1483. Sir Christopher Garneys to Cromwell.
Thanks him for his loving letters. Is eased of the unquietness he
had by reason of a stroke given to a lewd person. Did it not out of malice,
but for due correction. Cannot recompense Cromwell's kindness, but will
send him by next ship "a piece of wine of Gravys." The letter Cromwell
sent is delivered to the mayor of Calais. Hears nothing as yet concerning
the same ; but when he does, will let him know. Calais, 1 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Of the King's Privy Council.
1484. Rauf Fenwyke to Cromwell.
Begs his help to obtain his patent of Hexhamshire from the Archbishop.
The King promised it him for life ; but through lord Dacre's labor,
my lord Bishop will only grant it during pleasure, and with inconvenient
bonds that have never been used before. Begs Cromwell to assist him, for
he cannot leave these parts. Gave Cromwell a copy of the patent and
bonds in my Lord's garden at Hackney. Offers him 5 marks a year for
life, or a gelding worth 8l. Desires credence for the bearer. Hexham,
Asks him to obtain for him from the King the lands of one Ansle, who
was executed for March treason within the Middle Marches, where I am
lieutenant. The land is called Schaftoo, and is worth 10 marks.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To my right worshipful and especial good Mr. Cromwell.
1. XXIX. 48.
1485. Erasmus to Thomas Earl Of Wiltshire And Ormond.
Is asked by the Earl to undertake, in addition to former labors, a
treatise how every one should prepare for death. Will devote all his energies
to the subject. Friburg in Brisgau, cal. Dec. 1533.
Cleop. E. VI.
St. P. I. 414.
1486. The King's Council.
"Acta in Consilio domini Regis, ijdo Decembris.
1. The conclusions mentioned in the first article of this book, and
the circumstances thereof, are committed to Mr. Dean, Mr. Almoner, and
other doctors, to search their books, and answer the Council on Friday or
Saturday. The bishops of London, Lincoln, and Bath must be warned to
be present. 2. Meanwhile the Council will consider the other seven articles.
3. The execution of the 9th, 10th, and 11th articles is committed to the
Lord Chancellor and Mr. Cromwell. 4. A minute of a letter shall be drawn
up by Mr. Almoner according to the purport of the 12th article ; but first the
Council shall be shown the copy of a letter sent to the Pope by the nobles,
temp. Edw. I., and also the letter last sent to the Pope. 5. The 13th article
is committed to my lord of Norfolk and Mr. Cromwell. 6. Before the 14th,
15th, and 16th are put in execution, letters must be sent to Wallop to
advertise the French king thereof. 7. For the diminishing the house and
order of the Princess Dowager, the King has appointed the duke of Suffolk,
the earl of Sussex, Mr. Comptroller, and Mr. Dean to repair thither. 8. The
duke of Norfolk, the lord Marquis, the earl of Oxford, and Mr. Almoner are
similarly appointed to go to the lady Mary's house. 9. The lady Princess shall
be conveyed hence to Hatfield on Wednesday in next week, to sleep that
night at the earl of Rutland's at Enfield, the next day to be conveyed to
Hertford, there to remain with the family assigned to her.
Cleop. E. VI.
St. P. I. 411.
1487. The King's Council.
Memoranda for the King's Council.
1. To send for all the bishops, especially those nearest the Court, and
examine them whether they can prove by the law of God that he that is
called the Pope of Rome is above the General Council, or the Council above
him ; or whether he has by the law of God any more authority within the
realm than any other foreign bishop. 2. To devise with the bishops for the
preaching of the superiority of the General Council over all bishops, and that
the Pope has no more jurisdiction here than any other foreign bishop, and
that his previous authority here was usurped by the sufferance of princes.
3. That the bishop of London be bound to suffer none to preach at Paul's
Cross who will not set forth the same. 4. That all the bishops be similarly
bound to cause the same to be preached. 5. Special practice must be made,
and strait commandment to the same effect given to the provincials, ministers,
and rulers of all the four orders of Friars. 6. To command the Friars
Observants to preach in like wise, or else to forbid them. 7. Heads of
religious houses must teach their brethren to declare the same. 8. Bishops
shall order parsons, vicars, and curates to preach to their parishioners in like
wise. 9. Proclamations containing the whole Act of Appeals are to be made
throughout the realm, and the Act to be printed and set up on every church
door. 10. The King's provocation and appellations from the bishop of
Rome to a General Council must also be set up on the church doors, that, if
any censures are fulminated, it may appear to all the world that they are of no
effect, as the King both provoked and appealed before they were promulgated.
11. Transumpts of the King's provocation and appellation are to be sent
to other realms, and especially Flanders. 12. A letter from the nobles,
spiritual and temporal, to the bishop of Rome, must be conceived, declaring
the wrongs done to the King and realm. (In the margin : "Not yet done,
ne can welbe done before the Parlyament.") 13. To send spies to Scotland
to perceive their practices, and whether they will ally themselves with any
outward prince. (In the margin : "For to send letters to my lord Dacre, my
lorde of Northumberland, and Syr Thomas Clyfford.") 14. Ambassadors
to be sent to conclude a league with the king of Poland, king John of
Hungary, the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, duke Frederick, the landgrave
of Hesse, the bishops of Mayence, Treves, Cologne, and other potentates of
Germany. (In the margin : "In the Kynges arbytrement.") 15. Like
practice to be made with Lubeck, Dantzic, Hamburgh, Brunswick, and all
other "steddes of the Haunse Tutonyk." (In the margin : "To know when
of the Kyng.") 16. Like practice with Nuremberg and Augsburgh. 17. To
speak with the Merchants' Adventurers haunting Brabant. (In the margin :
"This is all rede doon.") 18. To establish the houses of the Princess
Dowager and my lady Mary. (In the margin : "The order is taken.")
