Henry VIII
December 1533, 1-10


Institute of Historical Research



James Gairdner (editor)

Year published




Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Henry VIII: December 1533, 1-10', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 6: 1533 (1882), pp. 599-613. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=77579 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)

December 1533, 1-10

1 Dec.
R. O.
1483. Sir Christopher Garneys to Cromwell.
Thanks him for his loving letters. Is eased of the unquietness he had by reason of a stroke given to a lewd person. Did it not out of malice, but for due correction. Cannot recompense Cromwell's kindness, but will send him by next ship "a piece of wine of Gravys." The letter Cromwell sent is delivered to the mayor of Calais. Hears nothing as yet concerning the same ; but when he does, will let him know. Calais, 1 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Of the King's Privy Council.
1 Dec.
R. O.
1484. Rauf Fenwyke to Cromwell.
Begs his help to obtain his patent of Hexhamshire from the Archbishop. The King promised it him for life ; but through lord Dacre's labor, my lord Bishop will only grant it during pleasure, and with inconvenient bonds that have never been used before. Begs Cromwell to assist him, for he cannot leave these parts. Gave Cromwell a copy of the patent and bonds in my Lord's garden at Hackney. Offers him 5 marks a year for life, or a gelding worth 8l. Desires credence for the bearer. Hexham, 1 Dec.
Asks him to obtain for him from the King the lands of one Ansle, who was executed for March treason within the Middle Marches, where I am lieutenant. The land is called Schaftoo, and is worth 10 marks.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To my right worshipful and especial good Mr. Cromwell. Endd.
1 Dec.
Er. Epp. 1. XXIX. 48.
1485. Erasmus to Thomas Earl Of Wiltshire And Ormond.
Is asked by the Earl to undertake, in addition to former labors, a treatise how every one should prepare for death. Will devote all his energies to the subject. Friburg in Brisgau, cal. Dec. 1533.
2 Dec.
Cleop. E. VI. 317. B. M. St. P. I. 414.
1486. The King's Council.
"Acta in Consilio domini Regis, ijdo Decembris.
1. The conclusions mentioned in the first article of this book, and the circumstances thereof, are committed to Mr. Dean, Mr. Almoner, and other doctors, to search their books, and answer the Council on Friday or Saturday. The bishops of London, Lincoln, and Bath must be warned to be present. 2. Meanwhile the Council will consider the other seven articles. 3. The execution of the 9th, 10th, and 11th articles is committed to the Lord Chancellor and Mr. Cromwell. 4. A minute of a letter shall be drawn up by Mr. Almoner according to the purport of the 12th article ; but first the Council shall be shown the copy of a letter sent to the Pope by the nobles, temp. Edw. I., and also the letter last sent to the Pope. 5. The 13th article is committed to my lord of Norfolk and Mr. Cromwell. 6. Before the 14th, 15th, and 16th are put in execution, letters must be sent to Wallop to advertise the French king thereof. 7. For the diminishing the house and order of the Princess Dowager, the King has appointed the duke of Suffolk, the earl of Sussex, Mr. Comptroller, and Mr. Dean to repair thither. 8. The duke of Norfolk, the lord Marquis, the earl of Oxford, and Mr. Almoner are similarly appointed to go to the lady Mary's house. 9. The lady Princess shall be conveyed hence to Hatfield on Wednesday in next week, to sleep that night at the earl of Rutland's at Enfield, the next day to be conveyed to Hertford, there to remain with the family assigned to her.
Pp. 2.

Cleop. E. VI. 312. B. M. St. P. I. 411.
1487. The King's Council.
Memoranda for the King's Council.
1. To send for all the bishops, especially those nearest the Court, and examine them whether they can prove by the law of God that he that is called the Pope of Rome is above the General Council, or the Council above him ; or whether he has by the law of God any more authority within the realm than any other foreign bishop. 2. To devise with the bishops for the preaching of the superiority of the General Council over all bishops, and that the Pope has no more jurisdiction here than any other foreign bishop, and that his previous authority here was usurped by the sufferance of princes. 3. That the bishop of London be bound to suffer none to preach at Paul's Cross who will not set forth the same. 4. That all the bishops be similarly bound to cause the same to be preached. 5. Special practice must be made, and strait commandment to the same effect given to the provincials, ministers, and rulers of all the four orders of Friars. 6. To command the Friars Observants to preach in like wise, or else to forbid them. 7. Heads of religious houses must teach their brethren to declare the same. 8. Bishops shall order parsons, vicars, and curates to preach to their parishioners in like wise. 9. Proclamations containing the whole Act of Appeals are to be made throughout the realm, and the Act to be printed and set up on every church door. 10. The King's provocation and appellations from the bishop of Rome to a General Council must also be set up on the church doors, that, if any censures are fulminated, it may appear to all the world that they are of no effect, as the King both provoked and appealed before they were promulgated. 11. Transumpts of the King's provocation and appellation are to be sent to other realms, and especially Flanders. 12. A letter from the nobles, spiritual and temporal, to the bishop of Rome, must be conceived, declaring the wrongs done to the King and realm. (In the margin : "Not yet done, ne can welbe done before the Parlyament.") 13. To send spies to Scotland to perceive their practices, and whether they will ally themselves with any outward prince. (In the margin : "For to send letters to my lord Dacre, my lorde of Northumberland, and Syr Thomas Clyfford.") 14. Ambassadors to be sent to conclude a league with the king of Poland, king John of Hungary, the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, duke Frederick, the landgrave of Hesse, the bishops of Mayence, Treves, Cologne, and other potentates of Germany. (In the margin : "In the Kynges arbytrement.") 15. Like practice to be made with Lubeck, Dantzic, Hamburgh, Brunswick, and all other "steddes of the Haunse Tutonyk." (In the margin : "To know when of the Kyng.") 16. Like practice with Nuremberg and Augsburgh. 17. To speak with the Merchants' Adventurers haunting Brabant. (In the margin : "This is all rede doon.") 18. To establish the houses of the Princess Dowager and my lady Mary. (In the margin : "The order is taken.") 19. A full conclusion and determination to be taken for my lady Princess's house. (In the margin : "The orders taken.")
