Elizabeth
April 1583, 26-30

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Arthur John Butler and Sophie Crawford Lomas (editors)

Year published

1913

Pages

296-315

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: April 1583, 26-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 17: January-June 1583 and addenda (1913), pp. 296-315. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78928 Date accessed: 20 November 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

April 1583, 26–30

April 26.272. Edward Prim to Walsingham.
I received your letters, one by Dr. Lopes, the other by John Alen. I well perceived in them the good will you bear me in giving me leave to use my continuance in writing when occasion may serve, 'which' I will not be forgetful.
These few lines I thought good to write, to let you understand of Senhor Diego Botelyo's arrival in these countries, and how he has spoken with the Prince of Orange, and with the States, in whom he found very “large affection.” Now he departs to Holland, where he will meet the States of Holland and Zealand together. From thence he means to go to Dunkirk; and this being done, he returns to this city, where he hopes to end his business 'to content,' as he is yet in hope. As occasion shall serve, you shall understand how his affairs go here; or in any other thing that you will employ me, I shall be ready.—Antwerp, 26 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. 24.]
April 27.273. Cobham to Walsingham.
After Mr Burnham was departed, the enclosed letters directed from Germany to you came to my hands, wherefore I thought good to send them with the first 'extraordinary manner' in this sort.
The Queen Mother disposes herself as if she should depart hence this next week towards Calais, and so to Dunkirk, with an intention, as I hear, to see her Majesty, if a 'commodity' may be offered. But the news brought by M. Bellièvre concerning the state of Monsieur's health, stays yet a little her going forward.
They of Bordeaux have been troubled with suspicion because the king lately placed 700 horse in garrison in Libourne, but six leagues distant.
The citizens of Marseilles have directly answered the king they will not accept a governor, nor yet pay any imposition other than was 'acustably' given 300 years past; whereon the king has 'sent for hither' the captains of their castles to win them to his will.
His Majesty appoints to depart next week towards Notre Dame-l'Espine, and so to repair to Metz, where the young queen is to take the water of Spa. Howbeit, these purposes may be altered or 'protracted' after the accustomed manner.
It is given me to understand that the king has sent for M. de Châteauneuf of Britanny to this Court, to employ him in the conduct of succours to the Terceras, in case the Spaniards should with great power assail the island. He is commanded to set down in writing the number of men and ships he would demand for that exploit. He has required 8,000 fighting men with 28 great ships thoroughly furnished.
The Queen Mother sent the other day 7,000 crowns to the Chevalier de Chartre to embark his soldiers, who should begin the voyage to the Terceras in ten days.
The Dominican friar that made Don Antonio's 'book' for the just claim to the Crown of Portugal, is returned from Portugal, got out of prison; and two of Don Antonio's natural sons.
The Duke of Savoy's marriage with the Princess of Lorraine is proceeded to a ripe point. It rests only that the king should make him assurance for the payment of the 800,000 crowns which he gives for his dowry. Howbeit the conclusion will not be hastened until the Queen Mother has tempted Monsieur to marry her. She takes the princess with her, and the Queen of Navarre, to be a 'kind means' to her brother.
They have given out in this Court that the Duke of Infantazgo has got with child the eldest daughter of the Spanish king, which proving true, might prove a matter of great consequence.
I suppose it would be in vain to write of the exploit done by the French and Portuguese in Cape Verde, because those news come, as I guess, to England sooner than hither.
D'Aubigny, after moving to Verbery's(?) house, has been very weak, but my friend assures me he is mended in health. Most of the Scots who were with him are now departed, to pass in his ship, called the Unicorn. The Master of Leviston is to return this week by way of Dieppe. So there remains with d'Aubigny only Mr. Thomas Leviston, a Papist, Henry Keer, a Papist, and William Shawe.
The Bishop of Glasgow was with the king, together with the Pope's nuncio, in the morning of the 23rd inst. and the same afternoon the nuncio and Glasgow were two hours together. So there is in the opinion of many some important matter handled by them.—Paris, 27 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. 3 pp. [France IX. 95.]
April 27.–May 7.274. George Lecester to Walsingham.
I have received your 'double' letters, the last bearing date the 19th April; and although I deferred the answering of the former, I was not unmindful of your desire to be provided with a good gardener. To that end I have employed my best means, but as yet I cannot find any sufficiently qualified to serve you. I have only spoken with one man, who is esteemed one of the best in these countries; but because he is charged with a wife and two children, and possessed 'in' a house and garden, whereby he maintains his charge, he will not at present resolve with himself to come to you. Yet it seems he has a desire thereto, but in that respect has desired respite for eight days, to see in what order he can settle such things as belong to him, and then he will give me a 'resolute' answer. In the mean time I will inform myself of the sufficiency of this man and will not omit to make enquiries of some others that may be more agreeable to your design. But the liberty of the time and lack of exercise has made young men of that faculty either insolent or altogether ignorant of the skill that ought to be in men of that profession; and therefore it is hard to find a good gardener.
Your direction to furnish Mr. Gilpin with such money as he shall require in your name, shall be accomplished; but as yet I do not hear anything from him.