19. A full conclusion and determination to be taken for my lady Princess's
house. (In the margin : "The orders taken.")
2. First draft of the same, with numerous corrections in Cromwell's hand,
containing the following additional articles :—Strict commandment to be
given to the mayor and others of the city of London that they shall liberally
speak at their boards, and teach their servants that the Pope is only bishop
of Rome, and has no jurisdiction here. Also that the nobility should bruit the
same, wherever they go. Devices to be made for repairing the fortifications,
especially on the frontiers of Scotland. A trusty person to be sent into
Ireland to bring over the Irish rebels to the King's part. Justice and quiet
to be maintained in Wales. The King's navy, ordinances and munitions of
war, bows, guns, &c., to be repaired and provided for.
Articles 9, 10, and 11 are not in this draft.
3. Another copy of § 2, without the corrections by Cromwell. The
articles are not all in the same order.
Pp. 7. Endd. : Capita rerum.
604, f. 249.
4. A modern copy of § 2, to which is appended :—
ii. A declaration that a General Council may be kept provincial, and that
the Pope of Rome is not the head or chief of the Councils.
1. To declare that the General Council, lawfully gathered, is and ought to
be superior to all jurisdictions, either usurped or suffered as papal, or justly
holden, as kings', in all matters concerning the faith and direction of the
Church ; "and also ought to be judged thereby, and by their decrees only,
they being consonant to the law of Christ." 2. That princes have two ways
to obtain right when none other can prevail :—In spiritual cases, appeal to
the General Council ; and in temporal, the sword, unless the matter may be
compounded by mediation. Whoever goes about to take away these natural
defences is to be withstood. To this we are animated by Christ, who said,
"Obey princes above all, and then their deputies, not giving power to foreigns
within their rules and dominions." 3. Divers General Councils have determined
that causes of strife and controversy shall be determined in the region
where they were begun ; on which ground the King and nobles, spiritual and
temporal, and the Commons, have made a law forbidding appeals to Rome
in matrimonial cases, and the King's cause has now its final and prosperous
end, with brief success of issue already had, and other like to follow. 4. The
King has appealed to the next General Council, rightfully congregate, from
the usurper of God's laws and infringer of General Councils, who calls
himself Pope. This appeal having been intimated to him, he is sequestered
from all process in the matter, "other diabolic acts and statutes by some
of his predecessors made notwithstanding." Censures, interdicts, &c. ought
therefore to be despised and manfully withstood ; and we so doing shall have
for our buckler the latter and better part of this verse ensuing, and the
maligners the fore part, which is "Quoniam qui malignant exterminabuntur,
sustinentes autem dominium ipsi hereditabunt terram." 5. As Scripture
gives no more authority to the bishop of Rome than to any other bishop extra
provinciam, but the sufferance of princes and the blindness of the people
have sustained it, it is thought convenient to open the same to the people
that they may no longer honor him as an idol, being but a man neither in
life nor learning Christ's disciple, and disqualified from the office, being
base born, and having obtained it by simony. In denying our provocation
and append and supporting the diabolic decree of his predecessor Pius, he
is determined, by a General Council, a very heretic. Therefore true Christian
people ought to despise him and his facts, and be no longer blinded with him,
but give themselves to the observance of Christ's laws, in which is all
sweetness and truth, and in the other nothing else [than] pomp, pride,
ambition, and ways to make themselves rich, which is much contrarious to
their profession. Our Lord amend them.
Modern copy, pp. 4 (both articles included).
Burnet, (fn. 1)
1488. A General Council.
[A speech of Cranmer touching a General Council.]
Alleges that the court of Rome, like rich men flying from an enemy,
has destroyed many ancient writings and hid the rest so that it is difficult
to discover the truth about all things ; that the canon law contains some
truths, misplaced in places where one would not look for them. He then
discusses the object of General Councils, to declare the faith and reform
errors, although no Council was ever truly general. Points out that Christ
named no head amongst the apostles ; that it is uncertain if St. Peter ever
was at Rome ; and that, to judge by their lives, the faith of many Popes was
not good ; that even if such power was granted to the See of Rome, it
could not have been for ever obligatory, as Gerson showed, who wrote
"de Auferibilitate Papæ."
