Elizabeth
March 1583, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler and Sophie Crawford Lomas (editors)

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1913

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184-199

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'Elizabeth: March 1583, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 17: January-June 1583 and addenda (1913), pp. 184-199. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78921 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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March 1583, 11–20

March 1/11153. [Marchaumont] to Walsingham.
I thought I would put off writing to you until I was with Monsieur, in order that I might impart to you the state of affairs. I have not been able to get through, as Mr. Darcy may have told you, and have hitherto awaited his Highness's commands. By what he writes me, he has not found it too safe for me. However, not to fail in the obligations of friendship towards you, I did not like to let so much time pass without letting you know our news; begging you to believe that I shall be very glad by some service to take my revenge for the honour you have done me. I assure you that here my counsel will never be for doing things maliciously and indiscreetly; for I esteem nothing so sacred before God or so laudable among men as keeping faith. Believe, too, that if they are not living here exactly as I should desire, things are not so bad as they were. At Bergen they are conducting themselves very quietly and properly.
I have received while I have been here three or four pairs [sic] of letters from the direction of Switzerland. Those of Berne and Zurich have entered the general league. The king has sent powers to M. de Fleury to receive them, as he has done the others, with chains and other presents, which was never done in other treaties. I send you a copy of the last letter. The uncertainty of the time in which I am is the cause of their old date. They still keep the old style.
Of French news I am assured that you are as well informed as we. As soon as I can after saluting his Highness I shall go there, I will send you word of it, that if you want anything done there you may not do me the wrong to employ another.—Dunkirk, 11 March 1583. (Signed) Celui qui vous ayme.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 81.]
Mar. 2/12.154. Edward Prin to Walsingham.
I wrote to you by Captain Recardes. This is to let you understand some part of the last news that my king received from Portugal, from some gentlemen there.
The king is informed that this present month of March King Philip pretends to depart for Spain, and with him he carries the most part of the best gentlemen of Portugal, and leaves the cardinal his brother-in-law to govern the country with the Grand Prior, son to the Duke of Alva.
The king is 'leacke weys' (likewise) informed that in St. Michael's in November last the people of the island rose in arms against the Spaniards that were there in garrison, and killed many of them, putting the rest to flight; who took the castle for their 'reffewse' [qy. refuge], where they now remain.
News is come to the king of a nobleman who 'should be' arrived in Britanny, come from Portugal. It is supposed to be the 'bychipe of the gard' [qy. Bishop of la Guarda], uncle to the Count Don Francisco, last Constable of Portugal; or else Don Affonso Anriques, a gentleman very nigh to the blood of the kings of Portugal.
I desire you to hold me in your favour, and likewise to employ me as one desirous to do you service to the utmost of my power; trusting that you will not deny me leave to write to you some part of our king's state and his proceedings.
The Governor of Dieppe will depart within these 15 days, with eight ships. In them he carries 1,200 very good soldiers. Two of his ships are of 300, one of 250, and another of 200; the others are from 80 to 120 tons apiece, well armed. The ships go upon a 'pretended' exploit, 'which' I pray God to give them the upper hand.
The king has received letters from the Algarves, from two captains who wish to employ themselves in his service and do their charge, which is of importance in Portugal. The king has great good will, and all things there as he could desire. There are three messengers gone 'dether' [qy. thither] each one their several way. The king lacks but that which your honour [? knows] which 'is to him' out of England. I beseech you have me in remembrance if anything arise from thence to employ me in your service with your credit; for in anything you shall find me true and faithful.—Rouen, 12 March 1582 [sic].
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [France. IX. 55.]
Mar. 2/12155. Fremyn to Walsingham.
I wrote to you on the 5th inst. To-day M. des Pruneaux and three deputies from the States left this town for Termonde, to offer, as it is said, to his Highness the choice of going to Brussels Mechlin, or Dunkirk [Walsingham notes this in margin] on delivery of the towns; he to send his troops to succour Eyndhoven, and they to send back the prisoners in this town. The chief difficulty in doing this will be to find money for the Swiss and other troops, who will not march without being paid; and if the Swiss are not paid they will go back to their own country. That is the chief difficulty, to find money promptly. If steps are not taken promptly thereto, Eyndhoven will be lost. If it is said the place might be succoured by the local forces, there are difficulties; besides that the troops in the land of Waes will not march without being paid. The soldiers at Mechlin mutinied yesterday, and seized two gates and the Court, desiring to be paid at Herentals. The soldiers have done the same [sic] after the example of those at Bergues and at Brussels; so that in order to be paid, you must mutiny. That is how the soldiery [? la melise] conducts itself here.
Count Hohenlohe should be here within six days. They say he is collecting forces, horse and foot, for the succour of Eyndhoven. They also say that his marriage with 'Mademoiselle d'Orange' will take place shortly; as also that of his Excellency with the widow [sic., altered from daughter] of the late Admiral de Châtillon, who comes from Savoy [alt. from widow of M. de Téligny], although there was talk of the late Duke of Montmorency's widow, bastard of France. These are some marriages that are discoursed of here, during the negotiations on one side and the other. We hope to get an answer to them by a courier who was sent with the deputies. If his Highness is content, he will at once have Vilvorde handed over, and the Estates will send hostages to him when he goes out of Termonde, as security for their prisoners when he gives up Dixmude; and does his best in regard to the garrison of Bergues-Wynox, to make them go out. But inasmuch as that garrison are Villeneuve's regiment, who have long served here, he does not want to take strong measures; and to say the truth, his Highness and his people have to suffer where they are, for want of conveniences, and the commons do not want victuals to be sent to him until they know what is to come to pass. Delays in the negotiations are not often in good faith, as happened with Don John. While they were negotiating with him at Namur, he was preparing for war, whence came about the rout at Gemblours. So also with the last negotiation at Cologne; God grant that it may go (voise) quite otherwise in this action, everything to His honour, and the salvation of the country. If good conditions are made, on a good foundation on either side, without fraud or ill device (mal engin) in case they come to terms this time, everything may be the better for it; if otherwise it will be always to begin again, through the distrust there is; which is such that by reason of what has happened his Highness has lost the heart of 100,000 people, besides his own loss. To wipe it out, he will have to do many good things in recompense, and change his advisers, for they might turn stones to bread in future, and it would not be thought any way good. Besides, the principal cause of what has happened was that at the arrival of his Highness in this country, after oath, receptions, entries, the thing was to set up his household establishment, and introduce about his person honest and honourable people of the country, as also for his guard, according to the customs and fashions in use here. But the avarice of the States here was the principal cause, for not giving this prince the means to set up his household, though he often spoke to them and had them spoken to about it; for when it was a question of maintaining his household and train at his own expense, he wanted also to have people of his own sort, who did not know the ways and customs of the country—were, indeed, wholly different in their way of acting; which often caused the Frenchmen entirely to lose what discipline they had had outside the country, as they will do again here, if his Highness does not take order. For this country manages itself in another fashion (such is our pleasure); and if he had often taken counsel and advice from his Excellency, matters would have taken another course in regard to him. If he will at all recover the good will of the people, he must come to that, and change his way of acting. He had very much their good will for his good-fellowship (humanité), kindness, and ease of access.
Those of Flanders have made all sorts of difficulties in the Council about letting his Highness have Dunkirk to go to, when giving up the other places, saying they want complete possession of their towns, without well considering the importance of the matter; for he who wants to have everything, often loses all. For this reason the States have sent deputies to them to-day, as also to Holland and elsewhere, for when a prince submits to reason after having received the injury, in treating with him one often injures oneself; as will happen if the agreement is not made; whether by the help of the King of France, or by coming to terms with the Spaniard, who would be as joyful as could be. And no doubt the Prince of Parma would feel honoured to grant him passage, being requested; which the wise and clear sighted will know how to judge and comprehend dispassionately. But what? There are few such at present; which causes and has up to now caused all the disorder and confusion in divers ways; in such wise that in a day or two the decision and the hope will be known. Meanwhile no victuals are being sent to Termonde. Whether this be left undone or not, those of Brussels desired his Highness with all his Swiss, and no other garrison in the town than their own people. He makes difficulties, saying that if he went there, he could not send his forces to the relief of Eyndhoven, with other considerations. If he accepts Mechlin, it is a convenient place to treat of the affairs of the country. He will be in absolute command there, having 'a' 600 Swiss for the guard of the town, and in the suburb of Negresepoulin (?) 400 harquebusiers and two companies of cavalry and all the rest of his people in the free country. As for going to Dunkirk, it is rather far off for negotiating on affairs with him and the way insecure by reason of the enemy. Mechlin is a convenient place—if he will go there while new forces are being raised in France for this spring, and order being taken for their payment.
