the indictment of his own mind, &c. 5. Whether those
who accused him of saying that confession of particular sins was not
necessary, but it was sufficient to say "I am a sinner and have offended in
thought, deed and word," informed deponent also that he said so erroneously
and feloniously, or taught thereby that auricular confession was not
expedient or necessary to be retained, or whether deponent put this into
the indictment of his own mind, &c. 6. Whether those who accused him
of saying he could never find auricular confession in Scripture or in the
law of God, and he marvelled why it was used, seeing it had been so often
put down and so many inconveniences ensued thereof, added that he said
so erroneously and feloniously, to teach the audience that it was not
expedient, or whether deponent put this into the indictment of his own
mind, &c. 7. Whether he drew the indictments of Sir Richard Turner,
or whether those who accused Sir Richard of saying in his sermon that
Christ was the soul priest and sung the last mass of requiem, and no other
mass availed souls departed, added that he said so erroneously in contempt
of the King's laws, or whether deponent added this of his own mind, &c.
8. Whether those who informed against Turnour for saying that if there
were as many priests as stars in the sky and grasses growing on the
ground, and if they said as many masses as there were drops of water in
the sea, "the same prevailed nothing the soul departed," added that he meant
to teach the people that private masses ought not to be celebrated, or this
was put into the indictment by him. 9. Whether there was not a
maid of Benenden indicted at a sessions at Canterbury castle about three
years past for words against the Sacrament of the Altar. 10. Who gave
evidence upon her arraignment whereon she was found guilty? 11. Whether
any other besides you gave evidence upon it, and whether the evidence you
gave were upon your own knowledge or report of others. 12. Whether
when the jury of the hundred of Fylborowe were sworn at the said sessions
you sware them that appeared orderly as they stood in the panel, or you
overleapt any of them, and why. 13. What communication you had
beforehand, and where, and with whom, concerning such persons as should
be sworn at the said sessions. 14. What communication you had beforehand
with any person concerning the indictments at that sessions, or
whether you had any form of indictments given you, and by whom, &c.
15. What communication you had with Mr. Thwaites at home at his
house or elsewhere a little before the Sessions of the Six Articles, and who
was present? 16. What communication you had, with whom and where,
of the naming or impanelling of persons to appear in the inquests at the
last Sessions for the Six Articles in Kent and the diocese of Canterbury,
and whom they so named or agreed to leave out. 17. What communication
he has had of the changing of the world past, now or to come, or of matter
of faith, and when and with whom. 18. What communication he had
with Robert Neylour, alderman of Canterbury, about the Sessions of Six
Articles for Kent and Canterbury dioc., concerning the matter for which
Nailor was called before my lord of Canterbury—words spoken by him of
the inquest sworn in the city of Canterbury. 19. Finally, you shall declare
if you know any "fawters" or bearers of preachers who have taught erroneous
opinions; and whether you know them of yourself or by report, and
what report and of whom. 20. Whether you know of any that have
preached seditiously, and what they were and what words, &c.
Pp. 5. Endd. in the same hand : Concerning the clerk of the Peace.
XIII. [Edmund Shether to Cranmer.]
Only Mr. Parkurst and Mr. Sentleger have subscribed to the article
stating that the articles of Ridley and Scory were presented to your Grace.
What the words were your Grace first spoke to Serles for preaching of
images I remember not, but he answered that he had preached only that
images were not idols; to which your Grace objected, saying that imago and
idolum were the same, one Latin and the other Greek. "Upon the which
words Gardener reasoned that they were not one, as I have before written
to your Grace." (fn. 42) Also I declared next day to your Grace that you
commanded us to make no "envection" that Sir Bland was noted to preach
new opinions as I heard it reported. "And I remember not now them that
told it me, but only the vicar of Feversham. Also I heard Gardener say
that he showed your Grace by mouth the articles of Ridley and Scory. And
Mr. Parkhurst and Sentleger said that they presented them in writing.
But other knowledge I have not whether they showed it to your Grace
Copy, p. 1. No address or signature.
XIV. Interrogatory ministered by my lord's Grace of Canterbury, my
lord Cobbam and Mr. Doctor Lye, whether Edmund Shether heard my lord
say at Croyden that he would be even with Gardener, or that Gardener should
repent the reasoning he made on Trinity Sunday was twelve month.
"I do not perfectly remember the very words, for the thing was utterly
out of my mind but that Serles since upon a time repeated it. Howbeit I
remember nothing that my lord's Grace said that he would be even with
Gardener or that he should repent his words; but only, as I remember, my
lord's Grace said that the communication that Gardener had that day
should be repeated again at his Grace's coming to Canterbury."
What communication he had with Parkhouse or Mr. Millis since he
was put at liberty, or with any other, concerning them that came to offer
themselves to testify for Serls and Shether.
What communication he had or heard concerning his communication
with the Archbishop at London in Passion week was 12 month.
What communication he had of any that had displeasure of the
Ordinary for complaining of evil preachers or favor of him towards evil
What communication he had or heard of Dr. Willougbie.
What communication he had with my lord Warden's chaplain.
What communication he had or heard of Milles, Scorye, Serls, Shether,
or of any other.
What he said of the book that he delivered to my lord since his coming
What moved him to have conference with other in these matters, contrary
to his oath and allegiance.
What he knoweth to be true of the articles presented against the
Archbishop of Canterbury, of his own knowledge.
Whether Mr. Smith, parson of St. Mary Mawdelen in Canterbury, had
communication with Dr Barbour in the North Court of Christ's church in
Canterbury the same day that Serls and Shether were called before my
lord, and what the communication was.
Item, why the same Smyth made as though he would have gone home,
and then returned again and went to Master Parkehurste's chamber, and
there being Mr. Parkhurste, Mr. Gardener, Mr. Milles, Mr. Serls and Mr.
"Item, at that time when my lord sent for Mr. Serles and Mr. Shether,
why they denied them to be there, and what communication they heard at
XVI. Statement of William Gardiner.
On Monday last past.
"I William Gardner, having communication with Mr. Parkhurst, hytt
chanced us to comyn of our interrogatories last ministered. He said that
he made his imperfect" and remembered more than he did when he made
his answer and sent them to your Grace at Bekesborne; and said "I do
not well know how they that complain unto their Ordinary get nothing but
displeasure." I said that I once complained to your Grace and you said to
me "You and your company do hold me short. I will hold you as short."
Item, Mr. Shether told me at his return from Croydon, when he had
received his injunction that Gardner took Serles' part, in my chamber "I
will be even with him." "Item, that your Grace said unto Mr. Sentleger
that you are a bond. I will break the bond and make you leave your
mumpsimus. And this communication I and Mr. Parkhurst likewise had
with Mr. Mylles." Mr. Mylles also told me when he came last from your
Grace that he saw the book of the articles lying before you; "and there he
saw mendacium. At this word, I, remembering mine answer before made
without deliberation, and better remembering myself, purposed, as I have
done, to make a more deliberate answer; so to avoid danger and inconvenience
that might happen unadvisedly unto me by mine answer before made;
for before in mine answer I gave way rather unto your Grace's words, and
wrote as you said unto me, and not so as afterward upon my conscience I
With Mr. Parkhurst I commoned of the book subscribed. He said he
remembered not whereunto he had subscribed and desired me to instruct
him. I said "In good faith I know not." He said "I am sure you can."
"I said Nay; and no more I cannot, as God shall save me." This day he
asked me if his name was to the article of Serles' prisonment. "I said
Yea; he said Nay. I did still affirm it to be true."
"I told him that I would cast [interlined 'gather'] all doubts upon
the book so nigh as I could; and I for my part would make mine answer
as well as I might. And so I did, to be the better avised in mine answer
making. I made mine answer and he saw them and said You have gone
thoroughly, methinketh. I like them well. Will you send them unto my
lord? Yea, that I will. And so I did, by Mr. Parkehurst's servant. I
sent them unto Mr. Doctor Ley, and he asked how I did and bade me be
merry. I thank his mastership, said I."
As to the communication of the coming of my lord Warden and my lord
Cobbam I remember none. But I asked "Shall we not appear in the great
hall before the lords?" "I think not," said Mr. Parkhurst. "I pray God
we may not," said I.
Yesterday I remembered that I commoned with Mr. Mylles of Mr.
Rydley's article, saying "In good faith, I will not say what it be, good or
bad, well or evil." I said "I am but a witness. Let my lord judge."
This day Mr. Mylles after dinner came to us and said to Mr. Schether
"God give you joy." "Whereof?" said Mr. Schether. "Then said Mr.
Mylles, Mr. Doctor Thorndon said that I would lay 20s. that Mr. Schether
should be my lord's chaplain."
Item, we commoned of the vicar of St. Paul's imprisonment, and mused
at it, saying We wonder what it doth mean, except it be for the article that
we were examined of. In good faith I know not, said I. God help him.
I will look unto myself.
"Thes all trew off my conscyence, as I doo remember. Per me, Willam
Hol., pp. 3.
XVII. "William Cockes petty canon of Christchurch in Canterbury, being
examined of such words as my lord Archbishop of Canterbury did speak in
the Consistory in Christchurch in Canterbury aforesaid about the Assumption
of Our Lady two years past, saith that upon declaration there had by the
said lord Archbishop, the said lord Archbishop said that there were six
preachers appointed, three of Oxford and three of Cambridge, to the intent
that they might between them try out the truth of doctrine. But whether
that the said lord Archbishop named that the King had appointed three of
Oxford and three of Cambridge, or the said lord Archbishop himself had
appointed three of Oxford and three of Cambridge, this Deponent much
Signed : "Be me Sir William Cockes prest."
XVIII. Deposition of [Mr. Baroo] in reply to interrogatories in § XII.
1. Never drew the said indictments against John Bland and others, but
followed "the form of the precedent made by Mr. Moyle." To 2, 5, 7, 8
replies that he was bidden by Mr. Moyle to put in the English words and
follow the precedent. To 3, 4 and 6 he says that he never knew of the
making of the indictment. 9. There was a maid of Benynden indicted for
words against the Sacrament of the Altar. 10. Remembers not who gave
evidence. 11. Knows not whether any gave evidence or no, and for the
evidence given by deponent, it was delivered him in writing by some of the
justices of the peace, he remembers not whom. 12. He did not swear the
jury of Fylborowe orderly as they appeared in the panel, but left out one
Bull because Mr. Moyle thought him not to be indifferent. 13. As to the
persons impanelled at that sessions, "he saw a paper of names of certain
juries of the seven hundreth (sic), and about Assheforth, to the number of
48 persons, delivered him by one William, Master Moyle's clerk on a
Saturday at Assheford, and his master asked me whether they were honest
men to pass for the King, and I said Yea." 14. Was at Master Thwayttes
the Wednesday next before St. Michael last, and was shown in writing by
Mr. Moyle of certain words spoken by Bland, Turnour and others, "and
[Mr. Moyle] said there must be indictments made of them. And there he
delivered me a form of indictments and the examinations." 15. "Master
Twayttes was present with Master Moyle and me when the said Mr. Moyle
delivered me the said form of the indictments; and what communication
we had the said Deponent remembereth not, other than concerning the
making of the said indictments." 16. Never had other communication
than the said Saturday with Mr. Moyle or any other for the impanelling of
any quest, that he remembereth. 17. Remembers no communication with
any man of the changing of the world now past or to come, or of matters of
our faith. 18. The said Nayler showed him that my lord of Canterbury
was much displeased with him for words that he spoke against the jury
impanelled in the city of Canterbury, "and asked me whether I never knew
any matter in the shire against one French, which was one of the jury, as
he said. And I said that as I remembered he was in the gaol for words
spoken against our Sovereign lord the King, but what they were he knoweth
not." 19. Knows not any "fawters" or bearers of any that have taught
erroneous opinions in Kent. 20. Knows not any that have preached
seditiously except such as be before indicted.
XIX. A budget of papers headed "A" containing :—
i. Dr. Willoughby's [second] confession :—
Mr. Serles many times urged him, because he was the King's chaplain,
to put up articles; which he agreed to do, provided they were proveable.
And so, on Friday in Passion week, he and Serles rode to London. On
the Saturday, Serles, without his knowledge, presented articles to Dr.
