Elizabeth
August 1582, 1-5

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler (editor)

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1909

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207-224

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'Elizabeth: August 1582, 1-5', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 16: May-December 1582 (1909), pp. 207-224. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78865 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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August 1582, 1–5

Aug. 1.209. Cobham to Walsingham.
This king is to depart shortly from Fontainebleau, as it appears by the opinion of the Court and the present show of some preparations. But however he resolves, the young queen departs about the 6th inst. to the baths of Bourbonnois, and the Queen Mother has as I hear appointed to return to Saint-Maur with the Queen of Navarre.
The King continues in the purpose of changing sundry governors in his provinces, so that the Duke of Montpensier has given up his government of Britanny to the Duke of Mercœur, who took his oath for it this last week. And because the king finds it very difficult to removed Marshal Montmorency from his government in Languedoc, having intended to place Marshal Joyeuse there, now as it seems he seeks to bestow on Joyeuse the governments which Meilleraye and d'O have in Normandy.
The king makes it to be known likewise 'to have' a desire to compound with the King of Navarre for his governments, with intent to bestow them on the Duke of Epernon. Thus you may see that as well in time of peace as of war there are shufflings and changes within this realm.
As for the affairs of Monsieur I have understood this, that the king has given leave to M. Puygaillard to repair to his brother in Flanders to serve him in his counsel and matters of war. His Majesty has likewise, as they inform me, delivered under his handwriting to Marshal Biron a warrant showing therein his liking the marshal should repair to Monsieur. It has moreover 'been assured me' that he has performed the like for the same purpose to the Prince Dauphin.
The king has lately, as I understand, sent letters to the governors of the towns and places on his frontiers for the restraining of transporting out of his realm any kind of victuals without special licence from him or his brother.
The king has within these two days given orders that Giammetti who has taken the salt in farm should deliver to M. Bellièvre 2,000 crowns, to be disbursed to the 2,000 Swiss who are to come for Monsieur's service.
The king has appointed that six galleys should be 'framed, fashioned, and well-appointed' to be ready at Marseilles upon all occasions.
His Majesty has lately given to the Princess of Conti, the Prince of Condé's brother's wife, the bishopric of Bayeux beside Bessin in Normandy, worth 18,000 francs a year; wherewith the Pope's nuncio is very much displeased, because the king had promised not to bestow any bishoprics in that sort.
On Friday the 27th ult. arrived at the Court Capt. Scalin, with letters from Don Antonio and M. Strozzi, certifying their landing in Portugal and taking of the town of 'Vienne' with the castle, with hope of further success; and that they had taken two ships of King Philip's of great importance and value. Seven ships more are 'putting in order' with 1,000 soldiers to follow Don antonio's fortune.
By letters from Spain they write that the eldest son of the Duke of Braganza will marry the Emperor's youngest sister, who was lately brought into Portugal by the Empress her mother.
By letters from Geneva it is certified that all the Swiss Cantons have 'accorded' in their Diet lately held at Baden, to assist Geneva. Whereon they sent a courier on the 10th ult. with a dispatch, signifying to the Duke of Savoy that if he continued his hostilities, they would move themselves to repulse him from those places he held about Geneva. Meantime the Duke proposed to have surprised the town by scaling in the night; whereon they of the town, being advertised, took counsel of the captains, by whom they were persuaded not to await the secret approach of the enemy, but rather to make open preparations and publish their discovery. Whereof the duke having knowledge did not permit his soldiers to scale the walls as he had purposed. It is conjectured thereon that the duke has very great intelligence within the town, since he yet continues obstinately his enterprise, as is signified by letters of the 24th ult. So now it needs must appear shortly what the Swiss will 'pretend' to do for them of Geneva. I have been by very good means informed that when the Duke of Retz was in the Marquisate of Saluces last year, the Duke of Savoy discovered to him his intention for the enterprise of Geneva; at which time the Duke of Retz promised him the king's good allowance for that matter. And the Duke of Retz through his persuasions 'compassed' the Queen Mother to write her favourable letters to the Duke of Savoy, showing that she and the king very well allowed of his practice against that town.
They advertise from Italy that 5,000 Italian foot have passed towards Flanders, and 1,500 horse, and 5,000 Spaniards; besides there are now in levying 60 ensigns more of Italians and Almans. So thus King Philip 'pretends to prove' with forces to expel the Duke of Brabant.
I have received advertisements from 'Augusta' that on July 3 the Emperor caused to be read certain articles at the first assembly of the States of the Empire, in which for the first was contained the consideration of the troubles in Flanders, with the revolt of Brabant and these countries from the obedience of the King of Spain to the French. The second article continued the 'having in deliberation' the means for the defence of Hungary, 'in respect it was conceived' the Turk had made peace with the Persian. The third was to wish the prices of the Empire to consider his Majesty's charges for the maintaining of the garrisons in Hungary, Croatia and the frontier towns towards the Turk.
