Elizabeth
April 1583, 11-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler and Sophie Crawford Lomas (editors)

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1913

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253-268

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'Elizabeth: April 1583, 11-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 17: January-June 1583 and addenda (1913), pp. 253-268. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78925 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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April 1583, 11–15

April 11–21.235. Fremyn to Walsingham.
I received your letter from Mr Somers, who went away without my having any means of speaking to him of what is going on in these parts. The States' army is getting ready to march. It is assembling two leagues from this town, with provision of artillery, bridges of boats, and other artifices, victuals and munitions. Today the English and Scotch cross the river out of Waesland, and come to lodge at Dambroek and Borgerhont. It seems they reckon on 12,000 foot and 25 or 30 cornets of horse, of all nations, for the succour of Eyndhoven, which will be death first and the doctor afterwards; inasmuch as the [townspeople have] capitulated with Count Charles that in the event of their not being succoured by 7 o'clock next Monday morning, they would surrender the place, coming out with arms and baggage, and every sort of nation, in fact burghers, women, and children, with ensigns flying, drums beating, fire on the matches [serpents]; in such wise that Eyndhoven is lost. The enemy is short of victuals, and it seems that they have some plan of marching elsewhere, since they have granted so favourable a capitulation. And as for our army, of which M. de Biron is commander, I think it also has some exploit in hand. God grant it be a good one, and that no disunion occur in the matter of commands, and that the past may be of service to the future, to the advancement of His glory, and the safety of the country. There is great distrust among the people, which causes the intriguers (les artificieulx) to avail themselves of this state of things to lay the fire of division. This increases the insolence, and diminishes obedience to superiors too much indeed; which presages great disorder in the future.
As for the war of Cologne, it is a fire which is blazing up to a great size. Duke Casimir is getting ready his forces for the Emperor (?), horse and foot. The Pope and the King of Spain are taking part, with other alliances hidden and dissembled; and it seems that what has long been feared is to be effected now. It will be the ruin of the Papacy, if it please God; but among its dissimulations, honest people should think of their own affairs, for the nets are spread to catch them.
It remains to be seen what will be the issue of the negotiation which is to be held with his Highness. Sundry people have murmured at his Excellency's marriage, in sundry ways; whereof you have been more fully informed.
As for what has happened; M. de Châtillon, brother of the Princess, is to be colonel-general of the infantry in place of M. de Rochepot, who is now governor of Angers, with an abbey which his Highness gave him as compensation. The cards are in such a mess that the wisest people will have enough to do to keep themselves for the future. There has been so much delay in finding one month's pay for the soldiers, and that not for all, that it may be presumed no one will get any for the future without the disorders which they predict for the future, and other things for the present.
M. de Biron and M. de Laval are in this town, and go this afternoon to the camp. It is commanded by sound of trumpet that all colonels, captains, and soldiers are to leave the town this evening, or be punished in default; and to pay six florins to the hosts on whom they shall be billeted.—Antwerp, 21 April 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 13.]
April 13.236. Cobham to Walsingham.
I was sent to by M. Pinart two or three days ago, giving me [sic] to understand how the Chevalier de 'Seavres,' the President Faulcon and himself were to come to me by order of the king, to confer about some causes of the English merchants. But they since altered their determination; having requested me yesterday to repair to the Court, because the king thought it good that some others of the Council might also have the hearing of their causes. Whereon I resorted thither, according to their appointment. There were present Cardinal Birago as Chancellor, Cheverny, Keeper of the Seals, Chevalier de 'Seavres,' President Faulcon, Pinart, and 'Vilvill,' the only favourer of the 'Fermors' in their new-raised impositions.
The Cardinal let me know that the king had commanded them, for the better entertainment of the amity, to enter into consideration of the complaints made by the English merchants, perceiving how of late 'Chlr de' Seavres,' and President Faulcon had heard some causes, which they desired to determine.
Whereunto I answered that the king would give great contentation to the Queen my sovereign, by commanding that favourable justice should be done to her subjects, who in sundry places of France were entangled with divers processes, and greatly prejudiced by reason of the new impositions, so that the free course of trade was exceedingly impaired. And as concerning those particular cases of Alderman Starkey and the farmers of the new imposition at Rouen, that had been heard before Chlr. de 'Seavre,' and President Faulcon, I 'referred it to their relation,' requesting those parties might be punished, who under pretence of being officers of the farmers of the impositions, had violently taken some portion of Mr. Starkey's goods, putting the other part under arrest, in a very unjust manner; as I showed at the time to them in a brief extract written in French, the copy whereof in English I send herewith.
