Elizabeth
July 1583, 26-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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1914

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36-51

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'Elizabeth: July 1583, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 18: July 1583-July 1584 (1914), pp. 36-51. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78985 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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July 1583, 26–31

July 27.44. Cobham to Walsingham.
Perceiving by your last letters that her Majesty was advertised there were ships prepared at Havre de Grace and Dieppe to transport men and munition to Scotland, I sent William Shute into those parts, who tells me that the Duke of Guise has been twenty-one days at Eu, spending his time in hunting the wild boar and other pleasures. He was visited by sundry English young gentlemen who are come over, “pretending” to be papists. Peter Tuve, one of the ordinary posts, came in the same boat, and may better tell you their names. Neither at Havre de Grace nor Dieppe were there any ships prepared, or men meant to be sent, but about Honfleur, on the coast of basse Normandy, there are three vessels getting ready, by order of the Duke d'Elboeuf, professing to serve Don Antonio, but I am credibly informed they are to transport men to Scotland, where it is certainly known that the King of Scots has got free from the Earl of Angus and those other lords who were lately about him.
The Bishop of Glasgow is advertised that the Scottish King is retired into the Castle of St. Andrews, having chosen to be about him the Earl of Argyle and Col. Stewart; where he is strengthened by the Earls Huntly, Crayford, and others which are papists. So as in all likelihood, they will give all such assistance as they may from hence, although it be not in present readiness.
Davy and James Fentry, the Scottish bishop's nephews, with forty gentlemen and servants departed eight days since, having with them harquebuses and powder, with intention to repair to the King, to be about his body. There is gone in their company a disguised Jesuit or two.
The Bishop of Glasgow gives out that Col. Stewart had deceived his Majesty, whereon the laird of Wemyss, surnamed Colvin, challenged him for a traitor in the King's presence, and that the King sent away Stewart, the Abbot of “Blantree” finding him to be affected to the Earl of Angus, which Earl's head is or shall be shortly cut from his shoulders, as they of the Scottish faction in these parts certainly assure themselves.
The Bishop of Glasgow has dealt very earnestly with a gentleman of that country, a friend of mine, to repair with letters to Lord Hamilton to dissuade him from following her Majesty's course. The Laird “Fanhurst” thinks very shortly to retire to Scotland.
They inform me that the Unicorn, d'Aubigny's ship, has returned to the Isle of Retz on the coast of Brittany, which I believe, because Henry Keir's brother, who went to sea in that ship, came the other day to this town.
The Duke of Guise is about to build another monastery in Eu, for which purpose he has raised an impost on all things carried to and fro on the river which descends into the haven there. He is also levying an impost on every “soame” of fish brought to the port, for the maintenance of the haven. The profit of this is taken, but the haven goes slowly forward.
The Cardinal of Bourbon lately attempted in the Parlement at Rouen to have the preaching of the Gospel prohibited throughout Normandy, which they have rejected, alleging the King's edict.
“The Duke d'Elbceuf would have constrained M. de Mesnages in Normandy to leave the exercise of the Religion, in such violent manner as the preaching was for some days hindered; howbeit, now it is continued, the said gentleman, with others of the Religion, standing on their defence if the said Duke shall offer any outrage.”
The Duke of Guise dined on the 22nd inst. at Arques near Dieppe, and on the 23rd was at Bacqueville's house on his way towards Paris, being sent for by the King. The King came to Paris from Madril on the 23rd, after supper, and alighted at Madame de Sepier's [Sipierre's] lodging, where he rested till ten o'clock, departing then to lodge at the Duke d'Epernon's house. Next morning he went to the Augustins, amongst his brethren penitenciers, where he assisted them in their ceremonies. Since then he has been at Madril and to-morrow repairs to Dollenville and so to Lyons to meet Duke Joyeuse and to be at the fair, which is about the 16th of next month, by their account. After staying five or six days, he will return here, taking his young Queen on the way.
The Bishop of Narbonne, brother to Joyeuse, has (by the King's, orders) caused to come hither an abbot dwelling about Toulouse, a gentleman born akin to Pibrac. This abbot lives, they say, in most humble sort, his head always uncovered, and travels barefoot and barelegged, for which outward show the King seems to have him in veneration.
The King has sent Pralion [or Braillon], one of his interpreters for the Almain tongue, to the Duke of Biponts, to satisfy him and the other colonels for the money which they sought to borrow of him. “The said party is to espy what he can in the Duke 'of' Casimir's camp, from whence he is to send notice unto those of the papist faction and unto the Pope's nuncio, remaining for the present in Cologne.”