London. (fn. 43) On Palm Sunday Serles took him to Dr. London, saying he
would present the articles. Asked to hear them first, as he had never seen
them, and demurred to present them as they were but hearsay. Dr. London
chid with Serles, saying he had shown them to part of the Council already
and would declare who brought them; and then warned Willoughby of his
duty to reveal such shameful articles now that he had seen them, adding
"Fear not, for I have set such a spectacle before you at Winsor in bringing
to light abominable heresies, at the which the King's Majesty was astonied
and wonder angry, both with the doers and bearers." Thus threatened, he
agreed, and Dr. London wrote the articles anew, with additions of his own,
designed "to bring the matter into the justices' hand and certain of the
spiritualty;" whereat both Serles and Willoughby were vexed. Willoughby
took the old copy into Kent to get it recorded, while Dr. London sent his
to the bp. of Winchester. Went to the prebendaries of Christchurch to get
them to sign the articles (with other writings in Serles's chamber, who bade
him ask one Salisbery for the key thereof), and Mr. Gardiner to sign both
for himself and Serles; but could get neither "writing nor sign;" and so
returned and told Dr. London, who bade him tell Mr. Moyle that the
Council said "that the justices of every shire would be shent that such
things should be 'odermodert' and not brought to knowledge," for such
enormities had not been if the justices had done their duty according to the
King's injunctions. Told this to Mr. Moyle and Mr. Thwaites. Dr. London
also came to Mr. Moyle's lodging and told him his mind, in Willoughby's
presence, and how he "took up my lord of Canterbury before the Council."
Details how Moyle then (through Mr. Thwaites, Mr. Walter Moyle, Mr.
Green and Mr. Norton) obtained articles from priests of Kent and
prebendaries of Canterbury, and brought them to my lord of Canterbury;
whereat Dr. London was angry. Willoughby then went again into Kent
and obtained the articles from Mr. Gardiner on Good Friday or Easter
Even, and Mr. Shether copied them. Describes further how the prebendaries
presented the articles to the Council, how they were encouraged by the
bp. of Winchester and Mr. Baker, and how Dr. London took him to the
Council and to the lord Privy Seal, but they were too busy to hear him.
Would never have gone about it but for the bp. of Winchester's comforting
and Dr. London's threatening.
Mr. Shether sent, on Sunday before All Solne day, bidding me confess
nothing and that I should go to his brother parson, to whom he had written
all his mind, for he was sworn not to write to me, and warning me that Dr.
Cockes and Mr. Hossy were sent to "tatch me," and I should tell
them I had received no letters but of Cockson, who is dead. I will abide
by all this before the Council, but it is impossible to remember all that has
been "done or said in a year." I asked Mr. Shether's man if he had been
with my lord of Winchester "since the coming down of my lord's Grace."
He said he had, and told how all was handled here; and my lord of Winchester
answered "My lord of Canterbury could not kill them. Therefore
suffer. For all was against himself that he did. And he should see what
would come of it."
At the coming up of the prebendaries to London, Mr. Ford, Shether's
brother-in-law, wrote all the articles in a great book. Desired Dr.
Thornton to tell my lord of Canterbury that I never put up articles against
any man. He bade me stick to it, for he had told the Council his mind
as he was bound, "and so be ye being the King's chaplain." Signed : per
me, John Willughby.
Hol., pp. 4.
ii. [A further confession of Dr. Willoughby.]
About Advent Mr. Serles preached with me at Chillam and showed
me how he put up articles to the King, but they were so cloaked that the
King never saw them, and on his return he was laid in prison. He therefore
urged me to put up such articles as he and his company should devise;
which I agreed to do if they were proveable. He preached with me again
on Passion Sunday and I rode with him to London, meaning to speak with
the chamberlain of London. Describes (as in § i., but more fully), how
Serles took him to Dr. London (whom he never saw before) on Palm Sunday,
and the interview there. He that copied the articles before them was a
gentleman of my lord of Winchester's called German. (fn. 44)
"So Mr. London chid with Serles that he had promised him overnight
and did shrink from his promise, and sware a great oath that he would cause
him to be sent for. Then he made much lamentation and wept." Whereupon
Mr. London said to me "Pray, put them up, and say you brought them
hither. This man has been in trouble, and if he should put them up, my
lord of Canterbury will think it to be done of ill will. And also because ye
see what shameful articles they be presented here before your own face, it
would be very hard for you to bide the danger hereof without your diligence
in preferring of them, knowing that the King's pleasure is that no heresies
should be cloaked nor hid within his realm. And therefore, if ye shrink
herein, ye shall show yourself not to be the King's true subject and also his
Grace's chaplain. I daresay ye did him never such service as ye may do
herein; and also for your discharge, for now ye cannot be rid of them and
ye would. And so, for very fear, I was content to say they were of my bringing
in, and yet nothing guilty therin. And also he said that I needed not to
fear, for I have (fn. 45) set such a spectacle before you at Windsor, bringing to light
such abominable heresies that the King's Majesty was even astownyd when
he heard of them first, and very angry, both with the doers and with the
bearers. But Mr. London added more matter unto them in the copying of
them, which Serlys was angry withal, meaning, as he said, to bring the
matter into the justice' hands, and certain of the spiritualty, by commission,
whose names Serlys recited unto him at his request, saying to us that it
should never 'a been known to be our deed but done by the contre by reason
of the commission. So he delivered me Serlys copies to have them signed,
and a letter I had also sent from Serlys to fett the same copies at home in
his chamber in Canterbury, recorded already except of the prebenders;
which copies I should have delivered of one Salsbere, and so to carry them
to the prebenders to sign, and Mr. Gardner to sign for Serlys and himself.
So Mr. London sent the copy that the gentleman (fn. 46) wrote to my lord of
Winchester by one of his servants and kept his own, and I had Serlys' copy
to carry home. All this was done of Sunday at afternoon.
Also of Monday in the morning betime Mr. London commanded me to
be with him, and so I was that, wo worth him and Serlys both, which I
think was born to do much trouble, hath brought me in all this business.
And so Dr. London and I went to my lord of Winchester at St. Mary
Overy's and all the articles with him and was in with my lord an hour or
two; and at that time I saw not my lord. So at afternoon he would have
had me to 'a met him at the Council door, but I could not. I went about
mine own business, and so made him promise to be with him on Tuesday in
the morning. And so I was, and that morning went with him to my lord
of Winchester also, and was with him a good hour or more, and that time I
see not my lord noder; and that same Tuesday he brought me to the
Council door, in pain of my allegiance, giving me this lesson to say before
the Council :—My lords all, it is so that the King's Majesty and all his
honorable Council hath been at great charges and taken great pains to set a
good and a godly way among us, and for all that in Kent with us we have
the most enorme heresies that may be. And because I heard of this good
man here, Mr. London, I came to him to have his counsel herein, whether
he thought it should be heard or no before the Council, and remedy to be
had; whereupon he hath brought me hither before you all, my lords, to
help me forth if I should be anything abashed with telling of my tale.
And also he telleth me that the King's Majesty's pleasure is that every
man, whatsoever he be, knowing any such heresies and would not present
them, hereafter it would be to their pain; and because of this I come for
my discharge to show this unto you, my lords all. And this was that same
day that my lord mayor of London, the sheriffs and all the aldermen was
before the Council; and certain men of Windsor had matter there that day,
so I come not in. If I had I would 'a told the truth, that Serlys brought
such writings to Mr. London, and how I was commanded to bring them in
in pain of my allegiance, and knoweth none of them to be true but by
hearsay; and so I told Mr. London before. I think that was the cause
he would not bring me in. There I stood till 6 o'clock at night. Then he
come forth, and I went with him to Paul's Wharf, where, on the next
morrow, which was Wednesday, he commanded me to be with him in the
morning; and so I was. For he said he had promised to bring me to my
lord of the Privy Seal, and so he did, to the Court next chamber to the
Council door above the stairs. And within awhile my lord come abroad,
and he delivered then the articles to him. And my lord looked a little of
them and called me to him. How say ye, said my lord, are these articles
true? And I said, In good faith, my lord, I cannot tell, for I know never
an article of them, nor there is never a witness to none of them. Then my
lord delivered me the writings to be signed; and then Mr. London said that
they were signed already in his chamber that brought them up. Then my
lord bade me fet the oder and come again, for then he had no leisure to
look more of them.
And the residue of that day I went about mine own business and told
London I would go home that afternoon. But on Thursday in the morning
I got up betime and come to my lord of Winchester's to have spoken with
his Lordship. And there I met London walking in the parlour, and he was
angry that I was not gone. And I told him that I come but to speak with
my lord and I would be gone. What would ye do with him? Ye would
tell him a wise tale, I daresay. Go ye home in all speed ye may, and tell
the prebenders that they shall have a commission within a se'nnight. And
then he bade me tell the justices of peace that the King's Council was not
content, and thought much negligence because they had looked no better
to serve the King but to suffer such heresies to be preached in the country
and say nothing unto it. And so I come home with a heavy heart,
remembring these articles to be put up in my name; and come home of Good
Friday, and of Easter Eve I come to Christchurch, and brought with me
the articles that Serlys had put up to Mr. London and a letter withal, as is
aforesaid; but Salsbere that kept his key would not be found. And that
day I dined there Mr. Parchus was at Ashford, I trow. And so after dinner
Mr. Gardner called me into the garden, and showed me these writings which
was against my lord's Grace ready provided in his hand. Here is a token
plain that they gathered these matters without any comfort they had by me,
and not to say that I was the occasion of their false inventions. And when
he had read them over he took them from me, and held them in his hand and
looked upon me, saying May a man trust you with this same to let Mr. London
see them privily and then to deliver them to my lord of Winchester? And
I said Yea. Well, said he, Schether shall copy them out and set them in
order; and so he did. And then he delivered them me, praying me in
anywise to labor to my lord of Winchester for the commission, or else men
would not say half that they knew; or else that they might have commandment
to come before the Council and to say of their allegiances what
they knew. And so I departed without any writing or record for my
discharge. And so in Easter week I rode up even the next day after that
Mr. Turner did preach before Mr. Moyle. And when I came to Mr.
London I showed him the articles that was against my lord's Grace;
whereat he made much joy and bade me send them to be signed. And
within 5 days after Schether's man brought them up signed to present
them to my lord of Winchester; and I went with him myself. But my
lord had no leisure that time to look of them. But London took not the
copy of them then, for I told him that I must deliver them to my lord of
Winchester. And that same day Mr. London told me that one of the
Council said, when he showed them the articles afore presented, that one of
them should say that such a schism was in this realm in King Henry the
Fifth's days that, the King's grace going into France, one Sir John Holl
Castyll (Oldcastle) had a thousand heretics or ten thousand for to invade the
ream in the King's absence. So I kept there the writings myself that was
against my lord till they fett them of me themselves, which was the same
time that the men of Canterbury was come up against their curet or parson. (fn. 47)
And so they went to the Council; for the next day they were merry and
said they had much comfort, both of Mr. Baker and of my lord of
Winchester. And as far as I think they told me that Mr. Petty put
up his articles that day, which was abominable. What they were I wot
not; nor of their coming up. I know nothing till I see them. Then 2
days together I went to my lord of Winchester and labored unto him,
praying him to be good lord unto me that these articles should not be put
up in my name, and he said they should not, saying unto me that if they
were true it should be pleasure unto me because I did my duty therein, and
if they be false the promoters thereof should be blamed and not I;
of the which words I was well comforde, and then he bade that
what persons or articles so ever come up that they should resort to Mr.
Baker, for the King's Grace had put all this matter in his hands. Also
another time I was with my lord going to his barge ward, and had him
recommended from Mr. Gardener and that he would be good lord unto
him for the benefice of Hadham, and showed him what pains he had taken
in this matter as he bade me; but he made me no answer, and I never
went nor laboured further in this matter; save only the day after the prebenders
went home I went to Mr. London, and he prayed me to bring him
to Mr. Moyll. Yet first I went and knew Mr. Moyll's pleasure, and he was
content; and thither he come and I went with him, for he was angry that
all those which was sent up by the justices, that he brought them not to the
Council but alway to your Grace; and so I think he told him; for I heard
him say to Mr. Moylle how he had taken up your Grace before the Council,
for Dr. Taller (fn. 48) and for your preachers in your churches in London. And
also I told Mr. Thwates and Mr. Moylle what Mr. London said as concerning
their duties; but nothing I know of myself against no creature that
ever I heard oder preached or reasoned. Yet I thought much of this to be
truer than they be like to prove, so that I come in among them "at a
nonappy time, I may say that. Wo worth all falssyd, for hit hathe never
good hend. So that now I submit myself to God and to my lord's Grace
with as much sorrow in my heart for mine offence as ever took man, and
take God to my judge I know no more of this matter than I have recited.