It is understood that through the earnest persuasions of Cardinal Madruzzi nothing was for the present permitted to be moved concerning religion and marriages of bishops, or for the choosing of Lutheran canons in the cathedral churches; which would seem to be requisite, considering the use of both the religions is suffered throughout the Empire.—Paris. 1 Aug. 1582.
Add. Endd 6 pp. [France VIII. 1.]
Aug. 1.210. Cobham to Walsingham.
I was visited yesterday by the Lord of Arbrothe and informed by him that advice has lately gone hence from the Duke of Guise and those others who manage the Scottish practices, that they think it convenient for the king to 'command into ward' the Earl of Lindsay with certain others noted by them to be chief actors at the death of David the Italian; whereby he will not only give contentment to the Scottish Queen, but make those fact who are chief favourers of the Religion. And further they counsel the king to bereave all those with the Earl of Lindsay of their lives, with expedition. They here have notice that the earl is an especial person inclined to the Queen. It is likewise written from Scotland that the Earl of Lindsay has of late used very stout speeches with the Duke of Lenox in their king's presence.
My lord of Arbrothe has requested me to signify this much presently, whereby the Earl of Lindsay may be warned to avoid this danger. The Bishop of Glasgow's kinsman Archibald is gone with this malicious message to Scotland, so that if through his Majesty's providence those that are of the Religion are not succored, the fire may be kindled too nigh her house; as appears somewhat by this other advice, whereby it is discovered that the Duke of Lenox has intelligence with the Cardinal of Como, the Pope's secretary, whose letters pass through the hands of the Bishop of Glasgow. They moreover inform me that the Duke of Lenox his has waiting on him as a suitor a Scotch Jesuit, who passed from Scotland towards Rome and is to return to the duke. The Duke of Guise 'pretends' to send two Jesuits to the Scottish king.
I have been informed that the advocate 'Rosseau,' lately departed towards England, to repair to his mistress the Scottish Queen, has received from the nuncio a brief sent from the Pope. Which is to be delivered safely and assuredly into the said queen's hands. It has been reserved in the nuncio's keeping, awaiting this or a like occasion.
My lord of Arbrothe has informed me that his brother Lord Claude wrote to him to know his liking, whether he would be contented to enter into amity with the Earl of 'Anguisshe'; wherewith the lord of Arbrothe is displeased his brother made any difficulty or doubt therein, because he has forgiven and clearly forgotten all those envies past, and hopes to join the Earl of Angus in the cause of Religion, and so to 'run all one fortune,' which disposition he is desirous may be made known to the earl, as also that when he thinks good to write to him, he will answer the earl with all such assurance of friendship as may be to his good liking: whereof he presently informed Mr. Archibald Douglas when he was in these parts, having lastly now more amply enlarged his mind to the Earl 'Bodwell' at Rouen, where they conferred of their affairs.
Now again my lord of Arbrothe with all zealous words assured me of his fidelity and devotion to her Majesty. I thought it convenient you should be advertised of these Scottish affairs at once.
I have dealt for the furtherance of the deliverance of Mr Alderman Osborne's and Staper's ship, stayed in Malta, as you may perceive by the copies sent herewith. Besides that, Sute is otherwise recommended by the servants and friends of M. de Foix, with letters, and thoroughly instructed to good purpose. He departed on the 27th ult. in post. In which cause I have done what I might, to the intent those merchants should find themselves beholden to you, on whose command I was moved to use what means I could devise.
The merchants of Rouen, Morys and Hopton, are escaped from prison and have received such favour as their cause and this place may suffer, so that their friends are for the same beholden to you; 'having' employed my means extraordinarily on your recommendation of their cause.
Mr. 'Bourham' has delivered me your letters, and now this morning I depart towards Fontainebleau, to have access to their Majesties tomorrow, as I am appointed by M. pinart. With the negotiation I shall there pass, I will return your servant. — Paris, 1 August 1582.
Enclosed in above:—
July 22.211. (a) The French King to the Pope.
It has come to our knowledge that a ship called the Bark Rainoldes, owned by subjects of the Queen of England, 'Duvarde' Osborne, alderman, and Richard 'de Stapher,' merchants, encountered on her return from Tripoli in the neighbourhood of Malta, captured and taken to that island by certain galleys, has since been taken possession of and stayed by your Holiness's inquisitors, without the master or any of his people having in any way whatever insulted or abused the inquisitors or others. Nevertheless they cannot get set free (aroir main lerée by these inquisitors, who say that it is necessary to have your commands and pleasure therein, And whereas it seems to us that the stay of the said ship might have very prejudicial results, and that the Queen has written to us of it, and she might on other like occasions show her recognition of any pleasure done her, besides that it is an interruption to the freedom of trade, we have thought good to write to your Holiness, and beg you to give the necessary commands to your officers and inquisitors at Malta and elsewhere, that they may set free the persons and goods in the vessel, and leave her to go on with her traffic; and you will have done what is much to the purpose and very necessary for the public weal of trade, and will be very acceptable to us, as we will testify when occasions offer: as you will hear further from our cousin and ambassador there, M. de Foix. — Fontainebleau, 22 July 1582. (Signed> Your devoted son the King of France, Henry: (and below) de Neufville.