Declares how corrupt the present Pope is, both in person and government,
for which he was abhorred even by some of his Cardinals, as he
himself had seen and heard at Rome. It is true there is no law to proceed
against a vicious Pope, for the thing was not foreseen as possible ; but new
diseases require new remedies ; and if a heretical Pope may be judged in a
Council, so should also a simoniacal, covetous, and impious Pope. Every
man who so lives is out of the communion of the Church, and as the
preeminence of the See of Rome flows only from human laws, he is accountable
to the Church. The Council of Constance and the divines of Paris
had declared the Pope to be subject to a General Council. The power of
Councils did not extend to princes or secular matters, but only to points
of faith, and to condemn heretics ; nor were their decrees laws until they
were enacted by princes. On this he enlarged much, to show that if a
Council were to proceed against the King, its sentence was of no force ; and
showed that as a member of the body is not cut off unless a gangrene comes
in it, so no part of the Church ought to be cut off but upon a great and
inevitable cause. He added that some General Councils had been rejected
by others, and it was a delicate question how far they ought to be referred
to. The divines of Paris held that a Council could make no new article of
faith that was not in the Scriptures. He thought, therefore, that the Word
of God was the only rule of faith, and cited passages from St. Austin to
show the difference between the Scriptures and other writings. He
acknowledged, however, that a consensus of the Fathers must have flowed
from the Spirit of God. He then discussed the qualities which a judge
ought to have ; and concluded that the Pope, being a party, and having
already passed sentence in things which ought to be examined by a General
Council, could not be a judge. Princes also having sworn to the Pope by
mistake as head of the Church may pull their necks out of his yoke, as a
man may escape from a robber. The Court of Rome was so corrupt that
even a well-meaning Pope like Adrian could never bring anything to a
1489. General Councils.
Sketch of a treatise on Ecclesiastical authority, contending in the
latter part that the Pope may err both in faith and morals, and that the
final authority is a General Council which can depose a Pope. At the
beginning on a blank leaf is the text, "Remansit puer Jesus in Jerusalem,
et non cognoverunt parentes ejus."
Pp. 3. Begins : Quum sepenumero a theologicis disputetur de potestate
Dei, an, silicet, Deus hoc aut illud poterit, non videbitur quis os in celum
ponere, qui de vicaria potestate Dei, id est, de summi Pontificis auctoritate
ii. Appended to the above, in another hand, is the corrected draft of an
alphabetical catalogue of books.
2. Another copy of the same catalogue.
3. A catalogue of writers on the canon and civil law.
Pp. 8. Endd. : Registrum quorundam librorum, &c.
1490. Sampson to Cromwell. (fn. 2)
The Lords of the Council have committed the matter you know of
to Mr. Almoner, Trigonell, Oliver, Kerne, and me, and charged us to be
diligent about it, to the exclusion of all other things. "Notwithstanding,
I know the King's commandment this other day for the friars."
Begs to know if he will be at Greenwich this day, that he may wait upon
him for that purpose.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To the right honorable Mr. Cromwell.
St. P. VII. 524.
1491. Henry VIII. to Wallop.
Knowing the Pope's ungodly determination against us, in order to
meet it, by the advice of our subjects, we think it necessary to make proof
of our ancient friends, and have therefore resolved to send to the princes of
Germany and others, to join ourselves in amity with them ; and in consideration
of our friendship to our good brother to advertise him of the
premises. Our subjects, considering the injuries we have received, have
required us no longer to endure these attempts of the Pope, but to find
some remedy for them by a total abolition of his authority, and in so doing
obtain the advice and assistance of the Princes aforesaid. We have in
consequence taken such order with our nobles and subjects that we shall
be able to give such a buffet to the Pope as he never had before ; of which
we think right to give the French king notice. You are to advertise us of
his answer. We have had advertisements of late that he has been urged by
some of his clergy to advance the Pope, which we cannot believe that he
will do, considering the great amity between us, the extremity of the Pope's
malice, and the little regard he has paid to our good brother's travail in
Draft, in Wriothesley's hand, corrected by Cromwell. Endd. by
*** Where the draft had only "nobles," Cromwell has added "and subjects"
in various places, or else had inserted the word "commons," which
he afterwards altered to "subjects."
Depositions as to words spoken 29 Nov. 25 Hen. VIII. by a priest
called Sir John Warde, in the presence of Ric. Baynom, John Spoottell,
Thos. Reigate, and Ralph Hoowe, dwelling in Maldon.
He said in Baynom's house that Henry VIII. was no king of right.
Baynom replied that his father was king before him ; and Sir John said he
was but duke of Somerset. This is deposed by Spoottell, Reygate, and
Hoowe, before Henry earl of Essex, Will. Clopton, and Ric. Walgrave,
gentlemen ; Sir Edw. Buckok and Sir Thos. Thomlynson, priests ; John
May and Edw. Showeler, constables of Maldon. 3 Dec. 25 Hen. VIII.
Signed by the earl of Essex, Waldegrave, and Clopton.
Large paper, p. 1. Endd.
1493. John Coke to Cromwell.
On the 28th November, three merchants of this fellowship, coming
hither through Gravelines, were told by the captain there, "I give you
knowledge that if your King take not his Queen again within 30 days
I would advise you nor none of your nation to pass this ways, but to keep
you at home ; for if you do, I woll take you as good prise." I have ordered
"the said young men" not to spread this further. Sends a "pronostication"
put out here in print "by a folisshe medecyn." Antwerp, 3 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
1494. William Cavendish to Cromwell.
I arrived at Cambridge on Friday night after I left you. I met by
chance one who I found was making chevisance with certain of the King's
plate ; and to prevent "brabelyng" by the mayor and bailiffs, I took him and
the plate with me to Ely. I find on examination he is a strong and notable
thief ; and I send him to your Mastership, as you will probably get much
knowledge by him of the King's plate stolen. The bearer, my fellow, can
On Sunday after I came to Ely I delivered the King's letter to the
Prior, who, after a great pause, said in his feigned fashion that I was
welcome, since it was the King's pleasure, to occupy the offices of auditor
and receiver, trusting that he should have a sufficient warrant from the
King for himself and his house ; as if the King's letters were not enough.