The Queen Mother is retired into a village between the Bons Hommes and St. Cloud, half a league from Madril and a league and a half from Rueil where Don Antonio is, finding it commodious for her affairs during the King's abode. After he departs, she will go into Normandy, to Gaiflon, the Cardinal of Bourbon's house, to be cheered and perhaps to meet Monsieur, who is still at La Fere in Picardy.
The King, as I hear, has caused M. Bellièvre to “persuade with” Monsieur to continue his treaty with the Low Countries, although they of Ghent have made a public resolution that they will not treat any further with the French. But I also hear that his Highness is inclined to retire to his houses in France and to match himself in marriage, and so to rest for certain years, until his estate may be amended.
Puygaillard is departed towards the frontiers of Picardy, where he will have fourteen companies of men-of-arms.
I beseech you to move her Majesty to consider the injurious treatment used to her subjects who trade and pass the seas, “as this other week, in three 'passengers' wherein there were ordinary posts with many other Englishmen, who were put in fear and pilfered; and particularly a man of mine, who for safe-guard of the packet did with some charge and hazard escape in a shallop, so as any letters sent from hence may incur the same peril.” I have often made complaint but hitherto received no redress. I am seeking to be admitted to the King or Queen, to inform them of these disorders, but with small likelihood of remedy. The bearer, John Tupper, can inform you of what happened lately on the sea.
You will receive herein the occurrents from sundry places and letters out of Germany from Dr. Lobetius. Signed.—Paris, 27 July, 1583.
Add. Endd. 3 ½ pp. [France X. 14.]
July 27.45. Cobham to Walsingham.
“I beseech your honour to pardon me that I do not write at large unto you, being not well in health and in grief for the death of my dear nephew, who was not only a hope to his father, but to all others of his poor house; beseeching you, with your honourable persuasions to lighten and ease the sorrow which will, I know, overmuch oppress my Lord and Lady Cobham, because he was justly entirely beloved of them, as their first-born child of great expectations.”
I understand the Queen Mother seeks to induce the Duke of Anjou to marry the Princess of Lorraine, hoping so to overrule him and bring him to reason. “This is in handling,” wherein Bellièvre is employed. The King seems to like it, but not so as to press it, or to show great liberality in that respect. It is said he would have his Highness continue his pretence to the Low Countries, but to what good purpose does not appear.
Monsieur has sent for M. de Reux, intending, as is thought, to send him to her Majesty, to reside there. “He is the same party who was here these two years past (since the parting of Marchaumont into England), his Highness' agent in this court.”
The Duke d'Epernon is looked for from his government of Metz. The Princess of Lorraine is not departed from her father's house, where she has been to cheer with her brothers and sisters. Monsieur will not leave La Fere until the King is gone from these parts.
The Bishop of Glasgow conducts Earl Morton this evening to the Queen Mother, to show her the party the French King may have in Scotland, as also to demand that they may transport some succours from hence.
I cannot find that Duke Joyeuse has negotiated any matter of importance in Italy, unless it passed in his secret conference with the Pope.
“It was true that the packets of the king were taken from the courier who was going towards the Duke Joyeuse, which I hear Châtillon had.”
I send you letters for Lord Hamilton, of whose arrival I have not yet heard. “Since I have been deprived of my nephew Maximilian's life, it seemeth to me this court is become very noisome; wishing her Majesty, either in respect of her better service or for compassion, would vouchsafe to release me from hence.”—Paris, 27 July, 1583.
P.S.—“I am made assuredly to think that Charetier is not brought to the Bastille here, as it was constantly affirmed.”
Add. Endd. 2 pp. Italicized words in cipher, undeciphered. [France X. 15.]
July 27./Aug 6.46. J. Jernegan to Walsingham.
Since I last wrote, his Alteze, being before Ypres in parley for the town, on advertisement from Bryddawe of the enemy's approach, yesterday marched thitherwards with all speed, with about 5,000 men; whereby Ypres continues in “his” former state, and also Ostend, being fronted with some regiments of ours. The great artillery, sent to Dunkirk, now returns by sea to Gravelines. “Restraint of English commodities would greatly ' penure' this country,” which I leave to your consideration.
My accustomed messenger has “lewdly conversanted himself” against your honour and others. He means I hear to remain in Dunkirk after his return from England. I pray you suffer him to return, that he may be more certainly deciphered,—6 August [new style].