M. de Bellièvre is still at Termonde. In sum, if no terms are come to, this country will have to suffer for the factions and the factious men that there are amid its storms. Many merchants also will leave this town; they are only waiting to hear what is resolved.—Antwerp, 12 March, 1583.
Add. to Walsingham as 'Chancellor of the Order.' Endd. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 82.]
March 3.156. The King of Denmark to the Queen.
We have received simultaneously two letters from you, dated at Windsor, in which you deal very friendly with me in regard to certain matters concerning both private and public trade. We have no doubt of your having so entirely discovered our sincere affection towards you, from the very beginning of our reign, that in all matters affecting your dignity nothing can or should be expected of us but desire and a most ready will to further it.
But of some of the present matters contained in these letters the purport is such that we regret very much that with the best wishes we cannot assent to your requests, saving our own dignity and rights. Since, however, we hold nothing more important than your firm friendship and goodwill, we will do whatever can be done without prejudice or enormous injury to the rights handed down by our forefathers, to let you know by experience our desire to gratify you.
First, as to the ship which certain subjects of yours complain was stopped by our officer at Wardehus, nothing of the sort has so far been brought before us by them or anyone else. We will, however, make enquiries, and as soon as ever we learn the reason of that arrest, we will without delay take such steps as may be just in the circumstances to give the satisfaction sought.
Touching the 'Ruthenian' navigation, which you now again ask should be granted to your subjects without let or hindrance, we are mindful of the frequent discussions which have taken place between us, both by direct letters and through Commissioners, with full earnestness, but in a friendly way. Now unless that sea, the free navigation of which is claimed, were subject to us by reason of the two shores which bound it; if our royal right were not greatly injured, or wholly overthrown, by the free use of navigation which you are seeking; if our revenues were not being more and more reduced by it, which, as may be most plainly seen, we know not by reasoning, but by experience, whatever your subjects and traders may persuade you to the contrary; if express warning had not been given in the treaties made by our sainted predecessors that English traders—(these are the formal terms of the treaty of 1449)—“were not to sail towards Iceland, Helgaland, and Finmark, or to slant in that direction under any colourable pretext whatsoever, without the express license of the King of Norway or his officers thereto deputed”; if, lastly, our rights in that sea having been overthrown, and our dominion there unlawfully claimed by other contentious neighbours, there was not reason to fear that we might have the adjacent shores also called in question by the same; in that case we should not have allowed you to ask so often and in so friendly wise with no result.
Now, however, albeit we have many weighty and just grounds of refusal to move us to stand by our former declarations, in order that we may give real proof of our fraternal love and perpetual goodwill towards you, withdrawing from our excellent and undoubted right, we will consider of a way whereby our dominion over that sea may be preserved intact, and that navigation be permitted by special privilege to your subjects on fair and tolerable conditions of some small recognition, if fit men come to us as soon as possible with full instructions from you, or some of the traders themselves, with whom negotiations may be conveniently conducted.
You understand, at the same time, that the rights alleged by the traders and your commissioners from a prescription of 30 years or possession acquired, are of no weight at all. It would indeed be bad for the interests of princes, if their prerogatives and sovereign rights could be overthrown so easily by the business of traders and the usurpations of that sort of men, and come into the power of private persons. But we trust that this dominion of the sea handed down by our illustrious ancestors, our due by the admission of all other foreign nations, will not be controverted by you, our sister and friend, so closely bound to us.
As regards the restoration of our customs in the Sound to their former position with certain modifications, although we are aware of the request, the answer, and the action, which have already taken place between us in that matter, and desire nothing more than that in all realms a sure arrangement on equal terms may some day be established to meet the difficulties of trade, if this comes to pass, we shall not fail to do our good offices. And indeed from the first nothing was less our intention than to persist for ever in the established exaction of tolls, still less do we now think of doing so. But whereas we are alone in contemplating a reduction, while other princes are every day either instituting new and heavier duties, or acquiescing in the increase of the old ones, we are not clear that this can be either greatly demanded of us, or prudently granted by us. You have no doubt heard how in the recent Imperial Diet at Augsburg grave complaints were made by cities of the Empire against not us only, but yourself and the King of Sweden, in the matter of customs, and that on that subject legations from the States to each of us individually have been asked for, and as they say, granted. Seeing, however, that in the Roman Empire almost every year the old imposts are increased and new ones obtained, we cannot but deem that what the States of the Empire think to be lawful for themselves, they may fairly and freely allow to every king in his own realm.
Since, therefore, it does not for very weighty reasons seem good policy just at this time for us alone to make any, even a general reduction of the long-standing duties in the Sound, nor can special treatment conveniently be given to your subjects without grave offence to other nations, we beg that you will not mind reserving and postponing this business to a more convenient time and opportunity when there may be faculties for communicating with other princes and taking steps for the public utility. Meanwhile, if your subjects, contrary to any wish of ours, are burdened beyond the rate established for all nations alike, we will see that nothing of the kind happens in future.
But when they ask that none of their goods shall be taken for our use against their will, they seem to claim too much freedom and right of decision on that point. For although we think it rarely happens in practice; yet we cannot possibly renounce expressly, or for the sake of example only, a right which has for many centuries been accepted everywhere in the case of all princes, and doubtless in your own case, especially since nothing is ever asked from any man without a proper, due, and fair price being refunded (refuso). In which case we judge it in our opinion neither dishonourable nor unjust that some distinction should be made between the private cupidities of traders of that sort, and the dignity of kings and princes.
As to the paying of the dues in the customary coin of our realm, and the taking of a proper caution in lieu of payment, until the ships come home, and finally to prevent their detention longer than is fair before the payment of the dues, orders shall be given to the customs officers, that as careful and fair consideration shall be had on all these points as the circumstances of the case allow.
As requested in your letter, we gave your envoy free opportunity to speak, in order that if he had any other requests he might explain them as he would. But since on repeated occasions he put forward nothing but what was in the letter, we beg you to interpret in friendly wise and accept this as our reply to the letter, and lay open your mind to us in the first place in respect to our proposal about the 'Ruthenian' navigation, through this our servant whom we have sent for that express purpose.—'In arce nostra Novogardia,' 3 March, 1583.
Add. Latin. 5 pp. [Denmark I. 27.]
March 3.157. Audley Danett to Walsingham.
My last was of 24 Feb. sent by a man of Sir Thomas Parratt's. Since that time, on Tuesday last, the 26th, arrived here from the duke, M. des Pruneaux with three of the deputies sent four days before from the States; who signify that 'at no hand' the duke will enter into Brussels, but desires rather to keep his Court at Mechlin, or to go to Dunkirk, and there 'grow to some further appointment.' In the mean time he offers to send his forces to the succour of Eyndhoven, so as 'the States will at once furnish him with 30,000 crowns' 'sol.' He insists on having the prisoners in this town set at liberty, and hostages of this town and the States, to the number of six of the best, to be chosen by the duke, for his safe passage to Dunkirk and Dixmude, with some other clauses in his articles, which cause many to fear this treaty will be drawn out to some length.
On Saturday March 2 the States sent back des Pruneaux with some others, their deputies, to signify that it shall be in the duke's choice to accept of Brussels, as it was resolved last week, or otherwise, to come into Mechlin with a competent garrison, or repair to Dunkirk at his pleasure. For the hostages they make some difficulty, and hardly will some that are demanded be persuaded to go; but if the rest be concluded, upon the sending of some French hostages, which has been proposed, I think there will be no stay touching that point, nor likewise for the money; for the States have already 'accorded for' 50,000 or 60,000 guilders. M. des Pruneaux seems to give some hope that the great difficulties are almost dispatched; but yet many here suspect the event, and fear it will prove little to the benefit of the country.
Eyndhoven is said to parley with the enemy, of which there is great presumption, both because the place is unfurnished with any store of victuals, and because they have often sent messengers hither to advertise their state, but can receive no comfortable answer.
It is also bruited, but how truly I know not, that the Prince of Orange some time this week goes into Zealand to marry Admiral Châtillon's daughter, M. Téligny's widow; although some say the admiral's widow. Many talk diversely of this, and suppose it to be a 'practice' to retire from hence; but God knows the truth. I only write to you what is talked by the people. As anything is done herein, I will advertise you further.—Antwerp, 3 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 83.]
Mar. 3/13158. Thomas Doyley to Walsingham.
You may perceive the substance of our occurrents by the papers here enclosed; with the writing of which since I am tired through the indisposition of my body, I will add little or nothing of my own.