On Monday last, 1 Dec., as I went into the church to mass, the Prior
called me to speak with him apart, and took out of a box in his sleeve a grant,
as he said, of the King's progenitors for the receipt of the same tempore
vacationis ; but I refused to read it, as I had no commission to that effect.
That which I had in commission, I said, I expected he would assist me in,
rather than otherwise. "With that he began to wax melancholy, saying he
had friends that counselled him rather to die than to suffer me to meddle by
the virtue of my commission or writing ; and that it was his part so to do.
And when I had perceived him to be thus chafed, marvelled what he should
mean, for that he was pleased at my first coming. Thought that Mynne
had sent him letters. Privily caused an honest man, one Richard à Lee,
a freemason, whom ye right well know, secretly to inquire whether there
were any of Parson Mynne's servants in town. He brought me word there
was one of his servants, named Davy, which came to Ely on Sunday at night,
and had communication with the Prior, and, as far as he could learn or hear,
brought him letters." Thus I have entered and taken accounts, and have
received 200 marks and above. Ely, 3 Dec.
I have sent you 11 pieces of plate weighing 48¼ oz.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. : Of the King's Council.
1495. John Prior Of St. Gregory's, Canterbury, to Cromwell.
I thank you for your great goodness in my promotion, which, though
I cannot recompense, I shall remember all my life. It was only for want
of audacity that I have not written to thank you before. Canterbury,
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Council.
1496. Richard [Pexall], Abbot of Leicester, to Cromwell.
My ordinary's Chancellor has been these 10 or 12 years with his
visitations to disquiet my house, and has maintained three or four canons
put in office by the Bishop, whom I have removed because they are unprofitable,
and put in others. Mine ordinary's Chancellor has been here of
late to disorder me in my house, as my canon Deythik, the bearer, can show
you. Leicester Monastery, 3 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : King's Councillor.
1497. Sir Thos. Elyot to Lady Lisle.
Thanks her for her goodness to her servant Thos. Raynsforde.
Having had experience of the loyalty and assured honesty of him and his
brethren, is moved to desire her to continue to be his good lady. He repents
of having too much delighted in dicing, and of other loss of time, and says
he is much bound to her for her honorable and gentle advertisements.
As one of his poor friends, and at the request of his brethren, and especially
of Mr. Raynsford, gentleman usher, his long approved friend, desires her to
pursue her charitable favor towards him, and to recommend him to lord
Lisle. Advises her, if she sees any lack in him touching his service, or
excess in gaming, to withdraw him with sharp admonition and commandment,
which he much dreads. By so doing his father and brethren will be
bound to pray for her. London, 3 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
Galba, B. X.
1498. Anthoine Brusset to [Lisle].
I have received your two letters, the first mentioning "your two
subjects" detained prisoners here by the baill[y] of the town. On showing
your letter they were immediately set at liberty.
In answer to your second letter, dated 1 Dec., I have caused to be
delivered to your merchants their herrings and goods which had arrived "sur
la pal[e] de la chasteline de Broucbourg," on their giving su[rety] and
caution to the bailly and receiver, in case any other merchants claimed them,
and on paying the expences.
The bearer of these letters is Arnould de Semerper ... a merchant of
Lille, and the owner of the wines saved by George Squennis, your officer,
and his assistants, on your pale and ours. I beg you to deliver to him the
wine marked with his mark. He will pay a reasonable sum, and give you
sufficient caution in the town of Calai[s].
As to the "visitacions [des lim]ites de entre vous et nous," I have informed
the gentlemen of St. Omer, with whom the matter rests in part, as
they hold "les heins de St. Pol en arentison," which are of the pale and
lordship of this town, that the visitation may be held on Tuesday or
Wednesday. When I have their answer I will inform you. When the
visitation is made, and marks placed beside the ancient marks, we shall be
able to live like good neighbours and friends.
Expresses his willingness to serve his correspondent, saving his duty to
his master the Emperor. Gravelinghes, 4 Dec. 1533. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2.
1499. Christopher Hales to Cromwell.
Whereas I asked you to favor dan John Barstable, monk of Sherborne,
Dorset, to be Abbot there, if the present Abbot should die : I am
informed that Sir Will. Storton has come this day to the city to labor for
the Prior to be Abbot ; also that Mr. Denys, your friend, supports him.
Let none of these men, or any other, make you forget your promise to me,
and my saying unto you shall be assuredly performed. Send me Legatt's
letter if it be signed, and a copy of the will of the lord Dacres (fn. 3) for finding
office on his lands in Kent. Gray's Inn, St. Nicholas eve.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
1500. Sir Francis Bryan to Lord Lisle.
Thanks him for his good cheer when he was with him ; also for his
hawk. Has moved the King for the victualling of Calais ; when some of
his Council answered that 60,000 qrs. of wheat had lately been conveyed
thither, which, if it remain there, it is thought should be sufficient. I said,
when I was there, there were not five beasts within the town. Cromwell
and others said it should be looked to ; but how soon, I cannot tell you at
present. Begs him to favor the poor man Stevyn, the bearer. 5 Dec.
