Elizabeth
November 1582, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler (editor)

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1909

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456-477

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'Elizabeth: November 1582, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 16: May-December 1582 (1909), pp. 456-477. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78885 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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November 1582, 21–30

Nov. 24469. Depositions in the matter of the Portuguese landed at Southampton
Know all men that on the 24th Nov. 1582, at the instance of Don Bernardino de Mendoza etc. captain of light horse to his Catholic Majesty in his kingdom of Naples, and for his business at the Court of the Queen of England, before me Jacob (Diego) Wittwronghele junior, sworn notary residing in the city of London, and in the presence of the witnesses named below, appeared in person Messrs Christovão de Lemos, aged 47, Francisco Darneves, aged 37, Antonio Dias, aged 28, Galas Viegas de Tayde, aged 42, Antonio Gonzalez, mariner, aged 35, and Fernan Vas Rodovalle, aged 56, more or less all Portuguese; who declared and vouched by their solemn oaths on the four Gospels that that is truth which by them and each of them is hereafter declared, in form and manner as follows.
To wit, Christovão de Lemos declares that being captain of the fortress of St. Sebastian and governor of the city of Angra in the island of Tercera, there came to the port of that city about the month of July last an English pirate, who called himself Thomas Kem, captain of an English ship which might be of about the burden of 230 to 250 tons, armed with 28 pieces of large artillery, and many muskets and other arms. He came to witness, to treat with him as governor and captain of the fortress, saying that he came from the island of Madeira, where, according to what witness heard from the English sailors on the ship, the said Kem had robbed a Portuguese vessel bound from Lisbon for Brazil with resin and other goods, and had with his company taken out of her the resin and other goods, which he, Kem, sold in the city of Angra, where he also brought the ship he had plundered. After that. Kem had stayed in the said city, and at the end of 15 or 20 days had gone to the island of Parazen de Corvo to rob, and stayed there for a while till Don Antonio sent for him. (Signed) Xro Delemos.
Then Francisco Darneves declared upon oath that what he knew about Thomas Kem was that he, witness, being in the island of Tercera about August last had heard the English people of the ship confess that Kem and they had robbed a Portuguese ship from the kingdom of Portugal for Brazil, and what they took was resin and other goods which they sold there; and witness knows that Kem and his people were pirates, because they robbed him of more than 15 ducats. (Signed) Frco Darneves.
Then Antonio Dias declared that what he knew of Thomas Kem was that he, witness, being in the isle of Tercera about the beginning of September last, heard that he was an Englishman who had come with his ship to that island and brought in his company a merchantman (? redondo) which witness heard from the English people of Kem's ship that Kem had taken on the coast of Portugal, with resin and other goods, and that it was sailing for Brazil. Witness further declared that he heard it publicly said that Kem carried artillery in his ship which he had taken from the said ship. (Signed) Antonio Dias.
Then Galas Viegas of Tayde said that he knew Thomas Kem was a pirate because he, witness, had seen a ship, small and new, which Kem had robbed and carried off at the isle of Tercera, where witness was about last July, which, as he understood, came from Portugal laden with resin and other goods, going to Brazil and the parts of Guinea. And the English of Kem's ship said to witness that he had letters of marque from Don Antonio, and that they had gone to the Canaries to water, and the people there killed two Englishmen of his company, and that they and Kem did many thefts on the Portuguese. (Signed) Galeaz Viegas de Tayde.
Then Antonio Gonzales, mariner, declared that about the month of July last, being at Tercera, he heard it publicly said that Thomas Kem, an Englishman, had come into port with a very well armed vessel at the city of Angra and brought a Portuguese vessel which he had taken, from which he took certain resin and much other goods which he sold in that city. Signed Ant° Glz.
Then Fernan Vaz Rodovalle declared that he knew Thomas Kem took and robbed a ship going from Portugal to Brazil, laden with resin, linen-cloth, and other goods; and that Kem brought the ship to Tercera after emptying her of all her cargo, and put her as reinforcement to Don Antonio; in which ship witness was afterwards, in October last, shipped to go on Don Antonio's service, and for that reason he knows what he has stated. Witness said further that the Englishmen in Kem's ship said that they took out of that ship certain pieces of artillery which they were carrying in the said ship for ballast. (Signed) Fernao Vaz Rodovalle.
And the said Don Bernardino de Mendoza asked me, the notary undersigned, to give him a public act and instrument of these declarations. All which passed in the house of that gentleman, in the presence of Senores Pedro Añes do Canto and Pantaleon Perez, witnesses, summoned for that purpose. (Signed by the witnesses and notary.)
Endd. by R. Beale: Depositions against Kenne. Span.pp. [Portugal I. 93.]
Nov. 24470. Roger Williams to Walsingham
Your letter written 2 November I answered from Guelders; I am sure it is come to your hands. As I promised you therein, so did I, at the first speech I had with Mr Norris. 'If I can live,' it shall never fall out so again with me, so I humbly desire you to persuade him to use me better.
I spoke with your man that is with Capt. Wilson, and told him such matters as I knew. I am sure he will discourse with you at large. 'With the next' I will trouble you with a large letter.
This morning we had direction to go to Alost; they [qy. say] it is besieged. Tomorrow, with God's help, I will enter it with the English cornets, if the town will.—Antwerp, 24 November.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVII. 63.]
Nov. 25471. Tommaso Sassetti to Walsingham
If I had had time to write to you when Signor Landi was going, I should not have failed to do so, as was my duty; but his departure was so sudden that he gave me no time. 'I learnt the death of Signor P[iero (?)] C[apponi (?)] from the messenger, and was grieved for it from my heart. It will be an extreme distress to his father, who had no male offspring but him, and was hoping in time to get a remission of the provisional judgement (gratia del pregiudizio) whereby he had agreed with the Treasury for 80,000 crowns, and in time might have had property worth more than 400,000 at the death of his uncle. But men's life and death are in God's hands, and everything has to be borne with fortitude.
I wrote to you how the best terms had been made with Cavaliero Giraldi. He gave a promise for £205 sterling to be paid within 15 days to the ambassador Cobham, and within the next 4 months to pay the balance to whomsoever you shall appoint, and pledged his person and goods. Signor Landi and I gave our promise to the ambassador that you would approve everything. This was done as the best thing, and the quickest in order that the above-named departure might be assured. Signor Landi will give you a full report; I will refer myself to his account.