President Faulcon rehearsed briefly so much as had been understood by him and Chevalier de 'Seavre'; adding that he thought it best the cause should be ended before the Privy Council, and not be pleaded in the Court of Aids; the Cardinal and the rest of the Council seemed to desire the like.
Then M. Pinart declared that as the English merchants found themselves discontented, so likewise the king, having received many notes of 'aggreavances' collected by the French, had willed him to communicate them to his Council and to me. These he read, and delivered me the enclosed copy.
The Cardinal likewise spoke of the last treaty made at Blois, wherein there was an article touching a staple to be had for the English merchants at Rouen; which article Pinart read (I send a copy of it), adding thereto, that these matters now depending in questions between the English and the French could not well be accommodated until that article were fulfilled.
Concerning this article I showed Monsieur Pinart, that the King of France, as I thought, at that time was desirous to have the Englishmen erect a staple, to the intent they might be induced thereby to trade more frankly in France; and the Queen was perhaps moved to like it in respect her subjects could not traffic in Flanders by reason of the civil wars. But since that time the Flemings have seemed to esteem the English so much that the trade there is renewed. Moreover the Queen's subjects have been 'so' discouraged through the evil 'entreaty' which they have received at Rouen and other places in this realm, besides the grievances endured through the many impositions, whereby sundry of them were undone, and cannot 'like thereof.' But I supposed she would willingly hearken to any matter which might give the king their master contentment.
This is the effect of the speeches which passed at this conference; wherewith I took my leave of them.
I cannot conceive to what intent this manner of coming to them was formed; since no further matter was treated, nor anything concluded on for the particular causes of the English merchants but such as might have been delivered apart to me by M. Pinart, as heretofore has been accustomed. I leave the consideration of their proceeding herein to the judgement of the like dealing used by them in times past, when they have sought to cloak with extraordinary outward courtesy a worse privy pretended purpose.—Paris, 13 April 1583.
Add. Endd.pp. [France IX. 83.]
April 13.237. Cobham to [Walsingham].
It seems the king has resolved to cause the towns to pay all the impositions that are now or shall be made; and on their refusal to take occasion to force them, having practised to take such towns as are furtherest from his power. He 'makes bold,' on the value of the Duke of Guise and his adherents, and on the minions, with the 'means of their sequel' and of the companies of gendarmery. So that if upon this occasion the Protestants might enter into good and mutual intelligences with the towns, the friendship would serve them to great purpose.
The king seeks to 'impeach' Condé's marriage, which I hear is to be doubted. They advertise me that 'Memorency' is fortifying himself as he may.
It is understood that the king has a practice in Rochelle, and hopes to bring it to pass; but they are warned to stand on their guard.
If your merchants 'trading Rouen' could retire from thence, I hope they might do their business with more profit for her Majesty and themselves in Rochelle. The merchandises which were to be transported from hence are to be had there 'better cheap' because the greatest store of merchandise comes chiefliest from about those parts. Moreover the conveying of our stuff to Lyons that way will be safer and of less charge. Besides, the comfort must be great to the Protestants. Otherwise it appears there is 'a bad platform set down' if the trade continues in Rouen, whereon depend sundry respects concerning religion and her Majesty's government, which Popish practices may by this alteration be defeated and turned on the devisers' necks. It may be effected through a consent only, made among the traders with her Majesty's secret license and consent. This changing of the plan for the trade in France should bring forth possibly among this people the like 'accidents' as the same alteration worked in the Low Countries not many years since.
It seems to me by the speeches of Smallet that you will not be assured of the King of Scots until he is married to the contentment of her Majesty. I hear that they of France and of England in these parts are much startled, and much fear such a match; which moves me to think it would be for the fortifying of her Majesty's estate and for the establishment of religion.
It is said there is coming a chosen Judas from the Pope, who is to pass into England, and so forward: I certified of him in my former letters. He brings the confirmation, and comfort to the malicious, of the Pope's, King of Spain's, Emperor's conjunctions; and brings with him Iscariot's purse to betray and to bestow on traitors. As I shall be further and particularly informed, I will use care to inform, and the order for his landing may be thought on, if you please. He is of Ireland.