Touching 'accurrants' I cannot advertise you of anything lately happened worthy the reciting; only the States having withdrawn their forces from the land of 'Waste' and other places, and joined them in camp with the troops of his Highness, now await some good 'effects' to proceed from Marshal Biron. To that end they have sufficiently furnished him with cannon, powder, and other munitions, whereby they hope to force the castle of Wawe, which lies between Breda and 'Barrowe' to surrender within two or three days. If it do not, the States will begin to imagine they have employed too much artillery for such an exploit. General Norris has retired from the camps finding cause to 'mislike of' M. Biron's proceeding toward, him. Yet it seems Mr. Rowland Yorke, who was in the same predicament in the land of 'Waste,' is greatly favoured and employed by M. Biron and others that have charge; and yet I think he knows they do not love him. But Mr North seems to be so well assured that he only follows M. Biron, which moves some of his captains to leave to follow him.
By these and such particulars as you will have from others, you may gather in what terms things stand here better than I can set them down; and therefore I 'rest' to trouble you.—Antwerp, 7 May, 1583.
Add. Endd. (27 April). 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 25.]
April 27.–May 7.275. Roger Williams to Walsingham.
I know not what to write to you. I would trouble you more at large, but that Mr. Goyge [qy. Gorze] will, I am sure, discourse with you at large in better order than myself. The gentleman has behaved 'his self' amongst us so that I am sure all his countrymen will give him no less report than a valiant and an honest soldier. I assure you, in my poor judgement, he left few companions behind him in the English regiments. We must fall out(?) I fear me within few days, seeing we receive every day such a number of 'disagreeables,' not only of those whom we make account of not as friends, but of the ingrate generality, which we have served valiantly and honestly.
I have requested this bearer to tell you something which I dare not write; humbly desiring you to pardon me, and to think me a poor man that will not refuse you any service that I am able to perform.—Camp, 7 May stilo novo.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 28.]
April 27.276. Audley Danett to Walsingham.
By letters from Mr Wilkes of late, and since by others from yourself, sent by Charles, I find how greatly I am bound to you for your ready favour to do me good; wherein as I am every way unable to deserve the least part of the goodness which from time to time you have shown me, I find myself more straitly bound during my life to remain altogether at your command. Sound and plain meaning needs no help of a 'flourishing filed' style, and I have long since observed you to take no pleasure in disguised shows and ceremonies. Therefore I should greatly condemn myself 'to' use any further protestation of my duty, as also to become more troublesome to your grave and weighty affairs, in setting down my resolution touching your offer for the journey to Muscovia; for the delivery of which I have prayed Mr Wilkes to observe your leisure and opportunity, which please accept in good part.
Concerning the affairs of those parts, Mr Norris has advertised in his letters as much as may seem worthy the writing. I have only at present understood that the States-General have already made a draft of the articles to treat on with the duke, and presently dispatch one deputy from every province to their several quarters to have their resolution on them before they send them to the duke, and stay here to await the answers.
It is bruited and believed that those of Holland and Zealand have elected the Prince of Orange for their Count, and have confirmed and sent him this election under their common seal; which gives some matter of mistrust to these of Brabant and Flanders, and therefore some secret muttering that those of Ghent are entered into conference and treaty with the Malcontents.—Antwerp, 27 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIX. 29.]
April 28.277. John Norris to Walsingham.
Having received yours of the 2nd inst. I prepared myself and our English troops to march to the camp, and according to your advice, sought by joining with the Scots in 'these country' towns to make ourselves strong against any practice which might be attempted against us by the French. In this Marshal Biron easily prevented us, not only by lodging the Dutch forces in a quarter far from ours, and setting some pique ajar between us and the Scots, but by procuring division amongst ourselves; in which behalf, finding Mr North's humour, and perceiving his aptness easily to be drawn from his countrymen, he permitted him and his regiment to lodge among the French, where he still remains, notwithstanding my motion to the contrary, and the Marshal's promise to send him into our quarters, which in truth were the very worst of the whole camp, standing next to the enemy, and at least two Dutch miles from the other forces. Within two or three days after, I was advertised from Antwerp that Marshal Biron had written to the States letters of complaint against me; which I found the more strange, because he never signified to me any cause of mislike. Therefore, upon those and some other occasions, I thought it not amiss to withdraw to Antwerp, both to understand more particularly the Marshal's complaints, and purge myself to the States, and to crave the Prince's further directions how to carry myself under the commanding of such a one, whom by many presumptions I found hardly affected. Touching his zeal to the service of these countries, I will not take upon me to judge, but leave it to the 'censure' of others who are more particularly interested therein. Only concerning myself and her Majesty's subjects here in this service under my charge, I have so little hope of any good towards us from our commander, that if it may 'stand' with her good favour I desire to withdraw from hence, being ready to obey whatever she shall please to command me; wishing rather to lead a private life at home than to run any longer this uncertain course of service here. In which behalf I am the rather to crave your furtherance, finding it an impossible matter for me to carry myself always in this action to her Majesty's good liking as I desire, without some certain direction from home; and yet upon every accident, thinking to do all for the best, to fall so far into her heavy displeasure, that besides the burden of that, I want not enemies to take advantage thereby to work my discredit in this place and utter overthrow, as much as in them lies. These things considered, I trust you will be the rather inclined to further my coming home, wherein I earnestly beseech your careful remembrance and also to vouchsafe me your answer on the first convenient opportunity.
Touching the proceedings here, I cannot learn that the States are in any forwardness as yet to dispatch their deputies to treat with his Highness; every one being, as I hear, to return home to their several provinces to receive instructions both for the matter and the manner of the treaty.