Also Mr. Schether sent his man to me of Sunday before Alsolne day,
bidding me in anywise not to be known of nothing, for they had nor would
confess nothing, and that I should go to his brother parson, with his man,
and there I should know more of his mind, for he was sworn not to write to
me, but he had written to his brother and of him I should know all. And
thither I went with his man; and he said unto me, as his man had done
before, that I should utter nothing to Dr. Cockes and Mr. Husse, for he
thought that they were come to tatch me; and then, if I did speak with them,
that then I should say that I received no articles but only of Cokeson, which
is dead; and this was but to bring me in danger and to skewsse themselves.
Also at that time I hast (asked) Schether's man whether he had been
with my lord of Winchester since the coming down of my lord's Grace or
no. And he said Yea, and that he had told my lord of Winchester how
men were handled for setting forth of the truth; and my lord of Winchester
answered and said My Lord of Canterbury cannot kill them; let them
suffer, for all this makes against himself. Ye shall see what will come of
it. Bid them be merry. This same tale the parson, Mr. Schether's brother,
told me too.
Also Mr. Schether, at the coming up of the prebenderes to London, he
put all the whole matter to Mr. Forde that married his sister to copy,
which was a book of two days labor. What was the contents thereof I know
not—I think, all the whole matter compiled together.
"Also Mr. Thornton, I spake with him before my door in London, and
prayed him to instruct your Grace or some of your officers of the truth as
concerning my part how this matter stood, and who was the doers, and that
I never accused man nor article against none in my life, nor cannot, and say
true wening to me that he would have told your Grace, and he bade me
stick to it, for he had told the Council his mind herein himself as he was
bound to do, and so do you for your own discharge.
By me, John Wyllughby."
Hol., pp. 6. The signature as given above appears at the bottom of pp. 1, 4
and 6. Strype has printed the first page only, with the signature at the bottom,
as if it were the whole letter.
iii. A deposition headed by Cranmer : Dr. Willoughby.
Master Gardner wrote up to my lord of Winchester that your Lordship
sent and received letters monthly at least into Germany, and if he would
send to one Fuller at the Flowredelice in Canterbury and command him of
his allegiance ye shall know, for they pass through his hands. I copied the
letter myself, but I cannot tell wher it be at home or nay; and also that
there was a credible person that should reason with one of your officers,
what he was I wot not, saying 'I marvel much my lord keepeth no better a
house'; and the other should answer again and say it was no wonder, for
my lord hath so many in exhibition in Germany that all was too little to
skrappe and get to send thither, and that my lord gave ne'er a benefice bot
on pollyng parte whent owte in fee to his offessars, so that of the prestes
ther fees kyssys so God knoweth what sorrow I have suffered at my heart,
since I think a wiser man than I (fn. 49) would have been in as much doubt as I,
for I durst not once loke of on (?upon one) that belonged [to] you for fear
"Mr. Gardner also told me at the taking of Twyire senet (since!) Easter,
being at Canterbury at Master Skore's sermon then he told me that he
would fain that my lord of Winchester should have knowledge of a certain
man, and named him, that should be come from the Court and longs to the
Court, and used much to towns, and also was with him a se'nnight before he
was taken and oft used to come together and remain a se'nnight and sometimes
more; which gave him warning that he should be take; whereupon
he conveyed many letters and writings that come from Germany, for none
was found in his house, and yet he see him many times openly in the
church with letters, saying 'Here is news from Germany,' and at (i.e. that)
that man by all likelihood was a spy; and what was said in the Court and
he to bring it hither, but he would not trust me here with none of them all,
but at the beginning I mellyd with none of their matters many a day,
never but at the first, nor knew none of their matters."
P. 1. In Willoughby's hand.
iv. A further deposition headed by Cranmer : "x vjo die mensis
Novembris Anno D'ni mcccccxliijo."
"Master Garner and they emonges them pot up also how that your
Grace syster was a mylneres wyffe, and hyr husbonde alywe, or was with
in a yere before that tyme, which was in Lent last; and how that he and
sche dwelte in a paryche in Canterbere ix or x yere togeder, and, hyr
husband beyng alyve, marede to Master Bynggam, and Master Commissare
maryd to hyr dawter, and yet his chossyn to be junyd with Master Dene (fn. 50) to
be on of the procters for the cherche in the Convocacion Howse, and not of
ther eleccion bot be a dossyn of ther awne affenite. — By me, John
In Willoughby's hand, p. 1.
v. "Interrogatories for Doctor Willoughby."
1. What time he first knew of these matters, and by whom. 2. What
communication he had with Serles upon Palm Sunday. 3. Whether Serles
said to him "Beware what you do, for you shall never be able to prove
them after this sort that Dr. London doth now pen them"? 4. What
time it was that he said to Gardiner that he would take upon him to be the
only doer in this matter? 5. What he did with the copy of the articles
that were delivered to him. 6. Whether he showed the last book that
Shether sent to him by his servant to the Bishop of Winchester or not.
7. Which of the Council did allow him for putting up of the book, saying
that he was a good Catholic man, and did animate him to be bold to present
mo such accusements. 8. What comfortable words the Council gave him to
go about these matters? 9. Who informed him that a Commission should
come down into Kent, and that Parkehurst, Milles and Gardiner should be
commissioners? 10. "What communication he had with Mr. Fogge of a
lecture which the Archbishop should read of the Sacrament of the Altar,
and who were present and what was said of every man." 11. How many
were named to be commissioners?
In Cranmer's hand, corrected, p. 1. Four articles have been struck out and
the numbers altered.
vi. Replies to the above by Dr. Willoughby.
"1. First time that I was moved to put up any articles was about Avent
(sic) by Serlys at home with me. 2. What communication that I had
with Serlys of Palm Sunday it doth appear in my book of my first answer
to my lord's Grace. 3. Also what Serlys said to London I have also noted
in my former bill. He chid for altering of them, and that was the cause
he sent for the same articles, being at home in his purse. 4. Even in
Palm Sun week, of Shire Thursday or Good Friday, as I think. I come
home and told Garner, and asked for the writing that Serlys sent for, and
Salsbere could not be found; and after dinner Gardner called me into the
garden and delivered me the other writing, and bade me show them to
Master London and to my lord of Winchester; but Schether copied them
out first in order, and I took them and said my lord should have them,
and I let London see them, and so forth, as I have said before in my other
writing. 5. What I did with the copy, I did keep it still myself. 6. Where
(whether) I showed the book to my lord of Winchester or no. Schether's man
carried it to my lord himself in all your (q. our?) names. I went with him
myself. My lord had no leisure to look on it; and so I kept it to their
coming to London, and they received it of me again. 7. There was never
none gave me such comfort, other than I had of Master London and of
my lord of Winchester, as I have showed before also. 8. I never
said that the Council gave me any comfort, but that London told me
that I should have much thank, but all this is to excuse themselves; but
and if they had had comfort, as I know none they had, should they
thereupon invent false matters upon any man, how should it stand together,
or with reason, that they did this by comfort of any body, when they had
already (sic) drawn or ever I spake with them or come down, bot falsode woll
ever have a foolle hende. 9. Who in fyrmyd that a commission scholde
come downe; that was fyrst moysyon that Serlys made to Master London at
his first coming, and London made it sure and that made them bold, and
then he demanded the names of the onest (?) of the temporalty and also of
the spiritualty. Of the temporalty was Master Moylle, Master Baker,
Master Thwatcs, Master Boyes, and divers other, I cannot tell their names;
and of the Church, Master of Maidstone, Master of Wye, Master Parcus,
Master Garner and Master Sellynger. 10. Indeed I told Master Fogg of
all that I knew, and that I heard that same tale, and so I did hear it
indeed, in Christchurch, but to tell it as it was told I cannot, nor who told
it; but it was spoken at a table that my lord's Grace should, booted and
spurred, read a lecture on the Sacrament of the Altar, saying it was but a
similitude, and so lefte hit of reavly (left it off rawly ?), which troubled the
hearers' hearts much."
In Willoughby's hand, pp. 3. Transcribed in full, but only in parts literatim.
XX. A bundle of papers headed "B" containing :—
i. Statement of Robert Serles, prebendary.
Upon Palm Sunday Even, at the court kept at Whitehall, I met with
Dr. London of chance, having the dean of Lichfield (fn. 51) by the arm; which
said that he must needs speak with me before my departing, and I tarried
him at the Council door until he came out from the Council, to know his
mind; and then he was taken from me by a gentleman that I could not
then speak with him. The next day on Palm Sunday morning Mr. Dr.
Tresham met me and said that Dr. London's servant was at Westminster
to seek me; and continently I went to his house in Silver Street, where he
said that I never could come in better season, for the King's Council are
now busy occupied for to extirp all heresies. Wherefore go ye to your inn
and write such articles erroneous as hath been preached in your parts.
And I departed and wrote these articles following :—that one Joan Bocher,
as it is said, abjured of heresy at Colchester for opinions sustained against
the Sacrament of the Altar; which hath since spoken and defended openly
her erroneous opinions in Canterbury before many, and yet she is quit by a
pardon. Item, that one Sir Giles, curate of Baram, by the space of two or
three years ministered all manner of Sacraments and was married, and as
it was said was no priest. Item, that Mr. Scory and Master Rydley were
complained on for their preaching and were not punished as their fellows
were. Item, that some preached openly that there is heresy in the words
of blessing of holy bread and holy water. Item, that private masses are not
available for souls departed. Item, others preached against confession
auricular and some against the plucking up of the rood cloth
on Palm Sunday and against other ceremonies in the Church used
"Then, after dinner on Palm Sunday I brought to him the articles
above written, and by the way I met with Mr. Dr. Willoughby and
told him the news that Dr. London showed unto me, that for the
extirpation of heresies, commissions, as he thought, should be directed
to every shire in England. And then Dr. Willoughby and I went
together to Dr. London's house; where, when Dr. London had read
mine articles above written, he instantly desired me to present them to the
Council with him; which I refused to do because I was of late in trouble.
Then Mr. London required me to set to my hand to the said articles; and
I said I would not, because they were not proved by witness but only upon
hearsay. Then Mr. London was in a great fury and rage with me, and
began to threaten me before the dean of Lichfield and Dr. Willoughby,
and said I should not choose, for he would cause me to be sent for and
compel me by the King's Council to set to my hand to witness them, or
else it should be to his great dishonesty, for he had showed them, as he said,
to divers worshipful men; wherefore I should not go back to pluck my head
out of the collar. Also he said, 'Now it appeareth that ye are very
mutable and inconstant for fear of my lord the Archbishop of Canterbury's
punishment.' Then he desired Dr. Willoughby to go with him before the
Council to present the articles, and, after long request and intreatance made,
Dr. Willoughby was content and consented to go with him. Then Dr.
London began to pen them very sore to make the matter the more pithy
than they were written in mine exemplar; and I said, 'Mr. Willoughby,
beware what ye do, for ye shall never be able to prove them after this sort
that Dr. London doth now pen them.' Then Dr. London was in a
great fury and angry for my dissuading of Dr. Willoughby, and said
to me 'Ye may depart when ye will, for ye will not testify yourself
in this matter, ne yet suffer other that would testify in
this behalf.' Then he took Dr. Willoughby fro me by the sleeve
and would not suffer him no more to speak with me. And on the
next day, Palm Sunday, I departed from the city towards Oxford. The
same day at night, when I came to mine inn, remembering myself of our
angry departing, and how that I had much displeased Dr. London in
dissuading Dr. Willoughby not to present the said articles then, to obtain
Dr. London's benevolence again, I wrote a gentle and a comfortable letter to
Dr. Willoughby, and sent back Robert, my man, with the letter, to persuade
Dr. Willoughby earnestly and boldly to proceed with Dr. London as he had
begun. And at my returning to London on Ascension Eve I came to Mr.
Baker to know his pleasure with me, saying that Mr. Shedar and Sandwych
hath sent a letter to Oxford to me in your name that I should with all
speed come to London to you; and he said that I came too late, for your
fellows were here on Saturday last, and be gone, and now ye may be at
choice, whether ye will go to Canterbury or return to Oxford. And so then
I departed from him. And the morrow after Ascension day I came to Mr.
Baker to know whether he would anything to Canterbury; and he willed
me to be gone in haste, and to cause Mr. Shedar to be with him on Sunday
next with the book, (fn. 52) saying 'I marvel that he is so slack; and commend me
to Mr. Parkehurst and other of your company, and bid them fear no man
underneath the King to witness the truth when they shall be required.'