Copy. Endd. Fr.
July 19.(b) The Duke of Joyeuse to M. de Foix.
Although I am sure you will have sufficient regard for what you know to be the king's wish, I have thought it good to add a word to the letter which he has written you on behalf of the ambassador of England to further the restitution of a certain English ship which has been stayed at Malta, as you will hear more at large, and to beg you to make use of all the means and interest you have to satisfy those who are pursuing this object, and let them know particularly that my request on his occasion has not been useless to them, for the desire I have to be of service to the ambassador, besides the reason there is to give him no occasion to complain.— Fontainebleau, 19 July 1582. (Signed) Anne de Joyeuse.
Copy. Endd. Fr.
July 12.(c) The French King to M. de Pierrecourt.
The ambassador of the Queen of England has informed me that M. d'Armeville, brother of M. de Bacqueville, equipped for war a great ship of 80 tons burden, of which Capt. Thomas is captain and one Odo Grosian is master, and two skiffs of 30 and 23 tons, the crews being from Dieppe and Saint-Valéry-en-Caux, and that M. de Beaumont, a religious, living at Touques, furnished them with victuals. With these vessels Armeville has captured and plundered divers English ships on the coast of England, and says he means to rob all the English ships he can take, on the ground that an English ship should have hindered him from pillaging a Portuguese that he had taken, which in not a sufficient cause for doing such offence to the English. Moreover, I find it very strange, seeing the great and close amity that there is between me and the Queen of England, our realms, and subjects. Wherefore I pray you diligently to inform yourself as to the depredations which d'Armeville's vessels have committed upon the English, and have such justice and satisfaction done to them as is suitable to the good peace and amity which I have with the Queen; to this end causing the said ship and skiffs to be stayed if they may be found.—“Fontainebleau, 12 July 1582.” (Signed) Henry (and beneath) Pinart.
Copy. Add. Fr. (except last words).
The whole add. Endd. 4 and 1 and ½ and 1 pp. [France VIII. 2.]
Aug. 1.212. Horatio Pallavicino to Walsingham.
I received from Mr. Burnham yours of the 24 ult. and heard what he had orders to tell me by word of mouth. I may tell you that from all I can see and hear here, I cannot make up my mind whether the king wishes in earnest to help Monsieur in his enterprise. On the one hand, those who desire it hope that by degrees he will enter into it wholly, either by choice, or by the importunity of those who advise him that way, or of necessity. They interpret this journey of Belliévre and Brulart to Monsieur as something in their favour, and that at least they are taking him messages (reccatti) and promises of money, which some think the king has been induced to lend him on his appanages, or is availing himself of that pretext. The Queen Mother they say is very well disposed, and is doing for Monsieur all that is in her power; not so much that the enterprise pleases her, as for her son's sake, and for the designs she may have in her own private enterprise of Portugal. On the other side, the king's natural inclination to avoid war, the little understanding he has with his brother, the nature of the enterprise, in every way opposed to his injunction (instituto), and very difficult to get any immediate profit from; and also many of his chief favourites who find it good to keep him in the humours of the life he has led hitherto, frighten them in such a way that they are always doubtful of obtaining anything that may avail, or in any time to be of service to Monsieur in his extreme necessity. In confirmation of this, it is seen that there is no talk of any captain going, other than Fervaques. The Prince Dauphin advances very slowly; the others have not in fact the men, whom report has from the first much exaggerated. Wherefore I do not see that there is anything either certain or well founded on which they can openly proceed more than what has been done up to now.
The procuration for Mr Somers or others, which it was desire I should have left here, I neither could not should have left without express order, and not a word of it was said to me by anyone. If on this account it is necessary (occorre) that I should hasten my coming, I will do it at once at the first notice from you.
In the affair of Mr Birboom, I had already heard of the protest, and that the obligations had never been discharged (? passati) because you had not received the promised satisfaction from those of the Low Countries, wherewith I was much displeased. As for the Flemings I think that making it felt will move them more than any words. It is enough for Birboom if next December when my bonds are renewed his are included with a like share, to take rank with mine. It is so new that he cannot refuse to wait that time, and I doubt not that he will do it, if you will formally promise them to join him with me, under my name.
I have told Mr. Burnham that that money will be ready at your pleasure. When I return to Paris I will help him to choose either clothes or bracelets, according to which we meet with the best; and if we find nothing to the purpose, and you would like to avail yourself of two pieces bought by me these days past to make a present to her Majesty. I will prefer your satisfaction and service to my own desire, as I am always ready to expend my self to do anything that may be agreeable to you.—Fontainebleau, 1 August 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital.pp. [France VIII. 3.]
Aug. 1.213. “A copy of the action which passed in the battle fought between the Frenchmen and Spaniards, as it was sent to the Spanish Agent here.”