My friend Smallet was with me this morning, having delivered me these enclosed names of those who have promised faith to d'Aubigny. I 'report me' to the truth. And he declared that d'Aubigny had received letters from Argyle, showing there was a marriage to be had between Angus and Argyle's wife's daughter; specifying further that the King of Scots meant to send an express messenger shortly to d'Aubigny with his intention, to which d'Aubigny was to conform himself, or otherwise he could not think to return into the king's estates. Wherewith he uttered to me that the king 'should be' [in decipher: was] a deep dissembler; wherefore he said d'Aubigny desired his affairs might pass by the means of her Majesty.
My friend further imparted to me that on the same day those letters were written Colonel Stewart departed towards England with a horse; and Arran 'commanded further off' from the king.
There are 3,000 crowns ready to be sent to the captain of Dumbarton; and d'Aubigny's ship will not return, but is to be employed in the service of Don Antonio. Glasgow has 10,000 crowns in readiness of the Scottish Queen to be bestowed as d'Aubigny thinks it convenient.
Further he says that the Duke of Guise has given, them proud assurances of great forces, to the number of 50,000 pikes, from sundry princes, to be conducted for the release of the Queen of Scots; but they await assurances from the king and others before they will attempt or discover their enterprise.
It is signified to me that the French king before going forward on his journey wrote in Éperson's prayer-book the following: Je te prie, mon amy, de souvenyr [sic] de moy quand tu pryeres yssi, come de cellui qui n'ayme en ce mortel monde tant come toy.
M. du Ferrier having visited me 'shows' he could be contented to serve the French king in England; but that he should be driven perforce to have a mass in his house daily, which he could wish were abolished.
I have seen letters written from Milan specifying how the light horsemen of the duchy are assigned to go into Flanders.
I received today letters from Germany, certifying that Casimir had forces in readiness to assist the Elector of Cologne, with whom there 'were' confederated William the eldest Landgrave.
They write that the Duke of Savoy has sent his excuses to all the cantons of the Religion, promising to send his ambassadors with sufficient authority to the Diet at Baden which is now to be held after Easter. They doubt but some trouble may happen through the evil provocation of the five Papist Cantons. But of late there has been a straiter amity sworn between the Bernese and those of Zurich, wherewith they of Berne are much encouraged.
My friend Smallet is desirous to pass through England, and to take in his company one of mine; 'wishing' he might be well looked unto at his landing. He 'pretends' to depart hence about the 16th of this month.
I hear that Fentrye, Glasgow's nephew, will depart shortly unknown if he can, through England, in the company of some Italians, or else as he may otherwise compass his intent.—Paris, 13 April.
Endd.pp. [France IX. 84.]
238. Decipher of portions of the above.
Endd.pp. [Ibid. IX. 84a.]
April 13.239. Cobham to Walsingham.
I have stayed this bearer until now, because I hoped 'on' the king's return, thinking in this dispatch to have learnt his Majesty's intention touching the order I am to propound for the remedies against rovers on the seas; but I send him, because it is said the king has footed it so much on his pilgrimage that the weariness of his legs drives him to rest at Dollenville with the young queen. She has been offended with the king's Italian Jesuit for the persuasions he used to induce his Majesty to this excessive 'travail'; whereon the Jesuit has not that familiar access to her Majesty's chamber and cabinet as accustomed. But some rather understand this Jesuit's overmuch boldness has 'recoilled' him, with the loss of a little opinion of his chaste mind; in what sort I have not clearly understood.
They say the king, being at Amboise, has demanded of the town 800 crowns in present payment, which they seemed loth to disburse; howbeit the king would not receive any denial. Advertisement came thither to the king how Poitiers had failed to be taken; wherewith he seemed to be displeased, hoping the men of arms whom he sent had surprised it.