Then I came to Mr. Doctor London and showed him that Mr. Baker hath
commanded me to depart home in haste : and he said it was good tidings,
and within short space he looked for a commission for every shire of England
to be granted to extirpe all heresies. Ye see we have a commission granted
for Windsor, and now we be unanimous in domo, whereas before we were of
two sects and two sorts. I have taken much pain, as you see, to gather
together all the articles plaintiff in one book for Kent. The copy of all such
articles as was delivered to Sir Thomas Moyle, (fn. 53) Dr. London received of my
hands, and he said that Dr. Qwent labored to him that he would take the
pains to be a commissioner with my lord's Grace in Kent for a direction of
all their heresies there now reigning, and that within few days the King
and his most honorable Council would see a reformation thorough his realm
in this behalf. And then I departed to Canterbury. And at my next
returning to London, was at Windsor; so I spake no more with him.
By me, Robert Serlys."
Hol., pp. 2. Docketed by Cranmer : Serles; and endd. by another hand :
Robert Serles, prebendare.
ii. Explanation [by Serles].
"This is to certify your Mastership that I was deceived and forgetful of
the time and place, for I have taken one time for another in my book;
for these words, viz. 'Ye could never 'a com yn better season,' &c., were
spoken on Palm Sunday Even at Court when Mr. London came out from
the Council, and not in his own house on Palm Sunday in the morning;
and upon Palm Sunday morning in his own house in Silver Street I
delivered the Article to him and not at afternoon. If a dirig or a mark be
made with a pen, then it will be plain to read in my book."
In Serles' hand on a separate slip.
iii. "Interrogatories to Serles and other." (fn. 54)
1. Whether Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkehurst presented to the Abp. of
Canterbury the self same articles contained in the book of complaint, or
whether there be more or fewer, or some altered with words added.
2. Whether the witness (fn. 55) brought in did prove all the said articles.
3. Wherefore they left out 3 of the articles that before were presented.
4. Whether the Abp. rebuked Serls for preaching that images might be
permitted in the church "as representers of saints and not idols."
5. Whether the Abp. declared openly before the prebendaries and preachers
there, and also openly in his consistory, that the King's pleasure was to
have three preachers of the new learning and three of the old. 6. Whether
Serls and Shether were accused by men noted by common fame as of
evil opinion for preaching, and who they were that accused them.
7. Whether the honesty of their audience offered themselves to testify
that they were falsely accused, and that which was laid against them
was not true, and although they were a great number, yet they
could not be admitted; and who they were that so offered themselves,
and whether they offered themselves or Serls required them to be examined.
8. Whether false persons, men of evil fame for suspect opinions, though
they were but two or three, were admitted. 9. Whether Serls and Shether
were innocent preachers when condemned, the one to prison and the other
to read a declaration of false surmised Articles, and by whom the one was
committed to prison. 10. Whether they that could speak against evil
opinions dare not, for if they do they be complained on and called seditious
persons stirring the people to commotion, and by whom they be so called.
11. Whether, complaining to their Ordinary, at his hands they get nothing
but displeasure, and the party evil preaching much more favor and boldness;
and who hath had displeasure of the Ordinary for complaining against
evil preachers, and what preachers have had favor and boldness therein at
the Ordinary's hands. 12. Whether two images of Christ and two of Our
Lady, whereunto was neither oblation done, nor any light standing, were
taken down by the Archbishop's commandment, both by mouth and by
letters, and what the effect of the letters was. [13.] (fn. 56) What word Mr.
Bacar sent them from London by Serls. [14.] What book it was that
was last sent to Dr. Willoughby by Shether's servant, what the matter
thereof was, and when it was made and sent. [15.] Wherefore they
advised Shether to write to Dr. Willoughby to get him out of the way and to
repair to the Court, or to some other of his friends. [16.] What indictment
that was which Mr. Parkehurst read one night at supper when they talked
of the Sessions of the Six Articles, whose indictment it was and
where he had it. [17.] Whether Mr. Baker said to Parkehurste,
Gardener and Shether, when they were at London, that there should
be a commission in Kent shortly. [18.] What names he wrote at the same
time to be in the Commission. [19.] Whether Mr. Thwaittes said at
divers times that (fn. 57) they should still from time to time mark what was
preached and say nothing, but note it and send it to him. [20.] At what
times the same was spoken and whether he said it was Master Baker's
counsel. [21.] How many books were delivered to Petite. [22.] Whether
one book was made, wherein was this article : "That the Archbishop did say
that he would defend Scorye and Ridley's opinions." [23.] Where that
book is become and what time it was made. [24.] Whether Parkehurst and
Gardener have commoned with Petite, that the Commissary and other of
evil opinions and despisers of the laudable ceremonies would not have been
so bold if they had not been comforted by my lord. [25.] Whether they
with Serls or Shether have commoned, Petite being present, that Markeham,
steward to the Archbishop, was abjured, and what knowledge they have thereof.
[26.] To whom they sent to procure that the Abp. of Canterbury should be
no Commissioner nor know the witness, (fn. 58) and wherefore they so wrote or
sent. [27.] What book it was that he received of Sir Thomas Moile and
delivered to Dr. London. [28.] What words the Chancellor of Rochester
said to him when he said that Hussay would help him forward with his
Articles. [29.] How many times before Passion week he resorted home to
Dr. Willoughby, moving him to put up such articles as he should devise,
and what answer Dr. Willoughby made.
Pp. 3. Headed by Cranmer and with corrections in his hand.
iv. Answers by Serles.
1. Can say nothing to arts. 1, 2, 3, as he was absent at Oxford. 4. My
Lord's grace did not rebuke him for preaching that images might be
permitted in church as representers of saints, but because he affirmed that
an image was not an idol. 5. The Abp. said openly in the Consistory that
he had chosen 6 preachers, 3 of the old sort and 3 of the new, "to the
entent that they, conferring their learning together, should bult and try out
the truth; and further I cannot say." 6. Serlys and Shether were accused
on the testimony of men of evil fame noted in the city, viz., Sterky, Toftes,
Mey, Daniel and Thwyire. 8. Their witness was objected against by
me in the Consistory before the judges by reason of an open fame and
because they were indicted of heresy. 7. There came from Hotfeld, where
Serlys preached and was accused, 3 honest men of that same parish, who
offered to be examined and depose that he was falsely accused. The one
was called Bulle, the other John Grey and the third is named Rycard;
"and they tarried at Canterbury and could not be admitted, for it was
answered that a negative in the law could never be proved." To the 9th,
10th, 11th, and 12th, can say nothing. [13, &c.] (fn. 59) "What word Mr. Baker
sent them from London by Serlys I have expressed and confessed in my
book afore delivered. Item, to the same article, what indictment was read at
Mr. Parkhurst's table, &c., as I remember me, there was one William Payne,
late undersheriff, at supper or dinner in Mr. Parkhurst's house, which read
there openly afore the sessions a copy and a form of indictment for plucking
down of images in the parish of Elmestede, and this form and copy he then
delivered to Mr. Parkehurst and he read it there, as I remember. Item, it
was commoned, as I remember, in Mr. Parkehurst's house, Petite being
present, that in the Cardinal's time at Oxford about a xxxth in number
abjured and troubled for sustaining and keeping of Leutar's books, and at
that time they said Mr. Markame was student in the Cardinal College, and
whether he was one of the number or no they could not surely tell. Item,
to the rest of all that volume I can say nothing. Item, the book that Sir
Thomas Moyle sent to Dr. London was a book of articles concerning
Turnare, the vicar of Osprynges, and the Commissary. Item,y came to Mr.
Chaunsler of Rogester at morrow mass in the morning and said 'Sir, we
can get no counsel of the law in the city to make up our books after the
form of the law. I pray you inform my lord's Grace of the same.' And
he said that it 'is my lord's pleasure that ye should have learned counsel.
He will deny you none that ye can name in the city.' And I said 'Some of
them lack learning and some lack practice.' And Mr. Chaunsler said
'Take Mr. Smyzth, for he is well learned, and whereas he doubts in his
learning he may boldly resort to Mr. Hussey for acquaintance sake, which
may instruct and help him whereas he doubts.' Item, Dr. Willoughby and
I have commenyd before Passion Sunday twice or thrice of Turnare's
preaching and the vicar of Osprynge, which by their preaching seyd (sic)
troubles and unquiet the whole country, and said, if no man would inform
the Council thereof he would, and durst be so bold because he is a chaplain
to the King and had good acquaintance in the Court.
By me Robart Serlys."
Hol., pp. 2.
v. "For Serls and other."
1. Who were the beginners of these matters at London ? 2. By whose
advise it was set forward. 3. With whom they had conference and who
did bolden and animate them in the same, and in what form, by words or
writing or otherwise. 4. What matter they had at the beginning for
foundation. 5. Whether they had them of their own knowledge or by
hearsay. 6. What thing or things they know my lord's Grace
culpable in of their own knowledge, and how they know it.
1. (fn. 60) "The like to be ministered for the proceeding of the same matter at
Canterbury." 2. How many justices of peace, gentlemen and other persons
they have had conference with in these matters, and what they and every
of them have done or spoken in the same matters. 3. To what things they
have condescended. 4. What Petite, the clerk of the peace, or any other
lawyer has said or done about indictments, panelling of inquests, and by
what occasion and by whose motion. 5. To what end they intended to
bring these matters. 6. By what authority they began and proceeded in
"Item, whether you told and declared to the vicar of Charing, being in
his house at Charing, how that 4 of you did intend to preach 2 sermons
apiece in the Isle of Thanet in one day, and to how many moo you declared
the same and to what intent."
vi. Reply of [Serles].
To 1 and 2, can say no further than I have expressed in my book delivered
to your Grace. What was done while I was at Oxford from Palm Sunday
to Whitsunday I know not, and the book of articles was put up to the
Council in my absence when I was at Oxford. To the 3 and 4, knows not
what they purposed for their foundation, or with whom they conferred, except
with Sir John Baker, who, they say, wrote a letter to them and sent for
them to come to London. Can say nothing to 5 or 6, for he never saw the
articles purposed against my lord's Grace.
(ii.) For the proceedings of the matters of Canterbury.
1. They have had communication with Sir Thos. Moyle, Mr. Thwayttes
and with Mr. Petyte; "and they have inquired, as I remember, whether it
was thought that a commission should be directed from the Council to
Canterbury for reformation of the country, and also who should be
Commissioners for the same." 2. Knows nothing. 3. Knows nothing
of what Mr. Petite or other has done about panelling of inquests; "but
afore the sessions was holden, Mr. Petite said he would ride to his master,
Sir John Baker, to know his pleasure whether he would be at the sessions
of Six Articles or no." 4 and 5. Knows nothing. [6.] "As to the last
article. There came a certain priest out of Tenet to labor to have preachers
to come to preach with them, for they said that they lacked their quarter
sermons and could get no preachers. And then Mr. Gardiner, Mr. Mylles,
Mr. Shethar and I asked how many churches there were within the Isle of
Tenat, and they said, eight; whereupon we four aforesaid agreed to go
thither all upon one, they and every one of us to preach at two parish
churches, and so to do all their sermons in one day. This same was
concluded openly at dinner in Mr. Parkhurst's house; and upon this
occasion I told the vicar of Charyng in his house thys . . le by cause
ye . . . . (fn. 34)
In Serles' hand, p. 1. Frayed at the bottom.
vii. [Serles to .]
This is to certify your mastership that the same anger and malice
expressed by words of Dr. London to me was not counterfeit ne feigned
anger, which Master Williams the dean of Lichfield, if he be required, can
testify. Item, Dr. Kechyn, late abbot of Heynsam can testify the same;
which on Palm Monday lodged at the same inn at Maidenhead where I was
lodged; to whom I opened at supper there the whole matter of our variance
and falling out, and he advertised me to write some gentle letter to pacify
Mr. London's ire, and to send my man with my letter back to London, or
else to ride back myself; by whose counsel I wrote the letter to Dr.
Wylloby and sent back my servant withal.
Item, about this time two years, as I was entering in communication
with the Bishop of Winchester that it might please him to be so good lord
unto me to help me forth in my suit that the sonder (qu. sooner ?) thorough
him I might attain of the King's Grace a licence to preach out of the
diocese of Canterbury, with a non-residence; and suddenly came in the
Bishop of Rochester and said 'My lord, the hour is past.' And then they
both went to London; and I never spake with him sith ne before, as I take
God to record. I most humbly beseech your mastership to speak for me
to my lord's Grace that I may be restored to liberty."
In Serles's hand, p. 1.
XXI. A bundle of papers marked on a fly leaf "C," with the name
"Gardiner" as a title.
i. Examination of Gardiner.