As for my own matters, I am much better, and when you bid me come away, this time I will not fail to obey, as my duty is, and I am [not ?] held back by its being winter, nor by the plague, which I understand is bad, because I am your servant.
Of the world in Italy and here, there is some opinion that the Grand Duke of Tuscany, has been ill of some indisposition of that sort, but the cardinal his brother is there to put everything right. It is thought he will change his hat for the cap (berretta), and marry the daughter of his Highness. I have no letters from out there, but it is said that this news is in many. Many in Italy would like change and war, but since no new subjects of importance arise and become living, all remains quiet, and it was hoped that if peace or a truce was made with the Grand Turk and the Persian, great things would follow.
I hear from Nantes that by a letter from Tercera of Oct. 14 Don Antonio had embarked 5,000 soldiers for an enterprise on Madeira. He started on Oct. 11 and it is believed that he would get it by some composition. They write from Nantes that Sainte-Souline's vessel went out of her course and was wrecked in Brittany near the island 'Iddio' [Isle-Dieu], and drowned 72 gentlemen and 240 soldiers and sailors; and Sainte-Souline having turned back was living with little honour, to lose so many men with little honour to himself, rather than fight where he might have got great honour.
They say that in Biscay 50 ships are being built by order of the Catholic king, of which the least will be of 500 tons.
The ordinary post is not come from Italy. When I hear anything, I will not fail to let you know. I have not been used to write to you so often, in order not to weary you, but wrote to Signor Mannucci; but having heard of his illness has made me extend myself beyond my wont.
If Signor Mannucci should be dead, I beg you to have certain properties of mine in your protection.—Paris, 25 November 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital. 3 pp. [France VIII. 105.]
Nov. 25472. Cobham to Walsingham
I have received the packet you sent me by Buckton, and shall not fail to do as you have commanded for showing M. Pinart or Brulart the things sent me concerning the affairs of Scotland and by the next will signify to you what I perceive to be their disposition.
Their Majesties are advertised that the Duke of Brabant is well wearied with the proceedings of those of the Low Countries towards him.
I have informed you in sundry of my former letters how their Majesties and their Justice have proceeded with Salcedo, as may appear by my dispatches of Sept. 4, 11, and 23, Oct. 17 and 27, Nov. 4, and lastly, by Needam, the copy of Salcedo's judgement; wherein in the end it is specified and set down that the things delivered in his depositions and examinations, which concerned the accusation of any honourable person, should be taken as matters “invented and devised by the culprit, and decreed that they be burnt with fire and wiped out of the memory of men.” This course is held for any matter said against the House of Guise or any other persons.
The king has been these two or three days out of the town, 'sporting' himself, so that 'little' affairs are handled, other than the execution of the ordinary causes ordered before his parting. He has been very much offended with the report which was delivered of his going towards Notre Dame de Liesse, 'in consideration how he doubted thereon' it might hinder the Duke of Brabant's coming hither, which is looked for this Christmastide; or otherwise that it might give cause of suspicion to discover some of his secret purposes which men conjecture he intends, by his covert manner of dealing, more than he has heretofore been accustomed.
Lavalette, governor of Saluces, is come to the Court, whereon the opinion is renewed that the Prince of 'Genoa,' son to M. 'Dennemours,' will have that government: in recompense for which the king, they say, gives Lavalette the government of Lyons, with the castle, and satisfies by other means M. de Mandelot, who is here. It may be thought the king has made, or will make, some entire confederation with the Duke of Savoy.
La Neufville came hither to the Court yesterday from Monsieur. It appears by sundry reports he has made that Marshal Biron at this time or before has passed on the sands along by Gravelines with such forces as he conveniently may.
The opinion in the Court continues that the Duke of Florence is troubled in his mind with some alteration of the right use of his wits: the verity of which may be best known to Signor Landi through the good acquaintance he has with the Florentines. He is presently to return upon the knowledge of the death of Signor Capponi. But I hear the duke is not in that case. [The last words added.]
I do not understand that Cavaliero Giraldi has been admitted into the king's presence. It is found strange that the Spanish agent does not procure his audience, since he desires it as the Spanish king's minister. Sundry judge that the Queen Mother will not admit him to her presence as ambassador for Portugal in respect of her own pretence. But the king may show him so much favour as to hear him and so dismiss him with some light answer.
The departure of the Chevalier de Chatre for the Terceras is deferred till the spring, though his men have been levied, and Captain le Brevet, a Provencal, named to be his lieutenant. I hear that letters have come to their Majesties signifying that Don Antonio has caused Duarte de Castro to be beheaded; who 'seemed' last year to have fled out of Castile, where he was imprisoned, pretending to serve Don Antonio with good faith. But they found by good proof that he meant to betray him, upon the promise he made to some of King Philip's ministers. It is understood withal by letters from the Terceras that about Oct. 10, Don Antonio embarked of a sudden in 20 or 30 ships, 4,000 or 5,000 soldiers, with intent to make some enterprise on the 'Isles of the Maderes.' So now they harken here what good success he may have. The ship in which Sainte-Souline came has been cast away on the coast, with 200 soldiers and sundry gentlemen.
By letters from Spain it is written that the Catholic king is preparing in Biscay the greatest ships of war he can conveniently get: addressing himself towards Castile, and leaving for the government of Portugal, as they last write, the Empress, accompanied by the Cardinal of Austria and the Marquis of Santa Cruz, because the nobility and the people had no liking for the Duke of Alva.
The Spanish king has granted the Biscayans certain privileges, with the promise of payment, of a yearly pension of money, upon condition that they shall have always in readiness 50 ships of 500 tons and above, with 2,000 soldiers and mariners for the manning of them, to serve him on all occasions. He has caused certain ships and munition of war to be prepared in Portugal against next spring.
The Duke of Terranova, a Sicilian, at present governor of Barcelona, is appointed by the king to be governor of Milan.
Advertisements are come from Rome that the Pope has lately chosen Cardinal Borromeo to come hither, because the king 'shews' to have him in great veneration, upon the 'devote' persuasions of this nuncio. They further certify that the Pope has resolved to make new Cardinals this 'hastened' Christmas, and that Piccolomini is restored to all his lands and goods through the mediation of Cardinal de' Medici.