Our deputies returning on Monday last, accompanied only by des Pruneaux, brought these articles. Other deputies are sent with them to request the duke to sign them, being allowed both by the States-General and also by the Breedenraed of Antwerp. They have in charge to return with answer to-morrow. Our cavalry of Antwerp were lately well beaten by those of Lierre.
M. de Meurs (?) a French colonel died lately; also Neufville, who succeeded la Noue in his regiment.
It is said the Prince goes shortly to Zealand. 'Other' report of his marriage with the Duchess of Entremont, last wife to Coligny, Admiral of France; or rather to his daughter, the widow of Téligny, who sojourns in Savoy with her 'mother-in-law.'
The fear of my fit or the haste of the post makes me short.—Antwerp, the 13th of 'our March.' 1583 [sic].
Add. Endd. March 3. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 84.]
Mar. 3/13.159. Dr. Peter de Rotis to Walsingham.
I received on the 5th inst. the letter you wrote me, from which it was very pleasant to me to hear that the Queen and yourself approved the plan of my business, and that she was willing to grant to me and my heirs for ever all that is sought in remuneration of my work. In the first place I must thank her Majesty for her kind declaration, and then yourself for having by your diligent recommendation of my scheme obtained so liberal a reply from her; and I see nothing else to be done on my part than to show a convenient way, whereby usury, so long condemned, may by the adoption of a 'good usury' in its place be exterminated throughout the realm of England. That way you will, as I hope, have been able to see from my work handed to Mr. Gilpin. Since I returned home from the Diet of Augsburg I have put together an epitome of my work, which will I hope throw a little light on it. This epitome I hope to get out about Easter, when an occasion will offer of sending one and another copy to your country. I will send them to Mr. Gilpin in order that he may forward one to you. If any difficulties are found there likely to hinder or delay the introduction of my rating and assessment [qy. foenoris vel census], I am ready to repair thither to show ways and means by which such difficulties may be averted; for having dealt with this matter for many years, I have formed the opinion that no difficulties can anywhere be found hard enough to hinder the introduction of the 'Rotic' rating and assessment. This is the answer which I think should be written to your letter.—Vienna, 13 March, 1583.
Add. Endd. Latin.pp. [Ibid. XVIII. 84 bis.]
Mar. 5.160. Benjamin Anes to Walsingham.
I am so much beholden to you for your goodness shown always to me that wherever I am I will profess to be your servant, Having special charge from Dr. Lopez, my brother-in-law, to write to you such news as there is in these parts, I embolden myself to trouble you with this letter; which though it be not worthy to be read by you, yet trusting you will 'except' of it as one who in greater matters of my ability or power was equal to me in good will would employ himself in your service at any time when I am commanded by you, and as long as I remain in this country, I will advertise you of such news as there is [sic].
At my coming hither, which was about 12 days ago, I brought letters from the king Don Antonio, written at Paris, which were the first that came hither since his arrival there. They were joyfully received both by the Condé of Torres Vedras, who is governor here, and by the common people; and that day there was a general procession made for the good news. I brought likewise a letter from my Lord of Leicester and another from my Lord of Warwick, and Mr. Philip Sidney, to the earl, which letters he read openly to the people, since they 'came very honourable,' especially that of my Lord of Leicester. And the people with one voice cried 'God save the Queen and the noblemen that favour our cause.' And within two days after, there came in a small bark from France, bringing letters from the Queen Mother to the earl, which he translated out of French into Portuguese 'because' the commons should see what she wrote. She advertised the earl that she was sending out of hand 1,200 men, who should come hither with all speed for the defence of this island and the rest, and that she would be 'amenes' [a means] to the king her son that Don Antonio should have help, 'as' should bring them out of bondage. This letter came in on Sunday afternoon. This being translated was delivered to the preacher, and after ending his sermon, he 'showed' the people the earl had received letters from the king, and likewise from England from the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, and Mr. Philip Sidney, wherein they promised they would be a means to her Majesty she should assist the king; wherefore he desired the people to pray for the welfare of her Majesty, the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, and yourself, by name, at which the people cried, 'God save them all.' Likewise he showed the letter of the Queen Mother, and for her and the King of France they did the like; and surely all the people in this country are in great hope of her Majesty's assistance.
Touching the strength of this island: it is very strong, for it has 32 'bulwarks' and forts about it, and every one furnished with ordnance, as well brass as iron, powder and shot, and men for their defence. The people of this city every day work to strengthen a place called Brasill, where they are making a new fort, and intrenching it round about. They have made it now marvellous strong, and the governor takes such pains, every day overseeing the workmen, and giving order for the defence of everything, and sometimes taking the shovel and working among them, that I promise you he deserves great commendations. There are in this island 1,000 French and English, 800 here in the city and 200 'at praye' (? on the coast). The rest of the forts are kept by 'Portingaells,' where they think there is no landing, being places where there are forts 'builded superfluous.' The people of the country agree now 'wery' well with the French; as for our Englishmen, so well beloved [sic] that they call them brothers, and so a great many of them are married since their coming hither. In the making of these forts the captains, soldiers, gentlemen, friars and priests work daily; every company as its day is appointed, and so willingly as it is not to be believed but those [sic] that see them.
About four days ago there was brought into this harbour an English ship of Hampton by a carvell of this island, wherein were 80 'Portingaells.' This ship came from St. Michael's and was going homeward, laden with woad and sugar. 'Presently' at her coming in the master was brought ashore, and the Portugal captain came with him before the Condé, and they brought all his letters. The earl asked him whether he had any strangers' goods in his ship; he answered, not to his knowledge. And whether the Portugals had misused him or his company; he said they had taken from him some of his men's apparel. Whereupon he caused a captain to go aboard with Captain Sackfilde, and that they should restore to him all such things as they had taken from him, and if he lacked any things, he would pay; “for” says he, “I am subject to the Queen, and during my life all Englishmen shall be well used where I am.” This the master can testify, and for other trifles they had taken for the carvell's provision, he would see it paid. The earl made him take an oath whether he had any more letters on board, and so he did, saying he had one which was of no effect. This he brought, and by 'them' he found that there were 220 'kantals' [qy. quintals] of woad that belonged to a Portugal in St. Michael's whose name is Gaspar Dias, which letter he showed the master of the ship; and being found, he caused it to be brought aland, 'contenting' the master for his freight. And all the rest, which appertained to Englishmen, he did not meddle with. Among these letters was one written by the Governor of St. Michael's, a Spaniard, to Don Bernardino de Mendoza. What the contents of it are, I know not; but presently he caused with as much speed as may be two ships to be made ready, and four carvells to go out, which will be gone within this three days. Whither they go, no man 'knows certain,' but they were made ready upon some advice he found in that letter.
Yesterday there was seen about this island a ship with her masts broken. As soon as she was descried, three carvells went out of this harbour to know what she was. One of them returned, and brought news she came from the Islands of Cabo Verde, and was one of the fleet that went thither before the king's departure. The news which she brings is, that being in all 9 sail they came to the Isle of Santiago, which is the chief of them; where they landed 50 men, sending the king's letters to the bishop, who is governor of that country, and to the captain. The bishop accepted the king's letters, and would willingly have yielded the country to him; the captain would not, nor would he let the messenger go back with answer, but gathered together about 4,000 negroes and Portugals and made himself as strong as he could. The others, seeing the messenger stayed so long, caused 100 men to be landed, who, with the 50, 'entered the land,' willing the ships meanwhile to go and take the castles if they could; and they, coming towards the city, found the captain in the order 'as before.' They set upon him, and killed many of them; the rest fled to the mountains, and so did they of the city, whereupon the Portugals, French and some Englishmen sacked the city, where they found great riches. They spared none, but such as were the king's friends, that they found 'thereamongs.' There is one that was the keeper of the orphans' goods, and such as die there that come out of the Indies, who has embarked himself, wife, and children to come hither, and brings a great mass of money. The ships took the forts, and from them such ordnance as they had, in number 40 pieces, all brass, of which 20 pieces are come in this ship. The other island, called Isle of Fogo, one of those of Cabo Verde, has proclaimed Don Antonio and sent the captain to the general, willing him to come thither. They would lade his ships with cotton-wool and hides, and send a present to the king besides in money. The said ships went all thither, carrying with them eight men they took there; and this ship having her mast broken left them all going to the Isle of Fogo, and she came home. The others cannot be long, by reason the islands are not far asunder. What they took at Santiago, in amber, money, and merchandise is 'extimed' at 200,000 crowns, besides that which they will bring from the other island, which is of great importance, for it lies in the highway to St. Lucar and the Indies. The earl is making ready meal and other victuals to be sent thither; of which they have great lack, for it has not rained there this two years.
The castle of 'Myne' is also for the king, for they sent letters hither for him.