"On Easter Even last past when I, William Gardiner, being in the
qwyre of Christ's church in Canterbury, Dr. Willyby came into our church
and desired to speak with me; unto whom, when I did come, he prayed me
to speak with me in my chamber. Thither when we did come, he drew
out of his purse two bills containing certain matters here amongst us,
worthy (as he thought) of reformation. And he said that he had spoken
with Serles, one of the King's Highness's preachers in Canterbury, and
learned them of him. I heard little of them read, for I had no mind to
hear them, and refused to receive them. He was so importune upon me
and said that he had been with divers of the Council (what they were I
know not) and they gave unto him such words (as he said) that he was
much comfortt to go about his matter. Yet at the last, by importune
labor unto me, he left them with me for three or four days. I did wrap
up the bills, not looking on them nor meddling with any matter in them,
for I never thought on such matters until Dr. Wyllyby did minister
occasion. But then, afterward, considering the abuses in preaching, partly
in Christchurch (as I with other sorrowing did note), abroad likewise (as the
people did report), lamenting that the people should be so seduced and
provoked from the quiet trade of God's word and the King's Majesty's
ordinances, whom to keep every true subject oweth, and casting that the
denial in preaching did arise by lack of due reformation of such as were
before, for evil preaching, unto my lord's Grace presented and unto our
knowledge not reformed but thereupon bolded to do like as they did
before (as by their preaching we might perceive) had communication
amongst us at sundry times, desirous of having a thorough quietness.
And so at the last Sir Coxson, one of the petty canons in
Christchurch (then living) did comyn with me what was best to be done
(for he had heard of Dr. Wyllyby's being there) to the intent to have an
uniform, a quiet and godly preaching, without all jar, in time coming. He
determined to draw this book of my lord's communication on Trinity
Sunday had amongst us prebendaries (wher off sarll (?) was that we schuld
nott make invectives in the pulpett) (fn. 61) and also he drew the residue, as
there appeareth; but not all, for the article of images and the six
preachers I drew. Of this draught done by Sir Coxson no man did know
but I; for he would not have it known; and unto this time no man did
otherwise know but that it was my draught. This draught made and with
my hand written, I showed it unto Mr. Thwayttes; but he sagely (as he is
a wise man) would that Wyllyby should be ware and ask counsel of such
as knew best (fn. 62) what to be done in such matter, for it was a weighty matter.
Unto this book Coxson did adjoin the book in foretime unto my lord of
Canterbury presented concerning the preachings of Mr. Rydley and Mr.
Scory; he wrote divers copies, and then it was not known that ony had
hytt butt he. This book drawn was delivered unto Dr. Wyllyby; his bills
also were delivered unto him, not looked on nor meddled with. And so,
he having the book, whither he went with it, unto whom he resorted and
showed the book, in good faith I know not. But unto London he went;
and, there being, he sent down a copy of that book, by whose motion I nor
none of my company do know, as I can hear of. He wrote that he must
needs have it subscribed. We went together and subscribed the book
thoroughly, that was then newly made. These set thereunto their
hands :—Mr. Sentleger, Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Huntt, I William Gardner,
Mr. Mylles, Mr. Schether, Syr Coxson, Syr Coxx (sic). All these
not subscribing unto every article, but some unto one, some unto
another, as we knew them true, so that they all were subscribed unto
amongst us. Mr. Serles subscribed not, for he was then, other in London,
other in Oxford, whether of both I am not sure; but he was not amongst
us and knew not then of the book made. That done, Dr. Wyllyby had the
book again. Unto whom he presented it or did show it, and with whom he
had communication of it I, nor none of my company (so far as I do know)
is able to say. But soon after Easter Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and I,
William Gardner, were sent for unto London by letters sent unto us from
our dean, Mr. Doctor Wotton, willing us with all speed to repair unto
London, and there to appear before one of the Privy Council, naming no
man's name determinate. His letters declared that he was commanded to
write unto us. In his letters he also declared that he would show unto us
his name that willed us to appear when we came unto London. Unto
London when we were comen we were commanded by Mr. Dane (fn. 63) to go unto
Sir John Baker, knight, unto whom we came. He showed unto us a copy
of the book with names not subscribed, and said 'Here is a book delivered
unto me, and it is thought that you have knowledge of it. I require you in
the King's Majesty's name that you go together, and that that you know to
be true and to be abyddyn by, thereof make a fair book. And the King's
pleasure is that you fare (qu. fear ?) none, and spare not to tell the truth,
for fear of any man. He willeth you in this matter to fear none but God
and him, and do it truly and faithfully without all dread of ony under his
Majesty.' We, so commanded, perused the book thoroughly, and so much
as we knew to be true and to be abyddyn (fn. 64) by, we did put into a book new
written (fn. 65) , and did go unto my lord of Winchester; but he would not keep
the book, but looked on it and quickly dymyssyd us, and bid us go unto Sir
John Baker knight, of whom we had the book. And so unto Sir John
Baker we returning, by the hands of Mr. Schether (Mr. Parkhurst and
I stondyng by) it was delivered unto the forenamed Sir John Baker, knight.
That done we were dymyssyd and sent home again. And so we have
continued (I trust) true unto God and unto the King's Highness; unto
whom God grant long life and prosperous.
"Per me Will'm Gardner clericum."
Hol., pp. 3.
ii. On the back of the last leaf is written in a very cramped hand :—
Now they beyng in indurance, and I feryng, by cause I was partly
accused, I wrott unto my lord off Wynchester my lettres for ther ayde yff
he myght do unto them ony good, and sent the testymonyall copy of
Canterbury unto hym, schoyng hou thatt men here dyd and in other places
wold lykwyse testyffye of ther charyte (?) for theis and ours (?) honest
prechynges. Item, how thatt I was examynyed for thys boke and what
answer I made, never otherwyse myndyd butt when I schold lawfully be
reynyd (fn. 66) as now and I wold gladly dysclose the matter.
"Item, Mr. Thwaytes schewyd unto Mr. Parkhurst and me thatt he had
byn writen unto, from whom I know nott, to gather such matters as he
could here off abrode worthy to be refformed, matters thatt were swarvyng
from the laudable usys of Christes Churche, saying unto us Bycause I cannot
be allways here, I pray you, as ye can know and treuly lerne, send me word,
and so in good fayth, I not sechyng for them, as I dyd here and as men
wold trewly testyffy uppon ther consyence, I sent unto hym : other matters
wold nott send but suche, for whan I herd the partys speke and uppon ther
consyence to testyffy thatt they were trew."
Endd. : Mr. Gardiner.
iii. William Gardiner to Cranmer.
"Gentle father, whereas I have not borne so good, so tender, a
heart towards you as a true child ought to bear," &c. Professes great
penitence for what he has done, which was at the suggestion of Willoughby;
but who instigated Willoughby to bring his bills to Canterbury he knows
not. Begs forgiveness and will in future be as obedient as ever child was
to his natural father. Undated.
Hol., pp. 2.
iv. Statement by William Gardiner.
When my lord of Winchester returned from the Council (fn. 67) beyond the seas
he heard mass in Christchurch in Canterbury; after which he took me by
the hand and asked how I did, and how they did in Canterbury, meaning,
as to the quietness of Christ's religion. Replied that sometimes they did
not agree in preaching. "So do I hear, said he; what is that that you do
not agree in?" Rehearsed Mr. Rydley's preaching and Mr. Scory's partly.
He listened till I came to the point that prayer ought not to be made in an
unknown tongue, or it was but babbling; on which he said "There he
missed, for the Germans themselves are now against that saying;"
adding, "This is not well. My lord of Canterbury will look upon this, I
doubt not, or else such preaching will grow into an evil inconvenience. I
know well he will see remedy for it. Well, how do you with them?"
Replied "My lord, hardly. I am much marked in my sermons, and I
cannot tell whether I be taken or no. I pray your good lordship of your
counsel what were best for me to do. I had rather leave preaching by
times than to be taken in my sermons." The Bp. told him to write his
sermon in a book every word as he would preach it. "And when you go
into the pulpit deliver your book unto the chiefest man there that can read,
and let him take heed of your book while you do preach; and say no more
but that you have written and studied for, and I warrant you shall do well
enough. And when you do hear any man preach otherwise than well, hold
you contented and meddle not; so shall you do best." A poor man then
came to him, brother to Mr. Hunt, then in the Fleet, to petition for his
brother. My lord said he had been out of England and knew not the matter,
but promised to help him as far as he could. Then he conversed about our
ordinances in the quire, our statutes, our masses and hours of them. At last
he sent for Mr. Rydley, prebendary, but what he said to him I know not.
When Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and Mr. Scory were in indurance I wrote
unto my lord of Winchester in this wise, as nigh as I can remember :—
My lord's Grace hath prisoned Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and Mr. Scory.
As for Mr. Serles and Mr. Schether, the honesty of their audience will and
do testify for them. And, so far as I can hear, in the country also where
they have preached, their audience will testify that they are in most part
wrongfully accused. And the honest men of the town have already sent
in their testimonial, for to declare them and us prebendaries, so far as ever
they heard, to preach godly and quietly. They were assigned to make
their answer before my lord's Grace at a day appointed. When their day
came to make answer, they, fearing my lord's justice, refused to make
answer, but did appeal. And so, not answering, nother their appellation
admitted, they were committed unto ward again. Honest substantial men
offered to bail them; as then they could not be bailed. I wrote also that I
was likewise accused for my preaching, but, I thanked God, for no point of
heresy, but as I did perceive, it was only for brablyng matters. Howbeit
I feared much that, if my lord's Grace did stop our appellations, that then
I with other should abide the uttermost. This fearing, I desired his
lordship, if remedy might be, that we might, if need were, have liberty to
appeal. I wrote also that I was examined before Dr. Cokkes for the book
delivered unto the Council; and my answer was this, that I was with the
Council at London; but what I saw there, what I said there and what was
said to me I durst not disclose unless the Council would have me to
disclose. I desired him also that if I had need that he would so labor and
do for us that for our truth we might not be undone.
My lord's answer, not by letters but by mouth, sent by Mr. Schether's
servant, not unto me, as by the words it doth appear, but rather
made unto Master Schether.
When my lord had read my letters (as the servant said) he asked 'Who
brought these letters ?' The servant said 'I.' My lord then went away,
and, as the servant supposed, into Council Chamber. When [he] came forth
the servant required his pleasure. He said 'Have me commended unto your
master.' The servant desired his lordship to have some comfortable answer
of him. My lord said 'I can make you no answer as yet.' The next day,
or two days after, when the servant came again for his answer, my lord
said unto him 'Your master seemeth to be a child. He wept before my lords
when he should have answered. Bid him not weep for shame, but answer like a
man. Will he be a child now ? Let him take a good heart unto him. If he
have need, he shall find friends.' (fn. 68) Then said the servant 'I pray your
lordship be good unto him.' My lord said 'Have me commended unto him.
I will not forget him, and do as much for him as I can. I must know of the
Council what I shall do. I warrant you I will not forget him. Have me
commended also unto the prebendaries.' (fn. 68) He named none, and so dymyssyd
There stood one by, brother-in-law unto Mr. Schether, whose name is
Forde. And, my lord departed, he had communication with Mr. Schether's
servant, of what matters, in good faith I know not. In communication, as
Mr. Schether's servant did tell me, this Forde said that my lord Chancellor
shortly would or should (whether of both he said, in good faith I do not
remember) out of his office shortly, and that Mr. Baker should have it. In
departing, this Forde willed Mr Schether's servant to will his brother that he
never recant, for if he did he would never be his friend whiles he lived, nor none
should that he could let. He said that he would cause that my lord of
Winchester should not be his friend. (fn. 68)
"Within these 3 weeks, besides Bishop Warham's tomb in Christchurch,
I showed Cyryacc Petytt this matter, because I knew well it would rejoice
him to hear good towards his master Baker, but he would not believe it.
All other things in the answer he believed and thought to be true, or might
be true. At that time the servant of Mr. Schether's wrote a letter of 5 or 6
lines. Cyriacc Petytt did see the letter and heard it read. It briefly
contained the answer that he brought from my lord and from the forenamed
Ford. The servant had the letter again. He said that he would deliver it unto
Mr. Schether his master. Whether he did so or no I am not able to say."
Master Copyn, alderman, within these four weeks, meeting me in the church,
said "I have been with my lord's Grace, and I would not but that I had been
there. For now, I do know that I knew not before, and I dare well say that
my lord is as sorry for this hoorle as ony man is in England." My lord
welcomed him and wished to speak with him desiring to know (as he
believed) the cause of this "hoorle," and what remedy to apply. But what
he told my lord he would not report, saying simply "I told my lord my
mind and he thanked me greatly for it; and I told him nothing but truth."