Meantime Marshal Biron proceeds in seeking to win the Castle of 'Woud,' which within a day or two it is thought he will begin to batter, having already received hence 15 cannon with sufficient munition for the enterprise.
The enemy, on the other side, besieges the Castle of Boxmer, with purpose, it is thought, rather to besiege Venlo on the river 'Moase'; which being without any great garrison, and already for the most part malcontent, it is feared will not make any great resistance. Nevertheless, it is thought the enemy will not willingly draw his forces far from the Meuse, to be still at hand for the aid of those of Cologne, upon any occasion offered.
I received great comfort by your letters sent by your servant Charles, and desire nothing more in this world than to remain in her Majesty's favour; and as in all my actions I have chiefly tended to that end as near as I could, so wherever I bestow my service, I desire no longer to live than I shall show that dutiful care and obedience which become every good subject.
I would not forget to let you know that Marshal Biron, since his coming, has ever been very inquisitive of the news from Scotland; and amongst other speeches, one day he told me that although la Mothe nothing well liked his entertainment in Scotland at first, yet in the end he departed very well satisfied, to the king his master's great contentation and 'well allowing of' of his service.—Antwerp, 28 April, 1583.
P.S.—There is some bruit this morning that the enemy is assembling his troops, with purpose to find our forces, which falling out, we are likely to be engaged, by reason of our artillery.
In hand of A. Danett. Add. Endd. by Walsingham. 2 pp, 311. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 31.]
278. Draft of the above, with corrections, in hand of A. Danett. 2 pp. [Ibid. XIX. 31a.]
April 28.279. Stokes to Walsingham.
Since my last of the 21st, very few speeches have passed here, for all things continue very still in these parts. But it is thought they will not long remain so.
They write from Lille that the Prince of Parma, with all his Council of Malcontents, is gone to Maestricht, where they have appointed a general meeting of all the provinces that are under the King of Spain's government.
This week at Valenciennes they have burnt for religion 'that were Protestants a dozen persons,' who were found in a house together at prayer.
The rest of the French soldiers that lie about Dunkirk, estimated at 1,000, have removed thence beside Veurne; where they lie in sundry villages, and use the poor peasant very sharply, for they spoil and take all that they can come to.
Also this week the Four Members of Flanders sent commissioners to Monsieur at Dunkirk, to have the town of Berghes delivered into the States' hands again; but as yet there is not speech come from them how they sped, so that it is greatly feared he will keep it still.
The commons at Ghent have again this week moved their magistrates to be a means that some good peace may be made with the Malcontents; for of late the commons have been very earnest in the matter. So divers hope something will fall out of this matter ere long.
The enemy 'of' Corttrick and Lille begin to make great traffic with Ghent, Bruges and Ypres; for this week a great many 'waygens' all laden with merchandise, came to this town from Corttrick, and have returned back laden with all needful things This week a convoy of waggons came from Meenen, all laden with household stuff. It is feared the Scots will not be able to keep it long, for the walls and bulwarks which are made of earth, and slenderly made, are all falling down, and the States of the country 'sorrow' not to repair them. If they suffer it to be lost they will lose one of their best friends here in Flanders; for that town puts the enemy to more cost and trouble than all the towns in Flanders.
The Malcontents will be stirring again in these parts; for this week four regiments of foot and ten cornets of horse, which came out of Brabant, passed by Lille towards Loo and those parts in great haste. So it seems they have some enterprise in hand, which will be seen shortly.
The speech here is that the General States at Antwerp will depart, and every man go home for six weeks or two months; which dealing is greatly marvelled at by all men here.
In most of the towns here in Flanders, divers ensigns of the Prince of Orange's soldiers lay in garrison; all which the Four Members of Flanders have sent away to the camp in Brabant; and have 'laid' others in their places; for it seems they had some fear that they would have kept the town for the Prince's use.
It is said here that the Prince of Orange has sent divers companies of foot into Holland, to be placed in the towns there for his use and service; so it is feared that Holland, Zealand and those parts will be separated from this side before long.—Bruges, 28 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 32.]
April 28.280. Gilpin to Walsingham.
My last of the 21st was somewhat plain, moved by just passion; which I trust has been, and humbly desire may be, honourably construed in the better part. Last Wednesday I received your letter, with one to D. Rotis, which shall be sent 'per the first,' accompanied, as you command, by another from me, thereby in friendliest manner to answer him in the best sort I can. But the book I have not as yet received, nor know how conveniently after the receipt of it to convey it to him; but rather think you would have done well to commit that carriage and delivery to Mr. Ashby, who I hear is appointed to go with her Majesty's letter to the Emperor.
For my friend at Cologne, I thought good in my last to resolve him fully about the journey he should have been employed in, and yet to encourage not only his continuance 'to write,' but also, as much as in me lay, to draw from him by his letters those matters he still insists the knowledge so greatly to import, promising that at my coming to Antwerp there should be sent him a token or remembrance of 'gratuity' towards the charges he 'has or may be' at. This I will see accomplished with such care of good husbandry as I easily account you will like of. If his advertisements fall out hereafter to import according to his former writing, I doubt not but such further consideration shall be had as thereto pertains.
On Tuesday or Wednesday next I intend to go 'for' Antwerp; where I will not omit, as well in her Majesty's affairs for the debt of Pallavicino and Spinola, as also to learn and sift out, so far as I can, of the parties, concerning the Latin letters. You shall likewise from thence, or immediately upon my return hither, understand my simple opinion touching proceeding to stays or arrests; and if I learn of any ships loaden for London worthy the advertisement, you shall be duly and particularly advertised thereof.