This is all the news there is here at present.—Angra, 5 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Portugal II. 4.]
Mar. 6.161. Antonio Capponi to Walsingham.
I have been very sorry to hear the death of Signor Piero Capponi, which has displeased me on account both of the relationship between us, and of his service with you, in which I seemed to myself to be a sharer, agreeing with him in the same desire, being bound by the great benefits done to him. And since fortune was not willing to grant him the effect of the desire which he had to discharge in part his obligations, I now beg you to hold me in the same degree of goodwill; assuring you that while I have life I shall always be desirous to do you such service as becomes me.
At present I am here at Terceira with a company in the service of the King Don Antonio, sent by the Queen Mother my mistress: and because I know that by the Count of Torres Vedras, viceroy here, and others, you can be particularly informed of the proceedings here, I will not bore you any longer, but beg you to hold me among your most affectionate and faithful servants.—Angra, 6 March, 1583.
Add. in Fr. Endd. (Note on back: Edmond Capell of Southt. 100 quintals). Ital.pp. [Portugal II. 5.]
Mar. 8.162. Gilpin to Walsingham.
I send by this bearer, my servant, the book with the abridgement, of Dr. Rhotis's device to cut off usury, which he delivered to me at Augsburg, upon conditions as per my letter of 2 December, long since received by you and answered. I particularly notified it, so that I shall not need at this time to make any 'repetall' of them; only to recommend the author's goodwill and work to you, so that he may understand I have discharged the duty of my promise. And if it be so liked by the Queen that the 'platt' be put in execution, my request is that the desire I have to do some good service may by you favourably to her goodness be remembered. There has also been told me another device that one here is about, touching money delivered at usury and per exchange, how benefit should thereby come to the Prince; which I will further enquire of and then write you if I find it worth advertisement.
Touching goods shipped from Antwerp, I have laid wait with all care possible, but the late question fallen out upon the French dealing makes the merchants there forbear trading almost to any place. When occasion shall fall out worth sending, I shall not fail to dispatch over to you.
This bearer, having served certain years, and 'is' still to continue with me, has taken pains, by writing and otherwise, in those businesses 'I have been employed' by you, and has received of me for his service the allowance promised. Yet if you be good to him towards the charge of his coming and bringing the packet of books over, he would be further bound, and I think myself likewise greatly beholden.—Middelburg, 8 March, 1582.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 86.]
March 10.163. Gilpin to Walsingham.
My last [sic] was the 24 February, since which I wrote to Mr. Thompson such news as I could learn, and sent certain enclosed copies, not doubting but ere this they have been communicated to you. I have not understood since that time any great or weighty matter to trouble you with; and yet would not overpass two posts without sending copies of such news as I received this week from Cologne and Antwerp. Here all is quiet, and they look for the Prince within 10 or 12 days to receive his lady and 'wife shallbe.' To which end they begin to 'procure' his lodging in the Abbey, and await the 'harmingers' 'coming to lodge both trains.
The peasants in Flanders range themselves altogether under the Malcontents, abhorring the French severe rule in the late possessed towns. To forward this, they report for certain that the Prince of Parma has strictly commanded no 'bores' to be imprisoned, ransomed, or harmed as partakers with the States, but friendly used as the king's subjects; and hereby their hearts are so won that it is doubted the rest will follow a like course, and the towns be left destitute of good neighbours.
Out of Holland is not heard of late any great matter, only that they generally dislike the Prince's new intended match with another French lady, doubting that the affection that way begun by his first will be doubled by means of the second.—Middelburg, 10 March, 1582.—I have dispatched my servant to come over, who stays only for the first ship's departure.
P.S.—By a letter I received to-day from 'Rees,' one of the Duke of Cleve's towns, I was certified that Mr. Daniel Rogers and his brother 'were gotten' over the walls of the castle and almost escaped, but espied and taken again, and now very straitly kept and used.
Add. Endd. by Walsingham. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. 87.]
Mar. 10.164. Audley Danett to Walsingham.
On the 3rd inst. after I had written my last letter, I understood that the States-General, finding some backwardness in the quatre membres and those of Flanders to treat with the duke, and that they shewed some unwillingness to let him pass to Dunkirk, chose among themselves three persons, whom they sent severally to Ghent, Bruges, and those of the 'Franck,' to let them understand how far they had proceeded in the treaty with the duke, and of their hope to see it take some good effect; and therefore prayed them not to sever themselves, nor to make any difficulty to permit him quietly to pass to Dunkirk, according to his demands sent to them from Dermond. To which those of Flanders yielded at length, and dispatched their resolution to the States' deputies sent to Dermonde; whereupon the treaty was concluded, and the deputies all sent hither with the news of it on Saturday morning the 9th. Some difficulty is yet to be ended touching the money demanded by the duke, which was raised from 30,000 to 50,000 crowns 'sol.' the States offering only 50,000 florins. It is thought if they are able to furnish something near to the duke's first demand, he will hold himself contented, knowing they have a great charge at present on their shoulders, to content the forces in the land of Waes and almost all the garrisons in these countries, many of whom having of late fallen to mutiny will not be content under three months' pay, especially Bergen-op-Zoom, Mechlin, and Brussels, with some others further off. This treaty is not yet put in any execution, because the force in the land of Waes must first retire thence over the water into Brabant, for which purpose the States are at present treating with Mr. Norris for the English, and so after with the rest, to give them some reasonable contentment. Among other good offices which M. Bellièvre has made show of in the furthering of this appointment, it is said he has laboured very earnestly with certain French merchants following their trade here, to borrow 15,000 crowns for the duke, to be paid again in France; and for some token of this dealing, the duke has sent an express messenger hither to demand his ordinary seal, which ever since his departure hence has remained here in custody, to the end he might seal the merchants such assurance for their money as they demand. I dare not take upon me to judge of the success of the treaty. Those of the better sort hope well; but others fear that in the execution of it some difficulties will fall out. As anything shall happen, I will be ready to advertise you, as also of the Prince's marriage, the bruit whereof continues still, but no certain speech of the time.—Antwerp, 10 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. XVIII. 88.]
Mar. 10.165. Stokes to Walsingham.
My last was the 3rd inst., since which these speeches have passed here.
The Malcontents that were come between Cassel and Dunkirk have departed thence and are gone by command of the Prince of Parma between Lille and Douay, where all the forces of Hainault and Artois assemble, but for what cause is not yet known.
M. de Swevinghem is not prisoner, but commanded by the Prince of Parma not to depart from Tournay until his pleasure be further known. And 'where' it was said that M. de Warevelt, Governor of Oudenarde, was beheaded at Tournay, it is not so; for it is another captain, that had the keeping of another castle between Oudenarde and Ghent that was beheaded at Tournay; some say for spoiling the peasants, and some say for that he had some secret dealing with the Gentners.
The speech is here that agreement is made between Monsieur and the States, and that Monsieur must deliver all the towns save Dunkirk; and for Bergues, though they are French that keep it, he says that town is at the States' command, because those French were in the service of the States before he came into the country. So he says they are to be 'commanded from thence' at the States' pleasure; and so it is said that he shall pass through the country to Dunkirk with but 300 horse and as many foot, all Frenchmen, for his guard, and the rest of the French forces shall be sent into Brabant to the aid of Eyndhoven.
This agreement it seems is made by the Prince and States of Brabant. Those of Flanders were not made privy to it, for they had no deputies there among the States; so that Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres, 'who' are the chief Members of Flanders will not agree to this agreement, for they are greatly offended that any such thing should be done without their consent. For which cause it is much feared, if God do not prevent it, that there will be some disunion of the united states; for they of Flanders say that Brabant is the chief cause of this agreement, only to drive the wars into Flanders, that they might sit the quieter in Brabant. So there is great fear of some disorder to fall among them, if it be not with wisdom foreseen in time; and no doubt the Malcontents are advertised of this disorder, for they have their spies here in every town.
There also goes a secret speech here, though this agreement be made in order as aforesaid, yet it is much doubted that Monsieur, when it comes to the point, will not deliver Dixmude for that town lies very commodious for him; and though he makes Bergues not to be at his command, yet he has it as sure as any of the other towns, and therefore it is greatly feared that this speech of agreement is but for a delay to win time, for it will not hold.
By letters from Calais, the French king has sent a great sum of money thither, to be sent to Dunkirk against Monsieur's coming thither. They also write that great forces are coming out of France towards these parts, and that it is hoped that Monsieur will be master of all the towns on the sea-coast from Dunkirk to Sluys ere long. Such is their writing from Calais.
The commons here murmur very much against the Prince of Orange's marriage with a French lady, 'whom' they say here is a widow, and the daughter of M. de Châtillon. So the Prince grows every day more out of favour 'of' the commons, only because they see him lean so much to the French.—Bruges, 10 March, 1582.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 89.]