Asked why his Grace had been so hard to him in times past, "He said
You were complained on unto me by a certain person, and that a tale was
brought unto him against me. Then said I 'My lord, I will declare the
tale and the person unto your Grace that made the tale.' And so I did.
And now all is well, I thank God; and so well that my lord's Grace willed
me to resort unto him boldly. And so shall I do, by my faith.
Furthermore Mr. Copyn said 'By my trowzthe I daresay my lord is no
bearer in these matters.' They be other ewysse, said Mr. Copyn, and
named none, but kept all secret from me, glad that he was in such favour
with my lord. And so departed from me.
My lord, if that Sir John Baker, knight, had not sent for us unto
London and encouraged us by these words 'Fear no man but God and the
King' and 'the King's Highness willeth you to fear none but him,' we
would never [have] attempted so far in the matter as we have done; and
besides that he willed us to resort unto my lord of Winchester, whereas
also we perceived no reproach unto us given for our deed. For if by any
of these, or any other of the Council, we had been rebuked for our doings
(as I would we had) and the danger showed unto us, whereof we had no
knowledge, for my part, I say, of my conscience, I would have gone home
again not meddling. Wherefore, my good father, although I drew two of
the articles presented (and no mo, as God shall save me) I can do no less
than to blame them or him that sent for us, that with words before
rehearsed did encourage us, which were ignorant of the danger of the fact,
and did not rather reprove us, seeing that they or he had knowledge of the
danger and not we. Gentle father, ponder mine ignorance, and, as you
have promised, forgive unto me my trespass.
I remember that at certain times I wrote certain articles, such as men
said they found themselves grieved with, and took their hands or signs
unto the articles. I beseech your Grace, blame not me for it, but Mr.
Thwaytes, which so to do moved Mr. Parkhurst and me. Mr. Thwaytes
set me a work; otherwise I would never have done it. He is a justice;
he should know the danger of it; before he did move us so to do I went
not about such matters.
I remember that one day, sitting at our meat in Master Parkhurst's
chamber, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and I, with the rest of our
company, merrily disposed and no hurt thinking, we four forenamed made
half a pointment to ride one holiday into Thanett, and there to preach
thorough the Isle, all in one day, every one of us taking two churches, one
sermon before noon and another at after noon; and at night, for our
labors, to take our supper and lodging, other with Mr. Cayppes, other with
Mr. Jonson, our friends; and so, making merry a day or two for our
recreation, then to return home again unto our study.
The first article, in whom it is expressed that you would sustain
articles of baptism and original sin preached by Mr. Scory, I did utterly
refuse and would never stond unto it, although my name were unto it, and
it was not presented. I have heard that Mr. Schether has set as witnesse
unto that article Mr. Smythe and Dr. Barbar. Indeed, my Lord, I heard
Mr. Cokkes, vicar of Story, say oftentimes that Mr. Smythe told him that
you said in your chamber unto Dr. Barbar, Smythe with other of your
servants standing by, that if you had an indifferent judge you would sustain
the article presented and preached by Mr. Scory, of baptism and original
sin. But you would have your judge out of Germany.
"By your assured, whiles I live,
William Gardner, prebendary."
The tenor of the last letter sent (fn. 69) by Mr. Schether unto my lord of
Reverend father, &c. All draweth now towards a quietness and I trust
that shortly my lord's Grace will set all well. By the bearer hereof, Mr.
Schether, he (ye ?) shall learn the truth as it is here. Of my conscience,
my lord, I remember not the contents of that letter, but of this I do ensure
your Grace, there was no word offensive in it; if I did remember the letter
thoroughly, by God, I would write it unto your Grace. But of this be your
Grace assured, there was not one word amiss in it that I do know. And if
I had remembered yesterday, when I was with your Grace, I would have
disclosed that letter unto you, as I did the other which I wrote in the favor
of Serles and Schether; the contents whereof I will after declare, and that
as truly as God shall put it into my remembrance.
Mr. Schether required me to make certain notes for him; I so did,
and that unkindly; if I had yesterday remembered myself I would
have disclosed them unto your Grace.
Errors as yet be not tried and corrected, but diligent inquiry is made
of the book presented.
Answer is made, partly affirmatively and partly negative, partly dubitative.
We be accused indifferently, one with another, so that one, as we do
suppose, may bear out the other; but if inquiry be made amongst the
gentlemen, yeomen and the honesty of the curates, and not all called,
accuse who will, I think the fault would soon appear where it is. I named
Mr. Yngham, Mr. Hardes, Mr. Thawyttes, gentlemen, able to say somewhat
as they have had grief; but I beseech you, my lord, call them not for it.
I named them none otherwise unto Mr. Schether, but that there were that
heard some horle and diversity among the people. I beseech your Grace to
keep these notes secret unto your own conscience; they were never seynd.
Item, your lectures, what they were, with whom divers men were
offended, as the vicar of St. Paul's, the vicar of Story—my lord, of this
matter I will show you more so soon as I am at liberty and may speak
with your Grace. Yesterday I remembered it not. I would I had.
"Other notes in faith I do not remember."
Pp. 7. In Gardner's hand. With marginal annotations by Cranmer.
v. William Gardner, priest, to Mr. Baker, Chancellor of the Tenth.
"Right worshipful master," some honest men of the parish of St. Alphege's
in Canterbury, viz., John Hugden, Raffe Albrythe, Robert Absolon, John
Barton, witness that Thomas Batters, the King's servant, and Will. Salter,
the King's "bedd man," dwelling in Canterbury in that parish, on
St. George's day last procured certain neighbours to set their hands or agree
to have their names set to a letter "whom they had devised," testifying to
the honesty of the parson there, so as to defeat such honest "witnesse" as
appeared then before my lord of Canterbury at Lambeth, witnessing words
they had heard their parson speak against auricular confession. Batters and
Salter procured not only men of their own parish but also of other parishes
such as they knew would bend to them. It is also reported that Batters
said that same day to John Hugden "with his crakes" that the parson of
St. Alphege's was troubled only by means of Gardner and Schether, but he
doubted not Gardner and Schether should quail. Such words will
encourage men in evil doing, unless your mastership make them temper
their tongues. Canterbury.
Hol., p. 1. Add. (p. 207b). Endd.
vi. Headed "Gardiner."
Remembers now that when walking in Mr. Parkhurst's garden and
talking with Dr. Willoughby the latter said a commission would be shortly
sent into Kent for a reformation. "But of whom he had learned that, in
good faith I know not." Amongst the Commissioners he named Mr.
Parkhurst, Mr. Mylles and me. Remembers now also that when Mr.
Schether and he (Will. Gardiner) were at London with Mr. Baker, "this
Mr. Baker said unto us (who moved him to have such communication I
remember not) that there should be a commission into Kent shortly.
And, we standing before him in his study, he took paper, pen and ink, and
noted the names of those whom he thought most meetest to be in commission.
He wrote (as I do remember) unto the number of 13 persons,
12 of them gentlemen and one priest, master of Maidstone."
Remembers well that Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and himself were
charged by Mr. Baker at his house in London, on their return home,
continually to "gather and collect together abuses, so many as we could get
from time to time and let him have them." Thinks Parkhurst and
Schether remember this.
I do remember that at sundry times Mr. Thwayttes said unto me and
Mr. Parkhurst, and I think likewise unto Mr. Schether, that we should still
from time to time mark what was preached and say nothing but note it,
and not doubt but there would be remedy for it. And he said that this
was Mr. Baker's counsel we should so do. And now I do perceive that I,
and I think other likewise, which marked and were thus animate and set
awork were but instrumenta malorum. Of this examine you Mr. Parkhurst
and Mr. Schether.
In Gardner's hand, pp. 2.
vii. William Gardiner to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Thanks his Grace for using him so favourably yesterday, sending for
him to his presence when he thought, pensiveness lay so sore at his heart,
that he should never have seen him again. Was specially comforted that
his Grace did note that he called him father in his writings, saying "In
good faith, I will be a father unto you indeed." The Abp. also promised
that he should have a book of all the articles laid against him, to make
answer to. Begs that he may so have, for there is nothing he has done or
knows of but he will reveal it if he can remember.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
viii. Mem., to inquire of Mr. Schether's servant why my lord of Winchester
did say 'Your master did weep before my lord, when he should
answer.' Of whom learned my lord that?
"Item, to inquire what letter Dr. Barbar sent unto Mr. Ford, of the
Privy Seal, clerk, and what the contents were."
P. 1. A small slip of paper.
ix. Replies of Gardner to interrogatories (see Part XX. § v.) quoting
each interrogatory in full before the reply.
1. Knows not the beginners in London, for he knew of nothing done
there till Wyllyby spoke to him at Canterbury on Easter Eve last and said
that then was a time to labor for a reformation if anything were amiss.
"With whom he labored in London, with whom he conferred and who
sent him unto Canterbury, in good faith I know not. But after that he
was comen, one Sir Thomas Cokson, upon his own mind, began the book
afterwards sent up."
2. Only by the advice of Sir Thomas Cokson, petty canon of Christchurch,
Canterbury, who would never cease from importune labor till the
book was delivered. Did not come to London himself till he was sent
for by letters from our dean, Dr. Wotton, commanding him, Parkhurst and
Schether to appear before one of the Privy Council (unnamed). On
coming we were commanded by our Dean to go to Sir John Baker. Did
so and from his hands the book against my lord was delivered to us, when
we were commanded to say what we could, without fear of any man under
the King. How the book came to his hands and by whose counsel it was
set forth Dr. Wyllyby can say, not I.
3. Knows not with whom Dr. Wyllyby conferred at London and by
whom he was there "bolded" to come to Canterbury to move the matter.
But, when Mr. Parker, Mr. Schether and he, W. Gardner, had said their
minds about the book and it was delivered again to Mr. Baker, they were
commanded by him still to gather from time to time all abuses worthy to
4. Cannot surely say what matter they had for foundation, but it
should appear that there was matter above; for Dr. Wyllyby brought down
letters of abuses, as he said, worthy of reformation, which letters were the
occasion that the book against my lord was presented.
5. Thinks Dr. Wyllyby, who did bear up the book, knew nothing of the
matters in it but by hearsay; but he whose bills he brought down to
Canterbury, viz., Mr. Serles, knew the matters in the book well enough.
But whether he saw the book, I know not; or if he did, whether he gave
instructions to such as Dr. Wyllyby delivered the book to. Further,
"Mr. Serles was not a knowlegde of the book making."
6. Thinks "they above" knew nothing culpable in my lord except by
the book, unless Dr. Wyllyby gave them any instructions by mouth; for he
said he was conversant with great men at London. He that drew the
greatest part of the book had most of his knowledge by hearsay, but part
by his own knowledge. "He was so conversant and so familiar with most
men in our house that almost he knew ony thing that was there done."
The like for Canterbury.
1. When one Sir Thomas Cokson heard that Dr. Wyllyby had been
with me with such bills as he brought (how he learned Dr. W's object I
am not sure, though his coming was no secret), "he went, unknowing unto
me (as God shall save me), and drew the book, all saving 2 articles, one
concerning images, the other concerning 6 preachers." Knows not who
was the beginner here about gathering errors and abuses in preaching and
otherwise; but is sure Mr. Thwayttes willed Mr. Parkhurst and himself
(W. Gardner) to note errors and abuses and send them to him in writing;
otherwise he had never noted them. Thinks that he spake likewise to
Mr. Schether. For his own part, gathered but few and sent them to
2. Does not remember that any justice or gentleman ever saw that
book, but only (except those who subscribed) Mr. Thwaytes and Cyriac
Petytt, "they both willing that Dr. Wyllyby should beware how he used
himself in that matter and take wise counsel before that he did set it forth.
I never heard them say otherwise by that book presented.
3. "I never heard justice, gentleman nor other, condescend unto ony
other thing than in heart desirous to have a godly quietness."
4. Knows nothing of indictments and impanelling of quests, but heard
Petytt say that one Bugmer of Maidstone should be indicted for speaking
against the Sacrament of the Altar, but by whose motion he should be
indicted I know not. Heard nothing about the indictment of any other.
5. Knows of no other end they had but without any man's hurt or
hindrance to have a godly quietness.