For news, the last I had from Cologne you shall receive herewith; for those here are few and uncertain.
The enemy is separated in two parts; one has passed over the Maes, the other remains in Brabant about Eyndhoven. These are since reported to have passed over towards Nymegen, with intent to make some fort beyond that place upon the point where the Rhine divides and 'runs' towards Nymegen and Arnhem, rivers called the Waal and Yssel. If they compass this, then all traffic from and to 'Duchland' that way is barred.
Most of the States' men lie about and before 'Wowe' a strong house belonging to the Marquis of 'Barrow,' about one league distant from that town. The enemy, as I hear, attempted to raise the siege, but the others have so entrenched themselves that they could not be raised without great disadvantage, and therefore retired (sic). They have since begun to batter the place, and it is looked every day for news of its taking or surrender.
The rest of the States' men are employed, as we understand here, about some enterprise, of which the news will be heard shortly.
The General States at Antwerp are said to break up, and after new instructions and advice from their provinces, to return, deal, consider and determine about the now intended treaty with Monsieur, who lies still at Dunkirk.
The Prince, as we hear, would fain go into Holland and Zealand with his Lady, but the jealousy and doubt of some troubles among the Antwerpians, if he should depart, is such as does and will cause his stay among them.
This week 'M. Aldegonde' and the Councillor Bruynik, sent from his Excellency, changed and re-elected the magistrates at Flushing, and are since gone to 'Camphier' about other business, staying in this island till the coming of certain commissioners that were sent hence into Holland.
The Count of Egmont and M. de Selles remain as prisoners 'of' M. de la Noue, at the castle of 'the' Rammekens. His delivery to 'rescounter' with them is hoped, his wife and theirs soliciting very hard to procure it.
Those of Bruges sent one month's pay to the Scots of Meenen, being in a mutiny; but it is doubted that will not set them contented, without the making up of their account, and reckoning for 22 months 'afterdeal' in their wages.—Middelburg, 28 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 33.]
April 28.281. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Since writing this morning I received a letter from Cologne, and thought it good to stay this bearer till the writing of a copy. You may see how matters pass there, and the desire he has to open some matter of importance. I have earnestly written him, to have some light thereof in his next letter, which you shall understand further; waiting your pleasure the while. I marvel whence he should hear of her Majesty's intent to send to the King of Spain; and hear nothing spoken thereof. For my part, I never 'touched' any such word to him. The post hastening away, am forced to be short.—Middleburg, 28 April, 1583.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. XIX. 30.]
April 28.282. Heinrich R. Von Holtz to Walsingham.
Though, urged by Sir F. Walsingham and my very good friend Mr. George Gilpin, I was often minded to write to the same from the Emperor's Court, and the late Diet at Augsburg, as Gilpin has doubtless testified by letter and word of mouth, I have hitherto felt that amid all the important business connected with England, France and Flanders to which Sir F. Walsingham has to attend, my letters arriving perhaps at an inopportune time, and by an unknown bearer, might be less acceptable; while besides the hindrance caused by my manifold business at Court and during the Diet, I have another cause for silence in the dangers of the road, since owing to the raids of the soldiers in the Low Countries upon traders, and the destruction of letter-carriers with their letters, mine would hardly have come safely to hand. So less for the former than for the latter I have had of necessity to desist from a duty which I have often begun.
Now however that I have come nearer, and the way is open for letters to and fro and freer communication, and for the declaration from this place of my respect for the Queen, my duty towards Sir F. Walsingham, and my good will towards the English nation, I am impelled to write at the present time. If at the Emperor's Court at Prague, before the Diet, and afterwards at the Diet itself, I have been able to render any services to Mr. Gilpin either in the matter of certain Hanse towns against the Queen of England and her subjects, or in the deliverance of Daniel Rogers from his long captivity, with other things concerning (concernentibus) the realm of England, greater or less, and worthy of such a queen, and may be further able to do so here, and with the Princes and Estates of the Empire, I should wish it rather to be perceived by facts than that I should brag of it in pompous and noisy words (ampullis et verborum strepitu) etc.
But whereas in the Diet he who with Gilpin strove to settle everything according to the dignity of the Queen and the wish of her subjects, and to promote the friendship and advantage of either nation, was not able to attain the goal he desired, the matter indeed falling out, contrary to all expectation, otherwise, I think this is to be attributed to the importunate and continual complaints and incessant outcries both spoken and written, and combined with no common insults to the Queen and her subjects, of certain of the Hanse, especially those of Lubeck, Cologne and Dortmund, whose names I have seen stated only in the petitions addressed to the Emperor and Estates at the Diet against the Queen and her subjects—certainly none was sent by the Hamburgers, who thus have the merit of proceeding less unreasonably against the Queen and her subjects; while if they had any sent from other cities, they would have put the names at the foot of their own writings to give greater authority to their designs. Of all which, and of how we proceeded with the Emperor and the States at Augsburg, both verbally and in writing, Gilpin will I think have told the Queen and Sir F. Walsingham by letters from the Diet, and more fully by word of mouth; and if it should seem necessary, matters concerning the English business which ought not to be committed to a letter, could more freely be imparted face to face. You must know now, however, that those of the Hanse, having obtained a resolution from the Electors and Princes of the Empire, with whom some of the Imperial cities associated themselves, have been labouring with the Emperor to get the decision of the Estates carried into effect, by proceeding to a mandate, to be published throughout Germany, and in the first place at Embden, whereby business with England should be not merely suspended but wholly abolished, until the privileges of the Hanse towns in England should be restored, and confirmed by the Queen.