Pp. 7.
R. O. 2. First draft of the same, with numerous corrections in Cromwell's hand, containing the following additional articles :—Strict commandment to be given to the mayor and others of the city of London that they shall liberally speak at their boards, and teach their servants that the Pope is only bishop of Rome, and has no jurisdiction here. Also that the nobility should bruit the same, wherever they go. Devices to be made for repairing the fortifications, especially on the frontiers of Scotland. A trusty person to be sent into Ireland to bring over the Irish rebels to the King's part. Justice and quiet to be maintained in Wales. The King's navy, ordinances and munitions of war, bows, guns, &c., to be repaired and provided for.
Articles 9, 10, and 11 are not in this draft.
R. O. 3. Another copy of § 2, without the corrections by Cromwell. The
articles are not all in the same order.
Pp. 7. Endd. : Capita rerum.
Harl. MS. 604, f. 249. B. M. 4. A modern copy of § 2, to which is appended :—
ii. A declaration that a General Council may be kept provincial, and that the Pope of Rome is not the head or chief of the Councils.
1. To declare that the General Council, lawfully gathered, is and ought to be superior to all jurisdictions, either usurped or suffered as papal, or justly holden, as kings', in all matters concerning the faith and direction of the Church ; "and also ought to be judged thereby, and by their decrees only, they being consonant to the law of Christ." 2. That princes have two ways to obtain right when none other can prevail :—In spiritual cases, appeal to the General Council ; and in temporal, the sword, unless the matter may be compounded by mediation. Whoever goes about to take away these natural defences is to be withstood. To this we are animated by Christ, who said, "Obey princes above all, and then their deputies, not giving power to foreigns within their rules and dominions." 3. Divers General Councils have determined that causes of strife and controversy shall be determined in the region where they were begun ; on which ground the King and nobles, spiritual and temporal, and the Commons, have made a law forbidding appeals to Rome in matrimonial cases, and the King's cause has now its final and prosperous end, with brief success of issue already had, and other like to follow. 4. The King has appealed to the next General Council, rightfully congregate, from the usurper of God's laws and infringer of General Councils, who calls himself Pope. This appeal having been intimated to him, he is sequestered from all process in the matter, "other diabolic acts and statutes by some of his predecessors made notwithstanding." Censures, interdicts, &c. ought therefore to be despised and manfully withstood ; and we so doing shall have for our buckler the latter and better part of this verse ensuing, and the maligners the fore part, which is "Quoniam qui malignant exterminabuntur, sustinentes autem dominium ipsi hereditabunt terram." 5. As Scripture gives no more authority to the bishop of Rome than to any other bishop extra provinciam, but the sufferance of princes and the blindness of the people have sustained it, it is thought convenient to open the same to the people that they may no longer honor him as an idol, being but a man neither in life nor learning Christ's disciple, and disqualified from the office, being base born, and having obtained it by simony. In denying our provocation and append and supporting the diabolic decree of his predecessor Pius, he is determined, by a General Council, a very heretic. Therefore true Christian people ought to despise him and his facts, and be no longer blinded with him, but give themselves to the observance of Christ's laws, in which is all sweetness and truth, and in the other nothing else [than] pomp, pride, ambition, and ways to make themselves rich, which is much contrarious to their profession. Our Lord amend them.
Modern copy, pp. 4 (both articles included).

Burnet, (fn. 1) I. 285.
1488. A General Council.
[A speech of Cranmer touching a General Council.]
Alleges that the court of Rome, like rich men flying from an enemy, has destroyed many ancient writings and hid the rest so that it is difficult to discover the truth about all things ; that the canon law contains some truths, misplaced in places where one would not look for them. He then discusses the object of General Councils, to declare the faith and reform errors, although no Council was ever truly general. Points out that Christ named no head amongst the apostles ; that it is uncertain if St. Peter ever was at Rome ; and that, to judge by their lives, the faith of many Popes was not good ; that even if such power was granted to the See of Rome, it could not have been for ever obligatory, as Gerson showed, who wrote "de Auferibilitate Papæ."
