Addenda
Miscellaneous 1568-1569

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler and Sophie Crawford Lomas (editors)

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1913

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431-438

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'Addenda: Miscellaneous 1568-1569', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 17: January-June 1583 and addenda (1913), pp. 431-438. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78941 Date accessed: 24 July 2014.


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Miscellaneous 1568–1569

[A.D. 1568.]404. March of the Prince of Orange.
Copy of all the conquests, as towns, castles and houses of great lords that the Prince of Orange has gained on his way from Aachen to Bergen Henegouve [i.e. Hainault].
1. The town of Aachen has given him the sum of 30,000 thalers.
2. He gained the fine fortress and castle of Aremberg.
3. From thence he journeyed to Valkenburg (Valchenboch), which town he took by force. It was pillaged but not destroyed.
4. The fortress of Culembourg (Culenborch), in which the Duke of Alva (enemy of the said Prince) had put eighty Spaniards, who were all killed or hanged. And afterwards, the Prince had a traitor cut into four pieces, who was about to set fire to the camp.
5. The strong and fine house of the Sieur Francois de Gulpen, near the Prince's camp, where nine German foot soldiers died, being drowned by the breaking of the bridge. In this house was found an ensign of Spaniards, but the Spaniards were fled.
The force with which the Prince of Orange crossed the Maas [Oct. 5–6, 1568] with the names of the great lords who were then with him.
6. The Prince crossed the Maas (by God's help) with 12,000 horsemen, terstons, black reiters.
7. Also 6,000 cart horses.
8. Also 24 pieces of artillery, great and small.
9. Also he had 28 ensigns of Germans, with two colonels, viz. the Rheingrave and the Marquis of Brandenburg with his son, who is captain of a band of reiters.
10. 18 ensigns of Gascons and French, who also had two colonels, viz. M. de Risoir and the Count Mons.
11. Also 6 ensigns of Low Germans, Count Hoogstraeten colonel. Altogether 52 ensigns.
12. Also there are at the camp 10 preachers, i.e. four French, one Low German and 5 High German.
The names of the great lords.
The Prince of Orange.
The Counts of Hoogstraeten, [Louis of] Nassau (brother of the Prince), Culembourg, Le Mons, Rhyn, Lemmen [? Lumey, i.e. de la Marck,] Risoir, Brandenburg and his son, Baden, Schauenbourg.
Also a band of sons of Dukes, Princes, Counts and great lords, who, when the prince puts his people in battle array go aside, because they are too young to fight.
And so, with this force, the Prince passed the Maas in manner following.
When the camp was pitched at Gulpen, the captains had the drums beaten about five o'clock in the evening, that all those who had to do with powder or lead should come to their captain, and after an hour, the corporals and captains went from camp to camp, to tell all men to hold themselves in readiness to start without beat of drum. All being ready, the camp marched all night until dawn, when they found themselves before the Maas, which was passed first by the Schwarz-reiters and artillery and afterwards by the men, which took the whole day, although they had quite twenty boats, great and small. After their crossing they marched to before the town of Stochem, where they remained two days, and when the camp was pitched, the Prince had six pieces of artillery fired in triumph. On the second night that they were there, we had two false alarms, caused by our own people.
In the town of Maesyck, a league from Stochem, the Prince found 18 carts of bread, ready to go to the Duke of Alva.
The day after he left Stochem, the Prince put his people in array to give battle to the Duke, and at six o'clock sounded his trumpets, that the Duke should come, who replied in like manner, but (although the Prince waited long) did not issue out of his fortress, only sending out about four hundred of his Spanish horse, who had a little skirmish against the Prince's men, and also letting fly a white flag outside his fortress. The Prince, to see if he was coming out, sent three companies (ensignes) of the Gasconians towards an obscure road, but the Duke had there hidden seven pieces of artillery, and when the Prince's men approached, the pieces were all fired at once but only two men were killed. The companies seeing such treason, incontinently returned. There were killed in this skirmish about a hundred reiters, all told.
From this place, they marched to near the town of Tongres, where they rested two days, and where the Prince was acknowledged as their lord; after which they departed and came before Borchloon, which also acknowledged the Prince.