The Bishop of Glasgow has received letters dated Nov. 6 in which he says it is specified that the king goes no way, a-hunting or otherwise, but he is accompanied by 200 horsemen for his guard, who are paid by the Queen; and that all those about him are confederates of the House of Morton.
The Lady 'Fanhurst' writes that she spoke with the king at Edinburgh, at large, and having demanded license to return to France, he denied it her.
The 'Learde' of 'Blackebarron' [Blackbarony] surnamed Murray, brother to the abovesaid lady, gives out that he is come hither only to pass his time. There came in his company the 'Leard' of Corstorphine, surnamed Foster, and Ferrante Carelli, brother to Paulo Carelli, who has been sent thither by the Duke of Guise.
The Bishop of Glasgow has assured the principal personages in this Court that d'Aubigny for this time is not to depart out of Scotland, alleging that he has a strong party. He has delivered a list of names of those that are joined in confederacy with d'Aubigny, 'for the encouragement that they might have' here the better apprehension of the cause for giving aid; as likewise that other princes might be stirred up the rather to favour the party of d'Aubigny. The names are these: Lord Maxfield, now Earl Morton, the 'tutor' of the Earl of 'Cassil,' with that earl's 'dependances,' the Earl of Huntley, the Earl of 'Rothes,' the Earl of 'Catnesse,' Lord Ogelby, Lord Seaton, the 'Leard' of 'Loughevarre,' the Humes with the Carrs. The Earl of Montrose is named by them as one 'of whom they are in hope will favour' their cause, when d'Aubigny enters into the field with forces.
It is understood here that the captain of the castle whither d'Aubigny lately retired has refused to take the whole brunt upon him, since he saw the greater part of the nobility bent against the person of d'Aubigny.
The French king shows himself to the Bishop of Glasgow not very willing to make any overture in giving assistance to d'Aubigny, lest he might minister just offence to the Queen, and thereby give evil satisfaction to his brother.
Certain burgesses are come, sent to his Majesty from the town of Marseilles, with commission to become suitors that he will not give them a governor, but that they may enjoy their ancient accustomed privileges; in which case they 'oblige,' and promise to employ themselves, their lives, and their means in his service. Meantime the Grand Prior of Provence has been at Marseilles to persuade the citizens in the king's name to receive M. de 'Muglione' who is kinsman to Villeroy. But they refuse him with great obstinacy.
I dispatched Needham on the 19th, who I trust will come to you before these, though I suppose this bearer will use convenient diligence.—Paris, 25 November 1582.
Continued in Cobham's own hand on a fresh sheet:—
I cannot say how it comes to pass, but they have bruited it in this Court that the Duke of Brabant is so evil satisfied in Flanders that he intends to return into these parts as soon as Marshal Biron is arrived in the Low Countries.
They say withal in this Court that the Queen will not leave her liberty, but rather shows to be contented that Monsieur may marry the Princess of Nararre or Lorraine. The king has promised the Pope's servant that after the coming hither of Cardinal Borromeo he will introduce the decrees of the Council of Trent into France upon condition the Pope will grant he may for certain years enjoy the tenths and sell some churchyards. The Pope's nuncio about four days past delivered money to the Scottish king's minister, to whom that king wrote that they placed all their trust in the Pope for the redeeming of the queen of Scots, on whose liberation depends their life and better estate; which letters were delivered by Morrane (?) to the Scottish king's servant here.
The French king has promised the Pope that from henceforth he will permit the clergy of every province to make the elections of their bishops, abbots, and priors, as they become vacant. He is proceeding by his ministers to get money of all his towns and cities, alleging that those sums are to be employed in the fortifying of his frontier towns and to pay his men of arms; so that he is hereby like to gather two million of crowns. He is further counselled to redeem the offices which have been sold, and 'his other assises of imposts,' and so after to make a new sale of them to his better profit.
The Queen Mother has visited M. Gondi's house, and so well intreated him that she has borrowed of him 100,000 crowns upon assignations; which is said to be for the Duke of Brabant's use.
My Lord Hamilton wrote to me requesting me to renew his suit to you, desiring he might be helped by the Queen now that there is 'commodity,' offering the assurance of his devotion to England.
With these I leave to trouble, fearing I overmuch importune you with my much blotting of paper, to small purpose, and so little profitable. But it is done in respect of duty. I beseech you it may be so continued; being weary of this occupation and beseeching you to remember the promise you and Mr Secretary Wilson both jointly made to me, when you commanded me to lay all excuses aside and to prepare myself to enter into this charge. Wherefore I hope you will vouchsafe to obtain that kindness and benefit you then promised me, and that I may return, since I have passed the due time. And to confess the truth, I have no more means to 'countenance' this place, nor contentment of mind to endure this trade. I refer myself therefore to her Majesty's goodness and your mediation.—Paris, 25 Nov. 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. and 2 pp. [France VIII. 106.]
Nov. 25473. Audley Danett to Walsingham
Pardon my manner of advertising our common occurrents from hence, which are divers times reported here for certain when they are false, and so coldly given out, being true, that sometimes I am driven to write amiss; as of late touching the Lord of Keppel in Guelderland, who was said of a truth to be dead of the plague immediately after his 'apprehension,' and now is known to be alive, and still prisoner with Count William.
The enemy in those parts, since the relief of Lochem, 'was not feared to have attempted' anything against them; and therefore all the forces were commanded to repair into Brabant, where the Prince of Parma assembled his greatest forces, leaving in the towns of any importance small garrisons. That in Steenwyk, a town of 'good moment,' besieged last winter by the enemy, and relieved by Mr Norris, was so small, that on Friday the 16th it was in the night surprised by Verdugo, not without suspicion of treason of some within the town.
Great broils are said to be between the Bishop of Cologne and the inhabitants, who 'at no hand' will permit the bishop, being lately married, to enjoy his place. The bishop, it is said, declares himself to be of the Religion, and has placed garrisons in all the small villages about Cologne, so that the place is held for besieged.
Since the loss of Ninove, the enemy is said to have mustered his forces, and about [sic] to make some pay, which gives cause to think he will not be idle this winter. They are now before Likerke, not far from Alost, which place it is thought they are now ready to batter, but not likely to win it so easily as Ninove, which might have been kept much longer; 'and' the garrison come from thence much misliked for their hasty yielding, with so poor a composition.