A few days past, the king's Commissioners the Bishop of Nantes and M. d'Aubin, came to Marseilles, together with the Grand Prior of Provence and the chief President of Provence, with intention to place M. de' Muglion' to be governor of the town; which they 'pretended' to bring to pass in this sort. The Grand Prior, being lieutenant-general for the king, sent for the three consuls of the town, being the chief magistrates, to come to the Town House; to whom he declared how the time was now present wherein they might do the king special service. The consuls assured the Prior they would not fail to do their best endeavours. Then the Prior willed them to hold up their bands and promise; which they performed. Then he said: “You must accept M. de 'Muglion' for your governor.” They answered, they could not do that, because it was against their privileges, except it should be done in time of war. The Prior commanded them to consent thereto, threatening to cast them into prison; but they yielded not, and spoke so loud that the noise was heard. The people resorted in arms to the Town House, and the cause being understood, they threatened the Grand Prior and the king's Commissioners in such a rage and furious sort, that the consuls of the town were 'in pain' to deliver them. They have sent complaints to this Court from Marseilles, which causes it to be doubted lest they should confederate themselves with Marshal Montmorency.
M. de Viennes of Provence, who was sometime this king's minion when he was Duke of Anjou, has entered as I hear into confederation with Montmorency.
Bordeaux 'do stand on their guards'; the rest of the towns in France will grow into jealousy hereon, fearing they shall be compelled by garrisons to pay the new impositions.
President Brisson departed hence last week towards Calais. It has been reported in Court that the King has given the government of Calais to the Duke of Épernon, and that M. de 'Termez' was to be his lieutenant.
It is signified to me that the king has sent M. Saint-Martin to the King of Navarre to give him assurance that he will not publish the Council of Trent. He has done this because he was informed the King of Navarre intended to have some conference with certain principal persons of the Religion after Easter. Charretier, one of Monsieur's secretaries, has been in Languedoc, and is returning to his Highness with some 'charge of affairs.'
It is thought that after the king's return the Duke of Épernon makes ready to repair to take possession of his government at Metz, Verdun, and Toul; where he is to constrain the subjects in those parts to pay the new talliages.
The Duke of Lorraine, after he has seen what will become of the marriage of his daughters which this king and his mother are framing in Savoy and Italy, will return to Lorraine leaving his eldest and second sons in this Court. They give out the Duke of Guise will make a journey into Normandy, and the Duke 'de Mena' into Burgundy.
There are placed for dames d'honneur about the young queen Mme de Raudan, of the House of Mirandula, chosen by the queen, and Mme de Cipierre, placed by the king. They are to serve by quarters. Mme Dampierre, the late-deceased dame d'honneur, left to her daughter, Marshal de Retz's wife, 7,000 crowns in yearly rent, and 100,000 francs in money, with many jewels.
The king had lately a desire to take the Bishopric of Paris from Marshal de Retz's brother, and would have bestowed it on Rose his confessor. Howbeit, the nuncio has so much favoured the Bishop of Paris that he is not deprived. But the king has caused Saint-Germain, one of his 'devote', priests, and a canon of Notre Dame, to be made his suffragan, with a pension of 2,000 crowns out of the Bishopric.
The Duke of Épernon has obtained of the king the Bishopric of Saluces for 'Peciotte,' the preacher in St. Paul's church here, a Gascon. Mme de 'Chatilleroy' has surrendered 7,000 crowns a year in abbeys and priories to her nephew Charles Monsieur, the bastard, now brought up in the College of Jesuits at Paris; for which he receives shortly the sum of 15,000 francs levied on those livings.
The king has given to the Cardinals of Bourbon, Este, and Guise the tenths which they should have paid him. Moreover he has bestowed out of the impositions the sum of 40,000 crowns, to the Cardinal of Bourbon 15,000, to the Cardinal of Guise 25,000.
Letters are come from Spain certifying how the king had made his entry into Madrid in solemn manner on a jennet of Spain, and would not suffer canopy to be carried over his head. At his entry were seen to meet him the young prince and his three daughters. They write further that after Easter the Spanish king would give order for his journey towards Monzon in Aragon; and that there were in Biscay twenty-five ships in readiness, so that they judged the 'army' would be in order to make sail towards Terceira at the end of April. Many people of those islands daily flee thence into Portugal; so the enterprise is accounted easy.
By the letters from Italy it is understood that the son of Don Alfonso of Este is to marry the daughter of the Duke of Florence, the Emperor having granted him to succeed the Duke of Ferrara in Modena and Reggio, as the Pope had done the like for Ferrara, which is held in fee of the Pope. The Marquis of Pescara has lately passed through Florence towards Rome, 'without that' the Duke received him or did him any honour.