Mar. 10/20.166. Count da Silva to Walsingham.
I wrote to you a few days ago, and nothing new has happened that I can write of now, only my great will to serve you and your desires in all that is in my power. Benjamin Anes would not go from hence without a letter from me to you. He will tell you of the position we are in in these islands, and the king's affairs, and how prosperously all has fallen out for him, and will signify the great wish I have to employ myself in matters of your service, and how much I should esteem it, if you wished to test it by commanding me in this island when anything offers.—In the town of Praia, en da ilha 3” (i.e. Terceira), 20 March, 1583.
Add. Endd.: 3 March. Port. ½ p. [Portugal II. 6.]
Mar. 11.167. Cobham to Walsingham.
The king has very much busied himself in bringing to pass and framing his new Order of Brotherhood des Battus, wherein he has had the special advice and direction of the Pope's nuncio and other personages sent for from Lyons, who are the principal guiders of the like Order in that city; so now the rules and ordinances of their discipline are set down in writing and put to printing. Yesterday evening, being Sunday, they began their first coming together and using their discipline, with ceremonies; among whom the king made one, being of their fraternity, and having caused divers courtiers of quality to enter it, as likewise his chief President, with other Presidents of the Court of Parlement, contrary to their own disposition, as they declared to him. He 'pretends' to cause the company of this brotherhood to pass in public procession some day this week. The preachers in their pulpits and their [qy. the] other Orders inveigh and 'repine' much against this new erected Society of the Battus; and in effect all sorts of people are scandalised therewith. Howbeit, such is the king's will.
It is understood the king, though not 'presently,' intends to recall M. de Foix, Archbishop of Toulouse, from Rome, sending 'Cassiotte,' Villeroy's commis to treat touching the matter of the Council of Trent; whose journey has been deferred hitherto. 'Consequently' the king will place as ambassador ligier there, M. de Saint-Goard, lately returned from his legation to Spain.
The king has not liked that the Council of Trent should be altogether authorised in this realm; but some parts of it are to be extracted, which may serve for the better ordering of their clergymen. To this the Pope's nuncio will not assent, considering that he knows how the Pope's pretence is, through the 'inducing' of the Council of Trent to disannul and extinguish covertly the prerogatives of the Gallican Church, granted to other Kings of France upon former Popes' necessities and troubles when they were supported by the French kings. This has been made so plainly known to the king that he rejects as yet the authorising of the Council of Trent.
M. de Joyeuse is departed to-day towards Normandy to take possession and enter into the government.
They of Geneva are brought to greater suspicion of further troubles 'in respect' the Duke of Savoy withdraws from the agreement which was to be made between him and them by the Swiss; as also through his often sending extraordinary messengers to this Court under pretence of a marriage between him and the Princess of Lorraine. This they say is so far forth proceeded in, that the king offers the town of Macon, on the river of 'Saulne' between Verdun and 'Chalons,' with the county of Maconnois, till the Duke of Savoy has received thereon the sum of 800,000 crowns for the Princess's dowry, the king promising to marry her in manner and dignity as if she were his sister.
M. de Puygaillard has departed towards the frontiers, to be there about the end of this month after their computation. The regiments of Picardy and Champagne are there to join with the king's guards. It is here esteemed that Col. Norris will be assailed by the French, desiring to make him depart from where he is now.
The Chevalier de Chastre is commanded to put himself in readiness to depart towards the Terceras according to the 'pretended' journey.
The king now of late gives some entertainment in his chamber after dinners [sic], to his noblemen and gentlemen more than accustomed; whereby it is conjectured he means to enterprise somewhat in which he may need their service.
They write from Gascony that Marshal Matignon is gone to receive from the King of Navarre entirely the town of Bazas to the French king's use. The King of Navarre's intention to make a journey to Foix is as yet deferred. The Prince of Condé is for the present at Saint-Jean-d'Angely.
I have been informed that there is an Italian, Genoese, who deals underhand with Don Antonio, to make some 'appointment' between him and the Spanish king.
At Marseilles they have appointed in good order three of their galleys, giving out that they will sail to Malta. There is likewise a ship well set forth, but not known to what intent.
Twenty-two Spanish galleys passed Marseilles about the end of last month, wherein went the Duke of Terranova to be Governor of Milan, bringing aboard with him 300,000 crowns.
By letters from Spain it is advertised that King Philip, with the Empress, has left Portugal and come into Castile as far as the monastery of Guadalupe where the Emperor Charles V died. He left behind him for governor of the realm, Cardinal Albertus, Archduke of Austria, and for general, for the affairs of the wars, the Duke of Candia, with Sancho d'Avila. The Marquis of Sta. Cruz, with Don Lope Figueroa are to command the 1,000 Spaniards, who with 1,000 Italians are to be transported to the Terceras.
The King of Spain intends to send Signor Mariano, the Milanese to Constantinople for the renewing of the truce which was 'taken' between him and the great Turk for three years past. He was in good hope to obtain it because Chaus Bassa, who favoured that peace is now become Grand Bassa Visir, and so in the highest degree of state. It is moreover certified that the Turk at the request of the Tartar has delivered to him two of his sons, fled for conspiracy against their father, through which occasion the Turk hopes the Tartar will give him free passage through his countries, with his forces, whereby the Persian shall be driven to withdraw his armies from Tiflis and Kars, where the Turks have continued the wars to their great disadvantage, on the frontier of the country of Servan [qy. Azerbaijan].
The consul for the Frenchmen who trade Algiers is come hither, having brought in his company a Greek; with whom the Secretary to the Queen Mother has had conference by an interpreter. This Greek is kept in great secrecy.
They certify from Poland that the king had already 'moved wars' with the Tartar, intending to go in person. And in respect that it is known how the Tartar is confederated with the Turk, they esteem the King of Poland has been stirred up to these wars at the instigation of the Pope.
By letters from Rome it is understood that there was come thither a Spanish knight of Malta, to demand the title of the Priory of St. John's in Ireland as a dignity belonging to him by the 'ancienty' in their Order. But the Cardinal of Este had before intended to obtain it for a French knight of that Order. The Spaniard is favoured by the Cardinals of Medici and Farnese, and by the Duke of Soria, the Pope's bastard son.
Cardinal Borromeo lately wrote to the Pope that he has caused the young Princess of Parma's state to be considered by physicians and surgeons, but no convenient means was to be found or thought of which might 'frame her apt for procreation.' So the marriage between her and the Duke of Mantua's son is to be disannulled and she will be placed in a monastery of nuns.
The Pope will not be induced to grant that the brothers of the Prince of Condé and Joyeuse may be promoted to the dignity of cardinals. The French ambassador and the Cardinal of Este have made earnest request to that effect.
I send herewith the Pope's indulgence which I mentioned in my last dispatch. The agent Taxis is at present sending some number of them to Don Bernardino to be dispersed to his Catholic friends in England.
I enclose the occurrents from sundry places, with so many edicts as are printed of those the king published lately in the Court of Parlement.—Paris, 11 March, 1582.
Add. Endd. 3⅓ pp. [France IX. 56.]
Mar. 11.168. Cobham to Walsingham.
Two days before I received your letter by Shute I had conference with Smallet, when he entered into the like 'purpose' with me as he had done heretofore, concerning that d'Aubigny might be assured to the Queen in such sort that he should altogether abandon the French, running entirely the course she would direct him for the good and advancement of the Scottish king (?). This he thought might be easily done, in consideration that d'Aubigny had but a small portion in France in respect of those estates he should enjoy following the Queen's directions; as likewise if d'Aubigny should be put from the favour of the Queen, he was to live in France no otherwise than as a private gentleman. Through these reasons he supposes d'Aubigny might be easily induced to follow the Queen's directions and to give her such assurances 'as' she might the rather trust him. I willed Smallet hereon to set down in writing the ways and means; which being performed I would thereafter let him know what I thought, which I seemed to like of somewhat for this time, to the intent I might the better perceive his meaning, and the course he means to take.