6. In good faith I know not. But, as I have said, Mr. Thwayttes said
that he was written unto, and likewise Mr. Herdes saith for his part also,
that they should gather such matters as were here abused and worthy to be
performed. But who wrote unto them and willed them so to do, of my
faith I know not. As concerning the writing of the book only zeal unto
quietness moved; which should never have gone forth so far if that Mr.
Baker had rebuked us when we were with him, showing unto us the danger
"By me, William Gardner."
Hol., pp. 5.
x. Headed by Cranmer : Gardiner.
"Articles to be ministered to Mr. Selengar, Parkhurste, Sandewiche and
1. Whether they presented to the Abp. of Canterbury the self-same
articles contained in the book of complaint, or whether there be more or
fewer, or some altered by addition of any words. 2. Whether the witness
brought in did prove all the said articles. 3. Why they left out three of the
articles before presented. 4. Whether the Abp. rebuked Serls for having
preached that images might be permitted in the church as representers of
Saints and not idols. 5. Whether the Abp. spoke openly before all the
prebendaries and preachers and also openly in his consistory that the King's
pleasure was to have three preachers of the new learning and three of the
old. 6. Whether Serles and Shether were accused by men noted by
common fame to be of evil opinion for preaching, and who they were that
accused them ? 7. "Whether the honesty of their audience offered themselves
to testify that they were falsely accused and that which was laid
against them was not true, and although they were a great number, yet
could not be admitted; and who they were that so offered themselves."
8. "Whether false persons, men of ill fame for suspect opinions, though
they were but two or three, were admitted." 9. "Whether the said Serls
and Shether were innocent preachers, and so, being innocent, were condemned,
the one to prison and the other to read a declaration of false
surmised articles; and by whom the one was committed to prison." 10.
"Whether they that would speak against evil opinions dare not, for if they
do they be complained upon and called seditious persons stirring the people
to commotion; and by whom they be so called and complained upon."
11. "Whether complaining to their ordinary, at his hands they get nothing
but displeasure, and the party evil preaching much favor and boldness; and
who hath had displeasure of the ordinary for complaining against evil
preachers." 12. "Whether two images of Christ and two of Our Lady,
whereunto was neither oblation done nor any light standing, were taken
down by the Archbishop's commandment, both by mouth and by letters;
and what the effect that the letters were; and for what images and how
many images the letters were sent. And where the letters be."
xi. Answers of [W. Gardiner].
1. They presented not this article in writing at that time, sc., "There
is none in Heaven but Christ," but by mouth. "There is added to this
article 'In the primitive time,' &c., when as the preacher said Of three
things he would speak; of the fourth, which was community, he would not
speak. He said not 'community of all things,' but 'community,' nothing
adding. Wherefore these words 'of all things' are added." "Ad 2m.
respondeo. As far as I heard Mr. Schether say, there was nothing proved
against him, but all onely by one May of St. John's house and Sir Cherndon
parson of St. Alphege's. But now I perceive the contrary, many and divers
articles were proved against them, and likewise against Mr. Serles, of the
which, before this time I had no knowledge. Now knowing it I confess
that article to be false." "Ad 2m. respondeo. Divers articles were proved,
but, as I do now know, all were not, although men which were then called
to be wytnesse said then as they thought all were proved." 3. Why three
of the articles presented were left out, in good faith I know not, and whether
any were left out I know not, for I know now (qu. not ?) how many were
presented unto my lord's Grace." 4. "He rebuked Mr. Serles for preaching
that no idolatry might be done unto an image which represented a Saint."
5. "He had showed unto the King's Highness what he had done in ordaining
the 6 preachers, 3 of the new and 3 of the old, and the King was well
pleased therewith." 6. "I know no other accusers of them but their
witnesse which came against them, and as Mr. Schether said for his and
Mr. Serles, for his they were by common fame noted of evil opinions."
7. "There were there which offered themselves, as Mr. Serles did say, to
testify for Mr. Serles for his sermon preached at Hotfeld, for the which he
was accused; but whether they were with my lord and his officers then
examining I know not. They were then ready to testify if they had been
called. This I heard Mr. Serles with other say. As for Mr. Schether's
sermon which he preached at Norgatt, and for the which he was accused
by Sir Cherndon and George May, Mr. Sentleger, Mr. Mylles and I,
Wylliam Gardner, testified in his purgation." 8. "We take them to be
false persons which do accuse men wrongfully. And as concerning Mr.
Schether's sermon made at Norgatt was good, so far as I perceived, and
that point that he was accused in by May and Sir Cherndon, wytnesse[s],
they did untruly witness against him. And whereas they two, which were
judged to be of opinion not best, for the one proved by the effect which
followed, in that he refused to be anhelyd at his death, the other stonding
yet now in trial for absolution. One in the sacrament of penance whan
hyt (?) is ministered by the priest or no, show themselves by the effects of
opinion not best; and as the voice then went they were not of best opinion.
Yet were they ayenst Mr. Schether admitted, as Mr. Schether said. And
likewise Mr. Serles said that 4 honest substantial men of Hotfeld came in
to testify ayenst his wytnesse for his sermon made there was good and
Christian. They were not admitted. Whether they were with my lord or
not I cannot say. I can say no more herein than I heard them say."
9. "They were innocent preachers, so far as ever we could judge and gather
of their preaching, and, as far as we can learn abroad, the most of their
audience well contented with them. Therefore we call them innocent
preachers, not worthy to be accused; of whom both, Mr. Serles was prisoned,
and he said that he was so for his preaching; for my lord, before the Council,
objected unto him his preaching, after he was returned from the North, (fn. 70)
and thereupon, he said, he was committed unto prison." 10. "Some of
their audience, not contented with their sermon, do name the preacher
seditious and are ready to complain, and that maketh men afraid to preach."
11. "Of none other occasion we take this article to be true but all onely by
cause certain have been presented unto his Grace, as Mr. Rydley and Scory,
and not caused to recant; whereas these forenamed Serles and Schether,
have been corrected; by reason whereof, seeing that certain matters have
been sith preached, by the said Scory chiefly, and somewhat by Mr. Rydley,
we judge that they ar in that that were hytherto sufferyd withowt correctyon
to be the bolder." 12. "The tenor of my lord's Grace's letter : 'As I [am]
credibly informed, there be certain images within my church abused and
made the images of our Our Lady. Wherefore I will you to take them
down.' As nigh as I can remember, this was the tenor of the letter. The
letter Doctor Champyon had."
In Gardiner's hand, pp. 2.
xii. "Interrogatories for Gardiner."
1. "How many bokes he knoweth have made (sic) of complaynts in this
diocese and delivered to any of the Council." 2. What time the book was
first delivered to Dr. Willoughby, and what time it was after subscribed, and
what time he, with Mr. Parkhurst and Mr. Shether, were sent for to come
up to London. 3. What time he commanded young Thacker to ride
straightways to the Bp. of Winchester if the Archbishop of Canterbury did
send for this deponent, and for what purpose he so commanded him, and
what he willed him to say to the Bp. of Winchester, and what comfort he
looked for at his hands. 4. What time the book called "the unperfite
boke" was delivered to Petitt. 5. What was the tenor of the last letter
of Mr. Shether to the Bp. of Winchester. 6. What notes he wrote for
Mr. Shether. 7. What he can say further of the Archbp's lecture
ad Hæbraos. 8. What communication he had with Petitt of the article of
the Sacrament of the Altar presented against Scory.
Replies to the preceding.
1. Knows but of one book delivered to Dr. Wyllyby, but knows not
whether he delivered it to the Council or not. Knew of another book that
he delivered, but not until he had done so, and of its contents he knows
but little. 2. In the Easter week the book was delivered to Dr. Wyllyby
and with[in ?] four weeks after subscribed; "and upon St. George's day,
Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and I were in London with Mr. Baker."
3. Willed young Thaccher to ride, if need had been, to my lord of Winchester
when Mr. Serles and Mr. Scory were last in indurance," supposing
that I was like to be troubled for my preaching, desiring my lord to write
unto my lord's Grace in my favor. 4 . "Unto the lecture ad Hæbraos I
can say no more. I heard no man speak of it." 5 . "I said unto Mr.
Petitt, concerning Scory's words for the Sacrament of the Altar, 'I would
to Jesu he had never spake these words that he did speak. I had rather
than much money it had not been my chance to have heard him. For by
God I am as loth to hurt him by my word as to hurt any man. He can
do well if he will, and so well as none better, if he list.'"
Pp. 2. The interrogatories (which are not numbered) are in Cranmer's
hand, the replies in Gardiner's.
xiii. William Gardiner to Dr. Ley.
"Right worshipful Master Doctor, at my last being with my lord I
received certain interrogatories at his hand, and his Grace willed me,
immediately upon the receipt of them, to make answer to them. And so
did I." But since then I have remembered "that certain of them
concerned the book presented, unto whom (sic) my hand is set." Must
stand in conscience as he may to those articles to which his hand is set,
but cannot remember how many he set his hand to. Thinks, not to so
many as the book shows which my lord's Grace laid before him. Begs him,
as the time was very short when he made his answer to the last
interrogatories and he was slack of memory, but now remembers better,
that he will cancel that answer and accept this in its place for his full reply.
Hol., p. 1. Add. at p. 236 :—To the right worshipful Mr. Dr. Ley.
[W. Gardiner to Cranmer.]
xiv. When I was with your Grace last at Bekesborne, 17 Nov., your
Grace ministered to me certain interrogatories, "unto whom, because I then
lacked time and leisure, also I had not mine answer so wholly in memory
as I now have." Begs him therefore to accept this fuller answer :—
1. As far as he knows, all or most part of the articles against Rydley
and Scory were proved; if not, is assured "that enow will say that they
were by them preached." 2. As to the words "Community of all things"
does not remember whether the words of all things were presented. 3. As to
articles added or diminished, knows of none in the book against Rydley and
Scory, save one added, viz., "There is none in Heaven but Christ." In the
book against my lord's Grace "the article of manne place, also of an
indifferent judge, are out of the book presented unto Mr. Baker, as I do
now remember." 4. Whether all these articles were presented in
writing or no :—Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkhurst, presenters against
Mr. Rydley and Mr. Scory, can make clearer answer than I, but I answer
as I have heard and know. Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkhurst did not
present them in writing, all at one time, for one lacked, viz., "There is
none in heaven but Christ." That article was left out at first for lack of
witnesses. But afterwards when your Grace, being at London, sent to us
to inquire whether it was preached or no, where and by whom and what
witnesses could be found to it, "we, accompanied together, Mr. Sentleger
with the rest, in our chapter house, did examine Mardon and Colman, two
of our vicars. They heard it preached by Mr. Scory at St. Alphege's in
Canterbury; and upon their testifying we sent up letters unto your Grace
thereof, and the witnesses' names thereafter."
5. Whereas Mr. Serles had preached (as presented) "that no idolatry
might be to an image of Our Lady," etc., for all images were representers of
Saints and no idols, your Grace said all images were idols, and when Serles
said Nay, asked "What is ydolum ?" Serles said Ydolum nihil est. Your
Grace replied that "ydolum and imago in Greek was one." Then said
Gardner "Pleaseth your Grace I think nay; for an idol is that thing which
hath given unto him such honor as is due unto God or unto some Saint."
Then said my lord "You know not the Greek; ydolum and imago are all one."
"My lord," said Gardner, although I know not the Greek, yet I trust I
know the truth, and that by St. Paul, rehearsing Rom. i."
6. "Item, 6 preachers, 3 of the old, 3 of the new, &c. Then said
Gardner 'My lord, that is a mean to set us at variance!' My lord said,
'The King's pleasure is to have it so.' We therewith were contented. My
lord, when I was last with your Grace and made answer unto this article,
your Grace said unto me that you said thus : 'I have showed the King's
Grace what I had done, and he was well pleased.' These words now last
rehearsed I wrote in mine answer at that time, but yet not denying the
other, which I have now rehearsed before; for of my conscience you did
speak them. And therefore, although I did not put them into mine
answer then, yet I trust you will not so take me, nor cannot so take me
that I deny that. I did put the words which your Grace said that you said,
not denying the other, to content your Grace's mind; for almost they be
one in effect."
7. "I call them innocent preachers against whom no fault justly can
be found for preaching. But as for these two, Serles and Schether's sermons
with us in our church preached, the most of our church will testify to be
good, godly and quiet. In the country also, where they have been, their
audience have likewise reported of them both by word, also by writing.
Wherefore, seeing they have preached so that their audience is godly edified
by them, and the King's ordinance quietly set forth, we do name them
innocent preachers without fault for their preaching."