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 94.]
July 28./Aug. 7.47. De Villiers to Walsingham.
Knowing that you bear a singular friendship for M. Eustace Roghes, who is in your country, where his wife went to meet him in June, I beg you to take in good part my boldness in addressing to you the enclosed packet of letters to be forwarded to them at the White Wolf in London. If I can serve you in any way, I beg you to command me.—Antwerp, 7 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. M. de Villier. 1 p. Fr. [Ibid. XIX. 95.]
July 15 and 28.48. [Harborne to Walsingham.]
Achmet Aga, being of more force and better accompanied than the Master of the Horse, did not obey his commission, and leaving his company on the way, came in post, and resteth imprisoned. “But as great flies easily pass the spider her web where the little are snarled, so these that here have much wealth (as this is said to have better than a million of gold), are pardoned their life with loss of their goods, whereas others not having, are executed. For they, as good hounds which bring in the game, shall often hunt, whereof, according to the vulgar exclamation, be too, too many in these parts, and such as according to the old proverb: Seldom cometh better.
“Since the departure of Occhiali (Coluchely) the Admiral from Canea to Argier, we have not heard anything other than that Hassan, vice-re of that town, was gone to sea with twenty-five galleys and galliots, who, an ancient and notable corsair, maketh all fish that cometh in his net, and upon the Grand Signor his commandment of restitution, nothing will be found. He hath robbed sundry upon the coast of Provence, as de Germigny is certified from Marseilles (Marcelia). We pray God to give our ships the mean to escape him in their return homewards, for these pirates of Argier spare none, but according to the old French proverb: Bon a prendere, male a rendere. Hereafter, traders for these parts must use only the winter-time, to be void of his and many other apparent dangers, for the Malta and Florence galleys, as here it is certainly affirmed, be also their professed enemies. But we hope boni invisi malis a deo protigentur. It may please your honour to give the said traders hither admonition thereof, both for country's and their private profit, for surely otherwise they incur too much hazard.
“The controversy between the clergy is clean appeased, and Satan his delusion not yet discovered. God grant the same shortly to the overthrow of that dark kingdom. We wish our religions were so easily reconciled in all their difference to remain uniformes et unanimi in their profession, to God his glory, our comfort, and confusion of these and the like hypocritical ambitious prelates, papists and apostates.
“Ferat Bassa is arrived with his army in Persia, in a needful and acceptable time, little before whose coming the General Osman (Osmond) received a great overthrow, and not without some loss to the Persian. Daily still goeth hence new supplies; the richer sort forced to keep still that formerly given them in possession, the poorer which have naught thereby to have, or having little, to have a greater pay by service. The said Ferat, being on his way, caused a cadi or judge to be hanged, who being appointed as treasurer to go with certain money for those parts, came hither to the vice-re to be excused, alleging his age prone to sickness and not tolerable of so long a journey, and that at his charge others sufficient should be put in by him. He, pitying his case, and not having the mean to release him, with letters of favour recommended him to Ferat the general, being at Esmitry [qy. Edremid], a hundred miles hence; who upon intelligence he had left the said treasure behind him, tyrannously forthwith caused to be executed as abovesaid.”
When the French King fled out of Poland, he was attended by one Alexander, an obscure Greek, who from his childhood served a counsellor of the vaivode of Wallachia, and by his personable presence, wit and industry attained to a wealthy marriage, but neither wife nor wealth long lasted, and she being deceased and he driven to the wall, he informed the King that he was the son of one Petrasco, vaivode of the country. The King, crediting his report, recommended him to the Grand Signor and sent him to de Germigny, who (being promised 50,000 dollars by the man if he should enjoy that signoria), used such diligence with the Grand Signior that the said man was six days ago invested with the title and “the other, known to be of the true lineage” brought as a prisoner to Aleppo. The expenses of the said man are 200l. each day, besides tribute and rewards, “termed here presents,” which he must make, so that it is supposed he will depart indebted in three millions of gold, which, probably, he will never be able to pay. He calls himself Petro Vaivode, but those who know him best report as aforesaid. He is indued with singular good qualities, expert of ten languages, but his prodigality is like to breed his destruction.
Extract, probably a decipher. 2½ pp. [Turkey I. 8b.]
On the same sheet is a decipher of part of the letter of Aug. 12.
[See letter of Aug. 28, p. 85, below.]
July 28.49. Stokes to Walsingham.