It rained heavily all the way to Borchloon, so that the Duke of Alva left upon a mountain six pieces of artillery, in charge of three companies of Spaniards, which news being brought to the Prince by a poor villager, he sent a band of reiters, who defeated the Spaniards, and seized the guns, each of which was drawn by nineteen horses.
From Borchloon the camp proceeded to near St. Trond (St. Trudo), which town also let the Prince enter and gave him six pieces of artillery and six casks of powder. The Abbe of St. Trond was taken prisoner, because he would not give the camp 16,000 florins, but six or seven days later, he gave 8,000 florins and promised the rest when he was able.
Near St. Trond there were skirmishes for a whole day with the enemy, all to the advantage of the Prince. On the same day the Prince caused justice to be done on a traitor, who was quartered for selling bread full of poison.
After he had gained St. Trond, the Prince sent the Count Du Mons with his troop a league from that place that he might also take a little town called Leeuwe, which had given him three casks of powder and 20,000 florins. They returned three or four days afterwards, having found there ready 17 carts of bread and wine going to the Duke of Alva, of which they took possession. For which cause the Duke had one of the burghers of the town hanged.
Half a league from St. Trond is a castle called Dras, whose lord serves the Duke of Alva; which castle the Prince took and pillaged.
Thence the camp removed to a mountain called Stipes, where the Prince towards the evening put his men in order of battle against the Duke, but as it was too late, there was only a little skirmish. The Duke fired several volleys of artillery at the Prince's camp, but, God be thanked, he fired too short, so that he did no damage. They stood so long in order, and it became so late, that the foot could not find their quarters.
The next day, the Prince again set his men in battle array upon the mountain, but, as the Duke would not come out of his stronghold, the Prince caused his men to pass a stream called Le Geyt [or Geta] and as the rear-guard was about to cross the bridge which had been made across the said stream, a great number of Spaniards issued from a wood, who fired in great strength upon the rear-guard, so that the Count of Hoogstraeten with a thousand gascon harquebusiers had to return and make head against them. The Duke, seeing that the skirmish was not going in his favour, sent a band of Spaniards to crush the Prince's foot. Hoogstraeten had also summoned some horse, but coming to the bridge, they found it not large enough for them to pass in order, and had incontinently to return. When Hoogstraeten saw that the horse could not come to his aid, he ordered the foot to retire and follow the horse, so that all the Gascons crossed the bridge and several ran into the stream and were drowned. But the Spaniards followed the footmen, and the Count de Lemmen was behind a group of trees with his horsemen and M. de Bombergen with his horsemen upon the edge of a mountain, and they defeated the Spaniards in such manner that in this skirmish there was a great slaughter. Captain Longeval was killed and the Count of Hoogstraeten was wounded in his leg, and there were left dead on the field a thousand men of the Prince and two thousand of the Duke of Alva. The Count Ludovic, brother of the Prince, took three Spanish captains prisoner with his own hand.
From this place, the camp removed to before Geldenahen, where also the Prince was admitted, and had given to him a great number of carts of bread. After resting here two days, there came to the Prince about 6,000 Gascon foot and 4,000 horse, also Gascons, whom the Prince of Conde had sent him as a succours.
Thence the camp drew before Thielleremon [Tillemont], into which the Duke of Alva had put twenty companies of French; at which time the Prince did nothing against the said town, because it was very poor. He raised the camp at midnight, and retired day and night until he came before Liege, where he pitched his camp on a mountain called St. Giele, whence he fired three shots of artillery upon the town. The town withstood him, and fired several times upon the camp. And as the Duke of Alva was approaching, the Prince had to retire, and removed his camp as far as the cross of Estrain. At midnight, he came across part of the Duke's camp, and in the skirmish, took prisoner nine of his gentlemen.
From thence, the camp was taken by the Prince all over the country of Liege, burning all the villages and monasteries that he met in his way, and gaining three towns, viz. Landen, Haynvuyt [qy. Hannuye] and Nyvelle, during which time there were several small skirmishes, not worthy of notice, excepting one which happened near the town of Henegouve, where the Duke lost his son and several great lords, especially the Count Ladron, whom the Prince took prisoner.
Endd. “A discourse of the Prince of Orange passing into the Low Countries.” French. 5 pp. [S.P. For. Eliz. CXLVI. 4.]