8. "Item, the one was prisoned. Reverend father, although unto this
article I made answer that he was prisoned (as by your relation I then had
knowledge, and not of mine own knowledge, for who did put him to prison
I know not, but all onely by your Grace's saying), My lord, this is true; he
was prisoned, and, as he said divers times, his imprisonment was at your
Grace's complaint made for his preachings. And, my lord, so far as we
have heard and known by credible persons, his preachings were godly.
Therefore we judged that those which accused him unto your Grace in their
accusations did injustly."
9. Item, such as would speak against evil opinions dare not, &c. Who
name them sedytyusse? I answer, Part of their audience. When I was
last with your Grace at Lambeth on Passion Week was 12 months, your
Grace did speak unto me for my preaching in Canterbury a little before, and
said that you were informed that I had made a seditious sermon in
Canterbury. I said unto your Grace, My lord, I know that there be in
Canterbury which would be glad to vex me. I trust you will believe the
truth; for every one that hath accused me I shall bring 6 to witness for my
quiet preaching. And truly my sermon then was ayenst such as seemed
not to favor the erection of images.
10. Item, when we preach we be called knaves, Mr. Mylles, Mr.
Serlles, Mr. Schether and I, and it is said that one of us doth confirm
another in the pulpit and that that good preachers have done before we
pull back. Verba Jherom Oxynbrigge. Teste Boydon.
11. Item, whereas we take wytnesse for accusers, and am in the
terme dys ceyvyd (as your Grace doth say), I shall desire your Grace to
show the accusers of them and of us. And of this we be well assured that
there be enow that will declare unto your Grace what and of what qualities
they be, which do accuse. For this we require the report of the town and
[Here a blank leaf intervenes.]
12. "Item, evil preachers be more bolder, &c. Who doth bold them?
I answer, Slack correction; for if these and such as have been accused for
evil preaching had been corrected, other reformed, they would have been
more wary than they have been in setting forth their evil sayings. What
they have preached, by bills now unto your Grace presented, it doth now
appear. And such as have no bills, as Mr. Launcelot Rydly, agenst him
presented yet, Mr. Mylles and I heard certain wytnesse say that he did
preach in Asche parish church on Passion Monday last was 12 months that
prayer for souls departed availed nothing; wherewith were divers offended,
as the witness said."
13. "Item, what favor have they at their ordinary's hand? We name
them to have favor, which, being as, or more faulty than other, were not
punished, and other punished, as Mr. Schether, which was punished, and
Mr. Serles, as he saith, for preaching, and not Mr. Rydley and Mr. Scory.
And whether thorough the none punishment of these Rydley and Scory,
other, other by favor or otherwise showed by my lord's Commissary, favor
hath been showed unto some which have not preached all the best, I put it
unto the report of the country."
14. "Item, what displeasure, if we do complain, we have at our
ordinary's hand. My lord, we take heavy and displeasant words for the very
act of displeasure. For if a great man speak a word of his displeasure unto
a mean man, it pricketh the mean man, and troubleth him greatly. Why?
He is not able to bear it. But your Grace (as Mr. Schether told unto me)
when he received his injunction at your Grace's hand at Croydon that your
Grace did say That you would be even with me and that shortly, because I
reasoned for Serle's part in your Grace's Chamber. You said likewise unto
Mr. Sentleger, which was a presenter ayenst Rydley and Scory 'You make
a bend, do you? I will break your bend, ewysse, and I will make you leave
15. "Item, images four were taken down, partly by your Grace's letters,
partly by your Commissioners' commandment, in Christchurch. The tenor
of your letters by whom three of them were taken down was this :—' I am
credibly informed that these images be abused.' After these words thus it
followed, as I do remember :—' Wherefore I will that you take them down.'
And so they were, Dr. Champyon there being and having the letter.
Dr. Thornden can declare how the image of Christ over the first mass altar
was taken down, and he with other prebendaries and petty canons can declare
that they were not abused. And Dr. Thornden, as he often times did say,
would speak unto your Grace for the image of Christ over the first mass
altar. Well, he that informed your Grace these images to be abused, which
were not so, is worthy fault (?)."
Reverend father, if that I have insufficiently answered unto any of these
interrogatories then when I was last with your Grace at Bekesborne, the 17th
of November, whom I cannot now call into my remembrance, I shall desire
your Grace to be always assured that I will at all times stand unto every
article in the book whereunto my hand is set, and whom I know to be presented
unto the hands of Mr. Baker; and unto such articles I shall be ready
to answer at your Grace's commandment, forasmuch as I have done nothing
of malice and displeasure, but only upon my conscience and upon a godly
zeal towards a Christian quietness, nothing desirous of hurt or hindrance
unto ony man.
Per me, Will'm Gardner, clericum.
As God doth know.
"Father, although upon my conscience and upon a good zeal I have done
this, yet I am sorry, as I have oftentimes said and written, that I have so
displeased your Grace, desiring you, as always I have, to remit of your
charity my unkindness."
Hol., pp. 6. With two marginal annotations in Cranmer's hand.
XXII. Packet, marked "D.— Shether," containing the following :—
i. About Rogation week was twelve month Mr. Serles, coming to Oxford,
said to me that when I came to Canterbury I should hear of many sermons
that had been made there at Canterbury at the which I would much
wonder of, and namely he spoke of a sermon Mr. Brook made, as I think, in
the which he named the ceremonies of the Church beggarly.
I wrote to Dr. Willybye by the advice of Mr. Parkhurst and Gardener
that I thought that at Dr. Cockes coming to London he should be sought
for; wherefore I willed him to repair to some other his friends, or to the
Court that he might make answer there, also advertising him that if he
were examined he should require to see authority from the Council, before
whom the matter is known, before that he answered in it. And in case he
answered, I said that he might say he had the book of Mr. Coxston, whereas
he had it of Master Gardener. And at my last being in London I heard
that Mr. Gardener was in ward, whereupon I would have had his servant
to carry a letter of it to my lord of Winchester, but he said it could not be;
whereupon I ceased.
"By me, Edmond Shether."
ii. "At my coming to Canterbury after that I was come from Oxford,
Coxston, petty canon of Christchurch, showed me Mr. Scory's and Ridle's
articles, asking me whether they were not the articles that were objected to
them; and I said that, as far as I remembered, they were the same. And
then he asked me whether I did see any witness that came in to depose for
Mr. Searles. And I said that I did see three, the which, Mr. Serles said,
came to depose for him, but where they dwelt I said I could not tell; and
finally he desired me to keep it in remembrance that I did see them. And
so we departed."
Shortly afterwards Mr. Gardiner showed me the same articles of Mr.
Scory and Ridley, and others joined to them touching my lord's Grace,
of which many referred to a communication between my lord and
Gardiner. He asked me how I liked them. I said they were well penned,
but I could say nothing to them because I had not heard of many of the
matters; but if he would let me copy them out I would note more in them.
And in copying them I noted that my lord had caused me to recant, which
I said was not true. So the article was amended in that point and we
talked no more of that matter.
After this Mr. Williby, about the Parliament time, came to Mr. Gardener,
and after communication they had together (by chance, I cannot tell how)
we met together talking of the Parliament, and I heard Mr. Williby say
that he would take upon him to be the only doer in the matter. And he
said that he doubted not but that he and such as disclosed erroneous
doctrine and the authors of the same should have great thanks. The same
time Mr. Gardiner sent to me for the copy of the articles that I had, and so
I sent it by Mr. Coxston to him; and so Mr. Williby had them, but for what
purpose I did not know, as I did not know scant the said Williby, nor never
spake many words with him. Shortly after Mr. Williby wrote a letter to
Mr. Gardener, the contents whereof I cannot tell, but upon the receipt
thereof Mr. Gardener said that Mr. Williby desired to have the articles
subscribed, to the intent it might be known what witness would depose in
every article; and so, to as many as I could testify I subscribed withou
ony further meddling in the matter.
After this Mr. Dean of Christchurch wrote to me that he was commanded
by one of the King's Privy Council to require Mr. Serles (if he
were at Canterbury) and me to come as secretly as we might to London.
And when I came to him to the King's Court I asked him whether my
lord's Grace of Canterbury did send for me or no, and he said nay, he knew
not of it. And bidding me tarry unto that he had spoken with one, when
he returned again to me he willed Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Gardener and me to
repair to Mr. Baker; and so we did. When we came to Mr. Baker he said
to us thus :—'The King's grace hath delivered me a book which he hath
perused himself, and because he perceiveth that you three (and wished also for
Mr. Serles) can say somewhat in it, he willeth you to say what you know,
fearing no person, but to dread only one God and one King.' Whereupon
we took the book and drew out such articles as we could witness of, and,
delivering him the book, said that although we three present could not witness
in the articles he had delivered us, yet there was in Canterbury that could
witness of them. Upon which word he willed us to go to Canterbury, and
me (because I was youngest) to return again, after that I had made the
book perfect in the day and year and caused it to be subscribed, and to
bring him the book again perfectly made. And so we, departing from
Mr. Baker, went to the Bishop of Winchester and showed him what
Mr. Baker had said to us. And he, perusing the book we had made,
leaving out the articles that were touching the communication that was
betwixt my lord's Grace and Mr. Gardener only, he said it was well
enough, and so bade us go again to Mr. Baker and tell him that he said so.
Upon which words we returned to Mr. Baker, and after we had declared to
him my lord of Winchester's mind he received the book, and so we took
our leave of him.
At this time my lord of Winchester asked me what the articles were
that my lord's Grace of Canterbury objected to me and I showed him the
articles and the declaration my lord's Grace enjoined me; at the which he
only mused a season and said nothing; and, as he went to talk with other,
we took our leave of him.
At this our being in London Mr. Serles also sent me a letter, showing
that he could not conveniently come to London; in the which letter he
willed us that were there to cause Dr. Thornden to be called before the
Council, saying that Mr. Napper of Oxon had told him that if the said Dr.
Thornden were called, he would tell a knavish tale of my lord's Grace (as I
think those were his terms), and in the same letter he willed us to repair to
Dr. London at Silver Street; but we did not so, but departed out of London.
And within little more than a week after, Mr. Serles, coming from
Oxon to Canterbury, said to me that he spake at London with Mr. Baker,
who willed me to come to him and to bring the book formably drawn
according as he willed me. At the which message I marvelled greatly and
rode up to London to him, carrying with me the names of the witnes to
every article, showing him that he willed me not at our departing to draw
the book in ony other manner of form; with the which answer he was
contented. And there declaring to him that Mr. Batterst of Canterbury
said, in the time that we were at London, that both Mr. Gardener and I
should quail (quail) for their persons (parson's) trouble, in entreating of certain
articles of Sir Bland and other, he said that it were well done that one
book were made of all such articles as were detected, and told me that Dr.
London had made a perfect book, and said that I should do well to
declare to my lord of Winchester Mr. Batterst's words and Sir Bland's
article of Missa non est sacrificium pro peccatis; adding, moreover, that I
should note as diligently as I could the chiefest fautours and bearers of
erroneous doctrine and mark their names; and so I departed from him.
After this I went to my lord of Winchester and showed him the
witnesses' names of every article, and also of Mr. Batterst's words; unto
the which he said only he mused that Mr. Batterst would so use himself.
And I delivered him Sir Blande's bill subscribed with his hand concerning
the article Missa non est sacrificium, &c., and he reserved the bill; and so I
left him. And going to Dr. London I showed him the copy of the book
that we had delivered to Mr. Baker; the which he said he was glad to see
because of the witnes whose names he caused to be copied out. And after
he showed me the manner of making of his book, which was a great thing,
and had articles I had not before heard of. But I departed from him and
After that I had returned to Canterbury, Coxson, petty canon, drew
another book of certain fawtors and bearers, containing many articles
uncertainly conceived and not perfectly proved; the which Mr. Parkhurst,
Mr. Gardener, I and other (but I remember not well who) sent up by my
servant to Mr. Williby that he should show them to my lord at Winchester;
who sent it down again because it was unperfect. The which book Mr.
Petit heard of, and as he went to London he said he would needs have it
with him to show to Mr. Baker. And whereas I declared to him that it
was unperfect and uncertain, he said that he would declare that to Mr.
Baker by mouth and do no more but show him the book and send it again.
But afterward he wrote a letter to Mr. Gardener from London that he had
delivered the book to Mr. Baker; but what is done with it I cannot tell.
And this is all that I can call to remembrance in this matter since the time
that I was sworn and commanded upon my allegiance to declare the
circumstans of this matter.
"By me Edmond Shether."
Hol., pp. 4. With marginal annotations by Cranmer.