Alfonso Piccolomini has been sent for by the Pope's son, the Duke of Sora, to come to Rome; but he remains still at Siena, doubting the Pope's tyranny.
Ruberto Rodolfi, who was sometime in England, has of late been beaten with a cudgel by Il Signore Ciro Alidosio, a gentleman of Bologna, much favoured by the Duke of Florence, but 'is' imprisoned for the fact. The cause of this mischance happened through Rodolfi's hard dealing, by way of justice, towards the father of the same gentleman. A greater shame could not happen to Rodolfi for his 'had demerits' in England.
The king has given Marshal Biron a bishopric in Guyenne, worth 8,000 crowns a year.
The 3rd inst. M. de 'Muy St. Val' of Picardy set on 'Morryvart' in 'St. Honorei's' street, and with his sword gave him 'his deadly wound.' Whereon one of 'Morryvart's company, with the shot of a petronel in the head slew de 'Muy' and M. de———[sic]. The death of de Muy is greatly lamented.
It is advertised by private letters from Constantinople that the Persian is resolved to make peace with the Turk; but the Persian's son has, contrary to his mind, continued the wars hitherto, whereon the father and the son are in discord. So the Turk sends but small preparations, serving for defence; by reason whereof the Venetians, being in 'jealousy,' have lately sent two great ships with soldiers and much munitions to Candia.
I enclose a note Mr. Shute sent me since his last going out of this town.—Paris, 13th April, 1583.
Add. Endd.pp. [France IX. 85.]
April 13–23.240. Henry Unton to Walsingham.
That duty was never perfect which may have an end; and that end is to be feared when the same duty is discontinued. To avoid which, these my often letters are, I hope, of force; as also to manifest my thankfulness for your goodness, which instead of deserts may procure the continuance of your favour and good opinion conceived, the grant of which will purchase my most happy contentment.
Of my brother's imprisonment I have advertised you in my two former letters with all truth and no affection, and neither the cause, manner, beginning or 'then' continuance have I concealed; all which the effect will sufficiently prove, nam exitus acta probat. His long durance, and the straitness and intolerable pains thereof, have almost cost him his life; and for his purse I am the best witness, who have already disbursed 3,000 crowns. Yet he is like to be condemned in a great sum. This is Mr. Pyne's advice from Milan, who also has been in great hazard and continual fear 'of' himself. The Inquisition at Milan is worse than in Rome, and grows daily from evil to worse. They have many French and Grisons in prison; but the Grisons sent an ambassador very lately, who 'demanded reason' of them, alleging that they would do the like, upon which fear they of 'Grisonland' were immediately delivered. The Swiss and Grisons wish that her Majesty, with the German princes, would but generally accord to do the like. It is the only remedy for their tyranny; else shall we endure much.
The advertisement sent you of my brother, which you imparted to me, was more malicious than true, as my former reasons and sound proofs, already alleged in my former letters, well prove; to which I refer only for brevity's sake. Before God, his 'treaty' has been too cruel, strict, and violent, to be voluntary [sic]; and such I beg to be your belief. My brother's process is not as yet returned from Rome; I told you it was sent long since, immediately upon Aldred's deliverance, who 'for a colour' was for 6 weeks imprisoned with him. The same party, being a mercenary man, is soliciting my brother's cause at Rome, and for his hire will do his best. Necessity makes me use him only, not any 'affiance' of his honesty, which is too well known to be thought good. We expect daily the Pope's resolution, whereon my brother will be penally condemned, and upon sureties presently dismissed. This is our best hope, which is ill enough. Mr. Pyne advertises me in his last letter that there is no other course than to procure her Majesty's letters to the Duke of Terranova, now Governor of Milan; upon which we shall have no delay nor hard penalty. If you, with my lord master, (to whom to that end I have written) will vouchsafe to procure me those letters, I doubt not of my brother's speedy enlargement. Else he may continue longer; which continuance will shorten his life, for his estate is nothing better nor more free than it was; but one hope better, albeit grounded upon Italian promises, which are for the most part written in water, and for which I have well paid.
They expected my coming, and my picture was taken here and sent thither, so that if I had passed by Turin or through any of the State of Milan, I had returned with little leisure; wherefore I continue here in Lyons, not daring to venture further.