After thus much had passed, he gave me to understand that d'Aubigny had great confidence in his confederates in Scotland, from whom he had lately received letters of new assurance; and that the French king had given d'Aubigny an order for 6,000 crowns due him on his pensions, which was to be received very shortly. Upon the declaration of this I took occasion to ask him whether he thought if the French king were not altogether thoroughly 'ascertained' of d'Aubigny he would not [sic] disburse so great sums of money and give such pensions. Wherefore I referred the due consideration of this much to him: whether there was any hope for the Queen to be faithfully served by d'Aubigny; wishing Smallet, as he intended to be accounted a member of Christ's Church, and a faithful servant to the Scottish king and a true gentleman to his country, that he should look thoroughly and advisedly into the dealings and practices of d'Aubigny, since he is so entirely trusted of him, being in that respect the only gentleman of Scotland who may at this time do the best services to God's Church, his prince and country, if he will deal loyally and esteem God's Religion, and the wealth of his country more than his own particular benefit. And yet the Queen and the Scottish king shall have better means to do for him than d'Aubigny; besides, it will be more dangerous for him to follow the fortune of one person, forsaking the duty and the course he is bound in conscience to embrace.
Smallet hereon promised me on his faith that he would circumspectly take regard and look to the dealings of d'Aubigny, which were not, as he confessed, wholly without suspicion; because he perceived d'Aubigny is very much inclined to have a marriage 'passed' between the Scottish king and one of the Duke of Lorraine's daughters. Likewise Smallet informed me that Queen of Scots had sent order to Alasco that all her livings in France should be at d'Aubigny's disposition, and to be spent as he thought good; which favour from the Queen of Scots, he likes not.
Smallet signified to me that at the return of la Mothe (?) he will be dispatched to the Scottish king with letters, instructions, and memorials which he promiseth to show me. He requests that if this his dealing with me should in any sort be discovered, he may be protected by the Queen; whereof I have given him assurance.
I perceive likewise that d'Aubigny could in no sort be contented that Arbroth should be restored to his estates.
He informs me moreover that Moinbreheim (qy. Montbrunean) had preaching in his house in Paris, at which he had been present; so he says he 'shows' to be no papist as he was reputed in Scotland. This is as much as we 'passed' for that present, referring the rest to our further conference at our next meeting, after the return of the Duke of Guise.
Because I find Smallet thoroughly affected to d'Aubigny I cannot yet trust anything he has promised, until I may send you some better proof of his dealings. I intend to show him your letter for his better encouragement at our next meeting.—Paris, 11 March 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [France IX. 57.]
Mar. 12.169. Cobham to Walsingham.
According to your direction I have delivered to the French king her Majesty's letter, having declared to him how she has been advertised of Nicols' and Gower's apprehensions and imprisonments, which had displeased her, considering they had not been accused of any offence to him or breaking of his laws. I besought him in respect thereof, as he had by his order and letters to M. de Carouges caused Nicols to be set at liberty, so likewise he would give command that Gower might be delivered, having been detained prisoner now nine months past, in great calamity. And further, that he would think good that those who had offered such injuries to her Highness's subjects, having done this, moved only with mere malice, might receive the condign punishment of their evil deserts; wherein he would make singular demonstration of amity towards the Queen.
The king answered that he would give such satisfaction to her Majesty as he conveniently might, after he had considered Gower's cause, and seen the memorials which I left with him.
Further, I moved him in behalf of the English merchants 'trading' Rochelle, concerning a complaint they have sent me of a new imposition which his Majesty's 'fermers' have demanded. He has deferred the resolution of this till he has conferred with those of the Council upon it.
After I had passed this much with the king, I visited the Queen Mother in her Majesty's behalf. I found her somewhat altered in these few days she has been pained with her 'ciatica.' She uttered to me very many good words of her Majesty's favourable dealing towards her son, from whom she said she had received letters wherein he showed how he was more beholden to the Queen, than to her being his mother; for she blamed him and her Majesty had excused him. Thus with the like 'purposes,' tending to the praise of her Majesty and her goodness, she entertained me some little while.—Paris, 12 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [France IX. 58.]
Mar. 12.170. Cobham to Walsingham.
I find by her Majesty's letters the gracious acceptation of my services, which was comfortable to me. I beseech you not only to deliver the letter I have directed to her, but also to render my infinite humble thanks so much as a creature may yield to his sovereign, assuring her not only of my services, but during my life to pray and desire and carefully seek her safety and contentment.
Now I must of duty turn me to you, not only with thanks, but with acknowledgement for that I presuppose your setting forth of my endeavours, and your honourable offices must indeed have 'prevailed' me. You shall find 'to have' bestowed this good turn 'of' no ungrateful or unfaithful person. I trust you will hope well of me, and continue until you have brought me to my desired post, and 'shoote' anchor; I mean the presence of my sovereign.
I hear even now that John Gower is delivered from prison, but in such sort that her Majesty will have no cause to like of it; for if it be as they inform me, he is given to understand it is done by favour of the Pope's nuncio, and they have made him swear that he will not return to England, nor repair to me, nor 'haunt into' the company of those of the Religion.
The letter is sent to the Duke of Bouillon.
There passes a servant of Mr. Arundell's come from Venice. He is a Florentine.—Paris, 12 March, 1582.
Holograph. Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. IX. 59.]
Mar. 14.171. John Norris to Walsingham.
Since my cousin Darcy's departure I have forborne to trouble you with my letters, having perceived small forwardness with the treaty between the duke and the States. Nevertheless it is now at length fully 'appointed' and agreed. Some points there are not fully resolved, for which purpose M. des Pruneaux is arrived here to confer with the States; amongst others, for naming the chief of the army, which it is certainly thought will be Marshal Biron, the cavalry to be led by Count de Laval. All these forces are appointed to go to the raising of the siege before Eyndhoven; for the better accomplishing of which service the States minding also to employ the companies at present in the land of Waes, are now treating with them, to give them some reasonable contentment.
This briefly is as much as I can signify to you at present touching the proceedings here. It were good reason first to thank you for your favour shown to Captain Huntley at his late being in England, before I presume to make any other suit on his behalf; but sending over this bearer at present for certain furniture, and some men to 'redress' his company, to be the stronger against the time of service which is likely to fall out ere long, I am a humble suitor to you that with your favour he may be 'tolerated' for the transporting of some few men, and such small provision of arms as already he has of his own in England; wherein he will deal so circumspectly that I trust none shall be offended.—Antwerp, 14 March, 1582.
Written by A. Danett. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 90.]
Mar. 14.172. Gilpin to Walsingham.
By my man who departed hence on Sunday last I advertised as much as I could understand, and withal sent the book of Dr. 'Rhotys,' which I heartily wish to be found such as may be liked, and worthy to be put in practice to the good and benefit of her Majesty's realm. The 'cause' I at present write, though now not in public certain, nor the particulars known, being come to my hearing by a secret friend, I thought it notwithstandnig my duty and most agreeing with your command, hearing of any matter of importance to certify at once thereof.
I wrote, to my best remembrance, in November or December last, how the united provinces accepted Monsieur, but that Holland, Zealand, and adjacent places would remain neuter. Since, and especially of late during this questioning of Monsieur, it appears whitherto that tended, and was only to the end the favourers of the Prince of Orange might the better, at convenient time, work and compass the taking of him for their lord; wherein 'is so far proceeded' that Holland and Utrecht have chosen and accepted him as their Earl, and Zealand has almost passed the like and 'resteth' only the resolution of this town and some other places, that would if they could get the restoration of their former privileges lost and suspended by reason of the late wars. But it was told me yesterday it 'would through'; and the General States at Antwerp, as I hear, do not oppose 'ther-against.' It is likewise 'allowed' by Monsieur, and with his agreement, so that his Excellency will ere long come into these parts, to be received and sworn as Earl and Lord. Hereupon men of good judgement think that Friesland and Guelderland will likewise come in and seek to have him; so that between Monsieur and him the united provinces will be divided. And the better to compass these matters it is thought his Excellency drives so hard forward to agree with Monsieur, thereby to further and continue these wars and so bring enmity between the Spaniards and the French; and while the troubles are in Flanders, Brabant, and those parts, his government may 'set' in the more quiet estate, and increase their wealths and doings. A number of other considerations depending hereupon, and how it tends to the good or harm of our state to have two new neighbours so nearly knit or linked as 'it appears' Monsieur and the Prince to be, I remit to your grave judgement. The common people have greatly, as in some respects appears, withdrawn their affection and love from the Prince for meddling or entangling himself so far with the French; and his new marrying with another of that country. But those in authority, and by his means heretofore advanced, do not therefore cease to proceed and forward what they can that may best tend to his liking. There was preparation here to have received her, where his Excellency would have met her, and so have celebrated the marriage; but those of Antwerp have dealt so, with the means of the States, and promised so to receive and entertain her, that he will stay with them, and marry there. But hither she will come, and so hence take ship for Antwerp, being looked for by the first good wind.
Monsieur is agreed with the States upon his own last demands, as I understand; yet he hastens not. But this day or to-morrow, being the appointed time for his departure from Dermonde, will be seen what his intent is; which many 'talk' is to delay the States till he have wrought his further practices.