Our 3 English companies of horse, and one of French, are departed hence towards Alost to remain in garrison there, and divers other French, and one Scottish cornet sent into the Land of Wast, where remain M. Villiers, the marshal of the camp, and Mr Yorke, with some few ensigns, to defend the place against the enemy, who desires that some of his troops might be refreshed there, where as yet the soldiers of neither part have made any spoil.
M. de Rambouillet, of the Order du Saint-Esprit, who about 5 years ago was sent into England, arrived here Wednesday last. He brings certain news that the Duke of Montpensier and Marshal Biron are ready to pass into these parts. The marshal in a letter to the Prince writes that he trusts to see him shortly, et lui mener des belles troupes; which as I hear are but 400 horse and about 4,000 foot, besides the Swiss. Since M. de Rambouillet's arrival, it is remarked that some who during their being here have carried themselves as neuters in religion have in open speech laboured to confirm in him a good opinion of their devotion to the Catholic Church, saying they have had wrong to be otherwise thought of.
Today M. Doyen, a gentleman of this country, and Master of the Post, and a maitre d'hôtel of his Highness's household, are dispatched to meet the Duke of Montpensier and the rest on the way, and to see them furnished of all things. Meantime the maréchaux des logis are to provide for their lodgings here.
It is secretly advertised hither out of France, and lately spoken in secret by 18, that 51 (qy. Monsieur) earnestly 'travails a composition,' having already his instruments about 15 (qy. Pr. of Parma) for that purpose.—Antwerp, 25 November 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVII. 64.]
Nov. 25474. Gilpin to Walsingham
Upon my departure from Germany I wrote you at large as well of my proceedings and success as of other matters which at my departure thence I understood of. All this while since, no worthy cause has been presented to trouble you with, which occasioned my silence; especially being come hither into this island, where nothing is heard but at leisure.
Our company begin to settle their trade here, and have had indifferent sales; though indeed most of the merchants that have as yet resorted hither are of the the town of Antwerp. For commodities to make return, no great quantity as yet, but 'is daily hoped will increase,' as undoubtedly it would if her Majesty continued our corporation in her favour, so far as to 'impeach' the extraordinary dealing to Antwerp, and that the staple of cloth be established here only. Those of Antwerp are greatly grieved at the company's departure, and 'think' would do what in them lieth to draw the trade again thither. This removal of the company I think will be a cause that her Majesty will all the sooner have contentment given her; for the merchants of Antwerp that 'trade England' solicit the States without intermission, and fearing lest they might be called and troubled in England for the interest past, if not likewise for the principal. I 'expect' to understand your pleasure, and if any occasion fall out to demand my service, beseech you to have me in your favourable remembrance.
News we have none here, save of the loss of Steenwyk, which last week, with intelligence of certain soldiers, who flying or leaving the enemy's service had been entertained by the States, and lay there among others in garrison, was taken by scalado, most of the town fired, and the people clean spoiled. Three days before, into Zutphen, which was this long while feared to be more than half Malcontent, were 'per devise' put in certain men of war, for better safety and assurance. So the country of Overyssel stands now in some better terms, though the loss of Steenwyk much dismayed them. The loss of Ninove in Flanders discourages that country greatly, the more by reason the French troops have been so long coming, and now almost no more speech of them.
There was intelligence 'by' the enemy in Dermonde, but discovered and the practisers apprehended. Yesterday departed from these parts between 60 'or' 70 sail of ships towards Spain and those west countries.
Thus for want of 'other,' am forced to end.—Middelburg, 25 November 1582.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XVII. 65.]
Nov. 25475. Stokes to Walsingham
Since my last of the 18th, few speeches have passed here, which are the following.
Since the enemy took Ninove they have lain still, and the speech is they are preparing to besiege the castle of Likerke or Alst, for they have brought 10 double cannons from Oudenarde to Ninove on waggons, so it is feared they will put those places in danger. All their forces that lay on the frontiers are come down; some of them are come to the camp that lies at Ninove, others sent into Brabant.
By report of good credible persons that are this week come from Tournay the enemy is in great hope of some great matter to fall on their side ere long; for they make great vaunts of the matter at Tournay, Lille, and Cortrick. By these reports it is here very much feared that some part of their forces will come and lie between Ostend and Sluys, which is a rich country, and plenty of victuals and forage. This they may very well do, for here is no man able to withstand them, and then they will put this town in great trouble for want of victuals.
This week God has taken to His mercy Colonel Traill, a Scotchman, and governor of Meenen, who died there of some sickness. So there is great suit here among the Scotch captains to have his regiment and be governor of Meenen. But it is thought some Frenchman will be governor of that town, and the Scots be removed from thence to some other place of service.
Also this week the Prince of Epinoy's cornet of horsemen who lie at Ghent went out to seek adventures, and between Lille and Tournay 'there' they met with M. de Croseillies [qy. Croisilles] with one abbot and divers gentlemen and rich merchants that were riding to the Prince of Parma, and took them all prisoners, and have brought them to Ghent. This M. de Croseillies is a gentleman of great estimation among the Malcontents. He reports for certain that half the Spaniards who came last summer are dead of sundry diseases, and they still die.
It is said here that 3,500 Swiss, and 1,000 French horse—some speak of a greater number—will be shipped at Calais for these parts; which seems to be so, for at Dunkirk, 'Newport,' Ostend, and Slays, all these towns are commanded from the Duke of Brabant to make provision of bread, beer, and other necessaries, if they should by force of weather put in to any of those places.
There is great complaining here by the States of these parts for want of some better government among them, which is one of their greatest lack [sic] that are on this side; for surely there is no good government, for every man commands and none will be commanded. Besides they say few captains have not [sic] half the soldiers they ought to have in their ensigns, and yet they must pay for the whole number. So these dealings make the commons murmur greatly against it, which will turn to some displeasure if it be not foreseen in time; for they have a great many ensigns in pay and but few men. Such are the speeches here among the commons.—Bruges, 25 November 1582.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. XVII. 66.]
Nov. 26476. Duke Casimir to Walsingham
The pleasure and contentment that I have received from your letters makes me beg you to continue to send to me, when opportunity offers, what you may think fit to be communicated in these parts. Since the chief instruments of the troubles in Scotland are discovered, and the king is served by persons holding the right side, and the prudence of the Queen, your mistress, is taking a hand in that affair, I make no doubt that God will bless the labours of those who are working at this task, tending to the advancement of His glory, and to the great advantage of the young king, and the prosperity and quiet of the two States.