Their audacious pleading as to their privileges is all the more to be suspected when we find that these were lost originally, not only through their own fault, but also, among other things, by their insulting actions against the Queen, and calumnious reports (traductionibus) to the Emperor, Princes and Estates of the Empire, and so by extreme ingratitude on the part especially of those of Lubeck, Cologne and Dortmund; while the remaining towns of the Hanse, Hamburg in the first place, being ignorant of, and in no way consenting to their action, must be held excused, and proved by the facts worthy of all the more favour, good will, and encouragement on the part of the Queen and her subjects But we resisted efforts of this kind, and violent means of recovering their lost privileges, as we understood, by word and writing, so far as time and place allowed. Nay, we laboured solely, by adding honourable reasons, to dissuade the Emperor from any such designs, preventing rather the appearance of hostility than of the resumption and continuance of neighbourly amity. What he decided at last in regard to this arduous business, and what answer he made both verbally and in writing, I imagine is already known to you through Gilpin; as I think is the case with regard to the course of that Diet, and its results, unhoped for by many. Of other matters the Queen and her Council would be more rightly informed by word of mouth. After that time, and while the delegates of the Hanse towns were on their journey, it was heard how loudly they bragged not in one place only, but in sundry, of the prosperous issue of their case against the English at the Diet, and how a mandate on that account was to be published throughout Germany. Hereby they tried to persuade all men that the Emperor and the Estates had decreed at the Diet that the English, and their trade, as of the nature of a monopoly, and injurious to all Germany (for to such effect were the spoken and written words of the delegates of those three cities) were to be banished from the Empire by public mandate shortly to follow. But I hope that the Emperor, as a prince of prudence befitting his age, a lover of justice, quiet, the general tranquillity, and of the neighbourly amity between England and Germany handed down to him as it was by inheritance, and therefore to be continued and plainly to be maintained for the profit and convenience of the subjects on both sides, will proceed to the publication of a mandate before the Deputationstag (deputationis diem) to be held in May next at Spires, before which time the Queen's reply and declaration is perhaps to be expected; although those of Cologne and Lubeck, as the champions (antesignani) and chief solicitors in this business hardly leave off worrying his Majesty and the Electors, to become speedily parties to the mandates already requested against the English.
In the assembly of the Circle of Westphalia held at Cologne last January, and dissolved without result within a few days, it is understood that those of the Hanse urged the like, and obtained after considerable pressure promotory letters for the execution of the Imperial decree in the English business, that is the publication of the mandates.
In the assembly of the Circles of the Rhine at Cologne in the beginning of March, when Commissioners from the Electors, Princes, and Estates dwelling on the Rhine met together, besides other Imperial business, we hear that they earnestly urged their designs against the Queen of England and her subjects; so that if anyone had been there to have instructed the assembled deputies from the Estates by competent refutation of the Hanses' writings and pleadings, it would have been attended with the more advantage and credit to English trade; while if the conclusion of the Cologne meeting had preceded the receipt of my letter, and the Queen's mission to it had therefore been recognized as useless, all this would more conveniently have been put off till the Deputationstag at Spires, although the intervention of the Imperial and Papal Commissioners' negotiation against the Archbishop of Cologne (whom they want either to continue in the Catholic faith and the Pope's allegiance, or to retire altogether, while the Evangelical Princes and Estates of the Empire desire the Most Reverend to be maintained in his former dignity and government, his marriage and profession of the Reformed religion notwithstanding) might have caused an adjournment of the Cologne meeting, since by decree of the Emperor and the Estates of the Empire, the Deputationstag at Spires is at hand, where their Commissioners and those of the Princes and Electors will meet at the time stated; where also an envoy from the Queen with full powers would not unwisely be sent, to inform the Assembly by writing and word of mouth as to the origin of these negotiations of the Hanses, to wipe away, as befits the dignity of both parties, the charges of monopoly and unlawful contracts branded upon (? inustas) the Queen, and all the trade of England; first of all before the Diet in the presence of the Emperor and several Electors, but still more before all the Estates of the Empire; and to remove all suspicion of monopoly. Indeed it would seem most advisable and necessary that an envoy from the Queen with her answer to the Emperor should be sent at once to his Court, who should on the way pay his respects, likewise with letters from her, to the Electors of Brandenburg and Saxony, and should adequately instruct them and their chief advisers about the whole progress of the case and its present position, and vindicate English trade and the reputation of the English nation from the suspicion of monopoly and contracts injurious to the Empire, into which through no fault of the Queen or her subjects, it has most unjustly been brought through the sinister calumnies of certain of the Hanse. This the envoy should do not only by letters, but by word of mouth to the Emperor, and if it is done before the Spires meeting has begun, and the deputies of the Estates have left their masters and started on their journey, so much the better; since certain heads in the deputies' instructions, dealing in the first place with the English business, would undoubtedly receive alteration and correction of great use to English trade throughout Germany, and it would also allow the Commissioners from the Emperor and the Electors to set out for Spires rightly informed as to this business by the Queen's envoy; since on that journey they may be met not merely by difficulties and postponements in regard to their expectation of decisions from their own people, but also, as I will hope, the past actions and expenses of the Hanses, and the vast trouble they have up to now undergone, may be rendered fruitless. To say no more meanwhile, from the reply of the aforesaid Electors, and of the Emperor in the first place, a more correct decision as to the necessity of going to the meeting at Spires may be taken; it may even be possible that he should not pay his respects to that meeting.