Declares how corrupt the present Pope is, both in person and government, for which he was abhorred even by some of his Cardinals, as he himself had seen and heard at Rome. It is true there is no law to proceed against a vicious Pope, for the thing was not foreseen as possible ; but new diseases require new remedies ; and if a heretical Pope may be judged in a Council, so should also a simoniacal, covetous, and impious Pope. Every man who so lives is out of the communion of the Church, and as the preeminence of the See of Rome flows only from human laws, he is accountable to the Church. The Council of Constance and the divines of Paris had declared the Pope to be subject to a General Council. The power of Councils did not extend to princes or secular matters, but only to points of faith, and to condemn heretics ; nor were their decrees laws until they were enacted by princes. On this he enlarged much, to show that if a Council were to proceed against the King, its sentence was of no force ; and showed that as a member of the body is not cut off unless a gangrene comes in it, so no part of the Church ought to be cut off but upon a great and inevitable cause. He added that some General Councils had been rejected by others, and it was a delicate question how far they ought to be referred to. The divines of Paris held that a Council could make no new article of faith that was not in the Scriptures. He thought, therefore, that the Word of God was the only rule of faith, and cited passages from St. Austin to show the difference between the Scriptures and other writings. He acknowledged, however, that a consensus of the Fathers must have flowed from the Spirit of God. He then discussed the qualities which a judge ought to have ; and concluded that the Pope, being a party, and having already passed sentence in things which ought to be examined by a General Council, could not be a judge. Princes also having sworn to the Pope by mistake as head of the Church may pull their necks out of his yoke, as a man may escape from a robber. The Court of Rome was so corrupt that even a well-meaning Pope like Adrian could never bring anything to a good issue.

R. O.
1489. General Councils.
Sketch of a treatise on Ecclesiastical authority, contending in the latter part that the Pope may err both in faith and morals, and that the final authority is a General Council which can depose a Pope. At the beginning on a blank leaf is the text, "Remansit puer Jesus in Jerusalem, et non cognoverunt parentes ejus."
Pp. 3. Begins : Quum sepenumero a theologicis disputetur de potestate Dei, an, silicet, Deus hoc aut illud poterit, non videbitur quis os in celum ponere, qui de vicaria potestate Dei, id est, de summi Pontificis auctoritate disceptat.
ii. Appended to the above, in another hand, is the corrected draft of an alphabetical catalogue of books.
Pp. 12.
R. O. 2. Another copy of the same catalogue.
Pp. 7.
R. O. 3. A catalogue of writers on the canon and civil law.
Pp. 8. Endd. : Registrum quorundam librorum, &c.

R. O.
1490. Sampson to Cromwell. (fn. 2)
The Lords of the Council have committed the matter you know of to Mr. Almoner, Trigonell, Oliver, Kerne, and me, and charged us to be diligent about it, to the exclusion of all other things. "Notwithstanding, I know the King's commandment this other day for the friars."
Begs to know if he will be at Greenwich this day, that he may wait upon him for that purpose.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To the right honorable Mr. Cromwell.

R. O. St. P. VII. 524.
1491. Henry VIII. to Wallop.
Knowing the Pope's ungodly determination against us, in order to meet it, by the advice of our subjects, we think it necessary to make proof of our ancient friends, and have therefore resolved to send to the princes of Germany and others, to join ourselves in amity with them ; and in consideration of our friendship to our good brother to advertise him of the premises. Our subjects, considering the injuries we have received, have required us no longer to endure these attempts of the Pope, but to find some remedy for them by a total abolition of his authority, and in so doing obtain the advice and assistance of the Princes aforesaid. We have in consequence taken such order with our nobles and subjects that we shall be able to give such a buffet to the Pope as he never had before ; of which we think right to give the French king notice. You are to advertise us of his answer. We have had advertisements of late that he has been urged by some of his clergy to advance the Pope, which we cannot believe that he will do, considering the great amity between us, the extremity of the Pope's malice, and the little regard he has paid to our good brother's travail in our cause.
Draft, in Wriothesley's hand, corrected by Cromwell. Endd. by Cromwell's secretary.
*** Where the draft had only "nobles," Cromwell has added "and subjects" in various places, or else had inserted the word "commons," which he afterwards altered to "subjects."
3 Dec.
R. O.
1492. Treason.
Depositions as to words spoken 29 Nov. 25 Hen. VIII. by a priest called Sir John Warde, in the presence of Ric. Baynom, John Spoottell, Thos. Reigate, and Ralph Hoowe, dwelling in Maldon.
He said in Baynom's house that Henry VIII. was no king of right. Baynom replied that his father was king before him ; and Sir John said he was but duke of Somerset. This is deposed by Spoottell, Reygate, and Hoowe, before Henry earl of Essex, Will. Clopton, and Ric. Walgrave, gentlemen ; Sir Edw. Buckok and Sir Thos. Thomlynson, priests ; John May and Edw. Showeler, constables of Maldon. 3 Dec. 25 Hen. VIII. Signed by the earl of Essex, Waldegrave, and Clopton.
Large paper, p. 1. Endd.
3 Dec.
R. O.
1493. John Coke to Cromwell.
On the 28th November, three merchants of this fellowship, coming hither through Gravelines, were told by the captain there, "I give you knowledge that if your King take not his Queen again within 30 days I would advise you nor none of your nation to pass this ways, but to keep you at home ; for if you do, I woll take you as good prise." I have ordered "the said young men" not to spread this further. Sends a "pronostication" put out here in print "by a folisshe medecyn." Antwerp, 3 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
3 Dec.
R. O.
1494. William Cavendish to Cromwell.
I arrived at Cambridge on Friday night after I left you. I met by chance one who I found was making chevisance with certain of the King's plate ; and to prevent "brabelyng" by the mayor and bailiffs, I took him and the plate with me to Ely. I find on examination he is a strong and notable thief ; and I send him to your Mastership, as you will probably get much knowledge by him of the King's plate stolen. The bearer, my fellow, can explain further.