On Tuesday the King removes to Richmond till near Christmas, when he
returns to Greenwich. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
1501. Chapuys to Charles V.
On St. Andrew's eve, the King, who, for a month past, ought to have
made or sent me an answer for what reason he claimed to deprive the
Princess of her title, legitimacy, and primogeniture, sent to me by Norfolk and
Cromwell to say that he would like to be informed by them of what I wished
to say both on that matter and in what concerned the Queen ; and this he
did, not to refuse or delay the audience, which he was very willing to give
me, whenever I liked, but in order to take advice upon the subject.
And having made several remonstrances to them that the King could not
allege illegitimacy, or deprive the Princess of her title, they replied that my
arguments might be true and well founded in civil law, which had no force
here, but that the laws of this kingdom were quite otherwise. But on showing
them that I rested my argument only upon the decision of the canon law,
which in a spiritual matter no prince's decree could prejudice, they knew not
what to reply, except that they would report it to the King, and afterwards
declare to me his intention. This they have not yet done, although he has
held almost daily consultations, to which several learned canonists have
been called. As regards the Queen, viz., the agreement proposed by the
Pope, they said that formerly it had been under consideration, but that
since sentence had been lawfully given by the archbishop of Canterbury,
they thought the King would not expressly or tacitly do anything prejudicial
to the said sentence, as it concerned his own honor and the interest of his
new born daughter, especially as she was already declared Princess, and that
if all the ambassadors in the world were to come, or even the Pope himself,
they could not persuade the King otherwise. This, however, they did not
give me for a resolute answer, remitting it as before to the King's determination.
I impugned the sentence of the archbishop of Canterbury, and
justified by various arguments that of the Pope and Consistory, against
which the King could not allege what he had several times done, viz., the
fear his Holiness had of your Majesty ; for, besides that the Pope knew
well enough you would not for all the gold in the world compel any one
to do what was unlawful, the sentence was given at a time when you were
not only far away from Italy, and all the force of your army was at Coron,
and the Pope was besides on the point of going to meet the king of France,
whom he knew to be in close amity with the King their master. On these
arguments they remained some time meditating, and Cromwell said it would
never be found that any sentence given by the Pope in a matrimonial cause
had been executed in England. This, I told him, I thought very strange, as
the contrary was notorious ; and that if it were as he said, it was very blameable,
not only in the prelates, who did not see to it, but also in the King and
his officers, who did not enforce the sentences ; and so I left them.
About a month ago a number of Scots entered the kingdom, and, besides
other damages, burned certain villages, the inhabitants of which have come
to court for redress, but have had no other answer than that there was no
war with the Scotch. The French ambassador coming lately to see me
gave me to understand that this inroad had nothing to do with any quarrel
between the two Kings, but only with private disputes. Nevertheless, it seems
a dangerous commencement. The said Ambassador indicated to me that, but
for the fear of displeasing this King, the Pope and his master would willingly
have had an interview with his Majesty, declaring the friendship of his
master with you was so strong, that he felt sure there would be no war,
although there might be some appearance of it, only to induce the world to
reason and honesty, and for no other purpose. I think by such talk they
will deceive very few people. He also said it would be well to find some
means of settling the matter of this divorce ; and after pressing him to
declare what way he thought would be expedient, he said it would be best that
the validity or invalidity of the marriages should be declared ; but since, owing
to the King's obstinacy, there was little hope of this, the least evil course
would be to assure the title and succession of the Princess, which he
considered was one of the things which touched your Majesty most ; and, for
the rest, to leave it to the King's conscience ; and that he saw clearly that if
the Princess was married to some strong person (mariee en main forte),
who could maintain her claims, there would be a fine trouble against this new
born child, who would have no adherents except those who loved troubles
and her own kinsmen. He said also he had several times heard from the
King and those about him, that if the King could get no other remedy he
would throw off his allegiance to the Holy See, and that he repented of
nothing more than of the book he had written formerly against Luther in its
favor ; and quite lately the King had told him that at the request of the King
his master, and in the hope that something would be treated in his favor at
the assembly of Marseilles, he had caused the preachers to forbear preaching
against the Pope ; but now he would set them on again, issue books "quil
diroient feug," and that they would reveal the abuses of popes and churchmen,
as he had never done before. And the said Ambassador thinks that
Lutheranism being introduced here, towards which he sees a part of the
Court much inclined, it will afterwards be very difficult to check, especially
on receiving some assistance from the Germans, particularly those near the
sea. To this I thought right to answer that it would be the total ruin
of this King, considering the inclination of the people, of which there were
good evidences by the chronicles of his ancestors, and that he must not
look for support to any German princes. For, although they have better
means of being masters of their people by their castles and their nobility
which was so accustomed to war, and moreover their authority had the
prestige of great antiquity, free from all counter-claims ; yet, notwithstanding
all this, what a tumult their villeins had raised ; which, if it had occurred
here, even to a much less extent, would have been irremediable ; and that if
the King would look at the chronicles of his predecessors, he would find
four kings who had recognised the subjection of the realm to the Holy See,
which the King himself had formerly confessed, although he said they had
been deceived, and could not make the realm subject in prejudice of their
successors. I thought it well to say this to the Ambassador, that he might
report it at a convenient season, as I think I have persuaded them that
the facts are so.
I have talked of it a long time with the duke of Norfolk, which was partly
the cause they burnt some books which were current in this country. It
would appear that the King in his blindness feared no one but God, and
would have put his threats in execution, and done even worse, if he could.