'Of' our former occurrences my former letters sufficiently mention, of our later this shall briefly make relation. The Duke of Savoy has sent commissioners to Baden in Switzerland to treat either of peace or war with Geneva, where they of Geneva and the Cantons are meeting. The Pope, by whom only he is directed, animates him to war, but his fear of the Swiss withdraws him. What the conclusion will be, we expect daily. The Bernese have made new galleys for the lake and all other necessary provision. The Grisons have offered much money, and the rest of the Cantons will join with both money and forces. This message they have lately sent to the duke. The duke has refused the Spanish king's daughter, and 'draws wholly in a French line.' M. Damville and the Protestants have in their late and often assemblies resolved to war with the king—he for discontent, and because he will not be displaced 'of' his government; they because they will not deliver the towns 'at' September without other safety, which the king denies and they demand; and they allege the king's former breach of the accord. The king is preparing secretly in these parts for war, to that end, as is surmised. The people of Marseilles of late refused a governor sent them from the king contrary to their liberties, which caused a great tumult.
The Turk has lately sent an ambassador, the effect of which is not yet known to us, his arrival was so late. The war with the King of Persia continues.
Your better knowledge and daily advertisement causes my want of advertisement of other particulars, wherefore for your less trouble I will conclude; beseeching you to join with my master in the pronouncement of her Majesty's letters to the Governor of Milan, which is the only 'almynake' of my brother's delivery, and my ever comfort.—Lyons, 23 April.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [France IX. 86.]
April 13–23.241. Pierre Rutz to Cobham.
Signor Sassetti sends me from Paris, by order of yourself and Sir F. Walsingham, the copy of a bond of Signor Francisco Giraldi for 683 crowns of the sum due to the said Secretary, to be paid in this city at the end of May next, and refers to a procuration which has been sent me to recover the payment at the proper time. I have not received it up to now, nor received any news of your lordship since I was there (? dois ce lieu là). I hope I shall have it shortly, that I may do you and the Secretary the service I desire. Signor Giraldi is not yet come, but from what I hear, will be here soon. When I have the money from him, I will dispose of it as you may direct.—Lisbon, 23 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Portugal II. 7.]
April 13.242. Raphe Burnet to Walsingham.
My master being sent yesterday by Mr. Deputy, about certain affairs, for four or five days to 'Bridges' charged me, for the safer direction of the above-written copy from Cologne to write these few lines, and to crave your forbearance until the next.—Middelburg, 13 April 1583. (Signed) Raphe Burnet, servant to Mr. Gilpin.
Enclosed in above.
April 1.243. Advertisements from Cologne.
On the 28th March I answered your letters of the 25th and 21st of the same; whereby your master has heard the intention of the gast de Lyster (?) and the wish he has to go and see you and your friends; a visit very necessary, useful and of much greater consequence than it is permitted for the pen to set forth (déchiffrer). Wherefore you will do good service by making it known in the proper quarter, and by the contents of it being carried into effect, the sooner the better, if it is desired to make use of him. And forasmuch as he received the day before yesterday letters from good sources saying that the marriage of one of the princes of Weimar (grandson of the late Duke Hans Friedrich Elector of Saxony, imprisoned by the Emperor Charles) will take place with the sister of the Duke of Würtemberg, (at which the chief princes and lords of Germany will be present, and where the said gast has great means of access and many friends) on the 5th of May next, at Weimar, which is two leagues from Erfurt, where lodging has been taken for 4,000 horses, he has desired me to make this further communication (recharge) to you, and beg you very earnestly to let him know by the first messenger immediately on receipt of this, your good and sincere opinion, whether it will be desired to make use of him or not and what you think about it, in order that he may arrange his affairs accordingly. He begs you again not to fail; and whereas you have before understood of the meeting of the deputies of the Princes of the Empire at Worms, where they were to resolve upon the affairs of the archbishop here, who has personally been with Duke John of Nassau, they write from Frankfort that they have broken up, after deciding to maintain the archbishop in his dignities and claims, and that to this end, an armed force shall at once be sent into the field, commanded by Duke Casimir. There sounds the bell for war against the churchmen; how they will like it, time will show.