. . . . . .
Pierre de la Noÿ, brother to M. de GresolJorge de BoasMenseroy
Pierre de MearibayBoudios
François Fusto, brother to M. de HersausClaudio de XiusuCamer
Rone de S. MartinMatheo Puy
Claudio de ArdallaAntonio BordelPierre de Mariban
Antonio de CoblalMiguel de BrufaJanberdeo
MensereyGuillerme MenartThe surgeon in chief (protomedico), Mos.
Pierre JubinLimesce
Captain JaquesPierre LeproborAbraham
Martin de TubelliAlessie de la RivieraFrançois Bucceli
Jacobo de LunFrançois PenseCarlos de Santavetu
François de Xanton, the French priestMos. Antoine de Busio [Bus], captain of iufantrySaubat de Lieecis [qy. Sauvat]
Matheo LupiThomas de Lone
Renit JorgaPierre Jorqueti [qy. Porguet], captain of iufantryPierre de Calamartier
Rone BovnonLuis de Neust
Nicolas VitarClaude Nainoet
Thomas de LaverosClaudio de Plomanen, lieutenant to M. de BeaumontDoubat, captain of infantry
Juan de Bruzman
Robert de BauassertEliat de Sayan
Gui de XiuhusuLapueleAne de Treville
Besides these there were prisoners, between mariners and soldiers, 313.
The killed and wounded in his Majesty's army on the day of the battle:—
Wounded.Dead.
70In the galleon S. Martin, which served as flagship15
74In the galleon S. Mattheo, besides some who remained in her scorched by a firework, including the purveyor-general, in the face.40
52In the Maria de Guipuscoa ship45
28In the S. Vicente ship27
17In the S. Maria de Jaar ship5
5In the Buenaventura ship6
27In the Juana ship13
7In the Catalina ship13
24In Oquendo's ship17
16In the S. Antonio de Buen Viage ship15
13In the Misericordia ship6
13In the Our Lady of the Pena do Fancia ship25
7In the S. Miguel ship20
553224
Thus there were in his Majesty's fleet 553 wounded, 224 killed; 777 in all.
The Marquis considering that there being good peace and brotherhood between his Majesty and the Most Christian King, this force of all these adventurers had sailed from France on behalf of Don Antonio, Prior of Ocrate, with the mind to plunder his Majesty's fleets of both the Indies, and intending to take possession of his isles and seignories, as they had essayed to do of the Isle of St. Michael, and that they had committed other robberies and piracies, and were liable to the penalty of their crime and the common offence caused by them in contravening the public peace sworn maintained and preserved between the two Crowns and their subjects, declared all the prisoners enemies of the common repose and welfare, disturbers of commerce, fautors of his Majesty's rebels, and as such, and as public corsairs, rebels and pirates, ordered the Auditor-general of the fleet that for their chastisement, and as a warning to others like them, he should execute upon them the penalty of natural death, upon the nobles by beheading, and upon the others, above the age of seventeen, by hanging. Having ordered this on August 1 of this year, it was executed the same day.
This report the Marquis of Santa Cruz sent to his Majesty by Don Pedro Ronce [sic, qy. Ponce] de Leon, his nephew, who left Villafranca in the Isle of St. Michael's on the 4th of the same, and reached Lisbon on the 24th, St. Bartholomew's day, in the morning.
In a Spanish hand; first part apparently mission. Endd. Sp.pp. [Spain.I.101]
Aug.1.214. Martin Couche to Walsingham.
This bearer, Mr Weston, having obtained your letter of favour to the general Mr Norris, which he delivered accordingly; and forasmuch as his suit being somewhat tedious, upon some cause weighing upon his own estate, he, understanding of my being here, made me acquainted with his determination, the rather because he finding me to be one of the number of yours [sic].
He perceiving the general to be troubled in many affairs, both for the 'answering' of the late tumults of his countrymen, as also for the redressing of great abuses which are daily offered us by the French nation, thought it good to forbear 'importing of' the general any further in his suit, and to become a new suitor to you in your favourable letters, no less in his preferment now than before.
This bearer thinks it most convenient to have a commission absolute for a company of foot from the Prince of Orange; so that it may stand with your good liking to afford him your letters of recommendation to the Prince in that behalf, wherein you will not only benefit him, but also myself, your poor servant, to whom he has promised the leading of his company as his'leavetennante.—From the leager by Dunkirk, 1 Aug. 1582.
P.S.—For any new news there is none otherwise than as this bearer can impart.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl, and Fl. XVI.92.]
Aug.2215. W. Waad to Walsingham.