As to the stoppage of news here, the King has already spent money on the
repair of his ships. The merchant fleet going to Flanders is laden, and
ready to make sail, notwithstanding the publication of the executorials,
unless some order is issued to stop it ; which I do not expect. The bishop of
Paris is hourly expected. He is coming in post to make excuses, as it is
supposed, for the King his master not having been able to bring the Pope
to do all that this King demanded, and also to report some part of the
communications at Marseilles. I will endeavour to learn something of his
news, and also about the business of one of those whom the King sent to
Germany some time ago, who has just returned this morning. London,
6 Dec. 1533.
Hol., Fr., pp. 6. From a modern copy.
1502. Thos. Cromwell to the Abbot Of Letley. (fn. 4)
Desires him to grant his friend, John Cooke, a new lease for 60 years,
at the old rent, of the farm called Roydon, which he holds from the Abbot,
as the term is nearly expired. The said farm lies near the seaside, convenient
for Cooke to serve the King in his office of the Admiralty in those
parts. He has deserved the thanks of the King by his liberality to Cooke,
and those with him on the King's service. Requests an answer by the
bearer. London, 6 Dec.
P. 1. Signed : "Yr lordshyppis freend, Thomas Crumwell." Add.
1503. Sir Piers Edgecumbe to Cromwell.
I have examined Friar Gawen, warden of the Grey Friars at Plymouth
and Sir Thomas Dorssed and Sir Thomas Fleet, priests there, apart. I have
caused them to sign their depositions, here enclosed. I have committed
Friar Gawen to the castle of Launceston till the King's pleasure be known.
I have also, according to your letter, punished by pillory and stocks in the
market-places such persons as spoke opprobrious words of the Queen.
Cuthayll, 6 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Secret Council.
1504. [Lord Lisle to Cromwell.]
Reminds [Cromwell] of his complaint against one Debnam, searcher
of Colchester, for taking certain oxen from his servants, and how Debnam
said, at Cromwell's house at Austin Friars, that he could prove that lord Lisle
had ordered those who brought wine, herring, and other goods from Calais
to England and back, that they should neither pay custom nor allow customer,
searcher or other of the King's officers to meddle with them. Leonard Smyth,
Lisle's solicitor, bade him beware what he said, and reported it to the writer,
whom it highly concerned, considering the suspicion that before his time
victual was carried out of the realm on pretence of being for Calais. Wrote,
therefore, to his counsel to take action against Debnam. Knows he would
speak much worse to the duke of Norfolk and others of the Council. He
would not make answer till the last day of the exigent. Hears from his
counsel they will be at issue next term. Will have difficulty in proving his
words without Cromwell's help, as no one else heard them but Leonard
Smyth. Asks him to certifiy the truth of the report, by letter or otherwise,
to the judges. Debnam, at Cromwell's order, gave Smyth 10 marks for
10 oxen, but they were bought from the earl of Essex for 20 marks, so that,
including the charges of the ship and his servants, Lisle has lost 20l. and
more. Would be still more sorry if he could not prove Debnam's report to
Draft, pp. 2.
1505. Rafe Sadleyer to Lord Lisle.
I perceive by your letter that you have written several previous
letters to me, of which I have only received one. I have not been slow in
writing myself of the state of your affairs here, or in soliciting their expedition.
As to the garner and victualling of Calais, I have got my master (fn. 5) to
write to you the King's pleasure. He intends to get you a warrant, signed
by the King, for the victualling. He promises also that you shall have
restitution of the beeves and other things spoiled and sold by Debnam,
searcher of Colchester, and that he shall be punished. Leonard Smyth and
I can determine the manner when he has spoken to my lord of Essex about
it. London, 7 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Deputy of Calais. Endd.
1506. Anthoine Brusset to Lord Lisle.
According to my last letters about visiting the bounds between you
and us, I have given notice to those of St. Tomer, who have written that
they will be here on Thursday next. I beg you on your side to send the
bailly and receiver of Marcq, and other old men of the country, whom you
have mentioned, and tell me if you agree to the day. Gravelinghes, Sunday,
Our party will be at Oye Sluice at 9 a.m., and from thence proceed
towards the sea. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd. : Responce sur ce.
1507. John Hornyold, Receiver to the Bishop of Worcester, to
I perceive you have received to the King's use of Mr. Jarveis of
London 100l., from the bishopric of Worcester, out of my receipts. I am
not able to come to London, but I trust my account and all the money will
be ready there. You know it is the King's pleasure that I should retain in
my hands the revenues of the bishopric of Worcester till his pleasure be
known. By my patent I must make my return in the bishopric of Worcester.
Worcester, 7 Dec. 1533. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Master of the Jewels.
1508. Henry VIII.
Warrant to Cromwell, as master of the Jewels, for the following
To Will. Shirlonde 20l. reward "to furnish the room of our lord of Misrule."
To Steph. Vaughan 130 cr. of the sun = 30l. 6s. 8d., to deliver by
exchange to Chr. Mounte, now in Germany, for his diets. To John Burre,
"servant to our daughter the lady Mary," 10l. To Thos. Pyerson, apothecary
to the late Cardinal, 40s., in part payment of a greater sum due "for certain
stuff delivered to the said late lord Cardinal in his lifetime." To Ralph
Sadler, Cromwell's servant, 5l., and to Will. Bodie, Cromwell's servant, 20l.,
for rewards. Westm., 7 Dec. 25 Hen. VIII. Signed at the head.