I send herewith such news as I received even now from my friend at Cologne.—Middelburg, 14 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 91.]
Mar. 14.173. Copy of part of the above, headed, “From Middle-borough the 14th of March, 1582.” Endd.: An extract of letters from Middleborough of the 14 March 1581 [sic]. 1 p. [Ibid. XVIII. 91a.]
Mar. 14.174. Cobham to Walsingham.
Yesterday afternoon M. la Mothe-Fènelon visited me, when he made a large declaration to me, how after some difficulty passed, her Majesty had licensed him to repair to Scotland; where he negotiated no matter other than she had been privy to. Howbeit, at his return it had 'liked her' to tax him for having proceeded in some causes further than he promised, as enquiring 'on' the defraying of the King of Scots' guards, seeking to have the king to call the rest of the nobility back to the Court, treating in the confederating of the young king with his mother. He had, as he hoped, in such matters satisfied her, as he found, at his parting, she 'rested' the better pleased. He had delivered to the French king the Queen Mother and the Queen Regnant her Majesty's letters, which they have much esteemed, and received very gladly; withal he had made relations to them of the Queen's firm intention of amity to them until they 'show' not to esteem of her. Thus with many protestations he ended, that he is always ready to do the best offices he can towards her Majesty. After I had shown 'the thankfulness belonged to me' for his visit and for his good wise dealings and speech to the king and the queens in her Majesty's behalf, with some other little by-talk, he departed. It seemed to me by his 'particular' discourse, that 'Manningvil' was to return.
Since my last dispatch, I am informed how the two townsmen of Rochelle, sent hither from that town to be humble suitors to his Majesty that they of Rochelle might be exempted from the new impositions, alleging how otherwise thereby their privileges would be infringed that [sic] it is come to pass 'now yesterday' that the king has made them a short answer, how they must conform and render themselves obedient and willing to pay as his other subjects. With this the two Rochellers were so evil satisfied that in their speeches, according to the commission they had from their town, they uttered great misliking; affirming the townsmen could not consent to the breach of their privileges. Whereon Secretary Villeroy last night sent his servant to desire them to stay, because the king had been moved again in their cause, and the Keeper of the Seals, M. Cheverny, had further to confer with them and by the king's command. Howbeit those of Rochelle and all others of the Religion 'attend' some great sharp sudden storm, perceiving the king's working in all the provinces where any are of the Religion, seeking advantage. Besides he frankly now-a-days, upon every occasion offered, professes he loves not those of the Religion. He places many officers throughout his realm in every parish, upon the occasions of these edicts, especially that of salt, by the name of commissaries, who are 'much authorised' in their patents. The like manner of ruling King Philip put into practice on his return into Spain, by increasing the number of 'Algarilles' [qy. alguazils] in every parish and lordship; who have been his great means and assured ministers for the keeping under of his subjects in such sort as has appeared.
This king, as I am informed by good means; of late earnestly 'showed to pretend' that he would bring in quietly by little and little the Council of Trent, so far as might serve the Pope and his turn. It seems by all his particular demeanour and actions, he is fervently bent to run the course of his own will in these causes, and dispose the minds and manner of all, of whom he can dispose, to obey him herein.
I have been 'given to know' that M. Bellièvre has commission to persuade and bring, if he can, to pass that Monsieur may be restored to his former dignity and authority with those of Antwerp and Flanders. He has order therewith to promise from the king that if they render themselves obedient to his brother, he will give them such aid as they may desire; with other assurances. If Bellièvre cannot 'accord' this, he is to advise the Duke of Anjou to make agreement with the Prince of Parma. This they have published in this Court this two days that it 'should be' passed and done; and moreover that the Prince of Parma had sent presents to the Duke of Anjou. But this methinks should not be so soon believed; though I have been advertised that Mondragon has written hither to the Duke of Lorraine that the composition was agreed on between Monsieur and the Prince of Parma.
The Duke of Retz is a great dealer in the making of the marriage between the Duke of Savoy and the Princess of Lorraine. The story is said to be that the duke craves the king's leave and favour in his pretences against Geneva; wherein the Pope's nuncio employs himself 'towards' the king.
There is 'a dispatch made of' Cassotte, Villeroy's 'commize' to obtain the Pope's indulgence for confirming this new confraternity of Battus. He has likewise instructions to obtain of the Pope that the Duke of Joyeuse's brother may be created cardinal.
The advocate d'Épesses was appointed to confer with the nuncio, to whom he declared the impediments which were thought of by the Court of Parlement and the king's learned counsel, in such sort that on the just consideration thereof the king could not as yet think good to have the Council of Trent authorised and published. This discourse of the king's advocate displeased the nuncio so much that in great passion he told President d'Epesses that he appeared rather to be the minister of Theodore Beza, than the king's advocate.
I hear there has been some little disorder begun among the Cantons of the Swiss. The occasion was offered by one of the Papist Cantons.
It is given me to understand that M. de la Mothe-Fènelon has brought the king a long scroll, wherein are set down the names of such noblemen in Scotland as favour the French.
I hear that James Steward, son of Court Donell [Cardonald] has been sent hither to d'Aubigny with letters from the Scottish king.
I enclose herewith the advertisements from sundry places, together with a little book of the Order of the Battus newly made.—Paris, 14 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [France IX. 60.]
Mar. 14.175. Ruy Lopez to Walsingham.
I arrived here at Rouen yesterday, when I found Don Antonio very desirous to see me, to hear of the Queen's good health and disposition, and yours, for whose offices he holds himself so much obliged as he hopes shortly to show that he is not ungrateful. He was much pleased with your letter, though it was written in Spanish, saying that the heart was that of a loyal Portuguese. He is well satisfied with the good news that he gets every day from Portugal and all his islands, to which he is sending provision of men, artillery, and munitions. There are 2,000 of them, and their general, M. de 'Xartar' who was governor of Dieppe. He has news that Cabo Verde, and the Island of Madeira are at his devotion. He has sent to the castle of La Mina 60 Portuguese in two French ships for his gold, which is of the value of 150,000 crowns. There come to him every day Portuguese of illustrious blood, and he is most honourably served by his nobles. The Duke of Joyeuse is expected here to-morrow on a visit to him, and after his coming he hopes to go on to Dieppe and there get ready for the purpose that I will tell her Majesty.. He will answer your letter, which was most acceptable to him. I have only to pray you to keep me in her grace.—Rouen, 14 March 1582.
Add. Endd. Ital. 1 p. [France IX. 61.]
Mar. 15.176. Cobham to Walsingham.
I am advertised that the French king 'should' have made answer to the Duke of Savoy's ambassador, that he would not consent nor show his liking that the duke should make any enterprise against the town of Geneva, in respect of his oath, but he referred the dealing herein to the duke according as he should find it good for him and his affairs. The king causes Cental and 'Carmagliola,' in the Marquisate of Saluces, to be fortified with great diligence; sending thither all sorts of munitions for the defence of those places, and Frenchmen from these parts to serve in garrison.
Colonel Alfonso Corso, entertained by the Grand Prior of Provence, has in readiness 1,500 soldiers, to be employed in some action not yet discovered. They remain in and about the town of Gap in Dauphine. Montargiers has of late been 'viewed for to be fortified' by order from the king.
M. des 'Mez' [Maisse], ambassador in Venice, from the French king, upon the receipt of a dispatch from France departed in post to Mantua for the affairs of his king, which was much noted in Italy.
To-day M. 'Sanguard' [Saint-Goard] is come to Court, 'named' to be ambassador to Rome for the French king in place of M. de Foix.
Advertisements are come from the Emperor's Court, showing that Bathory, King of Poland, was become very sick, and in such sort that the issues which he had in his legs were dried up; and fallen therewith into an extreme hot ague, his legs swelling in that manner that the physicians had small hope of his long life.
M. de Guise is looked for here within these four days.
Articles are come to this Court of the accord between Monsieur and the States, which I have seen.—Paris, 15 March, 1582.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [France IX. 62.]
Mar. 16/26.
M. & D., iv.
pp. 540, 541.
177. The Duke of Anjou to (1) The Prince of Orange; (2) The States General.
(1) I thank God heartily for His favour in inspiring us so well that we are happily reunited one to another; and I hope that with His aid this will for ever be. I assure you that from my side no failure herein will occur; and I am sure that you for your part, continuing the good will which you have always borne to me, and which I have so often well experienced, will assist me, and bear a hand in so sacred a work; as I shall try to recognise by all good offices.—Teurmonde [sic], 26 March, 1583.