I am invited to sup this evening in a good place, where the minions of Ba.: and La: will be of the company, with others of quality, and there will be no lack of conversation about the current time. Once more, it will be for you to take a share in it. The said Ba:'s man received last Saturday letters fresh from the Emperor's Court, whence they write that the Turk, being hard pressed by the Persian, has sent for a good part of his captains and garrisons from Hungary, to employ them on that side; and that the Basha of Buda has sent magnificent presents, cloth of gold, carpets, and other preciosities to the Archduke Ernestus and the Baron of 'Stroutzon' the first pillar of the Imperial Court, to keep on good neighbourly terms while they are occupied against the Persians, who, they write, do great damage.
The Emperor after Easter is going to hold the Estates of Hungary at Presburg. There is good friendship and correspondence between the Emperor and the King of Poland; and that king intends to establish a nephew of his as Duke of Livonia, which the Kings of Denmark and Sweden mean to oppose by force of arms, being allied for that purpose.
The minion of La. aforesaid departs tomorrow to go with all speed in search of Bi. and Bo. and thence into Ca. Wonderful and unexpected things are brewing, as in due time will be manifest. God preserve our friends.
Last Thursday and Friday arrived some of the Cardinal of Tyrol's train, among them the Marquis Malaspina, and some other Romanist bishops, and some capitular persons of quality. Last Saturday they were complaining of the Cardinal's long delay, since before his coming and the Papal deprivation of the archbishop, they cannot proceed further, and they think they are losing time; that is, if the Recess of Worms does not make them change their opinion.
Count Aremberg has withdrawn from Imperial territory, but not so far that he does not make daily raids upon the lands of the Count of Moers. Last Thursday he plundered a little town of his called Crefeld, and defeated, with a loss of 150 prisoners, 300 horse who were coming in the service of Moers. He met them near Little Emmerich, on the other side of the Rhine.
We hear nothing of what has happened to the Duke of Alençon since the restoration of Vilvorde, because the last letters from Antwerp were taken by the enemy.
I beg that I may soon have news; in the mean time I wish you a sound and healthy Easter.—Cologne, 1 April 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 14.]
April 13–23.244. Fremyn to Walsingham.
He would be a very wise man who could judge how the state of things here will turn out, seeing the confusion which has taken root, the suspicions, grounded and groundless, and the insolence of the commons having arms in their hands, with cause or without, the disregard and lack of respect shown to the magistrates, the scanty zeal towards God; besides the irregularities, that give presage of no ready issue from them, unless by some extraordinary way from on high. Also the length of the time taken, for it is long, in sending to negotiate with his Highness, for to begin afresh is a long business; it would be much better to ratify the first, with some restriction on account of what happened on the 17th of January, than to make the kinglet (royet) of France declare for his brother. . . . . offers to . . . . . him 10 companies of ordonnance, paid, and with a good sum of money. True or false, some resolution must be come to.
As for the army under the command of Marshal Biron, if they do not make haste, he will want to know what use he is. And the want of pay and the jealousy of the commanders will make things go from bad to worse. There is much discussion, but they must come to the point, which does come to effect. It is often better to hold one's tongue than to speak the truth which is an odious thing. I am being sent into garrison at Brussels with my company, which has not received one month in twelve; which is cruelty. And indeed I have disbursed more than 1,600 crowns of my own for it, without being able to get anything, inasmuch as it so pleases; and more than 12,000 crowns of obligations are due and never paid. Lucky he who gets out of it betimes.
The report has just come that M. de la Garde was killed this morning before the castle of Verselle (?) which was battered this morning, three leagues from Antwerp. Marshal Biron has gone there, with the French and Swiss. The English and Scottish follow to day; though the payment that has been made them was belated.
I have not time to send you the copy [sic] made at Eyndhoven.—Antwerp, 23 April 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr. Waterstained in places. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 15.]
April 14.245. Stokes to Walsingham.
Since my last of the 7th, very little has happened this week to write you of, only the following: for both sides lie harkening how the dealings will fall out at Eyndhoven, which greatly imports both—I mean the States and the Malcontents.
Monsieur has 'entered into physic' at Dunkirk, and those Frenchmen that convoyed him thither will not return again into Brabant till they are paid; and Monsieur, it seems, has no money. So the report goes here that most of the horsemen, and a great many of the foot, have departed thence into France, some over the river of Gravelines and some by sea, so that they daily go away; which news likes the commons in these parts very well, for they desire rather their absence than their presence.