Vesp. F. I. 24.
1509. Francis De Frangepan and Stephen Brodarisch, Sirmiensis,
to Sir Gregory De Casali.
They reply together to his letter to one of them, as they have both
served this King their master with equal zeal. Casalis writes about the
absolution of their King from the excommunication unjustly declared against
him ; but his Majesty thinks he ought not to try to get the censures removed,
as they have been passed contrary to all right, for there is no crime for
which a king ought to be excommunicated at the instance of his enemies
without being cited or heard. It ought not even to be done to a private
person, much less to a king, and less still to a king on whose kingdom the
safety of Christendom will depend. Besides, a sentence of this kind is
decided by learned men to be of no effect, and the King thinks it is rather
the duty of the Pope to retract what he has done of his own accord. He
has been induced with difficulty to do what Casalis and his brother Francis
will understand from the bearer, Andrew Corsino, of Florence, the King's
secretary, and it will be for them to try to get the censures abolished. The
Pope should consider that Hungary is infected with Lutheranism, about
which Brodarisch has already written to the Pope. Were surprised to hear
that his Holiness was displeased at the letters, for they felt bound to write
him the truth. Can easily keep silence, but their silence will do injury.
Lutheranism is openly taught and preached in the chief towns of Hungary,
and here in Buda, with the King's consent, who, when anything is said to
him about it, replies that he is excommunicated. Have with difficulty
obtained from him a prohibition of the preaching of Lutheranism till the
secretary's return. Think the Pope ought not to neglect this, but absolve
the King and draw him over to his side. Doubt their ability to keep the
King devoted to the Holy See, as he is exasperated. Good terms are
offered to him, if he will not prohibit Lutheranism. Buda, 7 Dec. 1533.
Signed : Fr. Fran. đ Frangepañ. SS. T.—Steph. Brodarisch, Sirmieñ. SS.
Lat., pp. 3. Add. : Magnifico dom. Gregorio de Casalis, oratori Ser.
Regis Angliæ apud Pont. Max., aut, eo absente, dom. Francisco de Casalis.
1510. Chapuys to Charles V.
Since my last I have learned that the merchants in charge of the fleet
to Belgues had been with the King to know his pleasure whether they
should go thither ; and whether, on account of the publication of the executorials,
there was any danger of their being molested. To this the King
replied that he would neither counsel nor dissuade them, and that they
should do as they thought best. After which he spoke very bitterly against
the Pope, and of the injury he had done him, and that they ought to make
no account of the "fratreilleries" of censures, threatening that he would do
wonders against the Pope, and telling them further that they might be quite
assured that those countries would not dare to illtreat the English, seeing
that they could not do without them ; as they might have seen last year,
when, only for having closed for three months the staple of Calais, everybody
there began to cry murder and hunger, and that if this kingdom could only
forbear trafficking with them, your subjects would be compelled to beg of
them with cords about their necks. This answer was repeated to them by
the duke of Norfolk, in presence of the Council ; and in addition to what
the King had said of the Pope, he added 1,000 blasphemies, calling him an
unhappy whoreson, a liar and a wicked man, and that it should cost him
wife and children, his own person, and all that he possessed, or that he
would be revenged on him. He has a good deal changed his tune, for it
was he alone [in] the Court who showed himself the best of Catholics,
and who favored most the authority of the Pope ; but he must act in
this way not to lose his remaining influence, which apparently does not
extend much further than Cromwell wishes ; for which reason, I understand,
he is wonderfully sick of the Court.
The said merchants, on receiving the King's answer, adopted the expedient
of sending some of the chief of their fellowship to the Queen Regent in
Flanders to ascertain what security they might have before they sailed
for their persons and goods in those countries. These deputies are instructed
to ask Mons. de Belgues to intercede for them ; which they think
he will do willingly, as his interests are so much involved.
I doubt not the said Queen, by her great prudence, will make such answer
as the incredible affection of this people toward your Majesty merits.
I am told the King, to defeat the censures of his Holiness, had intended
to publish certain proclamations through the realm ; for which reason, and
also for fear of some disturbance, he has determined to send into such
districts as he thinks necessary persons of distinction. And assuredly, from
what I hear, the King and his Council are in great fear and perplexity ;
but they would be in still more terrible fear if they knew entirely the disposition
of the people, who rejoice at the publication of the executorials,
hoping your Majesty, since you have begun, will go on and put an end to the
The King's Council have lately called those who have the management
of the King's ships, commanding them to get them ready, and desiring to
know if the whole could be in readiness by May 1 ; but they have given
them to understand it was impossible to do so within 12 or 13 months.
On hearing which Norfolk began to say they must not trust very much to
their ships ; for, even if they had the assistance of two ships of the king of
France, it would be nothing in comparison with the great naval power of
your Majesty, and their principal business should be to fortify the realm in
dangerous places. For this reason they began to do a little to the castle
at Dover. They have also been thinking of getting a number of gunners
to cast artillery.