The Deputationstag however, as desired by the Emperor and Estates, and now publicly stated in print, will be on May 15 unless before that meeting the Emperor has written to the Queen and replied by an envoy with fuller information. There is some fear indeed that he may be compelled by the requisition from the Hanses and others of those parts to proceed to the execution of the mandates against the English and their trade, and of what was passed by the Estates in that matter; the very thing which the Emperor at the end of the Diet, in the decree which he told George Gilpin in reference to this business to hand to the Queen with his letter, showed plainly enough was officially incumbent on him. I further hear from trustworthy persons that those of Lubeck and Cologne place their hopes in this meeting or Deputationstag at Spires, and are bragging much about it to others, certainly hoping there fully to carry out against the English what they before sought and asked for at the Diet itself. These inconveniences, or rather evils, I should think might more conveniently be wholly guarded against, or at least suspended, to the advantage of the English nation, by an envoy from the Queen and a timely letter to the Emperor. But it were advisable that before Gilpin or the Queen's envoy went to the Courts of the Emperor and some of the Princes, we should first meet and confer at Embden or some other place, so that the procedure in this difficult business might be after common council taken, and everything be better administered for the Queen's dignity and the advantage of the English nation. Further since the Courts of the Emperor, of Saxony, and of other princes are for the most part known to me, the envoy might be advised on many points that might be of service in facilitating intercourse and friendship with the more eminent persons and more happy accomplishment of the business entrusted to him.
We hear that the meeting of the Hanse will shortly take place at Lubeck, where it would seem good that a competent protest should be made about the injuries most unworthily uttered both in writing and verbally against the Queen and her subjects before the Diet, and at Augsburg during the same, by an envoy, to be sent thither betimes. I called Gilpin's attention to this by letter some time ago; and although I devised a form of protest at Augsburg, and left it with him, and therefore think it has been seen over there, nevertheless I sent over another at the end of last year agreeing with the first, which might afterwards be strengthened (exaggeraretur) to suit the dignity of the person, and the gravity of the injuries. At the same time it might certainly be enquired and ascertained of the Commissioners from the cities, which of these had given their consent and instructions for such injurious proceeding against the Queen and her subjects; whereby the protest might be the better placed and the true authors be got together (? convenirentur), seeing that the penalty ought to fall on their authors, while those who are innocent, as having given no consent nor orders in the matter, seem to deserve pardon, and the retention of the royal favour. Hence if we hear only of the order given by certain cities, such as Lubeck, Cologne and Dortmund, who alone published their names at the Diet of Augsburg, while the rest either hesitate or deny touching their consent and instructions, a more formidable protest might be produced by the envoy against the delinquents, and the meeting, its plans and its actions, might be not a little upset.
It is written from a trustworthy quarter that Don William of San Clemente, now the Spanish King's ambassador at the Imperial Court, has by his master's order signified to the Emperor that the king was very glad to hear of the decree of the Estates against the Queen of England and her subjects, and hoped that his Majesty would put them in force as soon as possible. He has indeed been by the king's command urgent till now for their execution. But if Dr. Sudermann of Cologne and Dr. Calixtus [Schein] of Lubeck, whom from the first I have known, as I told Gilpin at Augsburg, to have been in communication with the Spanish ambassador, have noticed that the King of Spain favours their efforts, and wants them forwarded, and that the Emperor himself perhaps wishes it in consequence, they will undoubtedly be all the more stirred up to prosecute their designs against the English; whom it would seem advisable that the Queen should meet by a timely answer to the Emperor through the envoy sent over there.
I wrote diligently a few days ago to my brother, Joachim von Holtz, whom I left in my place at the Emperor's Court, that if anyone came thither from the Queen of England, he was to show him all kind offices, and study to forward his business so far as possible, with the Emperor and in suitable quarters. I make no doubt that the Queen's envoy, if he will make use of his services and advice (for he knows the custom and procedure of the Imperial Court, and the position of this business) will approve his honesty, hard work, and diligence, and will commend him to the Queen. If he could, by the furtherance of Sir F. Walsingham, be appointed her agent at the Imperial Court, besides a saving of considerable expenses, it would, for many reasons of which I would prefer [to speak] face to face and more freely, be most useful to England.
Concerning these matters I have thought good to warn Sir F. Walsingham, and through him the Queen (to whom alone I desire this to be written), whom I know to excel all princes of our age in counsel, prudence, virtue and good government; and therefore if my letter shall seem somewhat freely written, my lord, with the kindness that he bestows on me, will give it the readier acquiescence, and will on the first occasion find it not irksome to point me out to the Queen as one to be commended by her and himself.