On Sunday after I came to Ely I delivered the King's letter to the Prior, who, after a great pause, said in his feigned fashion that I was welcome, since it was the King's pleasure, to occupy the offices of auditor and receiver, trusting that he should have a sufficient warrant from the King for himself and his house ; as if the King's letters were not enough. On Monday last, 1 Dec., as I went into the church to mass, the Prior called me to speak with him apart, and took out of a box in his sleeve a grant, as he said, of the King's progenitors for the receipt of the same tempore vacationis ; but I refused to read it, as I had no commission to that effect. That which I had in commission, I said, I expected he would assist me in, rather than otherwise. "With that he began to wax melancholy, saying he had friends that counselled him rather to die than to suffer me to meddle by the virtue of my commission or writing ; and that it was his part so to do. And when I had perceived him to be thus chafed, marvelled what he should mean, for that he was pleased at my first coming. Thought that Mynne had sent him letters. Privily caused an honest man, one Richard à Lee, a freemason, whom ye right well know, secretly to inquire whether there were any of Parson Mynne's servants in town. He brought me word there was one of his servants, named Davy, which came to Ely on Sunday at night, and had communication with the Prior, and, as far as he could learn or hear, brought him letters." Thus I have entered and taken accounts, and have received 200 marks and above. Ely, 3 Dec.
I have sent you 11 pieces of plate weighing 48¼ oz.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. : Of the King's Council.
3 Dec.
R. O.
1495. John Prior Of St. Gregory's, Canterbury, to Cromwell.
I thank you for your great goodness in my promotion, which, though I cannot recompense, I shall remember all my life. It was only for want of audacity that I have not written to thank you before. Canterbury, 3 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Council.
3 Dec.
R. O.
1496. Richard [Pexall], Abbot of Leicester, to Cromwell.
My ordinary's Chancellor has been these 10 or 12 years with his visitations to disquiet my house, and has maintained three or four canons put in office by the Bishop, whom I have removed because they are unprofitable, and put in others. Mine ordinary's Chancellor has been here of late to disorder me in my house, as my canon Deythik, the bearer, can show you. Leicester Monastery, 3 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : King's Councillor.
3 Dec.
R. O.
1497. Sir Thos. Elyot to Lady Lisle.
Thanks her for her goodness to her servant Thos. Raynsforde. Having had experience of the loyalty and assured honesty of him and his brethren, is moved to desire her to continue to be his good lady. He repents of having too much delighted in dicing, and of other loss of time, and says he is much bound to her for her honorable and gentle advertisements. As one of his poor friends, and at the request of his brethren, and especially of Mr. Raynsford, gentleman usher, his long approved friend, desires her to pursue her charitable favor towards him, and to recommend him to lord Lisle. Advises her, if she sees any lack in him touching his service, or excess in gaming, to withdraw him with sharp admonition and commandment, which he much dreads. By so doing his father and brethren will be bound to pray for her. London, 3 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
4 Dec.
Galba, B. X. 41. B. M.
1498. Anthoine Brusset to [Lisle].
I have received your two letters, the first mentioning "your two subjects" detained prisoners here by the baill[y] of the town. On showing your letter they were immediately set at liberty.
In answer to your second letter, dated 1 Dec., I have caused to be delivered to your merchants their herrings and goods which had arrived "sur la pal[e] de la chasteline de Broucbourg," on their giving su[rety] and caution to the bailly and receiver, in case any other merchants claimed them, and on paying the expences.
The bearer of these letters is Arnould de Semerper ... a merchant of Lille, and the owner of the wines saved by George Squennis, your officer, and his assistants, on your pale and ours. I beg you to deliver to him the wine marked with his mark. He will pay a reasonable sum, and give you sufficient caution in the town of Calai[s].
As to the "visitacions [des lim]ites de entre vous et nous," I have informed the gentlemen of St. Omer, with whom the matter rests in part, as they hold "les heins de St. Pol en arentison," which are of the pale and lordship of this town, that the visitation may be held on Tuesday or Wednesday. When I have their answer I will inform you. When the visitation is made, and marks placed beside the ancient marks, we shall be able to live like good neighbours and friends.
Expresses his willingness to serve his correspondent, saving his duty to his master the Emperor. Gravelinghes, 4 Dec. 1533. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2.
5 Dec.
R. O.
1499. Christopher Hales to Cromwell.
Whereas I asked you to favor dan John Barstable, monk of Sherborne, Dorset, to be Abbot there, if the present Abbot should die : I am informed that Sir Will. Storton has come this day to the city to labor for the Prior to be Abbot ; also that Mr. Denys, your friend, supports him. Let none of these men, or any other, make you forget your promise to me, and my saying unto you shall be assuredly performed. Send me Legatt's letter if it be signed, and a copy of the will of the lord Dacres (fn. 3) for finding office on his lands in Kent. Gray's Inn, St. Nicholas eve.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
5 Dec.
R. O.
1500. Sir Francis Bryan to Lord Lisle.
Thanks him for his good cheer when he was with him ; also for his hawk. Has moved the King for the victualling of Calais ; when some of his Council answered that 60,000 qrs. of wheat had lately been conveyed thither, which, if it remain there, it is thought should be sufficient. I said, when I was there, there were not five beasts within the town. Cromwell and others said it should be looked to ; but how soon, I cannot tell you at present. Begs him to favor the poor man Stevyn, the bearer. 5 Dec.