“The troubles and great miseries in this town and in these parts increaseth still daily more and more most lamentably, for in sundry places between Sluys and Ostend the magistrates of this town and the 'Free' have let in the sea-water” to the undoing of thousands of the poor countrymen, whose standing corn is all destroyed. This they were forced to do, to keep the enemy from Sluys. The Lord send them comfort and keep them from the Spaniard, for where he is master he shows great cruelty to the poor commons and if he still prevail it is much feared that other countries of the Religion will not live long in quiet by him.
On Monday last, Dixmude was most cowardly delivered up to the Prince of Parma, wherein were 500 Flemish soldiers, who with the burghers could have kept it a year, for it was strong and they wanted nothing, and the cannon came not near it by a mile. It was delivered by agreement, the soldiers departing with their arms and ensigns displayed, “and so, like butter-hearted Flemings, they delivered up the town and came away.”
The enemy lies now before Ypres, with thirty-four cannons, but they are not yet planted and it is hoped the town will hold out for three or four months, for they want nothing. But it is much feared the burghers will overmaster the soldiers, as in all the other towns lately lost.
All the English lie in villages about this town, “attending” some pay from the Four Members, “which state” strains themselves sorely to find money to content the soldiers. But they cannot possibly continue this great payment long, without help of the other united provinces, from whom as yet they have had none.
The Prince of Orange has this week written again to the Four Members of Flanders, pressing them to take the aid of M. de Biron, and assuring them he will do them good service. But the Prince of Chimay and the said Members will take no aid of the French, nor have them longer in the country.
Here is great rejoicing amongst the commons for General Norris' coming into Zeeland, and the Four Members are sending their deputies with great speed to meet the rest of the General States there, to talk with him. But the magistrates fear the Prince of Orange's dealings, that he will be “some let” of their resolutions, for the advancement of the French, who are the cause of the loss of all these towns, because the commons, to the last man, will not come under them.
The great quantity of wheat, malt and other victuals which Englishmen bring daily to Dunkirk and Nieuport, out of England, and especially from Sandwich, is a great grief to the Four Members and States of these parts, for it seems that without this help, the enemy could hardly keep those towns for want of of victuals.
The King of Scots has sent Col. Preston's brother hither, with letters to the Four Members to do justice upon those Scots soldiers that murdered his brother at Menin; whereupon the magistrates here and the Four Members have this week taken seven of the principal doers of that murder, five of whom they have executed on the gibbet, and the other two they keep yet alive to confess some other matters.
I cannot tell you the extreme misery here, and surely I see that Flanders will yield to anything her Majesty shall demand at their hands. The Prince and the French have some friends here, but not above five or six amongst the magistrates in both the colleges, I mean Bruges and the Free, and of the commons, not one.—Bruges, 28 July, 1583, stilo anglie.
Add. Endd.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 96.]
July 29.50. Stokes to Walsingham.
Since I wrote to you yesterday, the magistrates have this morning received letters from Ypres, of the 27th, wherein the magistrates of that town write that the enemy is preparing to plant the cannon to it. Yet they are of good courage and fear not, for they write that they can keep it six months and longer, and that the burghers and soldiers have sworn to live and die together. They want for nothing and hope to be succoured. This news from Ypres has greatly rejoiced their hearts [here].
They also write that the enemy has sent all his horse towards Hulst [i.e. Alost] and Dermonde, for it seems, if they cannot prevail [at Ypres] they will deal with those towns, which are unprovided with victuals and men, and the horsemen are sent to keep them from both if they can.
The Prince of Orange plies the Four Members with letters and has now written that they must either be French or Spanish, by which speech they think “that he makes no account of England, which doth very much grieve them, for they do only trust unto her Majesty.” So he daily moves them to take the aid of the French, saying they are the only men that can help them. But for all that, they will not hearken to it.—Bruges, 29 July, stilo anglie.
Add. Endd.pp. [Ibid. XIX. 97.]
July 29./Aug. 8.51. The States Of Holland to the Queen.
Credentials for Joachim Ortell, sent as their agent to her Majesty.—The Hague, 8 August, 1583.
Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [Ibid. XIX. 98.]
July 29./Aug. 8.52. The Prince Of Orange to the Queen.
I have received your Majesty's letter sent by Mr. Norris, from which, and from what he has told me on your behalf, I have been very glad to learn the good affection which you continue to me. On my part, I beg you to be always assured of my humble service.