I was also very glad to hear that the King of Denmark, my good cousin and near kinsman, had received the honour of the most noble Order of the Garter, and had thus become my brother in arms, wherein I feel myself much honoured. But as for the King of Sweden. I fear that the news which I sent you of his change of religion are only too true, and that your advices were not so sure as mine. Anyhow I hope to be fully enlightened shortly, and will not fail to give you such news as I receive.
Our affairs in Germany are running their usual course of peace and quietness save that God is marvellously afflicting us with the plague; in such wise that the whole banks of the Rhine are so infested by it that few places are free.
As for France, we hear from all parts that the two kings are on the point of entering into open war, and there are few who do not believe it; though in truth, whoso judges by reason will see no great appearance of open war. Some talk of it one way and some another. Those who have most reputation as knowing ones (entendus) tell me it will be to the good of the Churches. God grant it.—Lautern, 26 November 1582.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Germany II. 51.]
Nov. 26477. Thomas Doyley to Walsingham
I trust my dangerous and long sickness will be a sufficient excuse for my discontinuance of writing. In Friesland we have lately lost Steenwyk by surprise; whereby, if this frost continue, the enemy will range the whole country.
The enemy still keeps the field, and is very strong. Count Aremberg, whose father was slain by Dam, hard by Groningen, and whose sister the late Bishop of Cologne married, has lately brought to the enemy 15 companies of Almains and 5 cornets, Italians. Their whole camp now receives 3 months' pay, so that we must look shortly for some great enterprise. The general's infantry is at Brussels, which greatly fears the enemy and his cavalry at Alost. The Gascons under la Maurie and the Frenchmen under la Pierre are relieved in the land of Wast. Our other English regiment lives poorly without money at Borgerhout. The French camp is now afoot this side Calais, esteemed at 1,200; which I the rather believe, because the Prince received letters from Marshal Biron to that effect. Saint-Luc and 'Govil,' not suffered to end their quarrel here, made their appointment to meet at Calais. Saint-Luc is gone, but 'Govill' tarries still; 'Rochertalliado' is returning into France.
Mr 'Knowls' continues sick for want of sleep, appetite to eat, and strength; but principally troubled with melancholy, which I am now a-purging.—Antwerp, 26 November 1582.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVII. 67.]
Nov. 27478. Cobham to Walsingham
Since in my late letters delivered to John Tupper, I sent all such matters as were come to my knowledge, I have little at present to impart to you other than what I received of this bearer; by whom it appears the Pope's ministers could be contented to permit free trade to her Majesty's subjects for the 'vent' of their alum and such like commodities as may be had from those parts of Italy. Further, William Shute has learned how one of the principal causes of the Englishmen's troubles grew from the difficulties which had passed in the trade of the alum, as it may more particularly appear by the enclosed note which he delivered me. I find by this bearer that M. de Foix has dealt very sincerely and honourably with him, with show of much good will, as he likewise will inform you. So I leave the other matters to his relation, beseeching you to give him a hearing. I wish the trade of alum and currants might so be dealt in that the English might become thereby more agreeable to foreign nations, whereby her Majesty's profits and dignities would be advanced, as I suppose.
They inform me that la Neufville at his first arrival had long conference with the Queen Mother in a long gallery at her own house, showing her a paper of memorials or capitulations as it appeared by the show of it.
They confirm to me that the Queen Mother went to the house of a merchant called le Flameng, in very secret sort, where she had private conference with the Chevalier Breton, after which he did not stay long, 'without' making his being here known to any of his friends.
There was lately a citizen of Geneva, named Lambertes, brother to one of those who were executed for treason, who associating to himself 30 others of that town, went suddenly to the house of M. la Valle, a mile from the town; whose house they entered, and slew him, taking away such letters as had been written to him by foreign princes touching the management of the treason lately intended against the town. With these letters some four or five of those who committed that 'fact' returned to Geneva; whereon they were apprehended and condemned, as it is understood, but the residue fled away.
I enclose the advertisements from sundry parts.—Paris, 27 November 1582.
P.S.—The Pope has granted to King Philip that he may impose double tenths, that is to say 20 in the 100, on the Commanderies of San Giacomo Calatrava and 'Alacantra,' both those in Italy and in Spain.
King Philip proposes, after he has been at Madrid, to go to Moncon in Aragon, to procure his eldest son to be sworn and accepted their Prince. He had named to be general of all his horse in Portugal the Grand Prior Don Hernando, son to the Duke of Alva, having given him the government of Porto and Avero. The Duke of Alva went with the king into Castile.
The gentleman whom this king had sent to the Duke of Mantua is now returned, bringing with him the 'conclusion' that the duke is contented to grant the Duke of Nevers 6,000 crowns yearly during a certain time; wherewith the king and the Queen Mother are well satisfied, but the Duke of Nevers remains discontented.
Letters are come signifying that for certain M. de Montigny is dead and Capres sick, as likewise that the Prince of Parma has never had his health since he fell into a river. They advertise withal that the camp is mutinying for lack of money, refusing to march unless their pay is given them.
Add. Endd.pp. [France VIII. 107.]
Nov. 27479. Walsingham to Cobham
The French ambassador having requested her Majesty that you might concur with him in giving knowledge to the king his master that he has delivered to her his resolutions touching the difficulties objected by her in the matter of marriage, her pleasure is you should let the king understand that she has received them by the mouth of his ambassador; being in effect, that, the marriage taking place, he would be content to join his forces with hers in assistance against the King of Spain, in case he should by reason of the marriage attempt anything against her. Her Majesty does not find this to vary anything from that which has heretofore been delivered both by the Commissioners and Pinart and the ambassador himself at sundry times upon the said difficulties; whereas indeed the chief point she stands on, whereto the king's answer 'were directly to be yielded,' is to know by whom the charges of the wars in the Low Countries shall be borne, the marriage taking place, since Monsieur of himself has no means to do it, and the States of the country are brought to such a low ebb by reason of the longer continuance of the war, that they are not able to arm and maintain him sufficiently in their own defence without some foreign support; whereby it will of necessity follow that either he must quail in the enterprise, to the utter ruin and overthrow of the whole country, or withdraw from thence, to his great dishonour. Else, to avoid those inconveniences, her Majesty must be forced to relieve him and supply his wants herself, which she cannot perform without the grief and great discontentment of her subjects, as she has already heretofore sufficiently declared. She has nevertheless made Monsieur acquainted with this resolution of the king's, as a matter that touches him nearest; and until she have received answer from him in that behalf, she cannot well yield her answer to the king therein.