On Tuesday the King removes to Richmond till near Christmas, when he returns to Greenwich. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
6 Dec.
Vienna Archives.
1501. Chapuys to Charles V.
On St. Andrew's eve, the King, who, for a month past, ought to have made or sent me an answer for what reason he claimed to deprive the Princess of her title, legitimacy, and primogeniture, sent to me by Norfolk and Cromwell to say that he would like to be informed by them of what I wished to say both on that matter and in what concerned the Queen ; and this he did, not to refuse or delay the audience, which he was very willing to give me, whenever I liked, but in order to take advice upon the subject.
And having made several remonstrances to them that the King could not allege illegitimacy, or deprive the Princess of her title, they replied that my arguments might be true and well founded in civil law, which had no force here, but that the laws of this kingdom were quite otherwise. But on showing them that I rested my argument only upon the decision of the canon law, which in a spiritual matter no prince's decree could prejudice, they knew not what to reply, except that they would report it to the King, and afterwards declare to me his intention. This they have not yet done, although he has held almost daily consultations, to which several learned canonists have been called. As regards the Queen, viz., the agreement proposed by the Pope, they said that formerly it had been under consideration, but that since sentence had been lawfully given by the archbishop of Canterbury, they thought the King would not expressly or tacitly do anything prejudicial to the said sentence, as it concerned his own honor and the interest of his new born daughter, especially as she was already declared Princess, and that if all the ambassadors in the world were to come, or even the Pope himself, they could not persuade the King otherwise. This, however, they did not give me for a resolute answer, remitting it as before to the King's determination. I impugned the sentence of the archbishop of Canterbury, and justified by various arguments that of the Pope and Consistory, against which the King could not allege what he had several times done, viz., the fear his Holiness had of your Majesty ; for, besides that the Pope knew well enough you would not for all the gold in the world compel any one to do what was unlawful, the sentence was given at a time when you were not only far away from Italy, and all the force of your army was at Coron, and the Pope was besides on the point of going to meet the king of France, whom he knew to be in close amity with the King their master. On these arguments they remained some time meditating, and Cromwell said it would never be found that any sentence given by the Pope in a matrimonial cause had been executed in England. This, I told him, I thought very strange, as the contrary was notorious ; and that if it were as he said, it was very blameable, not only in the prelates, who did not see to it, but also in the King and his officers, who did not enforce the sentences ; and so I left them.
About a month ago a number of Scots entered the kingdom, and, besides other damages, burned certain villages, the inhabitants of which have come to court for redress, but have had no other answer than that there was no war with the Scotch. The French ambassador coming lately to see me gave me to understand that this inroad had nothing to do with any quarrel between the two Kings, but only with private disputes. Nevertheless, it seems a dangerous commencement. The said Ambassador indicated to me that, but for the fear of displeasing this King, the Pope and his master would willingly have had an interview with his Majesty, declaring the friendship of his master with you was so strong, that he felt sure there would be no war, although there might be some appearance of it, only to induce the world to reason and honesty, and for no other purpose. I think by such talk they will deceive very few people. He also said it would be well to find some means of settling the matter of this divorce ; and after pressing him to declare what way he thought would be expedient, he said it would be best that the validity or invalidity of the marriages should be declared ; but since, owing to the King's obstinacy, there was little hope of this, the least evil course would be to assure the title and succession of the Princess, which he considered was one of the things which touched your Majesty most ; and, for the rest, to leave it to the King's conscience ; and that he saw clearly that if the Princess was married to some strong person (mariee en main forte), who could maintain her claims, there would be a fine trouble against this new born child, who would have no adherents except those who loved troubles and her own kinsmen. He said also he had several times heard from the King and those about him, that if the King could get no other remedy he would throw off his allegiance to the Holy See, and that he repented of nothing more than of the book he had written formerly against Luther in its favor ; and quite lately the King had told him that at the request of the King his master, and in the hope that something would be treated in his favor at the assembly of Marseilles, he had caused the preachers to forbear preaching against the Pope ; but now he would set them on again, issue books "quil diroient feug," and that they would reveal the abuses of popes and churchmen, as he had never done before. And the said Ambassador thinks that Lutheranism being introduced here, towards which he sees a part of the Court much inclined, it will afterwards be very difficult to check, especially on receiving some assistance from the Germans, particularly those near the sea. To this I thought right to answer that it would be the total ruin of this King, considering the inclination of the people, of which there were good evidences by the chronicles of his ancestors, and that he must not look for support to any German princes. For, although they have better means of being masters of their people by their castles and their nobility which was so accustomed to war, and moreover their authority had the prestige of great antiquity, free from all counter-claims ; yet, notwithstanding all this, what a tumult their villeins had raised ; which, if it had occurred here, even to a much less extent, would have been irremediable ; and that if the King would look at the chronicles of his predecessors, he would find four kings who had recognised the subjection of the realm to the Holy See, which the King himself had formerly confessed, although he said they had been deceived, and could not make the realm subject in prejudice of their successors. I thought it well to say this to the Ambassador, that he might report it at a convenient season, as I think I have persuaded them that the facts are so.
I have talked of it a long time with the duke of Norfolk, which was partly the cause they burnt some books which were current in this country. It would appear that the King in his blindness feared no one but God, and would have put his threats in execution, and done even worse, if he could.