(2) We are sending you the articles negotiated with us by your deputies, in the same form as that in which they were presented to us from you. It now only remains to execute them, which I desire may be as promply done as possible, having nothing so much at heart as to prove how much my courage is increased, and the devotion which will ever continue with me to assist these peoples and provinces with my resources, power, and authority, employing and risking my own life on all occasions which present themselves; praying God that He will preserve me from ever seeing anything conflicting with (contredict à) my desire, nor approaching the disaster which has occured. I pray you to assist me on your part, according to the loyalty and affection you have always borne me. The hope I have of confirming to you by word and by act more than I can write, will prevent me from saying more. I cast the rest on M. Taufin [qy. Taffin], the bearer of this.—Termonde, 26 March 1583.
Copies. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fr. XVIII. 92.]
Mar. 17/27.178. Thomas Doyley to Walsingham.
Since my last letter there have grown certain difficulties, moved chiefly by those of Ghent being very jealous of the duke's actions; first being hardly drawn to make any appointment with him. they have now agreed to give him 60,000 guilders for the contentment of his soldiers, provided always that it be not paid him before he have redelivered Dermonde, the other articles standing as before.
The Prince of Parma now begins to advance and draws his troops together, some towards 'Berghes Winnoe,' others to Eyndhoven, where he has reinforced the siege, his camp being 10,000 strong, horse and foot; Count Aremberg joining with 'Grave' Mansfelt the companies which he brought from Cologne.
Eyndhoven I fear will be lost. It is a town of greater importance than force, for that being kept, 'Bolduc' could not long hold out; and it much annoys Breda. A burgher sallied out from thence and signified to the Estates that they could not keep it above 20 days, for want of victuals; 'cependant nous parlons.'
Sainte-Aldegonde is daily looked for, with 'Mademoiselle' de Téligny, the marriage being concluded. Also Count Hohenlohe will marry the Prince's daughter. He is come to Antwerp, and a Duke of Saxony with him from Germany, to know if the States will entertain any reiters. Others say that that M. de Laval will marry Madam d'Orange, Count Buren's sister; mais je n'en vois nulle apparence.
I am sure the 'appointment' is not yet made with the duke, the Estates treat so coldly and dilatorily with our general for his pay; notwithstanding that they sent for him purposely. M. de Bellièvre is not yet departed from the duke.
Our merchants that were going to Frankfort are returned, the passage being so dangerous. The Bishop of Liege is at Cologne, invested bishop by the chapter. There is a great levying of men; the wars, before but kindled, begin to flame.—The 27th of 'our' March, 1583.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 93.]
Mar. 17.179. Audley Danett to Walsingham.
By my last, of the 10th, I told you of the treaty with the duke, 'to stand' in very great forwardness. Since then, on the 11th, M. des Pruneaux arrived here from Dermonde, to 'resolve' with the States touching the money accorded to the duke, which is the sum of 30,000 crowns sol. The duke demanded it might be sent to Dermonde, to be distributed among the soldiers; but the States refused the demand. Nevertheless on Friday last, the 15th, they sent M. des Pruneaux again to the duke, and with him Meetkerke and some others their deputies, with their resolution touching those demands, wherewith it should seem the duke rests satisfied, having this morning sent letters to the States to that effect, with the treaty, signed by him in such manner as it was last sent by their deputies. Only he demands out of the sum accorded to him to have 'presently' 4,000 crowns to content his Swiss, who are 'growing to hard terms' for want of pay. This the States are resolved to send him. To-morrow the duke, as it is here believed, will surrender Vilvorde; and one of Brussels, with certain companies from Brussels and Mechlin, appointed to enter the place for the States, sometime this week, it is thought, the duke will take his journey towards Dunkirk, and also surrender Dermonde, and so send his army to the succour of Eyndhoven. But it is feared by some of good judgement that the place will be surrendered before any succour can arrive there, although it is this day freshly reported that one come hither from the town says it is able to hold good yet these three weeks. The duke insisted much to have Marshal Biron commander of the camp, which the States have accorded; making Mr. Norris believe that their purpose was to make choice of him, and therefore they have given him, as they say, the second place after Marshal Biron. The States want no cunning to serve their turn on all sides, and although they should be simple, they want no subtle counsel to instruct them. They are 'apt' to send him still into the field, they care not at what disadvantage, but to furnish him with any pay, to maintain and 'redress' his companies, or to give any other relief, they are very slow, as you may see by the cold answer they gave in this treaty with the companies in the land of Waes. This is the twelfth month, 'that' the English regiments have received but one month's pay and two 'lendings,' which may make about one other month; and what hope they may have of better entertainment in these parts among so unthankful and covetous people, I see not, nor yet what reason may move our countrymen to stay in so miserable a service unless they take pleasure de se faire tuer a credit. But I hope some of them will be wiser, although too late.
The troubles about Cologne were of late said to be appeased; but by certain merchants returned hither, not being able to pass to the 'Marte,' it would appear they remain still in combustion, and some of the great princes of Germany are said to meddle in the quarrel.
Meeting here sometimes in the streets M. d'Alferan, a French gentleman, he charges me often to present to you his humble commendations, which I have thought good to signify to you.—Antwerp, 17 March, 1582.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 94.]
Mar. 17.180. Stokes to Walsingham.
My last was the 10th, and since that time there are these speeches here this week.
The speech continues still that the agreement holds which the Prince and those of Brabant have made with Monsieur. But the talk goes here, it is so weakly made for the States' side that it is much feared it will not hold. This week at Ghent there has been much ado before those of Ghent would give their consent to it; so that now they, with Flanders, have after a sort yielded to the agreement with Monsieur.
It seems the 'upper deacon' of Ghent with some other principal persons of that town, 'have' had of late some secret speeches with the Malcontents about some peace or agreement. This upper deacon is an office [sic] of great credit in that town, and he that is now in that office is in as great credit with the commons: for what he says, the commons will obey and do it. So this upper deacon is much desirous of some peace or agreement with the Malcontents, and the commons having knowledge thereof have now no other speech almost in their mouths but to agree with the Malcontents. Wherefore it is much feared that these matters will turn to some further displeasure ere long.
Also at Ypres they stand in like terms and speeches to make some agreement with the Malcontents, for they in like order begin to make some traffic with them; for they say, “Why should not we as well traffic with them, as the Admiral of Zealand gives his passports to carry to Gravelines a dozen ships at a time laden with all manner of necessaries needful for them?”—which is a thing very true, for the Admiral does 'use it' very often.
This week at Lille was a general meeting or muster of all the commons of that town; and when they were all in arms, they came to the magistrates and desired them with gentle speeches to be a means that some agreement were made with their neighbours and friends, saying that their traffic is so much delayed that they are not able to continue the wars any longer. To this the magistrates with fair speeches made answer that they would do their best, and so desired them to have patience yet a little longer; 'to' which answer they were set contented for that time.
Also those of Ghent and Ypres 'gave in' for their advice at Ghent, to send for Duke Casimir with some force of horse and foot, and that M. Embise might be suffered to come in again. But it seems it was not thought good by those who lean to the Prince, and therefore it is put by. So every town and state 'gives in' sundry devices, and every one thinks 'their' devices good and not to be refused; which begins to make some discord here among them. Therefore it is greatly feared 'of' some disunion between province and province and between town and town, which is the way to overthrow them all; so there is presently a very dangerous state here.
And for the Malcontents, certain advice is come here that the Prince of Parma makes great provision both in Artois and Hainault of waggons, bread and other victuals great store; so that it seems he will be stirring abroad so soon as the ways are a little fairer. But what way he will take is not yet known.
Enclosed I send you a proposition of those of Ghent, which was but this week set out in print, being in the Dutch language, concerning their dealing with Monsieur.—Bruges, 17 March, 1582, stilo Angliœ.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XVIII. 95.]
Mar. 18/28.181. Madame de la Noue to Walsingham.
It has been a great happiness and satisfaction to me to hear detailed news of you by Master Geoffrey, the present bearer. He will tell you by word of mouth what I have of M. de la Noue, and how Mme de Téligny and I are on the point of starting for Flanders, whither she goes to marry the Prince of Orange, and I to make sure of the prisoners appropriated to (affectez à) M. de la Noue. I will leave it to this bearer to testify how much Mme de Téligny honours you, and how much account she desires to make of your friendship, which she begs you to continue to her as you have always done towards all of her House; who for this reason remain straitly bound to you. For myself, I cannot express to you how much M. de la Noue and all who belong to him are in your debt for the many good offices which you continue increasingly to do for the good of his affairs and the furthering of his deliverance, which, under God, depends only on the aid of his best friends, among the number of whom I know that he deems himself most happy to have you; and that it is a great consolation to him to think and prove by effects, that you do him the honour to love him and share in his affliction.—Paris, 28 March, 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France IX. 63.]