Yet in the meantime her pleasure is you should let the king understand that she finds herself somewhat grieved that it should be given out there that he had a disposition to satisfy her wholly touching the difficulties arising upon this matter of marriage, whereof Monsieur himself has by his letters assured her on his behalf, whereby all the dishonour of the breaking off of the marriage seems now to light altogether upon her, as if the only cause of it proceeded from herself; whereas for her part she has ever directed you to deliver to the king from her, and also made answer to Pinart at the time of his last being here, that this only difficulty, of bearing the charges of Monsieur's wars in the Low Countries, being removed, she knew no cause why the marriage should not go forward.
And since it is there conceived that you do not of yourself incline to further the cause of the marriage but have rather carried yourself in a kind of backward sort [alt. from as an enemy to it], delivering such directions as you have from time to time received from hence in that behalf, darkly and in such terms that it might appear you rather sought to hinder it than otherwise, her Majesty thinks it meet you should therefore as of yourself desire either M. Pinart or some other of the Secretaries of State, that you may receive in writing how the king has conceived and understood the purpose of the speeches that you have delivered to him in that behalf, for your better clearing and justification in the matter; being greatly grieved that any such hard opinion should be conceived of you, contrary to your good and sincere meaning in that cause. And since it is likely that upon the making of this request it will likewise be desired that you for your part do set down in writing the manner how you conceive that you have delivered your charge, her Majesty also thinks it meet that you refuse as much as you can to yield thereto; but being so earnestly pressed to it that you can in no wise avoid it, she would have you accompany it with a protestation that forasmuch as you do this privately of yourself, and not as a public minister, without direction in that behalf, you do not therefore mean to be thereby subject to answer to any matter that may thereon be hereafter objected against you to your disadvantage.
Draft, with corrections in Walsingham's hand, and endd. with date by him.pp. [France VIII. 108.]
Nov. 29480. Cobham to Walsingham
After the return of M. Pinart to this Court, I sent once or twice to him 'showing' I had good will to visit him at some appointed time. He deferred it till the 27th of the last [sic], when he came to me 'excusing that' he had not suffered me to repair to him, because, as he affirmed, they could not do as we did in England; but they had first to make the king privy to the granting of any ambassador access to them. This gave me occasion to say that I was desirous to have seen him first because he had done so much honour to the Queen at his being in England that ever since she has had a singular opinion of him. Wherefore by all the good offices I could perform, I desired to continue his good disposition towards my sovereign, and that the rather, by reason the negotiations of the realm of England were depending 'under' his charge. Howbeit, as I was glad to see him, thanking him for his pains and the honour done me by this visit, so I was sorry to perceive, through this strangeness and circumspect dealing continued towards her Majesty's ministers, that there appeared yet no sound assured foundation of amity, since there remained these 'nyese' [nice] proceedings; which manner I hear tell is not so daintily used towards the ministers of other princes, notwithstanding it might seem that no amity in these days were more proper for the king than that of the Queen my sovereign. Howbeit 'the same is so much as it pleased the king to consider thereon.'
Then M. Pinart answered that it was their form in proceeding, which those serving in his place observed towards all ambassadors; protesting with many speeches how the king embraced the Queen's amity with affection, accepting greatly of her good will, having received much satisfaction of her benevolence shewn to Monsieur. But the king did not perceive that the marriage made the progress he hoped and looked for, and therefore he and his mother had lately sent to Monsieur, meaning further to press him to marry, which they hoped to bring to pass within these five or six months. He uttered the last words with some earnestness, in such sort that I judged it to be a matter 'a purpose betaken' to him in charge to deliver them to me. Wherefore I thought good to say, that as it pleased the king to show himself bent in words to advance the marriage, so in forbearing, to take away the impediment, he 'declared' to mislike and impeach the 'effecting' of it; which was more to be considered than his speeches delivered to please his brother, who sought the marriage. Besides, there are many causes seen to make men think that all this while the king has esteemed little of the marriage, since he neither upon the complaint made of the depredations committed on the English by the French has given therein any order, nor can there be obtained for the injuries done to her Majesty's subjects any relief by way of justice; nor yet when informations are made to him, showing the new taxations and impositions daily raised on the English merchants' goods, contrary to the treaties and the king's oath, is any release or amendment to be had, whereby it is manifest, how if he had intended the marriage, he would have abstained from giving those just causes of mislike to her Majesty's people, but would otherwise by many ways and gracious manner have framed those and other things to his better liking, and to the satisfying of her Estates and people.
M. Pinart alleged that the Englishmen had not been behindhand in committing piracies, and specially of late, as likewise that there were sundry new impositions levied in England. He rehearsed withal the king's sending of those principal personages to England, with ample power to proceed in the matter of the marriage. Moreover he understood that his Majesty had of late sent order to the ambassador in England to accord to the Queen all that she could demand for coming to the conclusion of the marriage; which, as I informed him, was, as I understood, no other matter than heretofore had been sent, serving only to entertain his brother's good will with a kind of demonstration, and little for the satisfaction of the Queen. Wherefore I had cause to be right sorry I had served in this place, now three years, during which nothing has been brought to pass which might assure any further conjunction in amity to the withstanding of the rising greatness of the Spanish king, which is very 'prejudiciable' and suspicious to all Christian princes. Pinart assured me that, for the King of Spain, he would find enough to do, and that he could not possess Portugal as he looked for. He nothing doubted but that Don Antonio might use such means as should give the Spanish king trouble enough, having received of late advertisements that Don Antonio was gone towards Madeira; whereon King Philip, being on his way to pass into Castile, was upon the news he received returned towards Lisbon, breaking off his intention to go into Aragon. This news he said had been received from this Spanish agent, and not from this king's ambassador, who is on his return to France, having left an agent behind him.
I enquired of M. Pinart whether the king had understood certainly that the two daughters of Spain were to be married to the Emperor and the Archduke Ernestus. He confirmed that this had been written; howbeit his opinion was that though King Philip gave in marriage his eldest daughter, he would reserve the second to show to all the world, to entertain them in hope of his alliance, so that upon any chance of adverse fortune he may have means to reestablish his estate again through the marriage of his second, and reap thereby a new comfort.