As to the stoppage of news here, the King has already spent money on the repair of his ships. The merchant fleet going to Flanders is laden, and ready to make sail, notwithstanding the publication of the executorials, unless some order is issued to stop it ; which I do not expect. The bishop of Paris is hourly expected. He is coming in post to make excuses, as it is supposed, for the King his master not having been able to bring the Pope to do all that this King demanded, and also to report some part of the communications at Marseilles. I will endeavour to learn something of his news, and also about the business of one of those whom the King sent to Germany some time ago, who has just returned this morning. London, 6 Dec. 1533.
Hol., Fr., pp. 6. From a modern copy.
6 Dec.
R. O.
1502. Thos. Cromwell to the Abbot Of Letley. (fn. 4)
Desires him to grant his friend, John Cooke, a new lease for 60 years, at the old rent, of the farm called Roydon, which he holds from the Abbot, as the term is nearly expired. The said farm lies near the seaside, convenient for Cooke to serve the King in his office of the Admiralty in those parts. He has deserved the thanks of the King by his liberality to Cooke, and those with him on the King's service. Requests an answer by the bearer. London, 6 Dec.
P. 1. Signed : "Yr lordshyppis freend, Thomas Crumwell." Add.
6 Dec.
R. O.
1503. Sir Piers Edgecumbe to Cromwell.
I have examined Friar Gawen, warden of the Grey Friars at Plymouth and Sir Thomas Dorssed and Sir Thomas Fleet, priests there, apart. I have caused them to sign their depositions, here enclosed. I have committed Friar Gawen to the castle of Launceston till the King's pleasure be known. I have also, according to your letter, punished by pillory and stocks in the market-places such persons as spoke opprobrious words of the Queen. Cuthayll, 6 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Secret Council.

R. O.
1504. [Lord Lisle to Cromwell.]
Reminds [Cromwell] of his complaint against one Debnam, searcher of Colchester, for taking certain oxen from his servants, and how Debnam said, at Cromwell's house at Austin Friars, that he could prove that lord Lisle had ordered those who brought wine, herring, and other goods from Calais to England and back, that they should neither pay custom nor allow customer, searcher or other of the King's officers to meddle with them. Leonard Smyth, Lisle's solicitor, bade him beware what he said, and reported it to the writer, whom it highly concerned, considering the suspicion that before his time victual was carried out of the realm on pretence of being for Calais. Wrote, therefore, to his counsel to take action against Debnam. Knows he would speak much worse to the duke of Norfolk and others of the Council. He would not make answer till the last day of the exigent. Hears from his counsel they will be at issue next term. Will have difficulty in proving his words without Cromwell's help, as no one else heard them but Leonard Smyth. Asks him to certifiy the truth of the report, by letter or otherwise, to the judges. Debnam, at Cromwell's order, gave Smyth 10 marks for 10 oxen, but they were bought from the earl of Essex for 20 marks, so that, including the charges of the ship and his servants, Lisle has lost 20l. and more. Would be still more sorry if he could not prove Debnam's report to be untrue.
Draft, pp. 2.
7 Dec.
R. O.
1505. Rafe Sadleyer to Lord Lisle.
I perceive by your letter that you have written several previous letters to me, of which I have only received one. I have not been slow in writing myself of the state of your affairs here, or in soliciting their expedition. As to the garner and victualling of Calais, I have got my master (fn. 5) to write to you the King's pleasure. He intends to get you a warrant, signed by the King, for the victualling. He promises also that you shall have restitution of the beeves and other things spoiled and sold by Debnam, searcher of Colchester, and that he shall be punished. Leonard Smyth and I can determine the manner when he has spoken to my lord of Essex about it. London, 7 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Deputy of Calais. Endd.
7 Dec.
R. O.
1506. Anthoine Brusset to Lord Lisle.
According to my last letters about visiting the bounds between you and us, I have given notice to those of St. Tomer, who have written that they will be here on Thursday next. I beg you on your side to send the bailly and receiver of Marcq, and other old men of the country, whom you have mentioned, and tell me if you agree to the day. Gravelinghes, Sunday, 7 Dec.
Our party will be at Oye Sluice at 9 a.m., and from thence proceed towards the sea. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd. : Responce sur ce.
7 Dec.
R. O.
1507. John Hornyold, Receiver to the Bishop of Worcester, to Cromwell.
I perceive you have received to the King's use of Mr. Jarveis of London 100l., from the bishopric of Worcester, out of my receipts. I am not able to come to London, but I trust my account and all the money will be ready there. You know it is the King's pleasure that I should retain in my hands the revenues of the bishopric of Worcester till his pleasure be known. By my patent I must make my return in the bishopric of Worcester. Worcester, 7 Dec. 1533. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Master of the Jewels.
7 Dec.
R. O.
1508. Henry VIII.
Warrant to Cromwell, as master of the Jewels, for the following payments :—
To Will. Shirlonde 20l. reward "to furnish the room of our lord of Misrule." To Steph. Vaughan 130 cr. of the sun = 30l. 6s. 8d., to deliver by exchange to Chr. Mounte, now in Germany, for his diets. To John Burre, "servant to our daughter the lady Mary," 10l. To Thos. Pyerson, apothecary to the late Cardinal, 40s., in part payment of a greater sum due "for certain stuff delivered to the said late lord Cardinal in his lifetime." To Ralph Sadler, Cromwell's servant, 5l., and to Will. Bodie, Cromwell's servant, 20l., for rewards. Westm., 7 Dec. 25 Hen. VIII. Signed at the head.