I delivered your letters accordingly, which were very acceptably received, and the party shows all readiness to afford his best furtherance any way upon occasion. The ambassador had sent me divers times to him to 'Copenhaven,' where he remains; and lately he sent for me to give his lordship to understand that he was first solicited by the Chancellor and after by the king with great instance, to deal with may lord for mitigating certain ceremonies that the king understands to be in the receiving of the Order, especially of the robes, being a thing so contrary to his nature to have any strange attire or superstitious to come on his back, 'as by no means he can away with it,' in such sort that he protests that he cannot be 'at quiet' till he is assured that my lord will 'dispense with' him herein. I let the ambassador understand that the habit was of an ancient and grave fashion, very comely and full of reverence, neither anything, as he suspects, papistical therein; and that my lord desired chiefly that the king could frame his mind to receive it for the further honouring of him with the perfect inauguration, as other foreign princes and 'of' his predecessors had done; his lordship's commission 'limiting' him how to proceed therein. Wherefore the said party will use all persuasions to bring the king thereto. But in case he persists in his unwillingness, that then, even at the very instant when the robes are to be presented, the king, not liking them, may, as it were finding in himself some indisposition, desire my lord to hold him excused for the receiving of them for that time, being sorry that he does not find himself in case to perform solemnly all that is requested, and receiving them, give them over. The garter and the collar he is content to use. In this country we learn that those who are 'of calling' do not put off their upper garments 'in company of any presence.' And when this King received the Order from King Charles by the hands of the Rhinegrave and the French ambassador now resident here, in the presence of the Duke of Saxony, he could not possibly be brought to put on the robes for any other than (?).
Through this mediation this party will have better means to deal with the king in such sort as you wish, which he conceives to be very reasonable, and in equity to be yielded to by the king. He tells me plainly, as I have generally heard, that only the counsel of the Treasurer drove the king to that hard dealing with our merchants—a man evil spoken of everywhere, of mean calling and no great capacity other than in getting and gathering in; yet so possesses the king's mind that he usurps authority over all the chief officers in the realm. So the officers retire, for such as have contested with him have got nothing thereby but disgrace. Besides, it is noted in him to favour the Spaniard, to whom at his persuasion the king sent this winter congratulations and offer of assistance, slenderly accepted. He shews himself also not to be well-affected to matters of the Low Countries, 'as' they proceed in favour of the Prince, nor towards our countrymen.
There have been who have borne the king in hand that my lord's coming is to tie him in some alliance for the defence of the Duke of Anjou in the Low Countries and so to embark him in some dangerous action. We hear likewise tales expressly made 'to give us to think upon,' so that I see there wants not in these parts men of fashion, who easily move the disposition of this country, inclined to jealousy and suspicion. But I doubt not of the king's most 'acceptable acceptance' of the honour her Majesty vouchsafes him: which, God willing, will bring forth good effects. He protests with earnest words a singular love towards her, above all other princes.
The Duke of Anjou sent hither three months since to the ambassador, to deal in his name with the king to join with him in some good amity. Whereto the king discreetly answered that in contracting with him as Duke of Brabant he would make himself judge of the greatest cause that could happen between princes and their subjects, having received no offence from the King of Spain. But he could be content to have some good intelligence and league with him as a brother of France, and to permit all traffic to those of the Low Countries through all his dominions. Which being all one n matter and effect, though differing in form, there is looked for daily an ambassador from His Highness to conclude the amity; which would concur fitly at this time with here Majesty's ambassador.
We are here far off from foreign intelligence; yet we understand that the Turk and the Muscovite are both dead. I trust the third tyrant, worse than them [sic], will haste after them.
The party that by your appointment I confer with has no opinion of French fidelity, and thinks verily that the good intelligence between her Majesty and his Majesty and his Highness, which has been so wisely conducted, has, if not broken off altogether, at least abated and kept at bay, the point of some notable conspiracy.
The Jesuits play their parts in these quarters, passing daily to 'Sweveland,' and nestle apace in Poland.
I write you but so much as may serve to render account how I serve his lordships by your directions; knowing that from him you are perfectly and particularly advised. And hard it were for me to forbear writing to you, having during my absence abroad no other means to remember the duty I owe you, to whom I am as infinitely bound as I vow my whole service. God preserve you to the better preservation of her Majesty and those countries, which in despite of all men's malice enjoy in so troublesome a world the sweet fruits of a good and wise government.—Elsinore, 2 August 1582.
P.S.—I have sought for horses for you, both at Copenhagen and at a fair 16 miles beyond, but doubt I shall not be able to provide them to you liking; then will let them alone.
Add. Endd.pp. [Denmark I. 18.]
Aug. 2216. Thomas Longston to Walsingham.
According to my last, sent by our post June 28, Mr Stephen Lesieur must have at least crowns more, whereof I have paid him 200 guilders, and the rest he must have at his return from the Prince of Parma; towards whence he is gone today, and 'supposes' to be here again within 10 or 12 days.
This morning betimes there came here news of the loss of 'Lyre' a thing of great importance to this town, 'and' much amazes not only these inhabitants but also troubles us in respect both of our sales and of our safety. It was taken by intelligence between the enemy and a Scottish captain named 'Symple' [Sempill], who had charge there, pretending in show to go abroad for booty in the evening; and in the night brought in the enemy. These 'succinct' losses of towns, without help given by the Duke and otherwise, greatly discourage. You can best judge what is like to follow. God save His Church and preserve His people, for to trust in man is vain and accursed.—Antwerp, 2 Aug. 1582.