As to affairs over here, to my great regret I have to say that they are not in too good a state; would to God they were in a better ! I am bound to say that all the evil has come upon us for want of a resolution, which cannot be taken so long as the States General do not meet. For this reason, I cannot at present send you any certain news, as you will understand more fully by the despatch which Mr. Norris is now preparing.—Flushing, 8 August, 1583. (Signed) Guille. de Nassau.
Add. Endd. Fr. ' 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 99.]
July 29.53. Sir Jerome Bowes to Walsingham.
Although I have not seen aught worth the writing of, yet having been so greatly bound unto you for many favours, I could not but present the humble duty of him that loveth you much, and tell you of the success of our journey hitherto.”We have at length won the sight of St. Nicholas, though with some danger, yet, thanks be to God, safely. We arrived there the 21st of July, where the next day the ambassador came to see me, and so departed in post towards Moscow, saying he would take order for my coming to Colmagor, which I find he hath done. But because he told me withal that it would be twenty days before I could hear again from the Emperor, and that till then I might not remove thence, I was persuaded by our agents to make no haste thither, whose advice I entertain for good, because I learn I shall not be half so well there as I am here. Neither do I doubt but before I shall stir further I shall have much more need of a furred gown for the weather than a fan for the sun, for the hills here be already covered with snow.
“Sir, touching my pitiful estate at home, which leaveth me not quiet though I be far off, I hope it hath liked you and pleased her Majesty long ere this to have had so much care of, as neither my poor credit rest altogether rased nor my kind brother continue still in danger of overthrow.”—St. Nicholas, 29 July.
Add. Endd. “29 July, 1583. Sir Hierom Bowes.” 1 p. [Russia I. 6.]
July 30.54. François Rasse Des Neux to Walsingham.
Being stayed for want of a fair wind for France, I greet you once more before leaving this good country, to which and to all its inhabitants I shall ever remain a friend, and to her Majesty, to you and to the Lord Treasurer bound all my life to render dutiful service.
I have heard here that the Dukes of Guise and Maine are at Eu and that many companies of horse and foot are near that country; also that the deliverance of the Queen of Scots is being negotiated. I am sure they bear no good affection to her Majesty or her state. I will say no more of it, but will send you all I can hear of machinations against her with as good affection as if I were a natural Englishman.
We have been lodging with Mr. James Persall, who is your good servant, and begs me to commend him further to your favour, as I do, having received from him very good and humane treatment. I have also had communication with a very good and learned doctor, Mr. Gabriel Pope, one worthy of favourable recommendation and a man of honour. He is very well known to Mr. Rendoll [Randolph]. I pray you, if you have an opportunity of doing him a pleasure, use it as for me.—Rye, 30 July, 1583. [Style doubtful].
Add. Endd. “30 July. M. de Neux.” Fr. 2 pp. [France X. 16.]
July 30.55. Norreys to the Queen.
On Wednesday, the 24th of this present, being arrived at Flushing, I repaired to the Prince of Orange, presented your Majesty's letters and delivered to him that which you had given in charge to me. Whereupon he answered that the States General not being assembled, he could not set down any such certain resolution as he willingly would, and as the state of these afflicted countries required. But meanwhile he would deliver to your Majesty his own opinion touching the course most likely to be embraced by them at their General Assembly, for which they are arrived or daily expected at Middelburg. “And first, touching his Alteze, he findeth the countries generally to dislike of him and to be clean out of taste to deal any further in that course, as well for the small benefit they have hitherto received, as for the want of sufficient means in him any way to do them good; so that in his opinion that course will no more be hearkened unto, but be altogether abandoned.” Yet he thinks their uniting together in such a way as to prevail without other aid a matter of great difficulty, seeing how easily the King gains places from them, wherewith the people being greatly discouraged, will by little and little fall clean from the union, and so the countries become daily more unable to make resistance, or to stand by themselves, not being supported by some other prince; in which behalf they seem to have no hope but from your Majesty or the French King, being the only two princes to whom they can fly for succour.
And as the present necessity of their state presses them to a resolution, and they are unwilling to proceed without your direction, the Prince requires me to signify so much, humbly craving your favourable answer, and that the rather because the French King daily insists on having their resolution, offering them great aid, which he will cause to march presently upon the signification of their resolution to accept it. And this the Prince wills me to write as a certain truth, and to assure you that both the country and himself are thoroughly bent to do whatsoever you shall command. Touching their other proceedings, those of Flanders, greatly disliking Marshal Biron and his French troops, will not receive them into garrison in any of their towns; therefore they are all shipped for Calais, where the French King has ordered them to be kept until the resolution of the States be certainly known.