7 Dec.
Vesp. F. I. 24. B. M.
1509. Francis De Frangepan and Stephen Brodarisch, Sirmiensis, to Sir Gregory De Casali.
They reply together to his letter to one of them, as they have both served this King their master with equal zeal. Casalis writes about the absolution of their King from the excommunication unjustly declared against him ; but his Majesty thinks he ought not to try to get the censures removed, as they have been passed contrary to all right, for there is no crime for which a king ought to be excommunicated at the instance of his enemies without being cited or heard. It ought not even to be done to a private person, much less to a king, and less still to a king on whose kingdom the safety of Christendom will depend. Besides, a sentence of this kind is decided by learned men to be of no effect, and the King thinks it is rather the duty of the Pope to retract what he has done of his own accord. He has been induced with difficulty to do what Casalis and his brother Francis will understand from the bearer, Andrew Corsino, of Florence, the King's secretary, and it will be for them to try to get the censures abolished. The Pope should consider that Hungary is infected with Lutheranism, about which Brodarisch has already written to the Pope. Were surprised to hear that his Holiness was displeased at the letters, for they felt bound to write him the truth. Can easily keep silence, but their silence will do injury. Lutheranism is openly taught and preached in the chief towns of Hungary, and here in Buda, with the King's consent, who, when anything is said to him about it, replies that he is excommunicated. Have with difficulty obtained from him a prohibition of the preaching of Lutheranism till the secretary's return. Think the Pope ought not to neglect this, but absolve the King and draw him over to his side. Doubt their ability to keep the King devoted to the Holy See, as he is exasperated. Good terms are offered to him, if he will not prohibit Lutheranism. Buda, 7 Dec. 1533. Signed : Fr. Fran. đ Frangepañ. SS. T.—Steph. Brodarisch, Sirmieñ. SS.
Lat., pp. 3. Add. : Magnifico dom. Gregorio de Casalis, oratori Ser. Regis Angliæ apud Pont. Max., aut, eo absente, dom. Francisco de Casalis.
9 Dec.
Vienna Archives.
1510. Chapuys to Charles V.
Since my last I have learned that the merchants in charge of the fleet to Belgues had been with the King to know his pleasure whether they should go thither ; and whether, on account of the publication of the executorials, there was any danger of their being molested. To this the King replied that he would neither counsel nor dissuade them, and that they should do as they thought best. After which he spoke very bitterly against the Pope, and of the injury he had done him, and that they ought to make no account of the "fratreilleries" of censures, threatening that he would do wonders against the Pope, and telling them further that they might be quite assured that those countries would not dare to illtreat the English, seeing that they could not do without them ; as they might have seen last year, when, only for having closed for three months the staple of Calais, everybody there began to cry murder and hunger, and that if this kingdom could only forbear trafficking with them, your subjects would be compelled to beg of them with cords about their necks. This answer was repeated to them by the duke of Norfolk, in presence of the Council ; and in addition to what the King had said of the Pope, he added 1,000 blasphemies, calling him an unhappy whoreson, a liar and a wicked man, and that it should cost him wife and children, his own person, and all that he possessed, or that he would be revenged on him. He has a good deal changed his tune, for it was he alone [in] the Court who showed himself the best of Catholics, and who favored most the authority of the Pope ; but he must act in this way not to lose his remaining influence, which apparently does not extend much further than Cromwell wishes ; for which reason, I understand, he is wonderfully sick of the Court.
The said merchants, on receiving the King's answer, adopted the expedient of sending some of the chief of their fellowship to the Queen Regent in Flanders to ascertain what security they might have before they sailed for their persons and goods in those countries. These deputies are instructed to ask Mons. de Belgues to intercede for them ; which they think he will do willingly, as his interests are so much involved.
I doubt not the said Queen, by her great prudence, will make such answer as the incredible affection of this people toward your Majesty merits.
I am told the King, to defeat the censures of his Holiness, had intended to publish certain proclamations through the realm ; for which reason, and also for fear of some disturbance, he has determined to send into such districts as he thinks necessary persons of distinction. And assuredly, from what I hear, the King and his Council are in great fear and perplexity ; but they would be in still more terrible fear if they knew entirely the disposition of the people, who rejoice at the publication of the executorials, hoping your Majesty, since you have begun, will go on and put an end to the troubles here.
The King's Council have lately called those who have the management of the King's ships, commanding them to get them ready, and desiring to know if the whole could be in readiness by May 1 ; but they have given them to understand it was impossible to do so within 12 or 13 months. On hearing which Norfolk began to say they must not trust very much to their ships ; for, even if they had the assistance of two ships of the king of France, it would be nothing in comparison with the great naval power of your Majesty, and their principal business should be to fortify the realm in dangerous places. For this reason they began to do a little to the castle at Dover. They have also been thinking of getting a number of gunners to cast artillery.
The King has made the household of his new daughter, whom he will in three or four days send to Norfolk to be brought up there. She will leave solemnly accompanied by two dukes and several lords and gentlemen. The earl of Oxford is to receive her at 12 miles from here, and from thence the said Dukes will return. This company, after the said bastard daughter has arrived at the appointed place, will go and seek the Princess, and, having taken away her train, will bring her to make her court to the bastard. Eight days afterwards the duke of Suffolk, the earl of Exeter, the Comptroller, and Dr. Sampson are to go to the Queen, in order, among other things, to take away her chancellor, almoner, receiver, and other officials, and remove her to a house belonging to the bishop of London ; and it is to be feared that if God do not remedy it, or your Majesty with something better than remonstrances, this cursed lady will arrange to get quit of her.