Add. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. XVI. 93.]
Aug. 3.217. Martain Couche to Walsingham.
I send hereinclosed such new news as is here to be spoken of, desiring your pardon forasmuch as since the ending of this late skirmish, I was 'put to understand' of one Mr Weston's departure, who has used some speeches to you, saying that Montigny was taken; but in truth there is no such matter otherwise than I have laid down in this particular. In respect whereof I humbly crave your pardon in his behalf.—From the leager by Dunkirk, 3 Aug. 1582.
Occurrents, sent with the above.—
I doubt lest I trouble you with overmuch writing, supposing the news which I address to you is always too far behindhand eftsoons, in respect whereof I humbly crave your pardon.
This day, the enemy lying within two leagues of this town, between whom and us lies as town called 'Bargus' [Berghes], we could do no less for our credit's sake than to sally out with our force, being notwithstanding in respect to them but a handful. The Frenchmen had the forenoon's service, who did very well. About 12 o'clock most of the English nation went forth for their better supply, to the number of 200 pikes, armed, and 600 shot.
Coming the further side of the town of 'Bargus,' the enemy lying in such a manner that they saw all our forces, and in what sort we drew ourselves toward them, albeit they had placed several ambuscadoes as well of horse as of foot [sic]; and so skirmished four hours.
In fine, the enemy's horse being in ambuscade, 'sallied themselves' out being 4 cornets or thereabouts; whereupon one of our companies of horse approached near them, and so joined together, and 'brake each other of their lances' most valiantly, some of their horses slain.
Being not far off from the 'battle' where our pikes stood, a place very strait, our companies of horse wheel themselves about, among which certain of the enemy's horse had gotten themselves among the rest, being pell mell one among the other.
The 'battle,' perceiving their retreat, 'made a ward,' and so suffered them to enter, being among our companies to the number of 16 horsemen, or thereabout. In the fray most of them were slain, reserving five or six, whereof one, being a very brave man, named himself Montigny; and having his beaver on his head took him for no other. But as soon as his beaver 'being' taken off, being very well known not to be Montigny, he denied his former speeches, alleging he named himself so for the better security of his life, and named himself Captain de 'Ballodue,' captain of two companies of horse.
Rowland Yorke, sergeant-major of this field, had his horse slain under him, and himself shot in the leg.
Captain Williams, being in the same service, took the colours of a cornet and brought it [sic] away.
Captain Thomas Wilson, under whose ensign I 'rest myself serve for a while, this captain served most bravely, and had leading of the 'battle,' being always in the vanguard, and the man that made retreat.
All this I saw, being in the vanguard of the 'battle' as one of the armed pikemen, instead of a better; whereof I presume the bolder to make certificate of the same.
Add. Endd. ½ andpp. [Holl. and Fl. XVI. 94.]
Aug 3.218. Mauvissiere to Walsingham.
You are too truthful, honourable, and businesslike in all things, and as regards M. du Ruisseau, he says that he will testify to the queen, his mistress, that there is only one 'M. de Walsingham' in the world. I think him an honest man, and you will have no occasion for suspicion or complaint of him. It seems to me, subject to your better judgement, that the more courtesy the Queen your mistress uses towards the Queen of Scots, being so near to her, it will bind her and keep her in the way to do some good with her son, rather for the conservation of this state than to cause any trouble there. The Queen of Scots let me know through Mr Beton, brother to 'M. de Glasco,' who died lately in France, that she would ask only a single favour of the Queen. It would be to set her at honourable liberty in one of her houses, in which she would live as if in religion, quite shut off from the world (and as secluded as possible); and in the case of her doing or attempting anything disagreeable to the Queen, she would be willing to die at once, and to be guarded in such manner as should be thought fit. If after 14 years of penitence it could befall her to see England, France, and Scotland in good understanding, we should have no concern with our neighbours. That is what I for my part have always desired.
Thank you for the passport for Nicolson, who is a Saint Nicolson; and I think if you knew his good life you would esteem him much, and what an enemy he is of sin; and I think that at last he will be wise in all things. Please kiss her Majesty's hands for me if you see a fit occasion.—London, 3 August 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [France VIII.4.]
Aug. 4.219. John Cobham to Burghley.