This having passed, I told him the desire I had to communicate to him such news as were sent me concerning the alteration happened in Scotland. This, upon the speeches of the king, I had delivered to him at my last audience; but I had since received knowledge how those humours there were well settled through the Queen's mediation, to the great good liking of the Scottish king, as it appeared by his letters, the copy of which, translated into French, I thought good to show him that he might let the king see it; to the intent he should understand with what great care the Queen employed herself for the preservation of, the Scottish king's person and dignity. Which copy he took of me, and reading it, liked it well, putting it up to show the king.
Then he 'uttered' to me how he had seen the instructions delivered both to M. la Mothe-Fénelon, and to 'Manningvil,' whereby he perceived the king was willing to join with the Queen for the setting at liberty the Scottish king's person, and to procure that his counsellors might more frankly speak their advice, as they were wont to do in Council. He added that if he had been as 'Manniugvil' he would have been 'twice in Scotland' since he had his instructions; but he found that 'Manningvil' feared to be intercepted at sea by those of the Religion, because he had done many things against them. Lastly concerning this matter, he concluded that he was glad her Majesty had amended her opinion towards the Scottish king, remembering how in conference with him, at his last being in England, she 'uttered to have' some mislike of the young king's nature and disposition. He ended, that the Scottish king was her heir, if others did not oppose themselves against him; which particulars I thought it well not to forget to certify, because it may be the French will give the Scottish king to understand that all his help must come from them, and no certain trust to be had in England of her Majesty.
I requested M. Pinart to move the king that John Gower might be released from prison, as had been promised; having been retained by the Bishop of Paris ever since May, at the 'only malicious instance' of certain English fugitives, because they understood he had been with me, intending to return to England and submit himself to her Majesty, and give her dutiful thanks for his pardon. I requested that I might find as much favour on behalf of those who mean to be her Majesty's good subjects, as the Pope's nuncio and the Bishop of Paris obtained for those who professed to be her rebels and fugitives. To which he answered that the matter had this last day been spoken of in Council, when it was thought good to let Gower remain in prison until the Bishop of Paris return, which will not be till after Easter. Meantime he is threatened of his life by her Majesty's fugitives, and ill handled in prison.
I beseech you that M. Mauvissière may be spoken to touching this matter, in order that he may write earnestly in Gower's behalf; and I shall not leave to solicit their Majesties for his release. Otherwise this manner of proceeding will not only discourage him, but all others who may seek to be restored to her Majesty's favour.—Paris, 29 November 1582.
Add. and Endt. gone.pp. [France VIII. 109.]
November481. “Protestation in the name of Don Antonio against the Portugals brought into England by Cap. Kenne”
Whereas certain strangers, Portugals, are here lately arrived to the number of four score and ten, these are to signify to all her Majesty's subjects that the said Portugals were attainted of high treason, 'pretended' to their true king Don Antony in the islands of Terceras; and thereof convicted, their goods and whatsoever theirs were seized to the king's use, and their wives retained at his mercy. The said Don Antony notwithstanding of his princely clemency and upon their earnest and submissive intercession did not only manumitt the traitors, but further, of his gracious bounty, well known to divers of this nation and others, promised them upon trial of their vowed allegiance to reward them liberally; supposing at that instant to have had their help and company at the conflict in the islands of St. Michael and Madeira. Howbeit they very subtilly and contrary to the king's expectation, being shipped in English ships, most traitorously and vilely 'suggested and incensed' the captains Englishmen in the said ships, with fair persuasions and rich promises unlikely yet to be performed, to depart from the king; which accordingly (but very hardly) they effected—a great breach of their supposed loyalty, a mischievous and manifest treason, and no small hindrance to his proceedings in his affairs. But it is not to be wondered at that they, being traitors to their natural and merciful prince injuriously distressed, did so slily insinuate their conspiracies with fair speeches to seduce those English captains from their promised allegiance. It is therefore thought necessary by some her Majesty's subjects, well-wishers to the said King Antony, and such as have sufficient notice of the said traitors' villany, that during their abode here in this realm, it be manifested to other her subjects 'and whosoever,' how lewdly these Portugals have dealt with the English captains, and that they may be reputed here as they have been proved, enemies and traitors to their king Don Antony's success, and to the whole estate of Portugal. That they continually persist in their conjured treasons is apparent by this, that they intend presently to depart this realm to fly to a foreign prince usurping the right of the said king Don Antony, whom God of His mercy restore unto the 'true entituled.'
Usurped rights and Empires won by wrong, dislike the Lord and therefore last the [less Then pray this prince Antonio may be strong, and after sorrow find a sweet success For we are bound, our brethren biding bale, to make our intercession to the Lord That truth take place, and justice may prevail, for, if not this, we little may afford But trusting every good and gentle mind, will do even as they would be done unto I cease, in hope the king your prayers shall find, for he no doubt prayth for your Vivat Regina Elizabetha.
[prince and you.
Endd. as at head. 1 p. [Portugal I. 92.] (See Spanish Calendar 1582, No. 299.)
Nov.482. Cobham to Walsingham
It is now advertised to me that the Bishop of Glasgow has sent 10,000 crowns, to be employed in wines, woad, and madder, and sent with a French merchant to Scotland, which money, received in Scotland, 'are' to be delivered to d'Aubigny and his confederates: whereby it appears they intend to make good his practices.
It is conjectured that the Duke of Savoy will match with King Philip's second daughter, because the Emperor has adjudged the precedence of Savoy in disfavour of the Duke of Florence.
They certify from Spain that the Empress will return thence with King Philip's eldest daughter, who will be married to her son the Emperor.
Since the departure hence of M. de Lusignan, who was sent hither by the King of Navarre, it is hoped in Court that king will very shortly repair hither, being by very gracious letters invited by this king and his mother, their Majesties having assigned some money to be here received, to the value of 2,000 crowns, with promise that Marshal Matignon shall levy of the people in Languedoc, Gascony, and Guyenne sufficient sums to pay all the arrears due to the King of Navarre and to the princess his sister.
They inform me further that the king has granted that Marshal Matignon shall accompany the King of Navarre into all his towns within his government. Whereon I find his servants are of mind that he might come hither, but I cannot perceive that they much 'persuade' it. The Prince of Conde is, I hear, gone into Languedoc.