I might have other matters, in no common sort affecting the safety of England, worthy the knowledge of the Queen and her Council; of which, since they cannot be committed to letters, but demand discussion face to face when convenient, I will speak more freely and more fully when we meet. Meantime let England have special care of the Jesuits who are in hiding here and there throughout the country and holding secret conventicles for the exercise and teaching of the Popish religion. Apart from the ruin of pious souls, they appear, at the instigation of the Pope and Spain, to be seeking to implicate the realm of England, now by its wealth and the good government of its wise Queen, greatly flourishing in long-continued peace and quietness, in intestine discords; whereby the realm, divided against itself, may after the Queen's decease (whose life may the Most High prolong in happiness to the years of Nestor) be the more easily occupied by the Spaniards, who are aiming night and day thereat, and the Churches [sic] of England be the sooner brought back into servitude to the Pope; wherefore if it is desired to take counsel for the longest possible maintenance of England's peace and quietness, and for a certain successor to the realm—and seeing that an end of mortal life is appointed for all, this should be thought over betimes, and something settled; upon which, for the sake of England's safety and accession of love and affluence, good counsel will be taken.
Meantime, wishing long health and life in England to the Queen and Sir F. Walsingham, I am ready, with my brother, both among the German princes, and when residing at Hamburg, to do what I can for the good of England, and to show myself worthy of commendation on the first opportunity, by eager response.—Aurich, A.D. 1583, 28 April.
Last two pars holograph. Add. Endd. 'Henry Vomholt.' Latin. 9 pp. [Germany II. 65.]
April 29.
May 9.
283. Thomas Morgan to Walsingham.
The bearer hereof, your servant, has requested leave of me for England, which I have given him; and am further to request you 'that' if you have not better to employ him, to let him return over to me again, and I will bestow some better place 'of' him than he has had before.
Further for the news of this country I am not able to enlarge you better than the bearer is able to 'emparte' to you of all things at large.—Camp of Ouden Busse this 9 of May 1583, stilo novo.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 34.]
April 29.284. Correspondence in the matter of Oldensell and Elmenhorst.
(1). The Queen to the King of Denmark.
We have received your letters commending to us the cause of certain merchants of Lubeck and of others your subjects and we have caused so much to be done in the matter, both by our Council and by the Judge of our Admiralty as by our authority we ought and by the order and rights of our Laws could do. This whilst we are doing, if all things fall not out according to your most just request and our most earnest desire, we beseech you to ascribe it rather to the overgreat severity of others in prosecuting their cause, than to our will. For, to declare the matter briefly, how it stands, so it is that our Council having by our command caused those of Lubeck and Sackford our subject to appear before them, sent them with their letters to the Judge of the Admiralty, charging him to pronounce justice to those of Lubeck and your subjects. Which while he went about to attend to, 'yours' refused to stand to judgement, and without order called in question certain companions, as is reported, of pirates, and found out that Sackford's ship, he not knowing of it, has been in company with Thomas Clarke, a pirate, not long ago deceased, at the time when a robbery was done; and that the mariners of the ship have of the same robbery had and brought away certain quantity amounting to the sum of 47l. Whereupon our Council, that this loss of those of Lubeck and your subjects should be redressed, have decided that the sum of 66l. 14s. 4d. should be given to your subjects so injured; which truly are amends far greater than 'behooveth' in respect of the quality of the injury which the mariners of Sackford have 'inferred.' Yet those of Lubeck and your subjects refuse this just proffer, and will not otherwise like and accept of it except we grant them the free transporting out of our realm of 200 cloths, discharged of all such 'duties of charges' as the merchant strangers pay us for every cloth. Our Council proffers to them, so bent and minded, another condition, whether they would choose to stand to the decree, or present, before the judge thereto appointed, their rights; which with all favour and expedition, for your sake, should be dispatched, and that [in?] the promotion thereof Sackford should be most straitly commanded to come in judgement and stand to the law. But those of Lubeck are not pleased with any of these things, so that now surely we know not what we could or may do further in their causes, which are to us most dear, as truly all those are which you commend to us; seeing that those persons neither favour the prosecution of their rights, nor may grace of a benefice far exceeding the wickedness of the offence prevail to turn their minds to humanity. And therefore if you can ordain what counsel is to be taken for the redress of their causes and succour of their fortunes, we truly shall be very willing to hear it, remaining in the meantime in this opinion, that you, for the willing mind you bear to us, will judge that the fault has not been in us that they are not wholly satisfied in that wherein they can complain to have been 'endommaged' by Sackford's people. And whereas the other is fled out of our realm and flying from the severity of our law is fallen into the hands of the Admiralty, being punished by God with a just punishment, as equity or reason requires that his offence should not be cast on the heads of those who are innocent; nor can drive us to redress the damage 'inferred' by him who now is wholly out of our power, with the discommodities of others who have not offended, or above the deserts of their offence.
Therefore we request you to take in good part that which by our command is done in this cause, and so to judge of us that we will never pretermit anything which may satisfy your honest petitions.
(2). The King of Denmark to the Queen.
Translation of letter of 22 June, 1582.
Upon this letter we sued for audience above eleven months ago to her Majesty and the Right Honourable Sir Francis Walsingham, and she promised many times that we should have good answer; yet could we come to none. Whereupon we delivered divers supplications to her; specially one, that seeing we could not have restitution according to the King of Denmark's request, we might have a letter to Dr. Lewes to call to him four or five of her Majesty's commissioners who are named, and 'thought would deal' indifferently in the matter, and that the letters of the king and the City of Hamburg written to her in this behalf might be sent to him also, and that Mr Sackford might be commanded to appear before them and answer the matter accordingly. Upon which supplication we had for answer from Sir F. Walsingham: That he must tell us truth—Mr Sackford was not to answer before the commissioners. Then we desired that he would be the means to get that answer written from her Majesty to the king. His answer was again that her Majesty would not write; the ambassador who was then going, Lord Willoughby, would answer the matter there, and thither I was to go; other answer I could not have. Whereupon I, poor man, was fain to travel thither, in great danger of life; and at my coming to Denmark, I speaking to Lord Willoughby, there was no such matter or any answer of him to be had, as appears by what he wrote to the Lord Chancellor, a copy of which follows:—
Lord Willoughby to the Lord Chancellor of Denmark.