Since the writing of my first letter to you, order came to the camp that 11 ensigns of the French should depart for Brabant. On the 1st inst. Lagarde's regiment were embarked for 'Bergen Upsone, alias Barrough. It is reported that the enemy has taken a sconce from Monsieur's soldiers within two leagues of 'Barrough'. On the 2nd landed here 300 soldiers from Calais. I take them to be old soldiers, they are so well appointed, and men of good' personages.' Also today the enemy came within two English miles of the camp, and close under the walls of 'Bergus,' but they were compelled to retire by the means of Captain Yorke and Captain Williams. The 3rd inst. 10 ensigns more of French came here from Calais, very well appointed and very brave soldiers. Our Englishmen and French have today skirmished with the enemy, and God has given them the victory, for Capt. Williams, and Capt. Yorke showed themselves so valiant that M. 'Ballanson' is taken prisoner and brought to Bergues. He is colonel of 15 cornets of horse. His horse one Matthew Morgan has and his gilt coat; one Strange has his sword and gauntlet. If he had not given it out that he was M. 'Mountane,' he had been slain. He is a man with grey hairs, and an old servitor. And generally our Englishmen have got great praise of the French for their good service, but especially the pikemen. In that conflict Capt. Williams's brother was slain, Capt. Yorke hurt in the foot and shoulder with a bullet, and divers more of the English were slain, but many more of the enemy.
I was so bold in my other letter to crave your licence to ship hither 20 or 30 tuns of beer, to help to bear my charges here. If you will send your letter to the Customer of Sandwich, I have taken order to have it sent to me speedily. — Dunkirk, 4 Aug. 1582.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVI. 95.]
Aug. 5.220. Stokes to Walsingham.
My last was July 29, at which time I thought I should have written you this time of some good piece of service by Monsieur's camp; but as yet nothing is done, nor nothing will the camp do, till they be paid.
In my last I wrote you of the great murdering treason against Monsieur and the Prince of orange, which God revealed here in this town; 'amongst which' was an Italian, whose name is Francesco Baza. He had been on the rack, and confessed the whole order of this 'pretended murder,' and the next night after, this Italian killed himself with a knife in the prison. Notwithstanding, considering he was one of those that should have done this murder, he was drawn, hanged, and quartered, and his head and four quarters are set on the town gates; and the rest that are in prison shall pass that way or it be long. By letters that Monsieur has received from France this week, the like murder was 'pretended' there against the French king.
Also, as yesterday, three 'Albernoyses' or Italians were brought to this town prisoners from Monsieur's camp; of whom it is said they are 'of the council' of this murdering treason. Some say they should have betrayed Monsieur's camp, for they served there and had charge.
Monsieur's camp lies still in their old place beside Dunkirk, and still they give out speeches that their tarrying there is for the rest of Monsieur's forces from Frances; so the camp lies there, and does nothing but spend time and spoil the country. This week they have burnt 'Hounscott,' which was an open village and very rich, and it is said that the rest of the open villages will be all burnt.
Monsieur's camp, and his other soldiers in town, call for their pay, and money is very scant here in the country, so that Monsieur continues in great pain for money to pay his soldiers. Notwithstanding, speeches are given out of money that is sent him this week from England and France; which it is thought are given out to prevent a worse matter.
Last Wednesday at 7 P.M. Count Hollock came here to the Court in post from Friesland, It seems he came for some men to be sent thither, for the enemy has on a sudden gathered 3,000 or 4,000 men there, and has besieged a town in Friesland; so that Count Hollock tarried but four hours, and then returned back to Friesland in post. It is said that M. de la Grade's regiment of French that are in the camp will be shipped from Dunkirk for Friesland.
At Meenen there served the Lord 'Gree's' son of Scotland; who with four more Scotch gentlemen, this week went to Corttrick and gave themselves over to the enemy, who received them with great joy and gladness; so it is feared more will follow.
Monsieur and the Prince of Orange take the loss of Lierre very heavily; which town a Scotch captain that served there, for a revenge against Col. Stewart and also for want of their pay, delivered to the enemy: a loss very grievously taken in the Court.
The Prince of Parma lies at Tournay in great heaviness that his murdering treason is come to light. His camp lies some part beside Poperinghe, and the rest are crept between Monsieur's camp and Berghes; and there on Friday last at 5 in the morning they fell into a skirmish together, which continued 5 hours, and at the end the enemy was forced to retire, and many slain and hurt on both sides.
Thus I have given you to understand of all things current at present. And surely there is a great sudden misliking of some matters at the Court and 'Council estate, 'for they are there in some heaviness, and I doubt the occasions come out of France. Yesterday on a sudden M. de Sainte-Aldegonde was sent in great haste to Antwerp.
The enemy grows daily very strong. Money wants on his side to pay the soldiers. Monsieur's forces come slowly on. No order, obedience, nor government in the camp. So I see a great sudden fearfulness among them here. God send it better. — Bruges, 5 Aug. 1582.
P.S.—Letters are come to the Court of 1,200 Frenchmen arrived at Dunkirk, who came by ship.
Enclosed I send you a few lines in print, which came but today. But it is in Dutch, and it would have been in French, if M. de Sainte-Aldegonde had not departed so suddenly. This book is the true order of the handling of this treason.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVI. 96.
Aug. 5.221. John Norris to Walsingham.