405. Another Account.
The names of all such noblemen as are serving the Prince of Orange.
The Count Ludovic, the Duke of Holste[in], the Count Van Hoogstraeten (Holfstrate), Herr Vandenbergh, Herr van Culembourg (Colingbrough).
The number of the horsemen and their captains.
From the Duke of Brunswick, “being the bravest band that ever was seen”
3,000 horse
From the Landgrave of Hesse
1,500 horse
From the Duke of Pomerania (Pomerland)
2,000 ”
From Hertog (Harty) Julius [of Brunswick]
1,500 ”
The Duke of Holstein “being in person himself”
2,000 ”
Count van Hoogstraeten brought with him
1,500 ”
Count Ludovic brought with him
2,000 ”
Herr Vandenbergh brought with him
1,500 ”
Total
15,000 ”
The Herr van Culembourg is solicitor for munition for the camp.
The number of the footmen and their captains.
Gascons, Colonel, monsieur Malberte [qy. Malsbourg]; ensigns
10
Walloons, Colonel, monsieur Trisore [Risior]; ensigns
9
Almains, ensigns
38
The 6 of October, the Prince passed the Maes at a place called Stockum, being a ford between Meystrike [i.e. Maeseyck] and Liege, and were all over by eight o'clock in the morning.
There passed first 2,000 reiters, having every horseman behind him a harquebusier, and lay there all that day, being Wednesday.
The next day, the Prince offered battle, and there they skirmished, where there was few of both sides slain, at which skirmish a junker (younger) of the horsemen lost his leg by a great shot out of the Duke's camp.
This messenger left the Prince at Bowrgerlowffe [sic] and returned over the Maes with waggons which had brought victuals. On his way, he heard that the Marquis of Baden was come as far as Cologne with 1,500 horse to serve the Prince.
“The Germans is very desirous to fight, and all the Prince's bands, both footmen as horsemen wearing blue scarves. The Prince sent to Mechelen to have the town, but they refused. He hath no great store of great ordnance, but only seven pieces. But he hath provided 9,000 cannon shot, which this messenger saw at Cologne. The Prince lying at Stockum, took forty waggons laden with meal, and victuals are good cheap in his camp.
“The Duke hath but 1,500 reiters, which Harty Yourkyn (fn. 1) sent him, who is so misliked that he dares not tarry in his country, but is gone into Italy. He can have no soldiers out of Germany. He sent to take up at Bolduck [Bois-le-duc] ten ensigns of footmen, but by no means he could levy any, being counted such a tyrant.
“The Duke's camp is environed with 7,000 waggons, and lies by Maestricht. The Duke of Cleves hath mustered his country, and hath in a readiness 7,000 footmen.
“M. de Moye was not come (at this messenger's departure) to the Prince's camp, but was daily looked for. Cassimerus hath received a pay at Frankfort, and is going into France with 4,000 horsemen.”
3 pp. [S.P. For. Eliz. CXLVI. 5.]
[A.D. 1568 or 1569 ?]
Oct. 24.
406. Orrigo Gentile to ——.
“Copy of a letter from Malaga, touching the late wreck of the Gallies.
Endd. Italian. 3 pp. [Ibid. CXLVI. 6.]
407. Translation of the above letter.
You will have heard before this of the misfortune of the galleys, for Signor Scipion immediately advertised the King thereof. Surely there was no other “success” to be looked for of this voyage, under such a leader and in such weather, especially sailing in such a gulf, where there is no place sufficient to receive such vessels from Carthagena to Gibraltar.
Order being come from the King to Don John to repair to Oran with pay for the soldiers there, and to take with him the galleys of Italy (afterwards letting them depart for Naples and himself returning for Spain) we departed on the 17th of this month and made our way hitherwards, sometimes with oars and sometimes with sail, the weather being foggy. Next morning we came “unto this unhappy place of Serradura,” where the wind, being first North-east, came round to the South-south-east, which is the dangerousest wind that can blow in that place. The rowers laboured to help the mariners, but the galleys were forced to run on land, “which was a fearful sight to behold, as well for the pitifulness of the case as for the death of such a number of persons that were drowned.” Twenty-five galleys were lost; those that first came to land were St. Angelo, St. Philip, the Faith (Signor Scipion's), the Renegade, the Hope, the Patron of Naples, the St. James, the Patron of Signor Scipion; and after this all the rest of his galleys, your galley called the Patron, the Patron of Signor Bendinelli, and many others. Of the Captain galley of Spain, only one man was saved, and the like happened to the Star, a terrible sight to see. As soon as your Captain galley came to land, all possible diligence was used to undo the chains and irons of the rowers, “and to the intent that those that shifted to save themselves should not run away, I thought best to unclothe myself into my slops and peticoat (fn. 2) and to leap into the sea and swim to land, having about me 35 crowns in a handkerchief in my bosom, and as I was swimming, there came upon me, with a great surge of the sea, two gallochie, wherewith my head was so sore stricken as if I had not had good help I should have been drowned although I were almost come to land. Being a little recovered, after I had brought together as many of the rowers as was possible to get to land, I was forced by the pain I felt to withdraw to this place, whereunto is also come Signor Scipion and many others, and all the rowers. Of yours there are saved 108 slaves and 68 forsati [i.e. forzadi, criminals condemned to the galleys].