Also Monsieur, according to his promise made to the States, has written to the Frenchmen that lie at Berghes beside Grave-lines to depart thence and deliver the town to the States. They have made answer that they are at his command; but they will not depart thence till they are paid all that the States owe them. This, they say, is but an excuse.
The French that lay at Dixmude, in passing from thence to Dunkirk, which was all within the States' government, spoiled and took all that they found on the way, so that they dealt very cruelly with the poor peasants; which has caused them to be hated more and more among the common people, in such wise that they cannot abide the name of a Frenchman.
As yet there are no preparations for any meeting of the States-General to contract with Monsieur again, for as I hear, those of Ghent will not yet be persuaded to contract any more with him; and they are not alone, for here in this town and in Ypres are many that are of the same mind. So it seems there will be much ado about it before they enter into any new contract with him.
The Scots at Meenen are yet in their mutiny, and the Prince of Parma plies them daily with letters and messengers; but as yet they will not harken to them. Yet they have cause to the contrary; for the States of Flanders, considering how greatly the place imports them, make small haste to set them contented. They answer them, they have no money; so the place stands yet in great danger.
The small number of Malcontents that the Prince of Parma has sent towards Saint-Omer and those parts, lie still and do nothing; for they are not of any force to do any exploit, but only to keep the French from ranging into their government. The Viscount of Ghent and Montigny, with all the force they are able to make out of Artois and Hainault, are gone to their camp before Eyndhoven; so that in all places Artois and Hainault are left very weak.
On the 12th Mr. John Somers departed from this town towards Dunkirk. John Spritwell of Dover met him here. Yesterday a letter of yours was brought to me, directed to Mr. Somers, which I sent incontinently after him to Dunkirk by post.—Bruges, 14 April 1583.
P.S.—M. de la Noue's wife is come to Ghent for Count Egmont, who will be delivered to her, and sent to the castle of Rammekens, to be kept for her husband.
Enclosed I send a copy of a letter from Cologne.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 16.]
April 15.246. Cobham to Walsingham.
Signor Gabriel Strozzo cannot for the present pass into England to solicit his affairs for her Majesty's letters patent of grant to enjoy the benefit of his inventions, which are so plausible in appearance. Now he has sent Signor Piero Strozzo, this bearer to make more plain and ample declaration of his demand, and to give her Highness convenient satisfaction in the doubtful points which may be objected. I beseech that he may be recommended to you according to the quality of his House and birth, and esteemed in such sort as his courteous manner shall offer occasion. He is desirous to kiss her Majesty's hands, 'special' on St. George's Day, when he might see the magnificence of the Court and the solemnity of that feast.
Yesterday Mr. Burnham came. About the same hour the king returned, showing himself at the Sacrifice of the mass this day, apparelled in russet cloth, pale and lean in the visage.
They speak much in Court of the Queen Mother's journey to Calais and passage to Dunkirk to her son.—Paris, 15 April 1583.
P.S.—I beseech you there may be consideration had of the men of England who are in the Low Countries or they will be put in great danger, or be betrayed.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [France IX. 87.]
April 15–25.247. Tommaso Sassetti to Walsingham.
My service with you always encourages me to greet you; and especially when an occasion like the present offers, which is furnished me by the present bearer, Signor Piero Strozzi, a Florentine gentleman, and a kinsman of my own. He is come from Italy to see France, England, Flanders and Germany, and then return to Florence and stay there. Knowing my service with you he has asked me to accompany him with a letter in order that with others that he bears it may be a means of paying his respects to you. I beg you to let no favour be lacking to him, both in enabling him to kiss the 'valorous' hand of the Queen your mistress, and in doing him the other favours which in your benevolence you are wont to show to all Italian gentlemen who come into that most fortunate realm. And since he will afterwards go to Antwerp, be pleased to give him your letters to the Prince of Orange and others, to certify thus that he is a worthy and honourable gentleman. I shall regard as a singular kindness any favour that you may do him, and be grateful for it after the others I receive from you. He will tell you of the condition in which he left me.—Paris, 25 April 1583.
Add. Endd. Ital.pp. [Ibid. IX. 88.]