This bringer having returned of late from England, where he was requesting the Queen for the recovery of his goods, now long since detained from him by a gentleman called Sackford, has signified to me that Sir F Walsingham would have him to come hither to me, and that I had received in that behalf certain commission of the Queen. Howbeit, to confess the truth, the knowledge of this matter was never imparted to me; yet nevertheless I, beholding the poor case of the old and wretched man, and also lamenting his mischance and calamity, that he being so far stricken in years, is so troubled with the recovery of his right, I [sic] have proffered to him this condition—that if he returned with me to England I would bear all his charges, and use him as one belonging to my own house; and moreover that I would friendly and faithfully commend his suit to the Queen. And forasmuch as he earnestly desired that you should be certified of this condition, I have been emboldened this time to trouble you with this my base letter.—From my lodging at 'Helschener,' 10 Aug. 1582.
Upon this answer of my lord's, I was counselled to take his proffer. It was not to be doubted that he would keep his promise written with his own hand; and also the Lord Chancellor letting the king understand Lord Willoughby's honourable proffer, it pleased the king to write the following letter to the Queen, and another to Lord Willoughby as follows:—
The King of Denmark's 'other' letter to her Majesty.
You are doubtless as yet mindful of what we requested you in our foregoing letter about the matter of Herman Oldensell and John Elmenhorst, citizens of Lubeck, who on our seas have been spoiled of their goods by some of your subjects. They now are come again (the matter being not yet ended) from thence to us, and have made their moans, that howbeit you declared yourself to be very gracious to them in that suit, they could at length obtain of your officers no other answer, but that they should be constrained there to try the same suit against Sackford, the setter-forth of the same pirate-ship, by law in public judgement; for your Highness a while heretofore has publicly given out a commission (as they called it), according to which such matters, 'rape of piracy' and suchlike public offences were to be determined; and also that they could no longer support the charges which this public judgement requires, for they have been so many years detained there in the same suit in vain, and thereby almost spoiled of all their substance. Therefore they appealed to your public Commission before 'recited.' But they said that your Highness's officers affirmed that Sackford was not holden under the Commission, and that the plaintiffs would get no other answer. And forasmuch as order was given to your ambassador whom you have lately sent here, namely 'Lord Peregrine, free Baron of Willoughby and Eresby,' to finish the said suit here, they ought to resort hither, etc. See letter of 25 August, 1582.
The King of Denmark to Lord Willoughby.
The bearer hereof, called Herman Oldensell, has declared to us that whereas he spoke to you erewhile at Elsinore about his suit, which he, jointly with another citizen of Lubeck called John Elmenhorst, has against an Englishman called Sackford, for their goods taken from them by pirates on our seas, you succoured him very much promising that when you were returned to the Queen of England, you would have the suit very earnestly commended to her. Upon which promise he trusts, and has concluded to transport himself again with our letters of commendation into England; and so besought us that we would have the matter commended to you. Which thing we have not thought it meet to refuse him, seeing that the hurt has befallen him wrongfully on our seas; whereby we think it to be our part to help or promote this matter according to our ability, and therefore beseech you, by these presents, to have this matter of Oldensell's commended to you in the best manner that may be, and that you will accept the defence of it, to the end that he may perceive that our intercession to you has been of some importance. This shall be most correspondent to our hope conceived of you; and we will endeavour that you shall prove and try our benevolence when it may stand you in any stead.
This her [sic] Majesty's letter Lord Willoughby delivered to her Majesty seven months ago at Windsor, and we have ever since sued to her and Sir Francis for answer, which we now crave 'for God's cause' may be determined, that we may come to satisfaction for our losses and damage, which is about 1,500l. sterling besides interest and loss of time for five years.
Lord Willoughby to Sir F. Walsingham.
Having received letters from the King of Denmark to send over to him certain hounds and greyhounds, as you may perceive by the contents of the letter which I thought it meet to impart to you by this messenger, I determined to send over a man to him with his desired present. And forasmuch as he made me his procurator for his installation, and also solicited me since by letters I showed you at Windsor, to prefer Herman Oldensell's suit against Mr. Sackford to her Majesty, and knowing he expects at my hands a correspondent answer to the trust reposed in me, I thought my duty to her Majesty would be much neglected if I wrote without instructions, which she once answered I should receive from you; and my credit and honour on the other side much disgraced with the king if I should not be able to satisfy him in such matters as by president [qy. precedent] meaner than I have pleasured him in. I shall not, I hope, therefore need to trouble you with petitions in this behalf, since the pitiful condition of this poor man's lingering suit and the true affection I bear you, are sufficient cause to so noble a disposition to 'tender' his misery and your poor friend's estimation; and that such an answer may be shaped by your direction as may satisfy in part, though not in all.—Grimsthorpe, 29 April, 1583.
Copies and translations. Endd. gone. 7½ pp. [Denmark I. 29.]