The enemy, after taking Nieuport, made some attempt on Ostend and the Sluys, but finding both places sufficiently furnished, repaired to Dixmude, Menin and Fume (Vuerne) all which he has taken, and is now before Ypres, a town of good strength, and well provided both of men and munition, but by reason of the taking of Dixmude and no hope of succour, it is feared it will not long hold out. It is also said the enemy are assembling some forces about Liekerke, with purpose to attempt Brussels or Alost.
May it please your Majesty to give me leave in a word or twain to deliver my simple opinion how much it imports these countries to know in convenient time your good direction, whereon (the Prince's opinion is) they are most willing to depend; wherefore to detain them in suspense were to give leisure to the enemy to grow more strong, and bring them so low that hereafter neither your Majesty or the French King shall be able to help them.
Whatsoever it shall please your Majesty to resolve, I shall be ready with all dutiful devotion at all times to do your good pleasure as you shall command me.—30 July, 1583.
Copy, in hand of Audley Danett. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 100.]
July 30.56. Norreys to Walsingham.
I trust you will hold me excused for not writing to you how I have proceeded with the Prince, having advertised it by these enclosed to her Majesty, which I pray you present, and to which I refer you. Touching the motion you willed me to make to his Excellency, I found him not very forward to hearken thereto, for reasons which will be reported to you by this bearer, who will also tell you of the state of proceedings here. I pray you to be a means to her Majesty not to keep the people in long suspense of her resolution (whereon they greatly depend), which will no doubt be greatly to their prejudice. The States being now assembled, it will be more easy to conjecture what course these countries will embrace.—Flushing, 30 July, 1583.
In hand of A. Danett. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. XIX. 101.]
July 31.57. R. Lemaçon [or Fontayne] to Walsingham.
I have received the two enclosures to the packet brought me by “Toupet” [qy. Tupper], which you may look at if you please. The others are addressed to Messrs. Castel and Maillet, and come from Geneva.—London, last of July, 1583 [o.s.].
Add. (to Barnelms). Endd.: 30 (sic) July. M. Fountayne. Fr. 1 p. [France X. 17.]
Enclosed in above.
58. D. C. to M. de la Fontaine.
Thank God for your return. I have seen the ambassador, who has just put water in his wine. I will let your brother have your letters on Saturday. M. de Bellièvre is not yet back from Monsieur. Meantime it is held that he will marry the Princess of Lorraine. His lodging is being fitted up at the Louvre. He swears now only by the faith which he owes to their Majesties and to those belonging to them. The King will be at Lyons on the 4th; the Duke of Joyeuse will be there and Epernon, who has gone to take possession of the government of Metz. Meanwhile the Queen Mother will go to Gaillon with the secretaries of State. The King has refused money to Duke Casimir, as well as your Queen, but it is thought the Duke of Saxony is going heartily into the business. It is held also that the Chapter of Liege will proceed to a new election if the bishop does not return, and that the thirty-two crafts have refused to furnish him with men and money.
All is quiet in Guyenne and Languedoc. The King of Navarre is come back from Nerac. The Prince [of Condé?] is at Saint Jean. The King invites them both to be at the Assembly which he is to hold here of the chief men of his realm, in September. It is much suspected by honest men. God will take care for it, if it so please him.— 1 August, 1583 [n.s.]. Signed, “Your very humble brother and entire friend, D. C.
Add. Endd. “An advertisement.” Fr. ¾ p. [France X. 18.]
July ?59. Roger Aumound [or Almond, alias Vavasor].
The causes which may move the Privy Council of the Catholic King to incline rather to mercy than to strict justice in the case of Roger Aumound, an English gentleman, prisoner at Arras.
The two chief charges against him are that he agreed to betray the English Catholics at Paris; and that he was seen coming out of the house of the English ambassador at Paris, and afterwards went into Artois with four Jesuits, in order to return to England.
1. As to the first it arose from a letter found upon him, mentioning some money received from Secretary Walsingham and Mr. Cobham, English ambassador at Paris, as salary for the said charge, as he has confessed under torture. But he took that to gain the means to come into Artois to his master or tutor, Dr. Stapleton, Professor of the King [sic. qy. roi in mistake for loi] at Douai, a thing which he had long desired.
2. He passed through Paris without stopping there (fn. 1) or executing any of the said charge with the four Jesuits, of which Dr. Stapleton was advertised by letters from Paris, dated the 1st of June.