The King has made the household of his new daughter, whom he will in
three or four days send to Norfolk to be brought up there. She will leave
solemnly accompanied by two dukes and several lords and gentlemen. The
earl of Oxford is to receive her at 12 miles from here, and from thence the
said Dukes will return. This company, after the said bastard daughter has
arrived at the appointed place, will go and seek the Princess, and, having
taken away her train, will bring her to make her court to the bastard.
Eight days afterwards the duke of Suffolk, the earl of Exeter, the Comptroller,
and Dr. Sampson are to go to the Queen, in order, among other
things, to take away her chancellor, almoner, receiver, and other officials, and
remove her to a house belonging to the bishop of London ; and it is to be
feared that if God do not remedy it, or your Majesty with something better
than remonstrances, this cursed lady will arrange to get quit of her.
The man sent by the King to Lubeck for restitution of the goods that
their ships have taken has returned with the answer of the Lubeckers, that
everything taken from the English, Spaniards, and any others but the Dutch
would be restored. For some time the King has treated with great familiarity
the captain of the said Lubeckers, who remained here under arrest when
the ships removed, and Cromwell has banquetted him several times. On
Sunday last, the King, passing out to go to mass, made him a knight of the
Rose, giving him a chain of 400 or 500 ducats. The alderman of the
Easterlings who accompanied the said captain made an address to the King
for him, saying he could not sufficiently thank him for the honor, but he
hoped hereafter to do him such service that he should not repent having
done him such a favor. The King would have been glad if the ambassador
of France had been present ; but he sent to excuse himself, because he had
no news and no business to transact ; at which, I am told, the King was not
pleased, wishing that the other would make his court more than before,
that the people might not suspect any distrust. And in the absence of the
said Ambassador, the King, on returning from mass, talked for some time very
familiarly with the Ambassador lately returned from Germany ; (fn. 6) and though
he is only a servant of Cromwell, the King made him great cheer, and
brought him to the Lady's chamber, putting his hand upon his shoulder ;—
all to make the world believe that he had brought him some very great and
good news, although, as far as I can learn, he has brought nothing to his
satisfaction. They say also that the King has granted a pension to the said
captain, which must be either because he has promised him men and ships,
or because he is very anxious the Lubeckers should not make a treaty with
the Hollanders. He leaves this in two days, expecting to land in France, and
thence get over to Liege, and so through Germany. I sent notice into
Flanders to see if they can entrap him.
Of late the King has solicited certain bishops to consent to the abrogation
of papal authority, and that this should be done, for certain reasons, before
the arrival of the bishop of Paris ; but not one of them would consent, except
Canterbury. The said [Canterbury] has declined to release the bishopric
of the auditor of the Chamber, and made answer to his servant that he
wished to be bishop himself, and would give him something yearly, not as a
due, but only of his liberality. I fear it will be still worse with card.
I forgot to mention that the Council are no longer to call the Pope anything
but bishop of Rome. If it came to stopping trade, the great point
would be to keep the Straits of Gibraltar ; for as long as they are open, the
English can deliver goods enough to support themselves. London, 9 Dec.
Fr., hol., pp. 5. From a modern copy.
1511. Jenins Sohier to Lord Lisle.
I have delivered the hosecloth to my Lord, and the cramprings to my
Lady, and had great thanks from both. I can get no answer as yet as to
licence of hunting in my Lord's forest at Dornam ; but for your wood at
Ostende I send you a letter in my Lord's name to Hubert Crystiaens, the
receiver. My Lord swears that if he can get the rovers at sea he will hang
them. The queen [of Hungary] has given licence to every man to go to
sea on his own adventure. My Lord is angry at this being done without his
knowledge. Compliments to my Lady. Canfier, 9 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Deputy of Calais, at Calais.
E. IV. 83*.
Supp. of the
1512. Roland Lee and Thos. Bedyll to [Cromwell].
We intend shortly to return home, for we find not so great matters
here as we expected. The crafty Nun kept herself very secret here, and
showed her merchandise more openly when she was far from home. If she
had been as wary elsewhere as here she might have continued longer in her
falsehood. Our chief reason for remaining here now is to accomplish certain
practices with the Friars Observants of Canterbury ; also, to examine the
prior of Hortone, who is detected as a participant of the Nun's revelation
touching the King's reign and marriage. Beg an answer touching the parson
of Aldington, as, if we carry him to London again, he will miscarry by the
way. John Antony has furthered our causes much. My lord of Canterbury
will examine the monks of Christchurch detected in this matter,—only five
or six young men. Canterbury, 10 Dec. Signed.
In Lee's hand, p. 1.
1513. Thos. Legh to Cromwell.
On St. Nicolas Day the quondam abbot of Rufforth was installed at
Ryuax, and the late abbot of Ryuax sung Te Deum at his installation, and
exhibited his resignation the same day. The assignation of his pension is
left to my lord of Rutland, in which I moved him to follow your advice.
Though pity is always good, it is most necessary in time of need. I would,
therefore, that he had an honest living, though he has not deserved it, either
to my Lord or me. York, 10th of this month.
Asks him to remember young Wm. Parre's bill. All the country is glad
of the new abbot.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
1514. Lancelot Colyns to Cromwell.
Begs him to remember about the prebend in Ripon, of my lord elect
of Chester, of which he formerly wrote. It would be better for him than for
any other, because he would reside there. Desires credence for the bearer,
Cromwell's old acquaintance, concerning the great rumour in these parts of
division in preaching at London. York, 10 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Mr. Thos. Cromwell.