The King of Navarre has sent to levy (?) six thousand 'Swisses' (?) and has presented Casimir with a cup of gold and his wife with a rich looking-glass. Casimir has at present with him sundry captains and is preparing 'armours' and buying horses, having 10,000 horse in readiness.
The French king is levying 7,000 'roisters' and 6,000 Swiss. He has commanded his Colonel Schomberg to 'cheer' his Almain captains who are here until his return, when he will give them good satisfaction.
I notified you in my last of the Conte di Landi, who is much 'cheered.'
Endd. with year and month, and: Sir H. Cobham. Cypher. Scotland. It must be earlier than his of Nov. 25, No. 472, in which a new cipher is used.pp. [France VIII. 110.]
Nov.483. Geoffroy Le Brumen to Walsingham
I have received a letter from Madame de la Noue, who is much perplexed (empêchée) as to how she can possibly requite all the courtesy and kindness which she and her husband have received and are daily receiving from you; and she is right, for you have shown yourself a true friend in their affliction. For the rest, she writes that since the closed letter which she sent you, she has had news from Paris that a courier from Spain had passed, bearing authority to the Prince of Parma to hearken to a general exchange of prisoners; further that the Prince of Condé and other lords who hold the Marquis of Vasto (Gouast) prisoner at Aigues Mortes, 'dedicate and assign' him to M. de la Noue, insomuch that the king said recently: 'The Huguenots will get la Noue out this time,' and seemed pleased thereat. What confirms this is that on the Spanish ambassador complaining about the marquis in his master's name the king said it was the Huguenots who kept even his own towns from him. This is what the aforesaid lady writes to me, to impart to you, knowing you to be so intimate a friend.
I told you before about the death of M. de Téligny: I have since heard that he has got well, after being given up by the doctors. It seems as if God had preserved him in order not to give his father one affliction upon another. I have received the letter in which you tell me that you have spoken again to Mr Dale, and that he persists in demanding an inspection. I have an attested copy of his bond, made before a notary and would have sent it to you, but I heard that you had one which Tupper the messenger gave you. If you do not find it I hope, now that the earl [qy. Sussex] is here, to go to Court and make request direct to her Majesty, to put him to the shame he deserves, without asking any more of him. M. de Marchaumont has offered to do it if he is asked, and if he may see the bond or the attested copy.
For the rest, I beg you to remember the lead mine, of which M. de la Fontaine left a sample with you. He wants to have more of it from me. I should like to have it to make some choice medicaments from it.
The earl is in the same condition as he was, which is principally bad, but he has not the pains so badly. As yet I have done nothing but palliate on account of various delays, consultation of doctors, change of place, and other difficulties that have intervened up to this. Now I see still so many difficulties that I fear the mischief, which otherwise is curable, though with difficulty, may become incurable. For this reason I am thinking of writing an account of his illness, of what I have done up to now, and what I think necessary in the future, in order that if it turns out otherwise than we desire, I may justify myself.—Stepney, this November.
P.S.—Since writing this, I have found the earl in a condition to be talked to. I took the opportunity and discoursed somewhat to him of his ailment, on which he thought well, and took it in good part. I hope he is going to come to some resolution. I have already begun an account of his illness; when it is finished I shall present it to him and impart it to you, for though it is long since I was called in. I have not yet done anything of importance. The reason why I discourse on things to him is that he may see it is not my fault, but his long delay in making up his mind for his own profit.
Mr Stanton is waiting for you to do him favour, and not forget him when an opportunity offers. I have always let him see the bulletins that were presented of his master's treatment, as he would bear me witness.
Dr Asheton thinks the treatment easy; I do not. So far as my own wish goes, let him have sole charge, when I have given in my writing. I shall see what will be decided, for I shall state my opinion openly.
Add. not endd. (Qy. ever sent?) Fr. 3 pp. [France VIII. 166.]
Before
Oct. 25.
484. [Cobham] to [Walsingham]
The Duke of Guise has caused a principal personage to visit Madame la Noue assuring her that the brother to the Duke of Guise [sic] and they will employ themselves for the deliverance of la Noue; but they have not shown the way how this is to be done. But the said friend of the Duke of Guise has entered into conference with the King of Nararre's agent, lamenting 'of' Salcedo's accusations, 'showing' how the Duke of Guise stays only the king's arrival when he will desire to be confronted with Salcedo, and so to repair after to their house; wishing that there might be some better intelligence and amity between the King of Nararre and the Duke of Guise. The said agent accorded thereto, so it were sought on their 'sides.' To that the other answered, he doubted the King of Nararre would make his profit thereof: so they broke off, referring the progress and effect of the matter to another conference.
The Duke of Guise wrote lately to his friends that he did not find them so inclined as he hoped, notwithstanding they 'leave' not to seek all means.
The Duke of Guise at present lodges at 'Medon' [qy. Meudon], 'in that his house,' the Pope's nuntio, where I hear there is at this instant secretly the [illegible] hope of [qy. new] of state; which shall be looked into if it be so.
The Duke d' Épernon said of late openly how the accusations were but Monsieur's inventions.
I am 'sure how now lastly' Monsieur has written that order might be taken the post of Nampon (?) should surprise no more letters; by whom my servant (?) was taken, and by his brother, as Monsieur knows, I hear without his orders.
Endd.: Cypher. Sir H. Cobham. 1 p. [France VIII. 106 bis.]
? Nov.485. [Cobham] to [Walsingham]
1,000 lately informed the Pope's ambassador that those of the English Jesuits at Rome had advertised the Queen of the practices of Scotland.
Monsieur's agent has been again inquisitive of Scotch affairs. I told him that I heard that Marchaumont had written to the Duke of Guise of the matters of Scotland. He affirmed the same, adding that he was 'ung fou.'
6 ll. [Ibid. VIII. 106 ter.]
486. [Cobham] to [Walsingham]
They have let me know a matter which seems so strange to me that I almost doubt to write of it; and yet it has come to my knowledge by credible report. It is that Queen Mother has been troubled of late with a voice which has said: Allons, madame: as though it had been the French king.
There are 5,000 Almaynes levying to be transported to the seaside. Some have informed me they are to be sent to the King of Scots, and others think they are for Don Antonio.
The 4 pieces belonging to Alarde's cause were delivered to Paulo, as I have written to him at this instant, and put into his post 'cushionet' without any superscription.
Apparently a decipher of parts of a letter. In Beale's hand. ½ p. [France IX. 118.]