3. If he had wished to execute the said charge, he would have stayed in Paris and not come here, putting himself into double danger, first on the road, where he and the Jesuits were robbed of their money; and the other by his last departure from Douay, against the wish of his parents, because of whom he did not dare to come to Douay but stayed at Arras and wrote to his master, Dr. Stapleton, to reconcile himself.
4. Accepting the commission without executing or intending to execute it is not sufficient reason for putting him to death.
[Margin: the reason of M. d' Assonleville.] It would appear that he intended to return into England to execute the charge and accuse the four Jesuits, for otherwise it would be a capital crime to abandon a charge committed to him by such authority, besides which he has confessed under torture that he took the money as a reward beforehand.
To this it is replied that having abandoned the charge for the cause of religion, he will never be sought for in England, because of the turpitude of the transaction, for which the lords and counsellors of the Queen would not dare to take open vengeance.
[Margin: The reason of Pammelius, President of the King] It would be the act of a fool to accept such a charge without any intention of executing it, and so to put himself into such dangers.
[Answer.] This young man has shown himself sufficiently imprudent in many ways, to put himself into danger to arrive at a good end. To reconcile himself, he chose a bad means, worthy rather of pity than of rigour of justice. And this as to the first point.
As to the second, he was with the ambassador in Paris, with his cousin, a servant of the said lord, and not for any other object as it appears, after coming secretly with the Jesuits, to whom he was sent by letters from the Catholics in England; having taken leave of Mr. Walsingham for no other end.
That he betrayed Catholics in England cannot be proved, although for a time there was a rumour of it, and his having accused certain Catholics to their death is also not proved, seeing that all their accusers are enrolled and named in a printed book of the English martyrs, and his name is not amongst them, nor any mention of his affair in all the narrative, which is very ample, as we are ready to testify.
In conclusion, the consequence is to be considered; that for this prisoner put to death [the bottom of the page is cut away and some words mutilated] for the above reasons (?) and because of his confession under torture (for the heretics there would only intepret it so, whatever else might be said) they might put to death, or at least more grievously persecute the honest people and Catholics in England.
This consideration moved M. Allen (Alanus) president of the English seminary at Rheims in France, who having taken prisoner an Englishman at Rouen last winter, condemned of great crimes, he was not executed as he well deserved, but in a few days set at liberty. And also it is to be feared that the death of this prisoner might be imputed by the heretics to the English students at Douai, as having procured it, and even to his master, Dr. Stapleton, a thing which would exasperate the heretics there, meeting the students going and coming in the said university, and especially against Dr. Stapleton, so much as to procure some ill-treatment for him in revenge.
Part of the covering leaf cut away. Fr.pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 102.]
July 29. and Aug. 1.60. Letter from Cologne to Gilpin.
[The first part of the letter relates to the writer's (professed) arrangements with le gast de Lyster, for his journey to confer with Gilpin. See last vol. of the Calendar, pp. 673, 679 et seq.]
The news here increases concerning the army of the Empire, which is said to be certainly coming here in August, principally in order to chastise and reform this city, so that many of the best merchants are withdrawing or have already withdrawn; Messieurs Hans Keib, Welzer, George Casseler, Aldergaiss, gone with their wives and families towards Frankfort, and many others preparing to do so. As for me, I shall stay where I am, unless I accompany the gast, who has urged me to do so. One of Truchsess' counsellors has sent the said gast a list of the armies, pro et contra, of which I annex a copy. He has been desired to go to meet the conductor of the 1,500 French and Gascons, Dr. Beutterich, which he has refused to do; but will write to him and hopes to have an answer. Beutterich arrived at Bonn with the said French, on the 20th instant, and the next day they sallied out to revenge themselves on Linz, Onckel [Unkel] and other places which had fired on them as they descended the Rhine by lourdans, where they have burnt two villages and killed the peasants, thinking to do the same at Onckel; but were thrice repulsed, and lost nearly two hundred men, so that they had to return to Bonn, where Beutterich walks about with a stick, having been shot in the leg. He is first counsellor to Casimir, and the chief mover in this war, a man learned, of great parts, bold but turbulent, well known to Ce [Queen Elizabeth]. He and some others like him render the issue of this war doubtful.
Bavaria, with his camp, is at Briihl (Broelle), waiting for money in order to relieve his men. The Pope's confirmation and pallium have been sent him by the nuncio, who has sent back the commissioner Demutius and intends to follow him shortly, but remains to finish the reformation of the ecclesiastics, who have had enough of him, and wish him far away, that they may take back their valets de nuit, whom they have been compelled to give up and to pay fines, which have been used for the Jesuits.