The man sent by the King to Lubeck for restitution of the goods that their ships have taken has returned with the answer of the Lubeckers, that everything taken from the English, Spaniards, and any others but the Dutch would be restored. For some time the King has treated with great familiarity the captain of the said Lubeckers, who remained here under arrest when the ships removed, and Cromwell has banquetted him several times. On Sunday last, the King, passing out to go to mass, made him a knight of the Rose, giving him a chain of 400 or 500 ducats. The alderman of the Easterlings who accompanied the said captain made an address to the King for him, saying he could not sufficiently thank him for the honor, but he hoped hereafter to do him such service that he should not repent having done him such a favor. The King would have been glad if the ambassador of France had been present ; but he sent to excuse himself, because he had no news and no business to transact ; at which, I am told, the King was not pleased, wishing that the other would make his court more than before, that the people might not suspect any distrust. And in the absence of the said Ambassador, the King, on returning from mass, talked for some time very familiarly with the Ambassador lately returned from Germany ; (fn. 6) and though he is only a servant of Cromwell, the King made him great cheer, and brought him to the Lady's chamber, putting his hand upon his shoulder ;— all to make the world believe that he had brought him some very great and good news, although, as far as I can learn, he has brought nothing to his satisfaction. They say also that the King has granted a pension to the said captain, which must be either because he has promised him men and ships, or because he is very anxious the Lubeckers should not make a treaty with the Hollanders. He leaves this in two days, expecting to land in France, and thence get over to Liege, and so through Germany. I sent notice into Flanders to see if they can entrap him.
Of late the King has solicited certain bishops to consent to the abrogation of papal authority, and that this should be done, for certain reasons, before the arrival of the bishop of Paris ; but not one of them would consent, except Canterbury. The said [Canterbury] has declined to release the bishopric of the auditor of the Chamber, and made answer to his servant that he wished to be bishop himself, and would give him something yearly, not as a due, but only of his liberality. I fear it will be still worse with card. Campegio.
I forgot to mention that the Council are no longer to call the Pope anything but bishop of Rome. If it came to stopping trade, the great point would be to keep the Straits of Gibraltar ; for as long as they are open, the English can deliver goods enough to support themselves. London, 9 Dec. 1533.
Fr., hol., pp. 5. From a modern copy.
9 Dec.
R. O.
1511. Jenins Sohier to Lord Lisle.
I have delivered the hosecloth to my Lord, and the cramprings to my Lady, and had great thanks from both. I can get no answer as yet as to licence of hunting in my Lord's forest at Dornam ; but for your wood at Ostende I send you a letter in my Lord's name to Hubert Crystiaens, the receiver. My Lord swears that if he can get the rovers at sea he will hang them. The queen [of Hungary] has given licence to every man to go to sea on his own adventure. My Lord is angry at this being done without his knowledge. Compliments to my Lady. Canfier, 9 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Deputy of Calais, at Calais.
10 Dec.
Cleopatra, E. IV. 83*. B. M. Wright's Supp. of the Mon., 24.
1512. Roland Lee and Thos. Bedyll to [Cromwell].
We intend shortly to return home, for we find not so great matters here as we expected. The crafty Nun kept herself very secret here, and showed her merchandise more openly when she was far from home. If she had been as wary elsewhere as here she might have continued longer in her falsehood. Our chief reason for remaining here now is to accomplish certain practices with the Friars Observants of Canterbury ; also, to examine the prior of Hortone, who is detected as a participant of the Nun's revelation touching the King's reign and marriage. Beg an answer touching the parson of Aldington, as, if we carry him to London again, he will miscarry by the way. John Antony has furthered our causes much. My lord of Canterbury will examine the monks of Christchurch detected in this matter,—only five or six young men. Canterbury, 10 Dec. Signed.
In Lee's hand, p. 1.
10 [Dec.]
R. O.
1513. Thos. Legh to Cromwell.
On St. Nicolas Day the quondam abbot of Rufforth was installed at Ryuax, and the late abbot of Ryuax sung Te Deum at his installation, and exhibited his resignation the same day. The assignation of his pension is left to my lord of Rutland, in which I moved him to follow your advice.
Though pity is always good, it is most necessary in time of need. I would, therefore, that he had an honest living, though he has not deserved it, either to my Lord or me. York, 10th of this month.
Asks him to remember young Wm. Parre's bill. All the country is glad of the new abbot.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
10 Dec.
R. O.
1514. Lancelot Colyns to Cromwell.
Begs him to remember about the prebend in Ripon, of my lord elect of Chester, of which he formerly wrote. It would be better for him than for any other, because he would reside there. Desires credence for the bearer, Cromwell's old acquaintance, concerning the great rumour in these parts of division in preaching at London. York, 10 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Mr. Thos. Cromwell.


1 Burnet gives only an abstract of this speech (as he supposes it to be), stating that he had seen the original, written by one of Cranmer's secretaries, among the Stillingfleet MSS., and that it began "My Lords." It is not to be found among the Lambeth MSS., nor is it known to exist in any collection in which MSS. of Stillingfleet might be looked for.
2 This letter has been printed out of place in Vol. V., No. 983.
3 Thos. Fienes, seventh lord Dacre of the South.
4 Netley.
5 Cromwell.
6 Christopher Mont.