I suppose my ill-willers, who have very busily endeavoured to procure my discredit in these parts, have not spared to do the like at home with you and others, and to that end have not forborne to write many untruths, especially touching the late mutiny among the soldiers of my regiment; imputing the only cause of it to some hard usage offered to them by me, and 'namely' for withholding their pay. These their slanderous reports I have disproved, and have purged myself to his Highness and the Prince, by showing them a note, signed by the States, of all such sums of money as were accorded to me, and in what sort they should be paid and distributed among the soldiers. So they both hold themselves fully satisfied with my answer, and perceive the mutiny to have proceeded of some other occasion, and in all likelihood from those persons who have sought to make me the author of it, as I trust to make known to all the world very shortly.
Meantime I have thought good to dispatch this messenger to you in haste to let you know that last Thursday night news came to this town from Antwerp that the enemy had surprised the town of Lierre° by intelligence, as the first bruit goes, with the Scotchmen there in garrison.
Having caused this much to be written to you, I was suddenly commanded by his Highness to come to the camp, upon advertisement that the enemy was lodged very near us. Being arrived, the first news I met with were that yesterday the Prince of Parma passing before the town of Berghes with his army, divers troops of ours, both horse and foot, made some brave skirmishes with them. Some 100 English pikes were led out to 'make the retreat,' towards the enemy. Some of our horse offered to charge, and about 20 English gentlemen performed it and broke their lances, the rest made a sudden alta. Certain 'Borgonion' cornets, led by the brother to the Marquis de Varembon, seeing our men's sudden stay, charged them very roundly, and indeed put them to a hasty retreat. Or shot, seeing our horsemen fly, made no less haste. Our pikes, being led by Capt. Huntlay, and placed in a strait, for all the flight of the rest stood fast; and having opened themselves to let our horse pass, the brother to the marquis, with two cornets, and divers other of his companies, passed with them. Then our pikes shut themselves, so that theywere furiously charged, and the captain with many of the foremost thrown to the ground, and at least thirty pikes broken. The enemy nevertheless was repulsed, the brother to the marquis and his two cornets were taken, and all that passed with them either taken or slain. It is very certain that if these pikes had not stood fast, our camp would have received such a disgrace as scarce would have been repaired this year. Thus for the time they parted. The Prince of Parma lodged and remains within half a league of our camp, and it is like before his departure we shall have most sport.
This day arrived 14 ensigns of French infantry. La Garde's regiment was sent from hence two days past for some enterprise in Brabant. The loss of Ypres troubles and imports Antwerp so much, that I think divers companies will be sent hither.
Touching this last meeting, I am very sorry that I have so ill employed my time that a slight report of I know not who shall bring me in question to be a robber of any captains and soldiers. But this I will assure you, that if any man can prove that since I came into this country, I have stayed from any captain or soldier the value of one stiver of his due, I am content to be accounted the veriest villain of the world. Or if any captain of my regiment can say that since I came into the country, I have taken anything off them for my charges, which all other colonels do, then let me [be] disproved. But I have dealt too well with some that never had honesty, nor ever will have; and such are they that have procured this dishonour to our nation. I will, ere it be long, write you more particulars of this matter; meantime I beseech you to continue me in the good opinion of her Majesty. — Dunkirk, 5 August 1582.
Down to ° in the hand of Audley Danett; the rest Norris's own. Add. Endd. 3 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVI. 97.]
Aug. 5.222. John Cobham to Walsingham.
Since my last of the 4th inst. to you, I understand that 'Houghtopen' [qy. Haultepeane] has taken by treason the town of 'Leere,' a town of great importance. 'situating' within 3 leagues of Antwerp.
The enemy still lies with his whole force within a league of Monsieur's camp; and no likelihood of his departure. What his determination is, is not known.
Mr Norris came last night from Bruges to Dunkirk. — Dunkirk, 5 August 1582.
P.S.—The commissaries are come to Dunkirk, and it is thought that within these three days there shall be a pay. Today Captain Williams's brother was brought to Dunkirk to be buried, with 100 horsemen, very bravely.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. XVI. 98.]
Aug. 5223. Horatio Pallavicino to Walsingham.
I wrote to you from Fontainebleau, and the letter went by way of Rouen. Now that Signori Capponi and Land are returning there, I want in this to add to what I told you in the other, how I have heard that in this city parcels of money have been made up, to be paid to Monsieur at Antwerp. Particularly I heard of one of 60,000 crowns with one person only, to whom were given sureties in this city not more than four days ago. Besides this they say that Martelli who farmed the salt has undertaken to get another part paid, and that all is being done at the instance of the Queen Mother.
Of the other particulars I have fully written my views in the aforesaid letter which I again affirm; repeating that from what I see of those humours, either the state of the Low Countries will not remain within the limits which it had at the beginning of its Course, I mean of liberty and religion, or these people will not favour the enterprise, because they do not, and are not likely to, care for anything but their own profit, profit according to the opinions and dispositions that are current here.— Paris, 5 August 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital. ¾ p. [France VIII.5.]