The dismissed Truchsess, who rules matters in Westphalia, is compelling the presbyters to marry their mistresses, and is breaking down the images and taking down the bells. At Bonn they have melted the silver boxes, pyxes and chalices, and are making them into square money, as in the margin. [In the margin is a drawing of a shield and cross, as described below, surmounted by the letter G.] Some of them have four G's. They are distributed for one philipos d'aldres and weigh about a rix-dollar, but they are rare. In the middle is the shield of Truchsess with three lions, placed upon the cross of the archbishopric.
Last Monday, the gast was in the company of the commissioner of the Emperor, Curtius, to whom farewells were being said, le Lusque [Sudermann] recommending to him in Latin the affairs of the Xu [the Hanse towns], to which he replied, it is not the time to think of such things. He has since had great discourses with him, which tend to the discouragement of what he demands. He has also received bad news from Tu [qy. the Low Countries]. Many do not think the journey of St. Aldegonde and his company [to Cologne] in good taste. The Duke of Cleves and the Messieurs of this town are determined to remain neuter, supporting themselves upon the constitutions of the Empire and the agreement made in 1555 (read Sleidanus).
But it seems that this army interprets it in another fashion, so that Messieurs are not at their ease. They are walling up some gates towards the Rhine, are cutting down trees and making gabions, called skunscorfs, which will be of no use to them.
Of the Malcontents we hear nothing except that they are having good fortune (ils ont le vent en poupe). The regiment of Liege is approaching, with 600 lancers.—Cologne, 29 July, 1583, old style.
All the inhabitants of Deutz have fled with their goods, expecting every hour those who are coming to burn it. Salentin has sent 150 soldiers to guard the abbey, and they demanded to entrench all round the little town, but the senate would not allow it, meaning with the Duke of Cleves to maintain their neutrality, which will be very difficult. [At this point is inserted the list of the army. See below.] There is a rumour of an assembly of the Lower Circle shortly, either here or at Dusseldorf, upon these present troubles. The Malcontents say that Winox-berghe and Dixmude are surrendered, and are confident of Ypres and other unlooked-for places.
Six hundred Bohemian pioneers and 2000 Swiss are coming towards Mayence for the Prince of Parma, who simply took the burghers' oath of fidelity at Dixmude, and as with those of Nieuport and Furne, has exempted them from garrisons, as well as the towns of the Malcontents. And after taking order to stop the passages to Ypres, he came away to Namur, to take leave of Madame, who is returning to Italy.
It is thought that, by request of the Emperor, there will soon come to this town the Landgrave of Hesse, the Dukes of Deuxponts and Semers [qy. Simeren], the Archbishop of Mayence, with others, to settle this difference of the two archbishops. May God of his grace interpose! But the followers of Casimir say that he will certainly march.
The envoys from Ghent, to recall Hembyse and Dathenus, have passed and repassed here; it seems that Dathenus has to be entreated. The Duke of Cleves is raising 800 reiters to guard his frontiers from the inroad of soldiers, not wishing to meddle either on one side or the other.—Cologne, 1 August, 1583.
List of Duke Casimir's army, called the army of the Empire.
Duke Casimir, general; Archbishop Ghebardt, Back, Wurn, Von Stein, Walbrun, each 1,000 horse. The towns of Bonn, Ording and Berck, 1,000 horse. Dr. Beutterich, 500 French horse, and 6,000 French and Gascon footmen.
Lazarus Muller, two regiments.
Count [John] of Nassau, one regiment.
Melchior de Bollan, two French regiments.
Baron de Krekingen, 4,000 arquebusiers of all nations.
The army of Archbishop Ernest.
In his two camps before Bonn and Ording. 1,000 horse.
R. Boet [sic] is to raise 2,000 horse.
Ayt de Holla and Nicholas de Zersen, each 2,000 horse.
Infantry.
In the two camps, 5,000.
Levied in Elsatz, Tirol, Tridentin, Bavaria and Suabia by the Archduke of Austria, Duke of Bavaria, Conte de Lodron and others, four regiments.
Taxis de Frise and in the Pays de Liege, each one regiment.
Enclosed in Gilpin's letter of August 9. Fr. 3 pp.[Holl. and Fl. XX. 6a.]

Footnotes

1 He left Paris on April 21. See Calendar for Jan.—June 1583, pp. 281, 282.