Since the said misfortune, the Spanish soldiers have not only hindered the saving of the goods, but continually spoil as much as they may come by. I have sent to see if there be any means to recover the ordnance and the irons, but I am told it will be very hard, as both galleys are broken, the Patron entirely under water and the Captain mostly buried in the sand. When Signor Scipion is put in mind of recovering the things, he says he will have it put in hand, but nothing is done. The courtiers are unwilling that any great search should be made, fearing [for] the coffers of money that were going to Oran, which they allege they will first procure to recover. What money has been saved, has been put into the hands of Signor Stefano Lomellino. The coming hither of the said Lomellino and of Andrea Spinola has been a great help in causing Signor Scipion to write to the King for help to bring his own and your rowers, with the few that are left of Signor Bendinelli to some convenient place, and they will also further us in the provision of bread and biscuit, “wherein they have showed themselves of a very free and liberal mind and easy to be entreated.”
Of the galleys of Naples, there are saved about 650 men out of 1,100, but very few of those of Spain. Some think it would be well to bring the rowers to Malaga, others say to Granada and thence towards Barcelona, and I am of this opinion, for though the way be long, we should have the help of carriages from Granada, and probably permission from the King to lodge without charges; also besides each man's rowers, we shall daily get men enough in Granada and other places. Signor Scipion says that he hopes, in Barcelona, to have four of the King's ships, and to arm them against next year, which he shall not lack means to do “by the help of Cagnato Squarciafico and of the other Spinola also.” Almonecar, 24 October. 3¼ pp. [S.P. For. Eliz. CXLVI. 7.]
408. Defence of the Queen's Policy against Spain.
“. . . The Crown of England, enjoying before peace, was by that alliance drawn into war both with France and Scotland, at which time also the King of Spain, being required by England to join in the war against Scotland, according to the laws of treaty and equity, did by D'Assonville and the Conde de Feria utterly refuse, for the respect of the trade which his Low Countries had with Scotland, so as thereby her Majesty was forced to yield to hard conditions of peace with Scotland also, yet notwithstanding this unkind dealing offered by Spain, her Majesty, of a Christian mind being desirous to entertain friendship with all her neighbours, and especially with the house of Burgundy, did make divers overtures to the King and such great persons as were about him, to renew the treaties that had before passed between the two realms; first by the Lord Cobham, that was sent to advertise him of the death of Queen Marie; then by two ambassadors, Sir Thomas Challinor and after Sir Thomas Chamberlayne, and lastly by the Viscount Montagu and Sir Thomas Chomley, purposely sent into Spain the year 1560. The success of all which good offices may well declare the little good affection of the King of Spain and his ministers to her Majesty. Yet to make the matter more apparent and notorious unto all the world, sundry disgraces were offered unto her Majesty's ambassador, Mr. Man, both by deferring his audience, searching his chests and coffers, forcing his servants, yea and his son to go to mass, yea some of them for the more indignity with tapers in their hands, contrary to the privileges of ambassadors and the law of nations. And yet the year following, 1568, the Duke d'Alva, by arrest of our English ships, which he did under pretence that the goods and men appertaining to certain merchants of Genoa, stayed in England, was belonging to the King, did, as it were, proclaim open war against this state.
First part of the document wanting. 1 p. [S.P. For. Eliz. CXLVI. 8.]

Footnotes

1 Eric of Brunswick is evidently the Duke in question, but what the writer means to call him is not clear. Probably Hertog Jonker (he was known as Eric the Young) or possibly Hertog Erickyn.
2 “Calzoni bianchi et camisola,” translated as above, but should rather be “drawers and shirt.”